CN103651108A - Crossbreeding method for lagerstroemia fauriei Koehne - Google Patents

Crossbreeding method for lagerstroemia fauriei Koehne Download PDF

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CN103651108A
CN103651108A CN201310732536.8A CN201310732536A CN103651108A CN 103651108 A CN103651108 A CN 103651108A CN 201310732536 A CN201310732536 A CN 201310732536A CN 103651108 A CN103651108 A CN 103651108A
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crape myrtle
shi
seed
spray
lagerstroemia
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CN103651108B (en
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李乃伟
李云龙
陆小清
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Institute of Botany of CAS
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Abstract

The invention discloses a crossbreeding method for lagerstroemia fauriei Koehne, and particularly relates to a crossbreeding method for lagerstroemia fauriei Koehne and lagerstroemia (indica x fauriei) 'Tuscarora'. The method comprises the following steps: (1) pest control; (2) flower thinning; (3) bagging, emasculation and pollination; (4) aseptic seedling obtaining; (5) transplantation. By adopting the crossbreeding method for seed selection, the advantages of the lagerstroemia fauriei Koehne and the lagerstroemia (indica x fauriei) 'Tuscarora'; are combined, the stem is brownish red and brown, the panicle is large and beautiful, the flower is red in color, the ripening rate is high, the obtained seeds are full, the filial generation blooms early, and the application prospect is wide.

Description

The cross breeding method of a kind of Fu Shi crape myrtle
Technical field
The present invention relates to the cross breeding method of plant, be specifically related to a kind of method of Fu Shi crape myrtle and large safflower crape myrtle crossbreeding, belong to the technical field of woody plant breed breeding.
Background technology
Fu Shi crape myrtle (Lagerstroemia fauriei Koehne.) belongs to Lythraceae (Lythraceae), Lagerstroemia (Lagerstroemia), and defoliation small arbor is high 3~5 meters.For rare sight leaf, sight stem seeds.Trunk is smooth, reddish brown brown (when trunk is peeled between 7~August).Imparipinnate leaf, 5~9 pieces, leaflet, ellipse, keratin, has the color leaf effects such as yellow, redness autumn.Panicle is large and beautiful, raw branch top, flower milky, 6~July of florescence.Fruit is subsphaeroidal, really 9~October of phase.That these seeds are that collection is seen is tree-like, tree performance, trunk, blade, flower and inflorescence are good ornamental plantation seeds all over the body, can isolated planting or group planting before lawn edge, lakeside, building, or avenue system is in road both sides, growth is very fast, resistance to pruning, antipollution.
Large safflower crape myrtle (Lagerstroemia (indica x fauriei) ' Tuscarora ') belongs to Lythraceae (Lythraceae), Lagerstroemia (Lagerstroemia).Defoliation small arbor or shrub, gardening Hybrid, plant height 4.5-9 rice, hat width can reach 5 meters, the upright stretching, extension of branch, the many bifurcated expansions of stem, grow slower, and plant strain growth is after 8 years, and plant height only reaches 4.5 meters.The bright dirty-green of blade, is transformed into salmon pink in the fall, and spire tool is red dizzy.Flower rose, dark powder coral red, in the cone inflorescence of raw compare great garden with yellow stamen, and capsule is less, brown, and deposit place; Florescence from late summer to early autumn (the beginning of July is to September Mo).This seeds pattern ornamental value is high, and trunk color, growth rate are general.
At present, from domestic market application, find, rung by Chinese traditional aesthetic viewing, the red flower of large safflower crape myrtle receives an acclaim, and the white flower of Fu Shi crape myrtle is difficult to accepted by the public.Yet the former shortcoming is that the dry weak effect of sight and growth rate are general, is difficult to be planted family and accepts.Therefore, by two Plants sets of advantages together, selecting new varieties is a kind of effective ways of meeting the need of market.Plant hybridization technology is to cultivate the main path of new varieties, and kind, the strain by selecting with merit are hybridized down to individuality, breed the hybrid population that meets breeding requirement.To sum up, take Fu Shi crape myrtle (Lagerstroemia fauriei) and large safflower crape myrtle (Lagerstroemia (indica x fauriei) ' Tuscarora ') crossbreeding, be one of important channel solving pattern shortcoming in the slow especially Fu Shi crape myrtle popularization of both popularizations, the exploitation of Fu Shi crape myrtle and utilization and extention are all had to very important meaning.
Summary of the invention
The technical problem that the present invention solves has been to provide the cross breeding method of a kind of Fu Shi crape myrtle, the first familiar generation that the method is cultivated is by Fu Shi crape myrtle with greatly together with the sets of advantages of safflower crape myrtle, the reddish brown brown of stem, panicle is large and beautiful, raw branch top, premium look, to be that collection is seen tree-like, tree performance, trunk, blade, flower and inflorescence are good ornamental plantation seeds all over the body, growth is very fast, resistance to pruning, antipollution.
In order to achieve the above object, the invention provides the method for the crossbreeding of a kind of Fu Shi crape myrtle, comprise the steps:
(1) with Fu Shi crape myrtle (♀) * large safflower crape myrtle (♂), be cross-breeding;
Pest control: Fu Shi crape myrtle squaring period, the Fu Shi crape myrtle end of the branch of blooming is carried out herbal sprinkling prevention insects and laid eggs in bud, use acephatemet 50ml to spray to water 20kg, 2 times weekly, spray 4-6 time;
(2) flower thinning: each spray of Fu Shi crape myrtle is retained to the strongst 3-4 branch, every upper two of sides bud of removing, in the middle of retaining, grow bud the earliest, each spray finally retains 10 consistent buds of flowering time, then whole spray is sprayed the NAA of 1000ppm, prevent that incision from sprouting shoot and forming second bloom;
(3) bagging, emasculation, pollination: after flower thinning, whole spray is adopted to the sulfuric acid paper bag bagging of 11cm * 18cm; Emasculation: 6-8 point in the morning, several stamens of 6 Fertile stamens of the flower androecium outer rim of blooming the same day and middle abortion are removed;
Pollination: after emasculation, at 9-10 point in the morning, the large safflower crape myrtle stamen of anther dehiscence is taken off, clamp filigree with the operation surgical forceps that 10cm is long, pollen is applied in to Fu Shi crape myrtle column cap, carry out artificial pollination;
(4) aseptic seedling obtains: in mid or late October, pluck and hybridize the fruit that successfully do not ftracture, be positioned over shady and cool place and dry in the shade; By hybrid seed sterilizing, sterilization process is: seed rinses after 30min in mobile running water, with filter paper, blots surface moisture, adopts 3% (weight ratio) liquor potassic permanganate to soak seed 20min sterilization, takes out, with aseptic water washing 3-5 time;
Hormone seed soaking, soaks seed 24 hours with 500mg/L GA+10mg/L6-BA+30mg/LKT+10mg/LABT;
Sowing medium is MS+0.3mg/L6-BA medium; Sprout latter about 30 days, proceeded to MS+2mg/LZT+0.1mg/L IAA proliferated culture medium and breed; Root media is 1/2MS+2mg/LNAA; Cultivate after 30 days and blake bottle is moved to booth 70%~75% natural daylight obscurity lower refining seedling 10~15 days, then taken out, clean the medium of root;
(5) seedling of step (4) is transplanted to matrix, described matrix is peat soil: river sand: fertilizer: humus soil is 2: 1: 1 by volume: 2 mix, and after 30 days, survival rate reaches more than 95%.
Fu Shi crape myrtle of the present invention (♀) * large safflower crape myrtle (♂) cross breeding method has the following advantages:
1, hybrid strain:
Plant hybridization breeding field, most important difference be just for each parent's different choice, select different parents just must carry out repeatedly repeated test to the breeding method of concrete hybrid combination, the abortion of different original species intermolecular hybrid is very high, after hybridization, although there is higher fruit rate, also there is seed fruit the inside, and after detecting, seed the inside does not have embryo.The application screens a large amount of hybrid combination, obtains the F1 generation seed germination rate of Fu Shi crape myrtle (♀) * large safflower crape myrtle (♂) hybrid combination, and the rate of can educating is the highest, and other combination occurs a large amount of abortions or substantially can not educate;
2, pest control
Japanese beetle is common a kind of in plant of Lagerstroemia insect pest, and in its history of life, an important step occurs in bud exactly, and annual mid-June, adult can be creeped on plant of Lagerstroemia bud, and worm's ovum is injected in bud ovary to late July.In Seed development, worm's ovum absorbs nutrition, develops into larva.After seed embryo forms, the edible embryo of larva continues to obtain energy.Thereby cause crape myrtle breeding failure, the present invention finds by great many of experiments, in the Japanese beetle egg-laying period (mid or late June), crape myrtle bud is sprayed to acephatemet medicine, concentration be 50ml to 20kg water, can effectively prevent and treat the infringement of Japanese beetle.Thereby, guarantee the growth success of hybrid seed embryo.
Pest control method screening embodiment
At Fu Shi crape myrtle squaring period, early flowering season, full-bloom stage, carry out the control of Japanese beetle worm's ovum respectively.Pesticide-treated method adopt concentration be 50ml acephatemet to 20kg water, select fine day, 12 are carried out herbal sprinkling to the Fu Shi crape myrtle end of the branch of blooming at noon, spray weekly medicine 2 times.After drug treating 3 days, observe the pin hole that has or not beetle injection worm's ovum on bud, statistics is invaded bud ratio.
From result of the test, find, in squaring period, carry out pesticide control 4 times, can effectively control the infringement of Japanese beetle to Fu Shi crape myrtle.Acephatemet medicine can not be used diligent, and spraying 6 times can exert an influence to flower bud development, occurs the abortion of part bud or depauperation.
The screening of table 1 Fu Shi crape myrtle pest control method
Figure BSA0000099579080000031
3, flower thinning
The present invention is mainly for the improvement of Fu Shi crape myrtle pattern proterties, and Fu Shi crape myrtle panicle is large, and each has several sprays on pushing up slightly, and each spray has number to spend more flower bud, the Time Inconsistency that bursts forth, sustainable 4-5 week.This feature is that artificial pollinating process is brought very large difficulty.All pollinations, workload is too large, and fruit can not get sufficient nutrition, and success rate is low.The present invention found through experiments, and each top slightly retains 3-4 side shoot (spray).Pollination the previous day, 10, the consistent top bud of reservation size.Can make ripening rate reach 100%, not occur shedding phenomenon, and full rate reaches more than 80%.
Flower thinning method screening embodiment
At full-bloom stage, carry out flower thinning, the time carries out in artificial pollination the previous day.In flower thinning process, top retains slightly respectively 5,10,15,20 buds of the same size.Late October, the full rate of adding up respectively ripening rate and 20 interior seeds of fruits of 100 fruits under 4 processing.
By test, find, it is best flower thinning method that each top slightly retains 10 buds, can ensure the full rate of ripening rate and the seed of Fu Shi crape myrtle.Bud quantity is too much, there will be shedding phenomenon, and the full rate of seed declines.
The screening of table 2 Fu Shi crape myrtle flower thinning method
Figure BSA0000099579080000041
4, prevent second bloom
Plant of Lagerstroemia sprouting ability is very strong, at disconnected branch or butt, usually forms descendant.And bud forms on the top of descendant.Therefore,, after flower thinning or sparse branching, second bloom phenomenon is serious.Thereby self-pollination, affects hybrid seed and grows.The present invention, found through experiments, and the incision forming when flower thinning or sparse branching is sprayed the NAA of 1000ppm, can effectively prevent and treat shoot and sprout, thereby suppress second bloom.
The NAA of preparation 100ppm, 500ppm, 1000ppm and tetra-concentration of 1500ppm carries out sprinkling slightly of top after flower thinning, with spray do not add hormone deionized water in contrast.
Test is found, sprays the NAA of 1000ppm, can effectively prevent second bloom, and spray is pruned incision and there will not be descendant.Spray the NAA of low concentration, spray, prune incision and still can sprout a small amount of shoot, form second bloom, and then reduce ripening rate and the full rate of seed.
Table 3 Fu Shi crape myrtle spray is pruned the screening that otch sprays NAA concentration
Figure BSA0000099579080000042
5, because hybrid seed vigor is lower, competitiveness a little less than, the application is first by sterilization, at aseptic medium upper seeding wheel, obtained aseptic seedling, all modess of reproduction are all under aseptic condition, its germination rate is far above the seed germination rate being directly seeded in matrix, and the present invention finds in test, according to seed after conventional disinfecting action, killed and wounded, being not easy induction sprouts, through great many of experiments repeatedly, just obtain the concrete sterilizing methods of seed of the present invention, not only obtained desirable sterilization effect, also guaranteed the seed number that induction is cultivated, this result and invention for the contained composition of special object hybrid seed have much relations, seed sterilizing methods of the present invention is on the basis of theoretical research, obtain the effective sterilizing method that abundant experimental results is supported, greatly guaranteed the germination rate of seed.
6, hormone kind and the concentration effect to the highly significant that grows of seed, due to plant of Lagerstroemia seed germination difficulty, the application finds by great many of experiments, with 500mg/L GA+10mg/L6-BA+30mg/LKT+10mg/LABT, soak seed 24 hours, can significantly improve the germination rate of hybrid seed, single-factor experimental result shows, after adopting this hormone to soak, percentage of seedgermination has improved 37.3%, and has greatly shortened sprout time.
7, matrix formulations not only affects nursery stock acrial part and grows, also be the key factor that affects seedling root configuration simultaneously, different substrates proportioning is not only different to the reaction of nursery stock seedling growth, and the growth to the later stage, this impact still exists, present inventor, through creative work for many years, screens contrast experiment, and screening obtains peat soil: river sand: fertilizer: humus soil is 2: 1: 1 by volume: the 2 matrix best results of mixing.
The application takes Fu Shi crape myrtle (Lagerstroemiafauriei) and large safflower crape myrtle (Lagerstroemia x ' Tuscarura ') crossbreeding by great many of experiments, the advantage of having gathered two parents, the reddish brown brown of crossbreed stem obtaining, panicle is large and beautiful, raw branch top, premium look, to be that collection is seen tree-like, tree performance, trunk, blade, flower and inflorescence be for good ornamental plantation seeds all over the body, has a extensive future.
Embodiment
Embodiment of the method one
Take Fu Shi crape myrtle (Lagerstroemia fauriei) and large safflower crape myrtle (Lagerstroemia (indica xfauriei) ' Tuscarora ') crossbreeding
(1) with Fu Shi crape myrtle (♀) * large safflower crape myrtle (♂), be cross-breeding;
Pest control: 15 to 30 June in 2012, Fu Shi crape myrtle squaring period, the Fu Shi crape myrtle end of the branch of blooming is carried out herbal sprinkling prevention insects and laid eggs in bud, use acephatemet 50ml to spray to water 20kg, 2 times weekly, spray altogether 4 times;
(2) flower thinning: on July 5th, 2012, each spray of Fu Shi crape myrtle is retained to the strongst 3-4 branch, every upper two of sides bud of removing, the bud of maximum in the middle of retaining, each spray finally retains 10 buds of blooming next day, then whole spray is sprayed the NAA of 1000ppm, prevent that incision from sprouting shoot, form second bloom;
(3) bagging, emasculation, pollination: after flower thinning, whole spray is adopted to the sulfuric acid paper bag bagging of 11cm * 18cm; Emasculation:: on July 6th, 2012, morning, 6-8 point, removed several stamens of 6 Fertile stamens of the flower androecium outer rim of blooming the same day and middle abortion;
Pollination: after emasculation, at 9-10 point in the morning, the large safflower crape myrtle stamen of anther dehiscence is taken off, clamp filigree with the operation surgical forceps that 10cm is long, pollen is applied in to Fu Shi crape myrtle column cap, carry out artificial pollination, bagging immediately after pollination.
(4) aseptic seedling obtains: in mid or late October, pluck and hybridize the fruit that successfully do not ftracture, and ripening rate 100%, in fruit, the full rate of seed is 85%, is positioned over shady and cool place and dries in the shade; By hybrid seed sterilizing, sterilization process is: seed rinses after 30min in mobile running water, with filter paper, blots surface moisture, adopts 3% (weight ratio) liquor potassic permanganate to soak seed 20min sterilization, takes out, with aseptic water washing 3-5 time;
Hormone seed soaking, soaks seed 24 hours with 500mg/L GA+10mg/L6-BA+30mg/LKT+10mg/LABT;
Sowing medium is MS+0.3mg/L6-BA medium; Sprout latter about 30 days, germination rate is 81%, is proceeded to MS+2mg/L ZT+0.1mg/L IAA proliferated culture medium and breeds; Root media is 1/2MS+2mg/LNAA; Cultivate after 30 days and blake bottle is moved to booth 70%~75% natural daylight obscurity lower refining seedling 10~15 days, then taken out, clean the medium of root;
(5) seedling of step (4) is transplanted to matrix, described matrix is peat soil: river sand: fertilizer: humus soil is 2: 1: 1 by volume: 2 mix, and after 30 days, survival rate reaches more than 95%, and on March 1st, 2013, seed sends cotyledon.To on July 30th, 2013,53 strain Hybrid clones were bloomed, and it has gathered the advantage of Fu Shi crape myrtle with large safflower crape myrtle, the reddish brown brown of stem, and panicle is large and beautiful, and premium look, has ornamental value.

Claims (3)

1. a method for the crossbreeding of Fu Shi crape myrtle, is characterized in that, comprises the steps:
(1) with Fu Shi crape myrtle (♀) * large safflower crape myrtle (♂), be cross-breeding;
Pest control: Fu Shi crape myrtle squaring period, the Fu Shi crape myrtle end of the branch of blooming is carried out herbal sprinkling prevention insects and laid eggs in bud, use acephatemet 50ml to spray to water 20kg, 2 times weekly, spray 4-6 time;
(2) flower thinning: each spray of Fu Shi crape myrtle is finally retained to 10 consistent buds of flowering time, then whole spray is sprayed the NAA of 1000ppm, prevent that incision from sprouting shoot and forming second bloom;
(3) bagging, emasculation, pollination: after flower thinning, whole spray is adopted to sulfuric acid paper bag bagging, emasculation; After emasculation, at 9-10 point in the morning, get large safflower crape myrtle stamen, pollen is applied in to Fu Shi crape myrtle column cap, carry out artificial pollination;
(4) aseptic seedling obtains: in mid or late October, results seed, is positioned over shady and cool place and dries in the shade; By seed sterilizing, sterilization process is: seed rinses after about 30min in mobile running water, with filter paper, blots surface moisture, adopts 3% liquor potassic permanganate to soak seed 20min sterilization, takes out, with aseptic water washing 3-5 time;
Hormone seed soaking, soaks seed 24 hours with 500mg/L GA+10mg/L6-BA+30mg/L KT+10mg/L ABT;
Sowing medium is MS+0.3mg/L6-BA medium; Sprout latter about 30 days, proceeded to MS+2mg/LZT+0.1mg/L1AA proliferated culture medium and breed; Root media is 1/2MS+2mg/L NAA; Cultivate, after 30 days, blake bottle is moved to booth, natural daylight obscurity lower refining seedling 10~15 days, is then taken out, and cleans the medium of root;
(5) seedling step (4) being obtained is transplanted to matrix.
2. the method for crossbreeding according to claim 1, is characterized in that: step (3) the artificial pollination time is 7-8 month full-bloom stage.
3. according to the method for the crossbreeding described in claim 1-2, it is characterized in that: described matrix is peat soil: river sand: fertilizer: humus soil is 2: 1: 1 by volume: 2 mix.
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CN104126506A (en) * 2014-07-21 2014-11-05 江苏绿苑园林建设有限公司 Tissue culture method of America Lagerstroemia indica Red Rocket
CN106538378A (en) * 2016-11-25 2017-03-29 江苏省农业科学院宿迁农科所 A kind of efficient crape myrtle pollinating method
CN106717254A (en) * 2016-11-24 2017-05-31 枞阳县弘阳园林绿化有限公司 A kind of seeding growing seedlings method of crape myrtle
CN107360962A (en) * 2016-05-13 2017-11-21 江苏省中国科学院植物研究所 A kind of golden-rimmed thorny elaeagnus efficient crossbreeding method
CN109757370A (en) * 2017-11-09 2019-05-17 江苏省中国科学院植物研究所 A kind of method that lagerstroemia fauriei Koehne tissue culture regeneration is established
CN113557954A (en) * 2021-07-06 2021-10-29 北京林业大学 Method for obtaining hybrid between lagerstroemia and lagerstroemia

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Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN104126506A (en) * 2014-07-21 2014-11-05 江苏绿苑园林建设有限公司 Tissue culture method of America Lagerstroemia indica Red Rocket
CN104126506B (en) * 2014-07-21 2016-12-07 江苏绿苑园林建设有限公司 A kind of method for tissue culture of American Red rocket Lagerstroemia indica L.
CN107360962A (en) * 2016-05-13 2017-11-21 江苏省中国科学院植物研究所 A kind of golden-rimmed thorny elaeagnus efficient crossbreeding method
CN106717254A (en) * 2016-11-24 2017-05-31 枞阳县弘阳园林绿化有限公司 A kind of seeding growing seedlings method of crape myrtle
CN106538378A (en) * 2016-11-25 2017-03-29 江苏省农业科学院宿迁农科所 A kind of efficient crape myrtle pollinating method
CN109757370A (en) * 2017-11-09 2019-05-17 江苏省中国科学院植物研究所 A kind of method that lagerstroemia fauriei Koehne tissue culture regeneration is established
CN113557954A (en) * 2021-07-06 2021-10-29 北京林业大学 Method for obtaining hybrid between lagerstroemia and lagerstroemia
CN113557954B (en) * 2021-07-06 2022-06-24 北京林业大学 Method for obtaining hybrid between lagerstroemia and lagerstroemia

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