CN103621213B - A kind ofly improve the method for tobacco-growing soil and a kind of planting method of tobacco - Google Patents

A kind ofly improve the method for tobacco-growing soil and a kind of planting method of tobacco Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103621213B
CN103621213B CN201310626174.4A CN201310626174A CN103621213B CN 103621213 B CN103621213 B CN 103621213B CN 201310626174 A CN201310626174 A CN 201310626174A CN 103621213 B CN103621213 B CN 103621213B
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tobacco
field
soil
fertilizer
meter
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CN103621213A (en
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王亚平
马鹏飞
包可翔
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China Tobacco Fujian Industrial Co Ltd
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China Tobacco Fujian Industrial Co Ltd
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Abstract

The invention belongs to tobacco planting and cultivation field, relate to and a kind ofly improve the soil particularly method of tobacco-growing soil and a kind of planting method of tobacco.Particularly, the present invention relates to a kind of method improving tobacco-growing soil, wherein, fertilizer is used in field.This method can effectively improve tobacco-growing soil physicochemical character, improves tobacco-growing soil organic, improves Eutrophication Status.

Description

A kind ofly improve the method for tobacco-growing soil and a kind of planting method of tobacco
Technical field
The invention belongs to tobacco planting and cultivation field, relate to and a kind ofly improve the soil particularly method of tobacco-growing soil and a kind of planting method of tobacco.
Background technology
Object of the present invention is just based on the material of the chemosynthesis such as a large amount of use chemical fertilizer, agricultural chemicals in current agricultural production, and environment and food are polluted largely, and the ecosystem is destroyed, and land capability constantly declines.
For exploring the new way of agricultural development, conservation of nature ecotope, Appropriate application natural resources, realizes the sustainable development of the ecosystem, and improving tobacco-growing soil organic matter is then a kind of a kind of method crop alimentary being had to better supply.Joining of fertilizer is executed improving soil physical and chemical property, increases soil fertility, and impelling cigarette strain normal growth and improving quality of tobacco aspect has good facilitation.
Current land pollution, body eutrophication, the hardening soil etc. are unfavorable to proportion of crop planting, need a kind of method improving soil particularly tobacco-growing soil.
Summary of the invention
The present inventor, through deep research and performing creative labour, obtains and a kind ofly improves the soil particularly method of tobacco-growing soil and a kind of planting method of tobacco.The present inventor is surprised to find, and described method can effectively improve tobacco-growing soil physicochemical character, improves tobacco-growing soil organic, improves Eutrophication Status.Thus provide following invention:
One aspect of the present invention relates to a kind of method improving soil particularly tobacco-growing soil, and wherein, fertilizer is used in field.
The described method improving soil particularly tobacco-growing soil is also the fertilizing method of a kind of crop fertilization method particularly tobacco or flue-cured tobacco.
Method according to any one of the present invention, wherein, described fertilizer is used as base manure.
Method according to any one of the present invention, wherein, the row replacement in field of described fertilizer; Particularly, use at field center line fluting; Particularly, dark 5 centimeters, wide 10 centimeters; Preferably, for evenly using.
Method according to any one of the present invention, wherein, the ridge body of described field is full curved; Preferably, the row spacing of described field is 1.2 meters, row spacing 1 meter, and ridge is high 0.3 meter.
Be not limited to theoretical restriction, arc is relatively more firm, and rain resistance, preserve moisture and fertility, not easily collapses when planting cigarette.
Method according to any one of the present invention, wherein, 3-14 days ridgings and/or fertilising before cigarette seed is planted or cultivates or transplant; Be preferably 5-10 days, such as 5,6,7,8,9 or 10 days; Be more preferably 7 days.
Method according to any one of the present invention, wherein, before cigarette seed is planted or cultivates or transplant, and/or before Term Fertilization, avoids Solanaceae and/or ground family crop.
The present inventor also finds, plants Solanaceae and/or ground family crop before tobacco planting, can make tobacco nutrient owes lacks and imbalance, and insect pest of easily catching an illness, seed output and quality is declined.
Method according to any one of the present invention, wherein, the fertilizer used is military rattan formula biological organic fertilizer.
Method according to any one of the present invention, wherein, the amount of Term Fertilization is 250-500 kg/acre; Be preferably 300-450 kg/acre; Be more preferably 350-400 kg/acre, such as 350,360,370,380,390 or 400 kgs/acre.
In one embodiment of the invention, the described method improving tobacco-growing soil comprises the steps:
(1) soil is after autumn harvest terminates, and carries out the large cleaning of field health, removes weeds in field and plant residue, reduces damage by disease and insect primary source of infection; Efficent rotation, previous crops avoids Solanaceae, ground family crop;
(2) within first about 7 days, carry out ridging ridging in cigarette transplantation of seedlings, row spacing is 1.2 meters, row spacing 1 meter, and ridge is high 0.3 meter, and ridge body is full curved;
(3) military rattan formula biological organic fertilizer uses as base manure, and field is slotted dark 5 centimeters, wide 10 centimeters, is evenly applied by fertilizer in cultivation field, fills out lid after fertilising with soil; Usage amount: 350-400 kg/acre.
Note field management after the field planting of cigarette seedling, can topdress in right amount according to tobacco leaf growing state, not re-use other fertilizer.
Another aspect of the present invention relates to a kind of planting method of tobacco, and it comprises the method according to any one of the present invention.
In the present invention,
Term " military rattan formula biological organic fertilizer " is the agrotechnique expert of Japanese government's Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Ministry---military rattan passes the complex biological fertilizer of Taro exploitation, and its main composition is N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, beneficial bacterium more than 500 kinds.Domestic can purchased from Kunming Rui Fengyi development in science and technology Co., Ltd.
Term " base manure " is also base fertilizer, refers to the fertilizer executed before crop sowing or transplanting.The slow-acting fertilizers such as barnyard manure, compost, green manure are suitable for making base manure.
Flue-cured tobacco is the tobacco leaf dried in ad hoc barn, and color is yellow, and elasticity is comparatively large, is the primary raw material of cigarette.In the present invention, described flue-cured tobacco if not otherwise specified, refers to the tobacco leaf manufacturing flue-cured tobacco.Tobacco leaf, annual herb, Solanaceae.Plant is by glandular hairs, high about 1 meter.Petiole is not obvious or become aliform handle.Touch up with hand, leaf stickness.Panicle top is raw.Calyx tubular, corolla funnel-form, likeness in form bugle, end pink.Capsule, seed yellowish-brown.Originate in South America, have cultivation all over the world.
In the present invention, body eutrophication (eutrophication) refers under the impact of mankind's activity, the nutriments such as the nitrogen needed for biology, phosphorus enter the slow flow water bodies such as lake, river mouth, bay in a large number, algae and other planktons is caused to breed rapidly, Dissolved Oxygen in Water amount declines, water quality deterioration, the phenomenon of fish and other biological mortality.The general index adopted is at present: Water content is more than 0.2-0.3ppm, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is greater than 10ppm, phosphorus content is greater than 0.01-0.02ppm, and in the fresh water of pH value 7-9, total number of bacteria every milliliter is more than 100,000, and the chlorophyll-a content characterizing amount of algae is greater than 10 μm of g/L.
In the present invention, soil plough horizon refers to the arable land topsoil of applicable crop growth.Soil structure refers to the permutations and combinations form of soil particle (comprising aggregate).When differentiating in field, be often referred to those different shapes and size, and the structure that can be separated from each other.
The beneficial effect of the invention
Method of the present invention can effectively improve tobacco-growing soil physicochemical character, improves tobacco-growing soil organic, improves Eutrophication Status.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1: vega ridge internal recessing schematic diagram.Wherein, 1,2,3 is field, and straight line A, B, C all represent ridge center line.Fluting is positioned at ridge center line.Cigarette seed is implanted on the center line of ridge, and cigarette seedling spacing is about 0.6 meter.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with embodiment, embodiment of the present invention are described in detail, but it will be understood to those of skill in the art that the following example only for illustration of the present invention, and should not be considered as limiting scope of the present invention.Unreceipted actual conditions person in embodiment, the condition of conveniently conditioned disjunction manufacturer suggestion is carried out.Agents useful for same or the unreceipted production firm person of instrument, being can by the conventional products of commercial acquisition.
In the following examples 1-2, the kind of the cigarette seedling of use is identical, and plot used belongs to the same area, its soil property and similar.The baking method of tobacco leaf is also identical.Described operation, if not otherwise specified, can carry out with reference to the farming operation of routine.
embodiment 1: method plantation tobacco 1 of the present invention
Use military rattan formula biological organic fertilizer operation as follows:
(1) vega is after autumn harvest terminates, and in conjunction with the large cleaning of health, removes weeds in field and plant residue, reduces damage by disease and insect primary source of infection.Efficent rotation, previous crops avoids Solanaceae, ground family crop.
(2) within first about 7 days, carry out ridging ridging in cigarette transplantation of seedlings, row spacing is 1.2 meters, row spacing 1 meter, and ridge is high 0.3 meter, and ridge body is full curved.
(3) military rattan formula biological organic fertilizer uses as base manure.Field is slotted dark 5 centimeters, and wide 10 centimeters, apply in cultivation field ridge by even for fertilizer bar, fill out lid after fertilising with soil, diagram figure is as Fig. 1.Usage amount: 350-400 kg/acre.
(4) note field management after the field planting of cigarette seedling, NPK composition total amount about 15% contained by military rattan formula biological organic fertilizer, can topdress in right amount according to tobacco leaf growing state.Do not re-use other fertilizer, and agricultural chemicals.
Tobacco leaf carries out three-phase-drying for tobacco.
embodiment 2: contrast method plantation tobacco 2
Except " using base manure when ridging: first sprinkle base manure cow dung 250kg/ mu at soil surface, allow the soil of furrow roll up and cover ridge body, base manure is wrapped in the body of ridge ", other step is similar to Example 1.
Tobacco leaf carries out three-phase-drying for tobacco.
embodiment 3: the field agronomy of two kinds of method plantation tobaccos of embodiment 1 and embodiment 2 cOMPARISON OF CHARACTERS
Table 1: the Agronomic characteristic of two kinds of method plantation tobaccos compares
From table 1:
Compared with embodiment 2 kinds of tobaccos planted, the cigarette strain growth that embodiment a kind is planted is more delicate and prettier, and neat and consistent, disease resistance is good, and tobacco leaf surface fine hair is more, and oil content is many.
embodiment 4: the tobacco leaf ingredient of two kinds of method plantation tobaccos of embodiment 1 and embodiment 2 relatively
1. pair, cured tobacco leaf sample detects
Sample 1: the tobacco leaf of embodiment 1;
Sample 2: the tobacco leaf of embodiment 2.
Below the tobacco leaf of upper, middle and lower is got respectively.
2. detection method
The detection method of each chemical composition content is carried out (State Tobacco Monopoly Bureau's issue) according to following standard method:
The preparation of YC/T31-1996 tobacco and tobacco product sample and determination of moisture Oven Method;
The mensuration continuous flow method of YC/T160-2002 tobacco and tobacco product total alkaloid;
The mensuration continuous flow method (mensuration of water-soluble sugar comprises the mensuration of total reducing sugar and reducing sugar, and total reducing sugar is undertaken measuring by the assay method of reducing sugar after being hydrolyzed into monose in fact) of YC/T159-2002 tobacco and tobacco product water-soluble sugar;
The mensuration continuous flow method of YC/T162-2011 tobacco and tobacco product chlorine;
The mensuration continuous flow method of YC/T217-2007 tobacco and tobacco product potassium.
3. testing result
As shown in Table 2 below.
Table 2: sample routine chemical components comparision contents
Usual this area thinks that the content of total reducing sugar and reducing sugar is higher relatively good;
Judge that the standard whether nicotine content is suitable for is: inferior leads 1.5%-2.0%, middle leaf 2.0%-2.8%, upper leaf 3.0%-3.5%.
From table 1:
1) total reducing sugar of tobacco leaf of military rattan formula biological organic fertilizer plantation and content of reducing sugar is used higher than the tobacco leaf using cow dung plantation;
2) nicotine content using the tobacco leaf of military rattan formula biological organic fertilizer plantation is suitable for, and the nicotine content of tobacco leaves using cow dung plantation is lower;
3) difference both potassium and chlorinity is little.
In a word, the chemical composition content using the tobacco leaf of military rattan formula biological organic fertilizer plantation is suitable for, and harmony is good; The tobacco leaf chemical composition content using cow dung plantation is not too suitable, inaccurate coordination.
embodiment 5: the tobacco sample of two kinds of method plantation tobaccos of embodiment 1 and embodiment 2 aesthetic quality compare
1. to smoke panel test method
The overall method of smokeing panel test that circulates, specifically carries out according to People's Republic of China's tobacco business standard tobacco and tobacco product sensory evaluation method YC/T138-1998.
2. smoking result
As shown in Table 3 below.
Table 3: sample aesthetic quality compare
embodiment 6: the ratio of the soil property of two kinds of fertilizing methods of embodiment 1 and embodiment 2 comparatively
1. detection method
18cm depths sampling on the transplanting field of latter 30 days.
Soil organic matter content: with quantitative potassium bichromate-sulfuric acid solution, under electrical heating condition, make the Organic oxidation in soil, the titration of remaining potassium bichromate ferrous sulfate standard liquid, and be that additive does actual blank demarcation with silica, according to oxidant quality difference before and after oxidation, calculate organic carbon amounts, be multiplied by coefficient 1.724 again, be soil organic matter content.
The bulk density of soil: the soil sample of the nature utilizing the cutting of the cutting ring of a constant volume not stir, makes soil sample be full of wherein, the oven-dried soil weight of unit of account volume after weighing.This law is applicable to general soil, inapplicable to hard and frangible soil.
Soil porosity: also known as cell size, means the percentage shared by unit volume soil mesopore.General coarse texture soil porosity is lower, but coarse porosity is more, and fine textured suil is contrary.Reunite good soil and loose soil (unit weight is lower) porosity higher, the ratio in the former thickness hole is comparatively applicable to the growth of crop.The soil of grogs dispersion and consolidation, porosity is low and pinhole is more.Soil porosity does not generally directly measure, and can be calculated try to achieve by soil particle density and unit weight.2. testing result, as shown in table 4 below.
Table 4: the changes of soil properties of embodiment 1 and embodiment 2
The content of organic matter The bulk density of soil Soil porosity
Embodiment 1 48.54g/kg 1.12g/cm 3 51.72%
Embodiment 2 32.67g/kg 1.29g/cm 3 48.37%
Result shows: method of the present invention effectively improves soil aeration ability and fertilizer-preserving ability, activates and increases soil fertility, improving soil physical and chemical property.
Although the specific embodiment of the present invention has obtained detailed description, it will be understood to those of skill in the art that.According to disclosed all instructions, can carry out various amendment and replacement to those details, these change all within protection scope of the present invention.Four corner of the present invention is provided by claims and any equivalent thereof.

Claims (9)

1. improve a method for tobacco-growing soil, wherein, fertilizer is used in field; The row replacement in field of described fertilizer, uses at field center line fluting, groove depth 5 centimeters, groove width 10 centimeters; The ridge body of described field is full curved, and the row spacing of field is 1.2 meters, row spacing 1 meter, and ridge is high 0.3 meter; 5-7 days ridgings, fertilising before cigarette transplantation of seedlings; The fertilizer used is military rattan formula biological organic fertilizer; The amount of Term Fertilization is 250-500 kg/acre.
2. method according to claim 1, wherein, described fertilizer is used as base manure.
3. method according to claim 1, wherein, described fertilizer is for evenly to use.
4. method according to claim 1, wherein, 7 days ridgings, fertilising before cigarette transplantation of seedlings.
5. method according to claim 1, wherein, before cigarette transplantation of seedlings, and/or before Term Fertilization, avoids Solanaceae and/or ground family crop.
6. method according to claim 1, wherein, the amount of Term Fertilization is 300-450 kg/acre.
7. method according to claim 1, wherein, the amount of Term Fertilization is 350-400 kg/acre.
8. method according to claim 1, it comprises the steps:
(1) soil is after autumn harvest terminates, and in conjunction with the large cleaning of field health, removes weeds in field and plant residue, reduces damage by disease and insect primary source of infection; Efficent rotation, previous crops avoids Solanaceae, ground family crop;
(2) within first about 7 days, carry out ridging ridging in cigarette transplantation of seedlings, row spacing is 1.2 meters, row spacing 1 meter, and ridge is high 0.3 meter, and ridge body is full curved;
(3) military rattan formula biological organic fertilizer uses as base manure; Field is slotted dark 5 centimeters, wide 10 centimeters, fertilizer is evenly applied in cultivation field, after fertilising, fill out lid with soil; Usage amount: 350-400 kg/acre.
9. a planting method of tobacco, it comprises the method according to any one of claim 1 to 8.
CN201310626174.4A 2013-11-29 2013-11-29 A kind ofly improve the method for tobacco-growing soil and a kind of planting method of tobacco Active CN103621213B (en)

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CN103907441A (en) * 2014-04-18 2014-07-09 湖北省烟草公司恩施州公司 Tobacco fertilization method capable of conserving tobacco-planting soil
CN104365208B (en) * 2014-11-05 2016-08-24 河南农业大学 Tobacco field soil improvement method
CN106471982A (en) * 2016-09-28 2017-03-08 河南省农业科学院植物营养与资源环境研究所 Take into account soil quality and improve the tobacco cultivation fertilizing method improving with quality of tobacco
CN110547064A (en) * 2018-06-01 2019-12-10 湖南农业大学 Tobacco planting soil acidification ecological resistance control and restoration method

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CN101054568B (en) * 2007-04-17 2010-05-26 周文彩 Special biological organic fertilizer for tobacco, preparation and use method
CN101659932B (en) * 2009-09-18 2010-10-20 南京农业大学资产经营有限公司 Antagonistic bacteria preventing and removing continuous cropping tobacco bacterial wilt and microbial organic fertilizer thereof

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