CN104365208B - Tobacco field soil improvement method - Google Patents

Tobacco field soil improvement method Download PDF

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CN104365208B
CN104365208B CN201410615136.3A CN201410615136A CN104365208B CN 104365208 B CN104365208 B CN 104365208B CN 201410615136 A CN201410615136 A CN 201410615136A CN 104365208 B CN104365208 B CN 104365208B
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rye grass
tobacco
soil
parts
turning over
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CN104365208A (en
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叶协锋
于晓娜
程昌新
李雪利
王勇
宗胜杰
李志鹏
管赛赛
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Henan Agricultural University
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/20Reduction of greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions in agriculture, e.g. CO2

Abstract

The invention belongs to technical field of land improvement, be specifically related to a kind of tobacco field soil improvement method, it is adaptable to the tobacco planting regions such as Chongqing, Henan, Shaanxi, Yunnan, Guizhou.Tobacco field soil improvement method of the present invention includes: rye grass is sowed, rye grass turns over, vega conditioner applies, the steps such as tobacco dose deduction, green manure is utilized to improve suitable green manure kind required during vega, the amount of turning over, turn over period, turn over mode, and suitable dose etc. after turning over green manure, the soil weight can be reduced, increase soil porosity, improve soil organic matter content and the diversity of microbial population, and vega soil erosion can be reduced, improve validity and the utilization rate of fertilizer of soil nutrient, and then improve tobacco leaf presentation quality, first-class cigarette ratio and interior quality, promote the sustainable development of leaf tobacco production, produce significant Social benefit and economic benefit.

Description

Tobacco field soil improvement method
Technical field
The invention belongs to technical field of land improvement, be specifically related to a kind of tobacco field soil improvement method, it is adaptable to Chongqing, river The tobacco planting regions such as south, Shaanxi, Yunnan, Guizhou.
Background technology
Green manure utilize history the longest, before inorganic fertilizer is promoted, green manure, farm manure and other pulse families are made The plantation of thing and utilization, all the time as the main source increasing soil nutrient supply.China is that the Green manuring time limit is the most in the world Country long, that area is maximum, widest in area, according to incompletely statistics, nineteen fifty whole nation Green manuring area is 1,700,000 hm2, averagely 57.6 hm2Arable land 1hm2Green manure;Within 1976, national Green manuring area about reaches 13,000,000 hm2, average 8 hm2There is 1 hm in arable land2Green Fertile.After the eighties in 20th century, whole nation Green manuring area is on a declining curve for various reasons.
Along with the development of chemical fertilizer industry, the same with the cereal crops such as wheat, corn, fertilizer in the planting process of tobacco Consumption declines rapidly, and chemical fertilizer is used the most in a large number so that the vega soil in most tobacco planting districts of China hardens, basic fertility in Downward trend, Soil degradation, loosely organized, soil organic matter content declines, and becomes restriction Tobacco quality and improves further Key factor.Meanwhile, China's vega continuous cropping is more serious, and tobacco is to avoid succession crop, and continuous cropping can cause tobacco-growing soil to support Dividing numerous imbalances, utilization rate of fertilizer reduces, and soil physico-chemical property and biological characteristics deteriorate, and then reduce the resistance of tobacco, draw Play the further raising of the serious generation of pest and disease damage, serious restriction yield of tobacco and quality.Therefore, how to improve and current plant cigarette Soil status becomes a problem demanding prompt solution.
Summary of the invention
For the problems referred to above, the present invention provides a kind of tobacco field soil improvement method, can effectively solve vega soil and constantly move back The problem changed, and vega is realized crop rotation provide advantage, promote the sustainable development of leaf tobacco production, create notable Social benefit and economic benefit.
The present invention is achieved through the following technical solutions:
A kind of tobacco field soil improvement method of design, comprises the following steps:
(1) rye grass sowing: tobacco leaf plucks the later stage or tobacco leaf gathers in the crops sowing on the ridge body of vega or in furrow behind whole ground Rye grass, application rate is 40~50kg/hm2, depth of planting 3~5 cm;Before sowing soil inflitration adjust to 60%~ 80wt%;
(2) rye grass turns over: before tobacco transplant 25~40 days, is turned over by rye grass into field, and in terms of dry weight, the amount of turning over is 4200~4800kg/ hm2, preferably 4500kg/ hm2, turning over the degree of depth is that 10~20 cm, beneficially rye grass decomposition and nutrient release Put;Such as soil moisture deficiency before turning over, light irrigation to relative moisture content is 60%~80%;After turning over 15~20 days, then carry out Pre-wholely, to ensure that rye grass is fully become thoroughly decomposed decomposition;Pre-wholely simultaneously by 2250~3750/hm2Consumption apply vega adjust Reason agent, described vega conditioner is become by the mixed raw material of following weight portion: bagasse 4~5 parts, husk 5~10 parts, oyster shell whiting 4 ~6 parts, polyacrylamide 6~9 parts, potassium nitrate 2~6 parts, calcium magnesium phosphate 10~15 parts, borax 0.5~1.5 parts, zinc sulfate 0.5 ~2.5 parts, lime 5~10 parts and blast furnace slag 50~60 parts;
(3) tobacco dose: owing to turning over of rye grass can bring the nutrient that soil is certain into, especially N element, for preventing cigarette Grass N element is used too much, should deduct the part brought into by rye grass effective N element (ignoring P, K nutrient brought into) in always needing N amount; Deduction N element measure=turn over rye grass dry weight × dry rye grass leaded wastewater × rye grass N element utilization rate, rye grass nitrogen utilization efficiency with 20%~30% meter;
The same conventional treatment of other control measures.
Preferably, the described sowing time is that early September is to mid-November.
Preferably, before turning over field described in step (2), first rye grass smashed or be cut into 10~15cm, then turning over Pressure, beneficially rye grass are evenly distributed in soil and rot to decompose.
Preferably, described rye grass dry weight determines that method is: uniformly and can represent full field upgrowth situation at Ryegrass Growth Place, taking at least can 3 1m2Sampling point, rye grass is all extracted after removing foreign material, experiment determine that vega unit are is black Wheat straw dry weight.
Preferably, in described step (2), the most uniformly mixing HA and detonate bacterium while turning over rye grass, consumption is The 0.01~0.02% of rye grass fresh weight amount, HA bacterium of detonating can shorten rye grass and becomes thoroughly decomposed the time, and rye grass of the present invention turns over becomes thoroughly decomposed After rich in humus and amino acid, can increase soil microbial activities, regulate soil pH value, improve the content of the soil organism, Play the effect of soil of fostering and apply fertilizer, improve the soil, support, strengthen the crop absorbability to various nutrients;Soil-borne disease can be suppressed, strengthen cigarette strain Resistance against diseases, improve yield of tobacco and quality.
Preferably, after described HA detonates bacterium and its weight 1~the fine earth of 2 times or rice chaff mixes, then mix turn over black What wheat straw, beneficially HA detonated bacterium spreads fertilizer over the fields uniformly.
Described vega conditioner not only can improve soil acidification, adsorbs nutrient, still prevents available nutrient and runs off, stimulates soil Earth microbial activity, thus efficiently control the harm of tobacco bacterial wilt, anthracnose, root black rot etc., cigarette strain rhizosphere is grown Environment plays the effect of ecological regulation and control.
The positive beneficial effect of the present invention:
The present invention combines actual conditions, and according to long-term practical experience, research has summed up and utilized green manure to improve vega Time required suitable green manure kind, the amount of turning over, turn over period, turn over mode, and dose suitable after turning over green manure Deng, can effectively solve the problem that vega soil is constantly degenerated, and vega is realized crop rotation provide advantage, soil can be reduced Unit weight, increases soil porosity, improves soil organic matter content and the diversity of microbial population, and can reduce vega water and soil stream Lose, improve validity and the utilization rate of fertilizer of soil nutrient, and then improve tobacco leaf presentation quality, first-class cigarette ratio and inherent product Matter, promotes the sustainable development of leaf tobacco production, produces significant Social benefit and economic benefit.
Detailed description of the invention
With specific embodiment, technical scheme is described below, but protection scope of the present invention is not limited to this:
Embodiment one
1. test site
Test arrangement is in Zhao Jia village, Wulong County, and the Zhao Jia village soil texture is rice soil, height above sea level 1036 meters, east longitude 107 ° 33.588 ', north latitude 29 ° 16.593 ', soil fertility is medium.
2. experimental design
Measuring rye grass water content is 80wt%, and the nutrient content in its dry sample is shown in Table 1.
Table 1 rye grass dry sample nutrient content (%)
Set the rye grass fresh grass amount of turning over and be respectively 7500/hm2、15000㎏/hm2、22500㎏/hm2、30000㎏/ hm2Four process (i.e. dry weight 1500/hm2、3000㎏/hm2、4500㎏/hm2、6000㎏/hm2), do not turn over the place of rye grass Reason is comparison.
Test method comprises the following steps:
(1) rye grass sowing: sowing rye grass on the ridge body of vega or in furrow September 20, application rate is 45kg/ hm2, depth of planting 3~5 cm;Before sowing, soil inflitration adjusts to about 70%;
(2) rye grass turns over: at tobacco transplant first 30 days, is turned over by rye grass into field, in terms of dry weight, on the amount of turning over uses Stating 4 process, turning over the degree of depth is 10~20 cm, beneficially rye grass decomposition and nutrients release;Before turning over such as soil moisture not Foot, light irrigation to relative moisture content is 60%~80%;After turning over 18 days, then carry out pre-wholely, to ensure that rye grass is the most rotten Ripe decomposition;Pre-wholely simultaneously by 3000 kg/hm2Consumption apply vega conditioner, described vega conditioner is by following weight portion Mixed raw material become: bagasse 4.5 parts, 8 parts of husk, oyster shell whiting 5 parts, polyacrylamide 8 parts, 4 parts of potassium nitrate, calcium magnesium phosphate 12 Part, borax 1 part, 1.5 parts of zinc sulfate, 8 parts of lime and blast furnace slag 55 parts;
(3) tobacco dose: owing to turning over of rye grass can bring the nutrient that soil is certain into, especially N element, for preventing cigarette Grass N element is used too much, should deduct the part brought into by rye grass effective N element (ignoring P, K nutrient brought into) in always needing N amount; Deduction N element measure=turn over rye grass dry weight × dry rye grass leaded wastewater × rye grass N element utilization rate, rye grass nitrogen utilization efficiency with 25% meter;
The same conventional treatment of other control measures.
Before turning over field described in step (2), first rye grass smashed or be cut into 10~15cm, then turning over, favorably It is evenly distributed in soil in rye grass and rots to decompose.Described rye grass dry weight determines that method is: uniform at Ryegrass Growth And the place of full field upgrowth situation can be represented, taking at least can 3 1m2Sampling point, rye grass is all extracted after removing foreign material, real Test and determine vega unit are rye grass dry weight.In described step (2), while turning over rye grass, the most uniformly mix HA Detonate bacterium (Henan Province Hebi City Hu Bang agricultural science and technology Cable companies produces, and the nation board HA of mutual nation-mutually detonates bacterium, and tobacco is special), use Amount is the 0.015% of rye grass fresh weight amount.After described HA detonates the fine earth of bacterium and its weight 2 times or rice chaff mixes, then mix Turning over rye grass, what beneficially HA detonated bacterium spreads fertilizer over the fields uniformly.
3. result and analysis
3.1 turn over rye grass different times plant height compares
Table 2 turns over rye grass different times plant height and compares (unit: cm)
As shown in Table 2, when group, with rye grass 15000kg/ hm2Plant height is the highest, reaches 23.4cm, at its excess-three Reason is also above comparison;To maturity period all process plant height all more than 100cm, with 15000kg/ hm between four amounts of turning over2Process Slightly lower.
3.2 turn over rye grass different times waist leaf length compares
Table 3 turns over rye grass different times waist leaf length and compares (unit: cm)
As shown in Table 3, group time four amounts of turning between with 15000kg/ hm2Process the longest, except 7500kg/ hm2Place Outside reason slightly below comparison, its excess-three processes waist leaf length and is all higher than comparison;Respectively process to the maturity period waist leaf length all close to or More than 60cm, with 30000kg/hm2Process the longest, next to that 7500kg/ hm2Process, but be slightly below comparison.
3.3 turn over rye grass different times waist leaf width ratio relatively
Table 4 turns over rye grass different times waist leaf width ratio relatively (unit: cm)
As shown in Table 4, when group, the both greater than comparison of all process waist leaf width, along with the increase of the amount of turning over, waist leaf width Degree is substantially in the form of downward trend;Processing waist leaf width to four amounts of turning over of maturity period is increase trend, only 30000kg/ hm2 Process waist leaf width and be more than comparison, reach 36.5cm.
3.4 turn over rye grass different times leaves number compares
Table 5 turns over rye grass different times leaves number and compares (unit: sheet/strain)
As shown in Table 5, when group, with rye grass 22500kg/ hm2The number of sheets is most, is 12.2, remaining amount of turning over place Manage the same with comparison, be 12;With 22500kg/ hm between the process of the maturity period respectively amount of turning over2With 30000kg/ hm2Process The number of sheets is most, is 21, and remaining amount of turning over processes the same with comparison.
3.5 rye grasses turn over latter 30 days unit weights, water-cut variation
Table 6 rye grass turns over latter 30 days and surveys unit weight, moisture content
As can be seen from Table 6, turn over latter 30 days and have a declining tendency along with the increase of the amount of turning over, the soil weight, remove 7500kg/ hm2Processing and comparison is suitable, remaining processes soil weight and is significantly less than comparison;Soil moisture content is also basic with turning over The increase of amount is in rising trend, higher than the 33.96% of comparison.
3.6 rye grasses turn over latter 60 days and respectively process organic and organic carbon content
Table 7 rye grass turns over latter 60 days and respectively processes organic and Organic Carbon And Total Nitrogen content
As shown in Table 7, the soil organism and organic carbon content increase with the increase of the amount of turning over.
3.7 rye grasses turn over latter 60 days and respectively process microbial biomass C and nitrate nitrogen content
Table 8 rye grass turns over latter 60 days and respectively processes microbial biomass C and nitrate nitrogen content
As can be seen from Table 8, turn over rye grass and respectively process microbial biomass C content all apparently higher than comparison, and substantially Increase along with the increase of the amount of turning over;The nitrate nitrogen content the most easily absorbed for cigarette strain increases along with the increase of the amount of turning over.
3.8 turn over the rye grass impact on roasting rear middle part tobacco leaf chemical composition
Table 9 turns over the rye grass impact (unit: %) on roasting rear middle part tobacco leaf chemical composition
As shown in Table 9, significantly reducing middle leaf nicotine content, the especially amount of turning over after turning over rye grass is 22500kg/ hm2Process, nicotine is maintained at optimum range, and the amount of turning over is 30000kg/ hm2Process nicotine content less than optimum range.
3.9 turn over rye grass causes the impact of perfumery component content to roasting rear middle part tobacco leaf neutrality
Table 10 turns over rye grass and roasting rear middle part tobacco leaf neutrality causes the impact (unit: μ g/kg) of perfumery component content
As can be seen from Table 10, the neutral phenylalanine class material caused in perfumery is with rye grass 15000kg/ hm2It is the highest, Next to that rye grass 22500kg/ hm2Process, comparison be then minimum;Brown product type is with rye grass 22500kg/ hm2's Process the highest, next to that rye grass 15000kg/ hm2, it is still in comparison this type of material minimum;Class western cypress alkanes material is with comparison The highest, next to that rye grass 15000kg/ hm2Processing, it is little that its excess-three processes difference;Carotenoids material is rye Grass 15000kg/ hm2Processing the highest, comparison content is minimum, and it is inconspicuous that its excess-three processes difference;Other class material is with rye grass 15000kg/ hm2Process the highest;Neophytadiene is also rye grass 15000kg/ hm2Process the highest, compare minimum, and the lowest Process in the amount of turning over.
3.10 turn over the rye grass impact on cured tobacco leaf economic characters
Table 11 turns over the rye grass impact on cured tobacco leaf economic characters
As can be seen from Table 11, each rye grass amount of turning over process yield, the output value, average price is all higher than comparison, all with rye grass 22500kg/ hm2Process the highest, 30000kg/ hm2Process poor.
4. conclusion
Growing and from the point of view of the index comprehensive such as the quality of cured tobacco leaf, yield, the output value, average price from cigarette strain, the amount of turning over For 22500kg/ hm2Preferably, the amount of turning over is less or more is all unfavorable for quality, yield, the output value.

Claims (7)

1. a tobacco field soil improvement method, it is characterised in that comprise the following steps:
(1) rye grass sowing: tobacco leaf sows rye after plucking later stage or the whole ground of tobacco leaf results on the ridge body of vega or in furrow Grass, application rate is 40~50kg/hm2, depth of planting 3~5 cm;Before sowing, soil inflitration adjusts to 60%~80%;
(2) rye grass turns over: before tobacco transplant 25~40 days, is turned over by rye grass into field, and in terms of dry weight, the amount of turning over is 4200 ~4800kg/ hm2, turning over the degree of depth is 10~20 cm;Such as soil moisture deficiency before turning over, the light irrigation to relative moisture content to be 60%~80%;After turning over 15~20 days, then carry out pre-wholely;Pre-wholely simultaneously by 2250~3750/hm2Consumption execute Entering vega conditioner, described vega conditioner is become by the mixed raw material of following weight portion: bagasse 4~5 parts, husk 5~10 parts, Oyster shell whiting 4~6 parts, polyacrylamide 6~9 parts, potassium nitrate 2~6 parts, calcium magnesium phosphate 10~15 parts, borax 0.5~1.5 parts, sulphur Acid zinc 0.5~2.5 parts, lime 5~10 parts and blast furnace slag 50~60 parts;
(3) tobacco dose: deduct the part brought into by rye grass effective N element, deduction N element during conventional fertilizer application in always needing N amount Measuring=turn over rye grass dry weight × dry rye grass leaded wastewater × rye grass N element utilization rate, rye grass nitrogen utilization efficiency is with 20%~30% Meter.
Tobacco field soil improvement method the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: the described sowing time be early September extremely Mid-November.
Tobacco field soil improvement method the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: rye grass is turned over into field by step (2), In terms of dry weight, the amount of turning over is 4500kg/ hm2
Tobacco field soil improvement method the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: before turning over field described in step (2), First being smashed by rye grass or be cut into 10~15cm, then turning over, beneficially rye grass is evenly distributed in soil and rots point Solve.
Tobacco field soil improvement method the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: described rye grass dry weight determines method For: uniformly and the place of full field upgrowth situation can be represented at Ryegrass Growth, take at least 3 1m2Sampling point, rye grass is whole Extracting after removing foreign material, experiment determines vega unit are rye grass dry weight.
Tobacco field soil improvement method the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: in described step (2), turn over rye The most uniformly mixing HA while grass to detonate bacterium, consumption is the 0.01~0.02% of rye grass fresh weight amount.
Tobacco field soil improvement method the most according to claim 6, it is characterised in that: described HA detonates bacterium and its weight 1~2 After fine earth again or rice chaff mix, then incorporation turns over rye grass.
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CN104770188A (en) * 2015-04-16 2015-07-15 湖南农业大学 Planting, plowing and ridging method for green manure on tobacco stubble
CN105309082B (en) * 2015-10-21 2018-03-23 贵州省烟草科学研究院 A kind of tobacco bacterial wilt Synthetical prevention method
CN105859479A (en) * 2016-04-13 2016-08-17 陕西省烟草公司汉中市公司 Tobacco field soil improving method
CN106134562A (en) * 2016-07-11 2016-11-23 河南农业大学 Reduce the method along slope ridge culture vega soil erosion
CN106631619A (en) * 2017-01-11 2017-05-10 河南艾农生物科技有限公司 Special high-carbon based soil remediation fertilizer for tobacco fields and production method and application method thereof
CN106613291A (en) * 2017-02-09 2017-05-10 青岛农业大学 Green manure double-late and one-high planting technology of Shandong tobacco field
CN109429603B (en) * 2018-10-24 2021-09-07 湖北省烟草公司宜昌市公司 Method for improving tobacco field soil by using polygonum hydropiper as green manure
CN110121974A (en) * 2019-05-24 2019-08-16 广西中烟工业有限责任公司 A kind of construction method of the fertile topsoil of Red Soil Sloping Land tobacco field

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CN102318480A (en) * 2011-07-27 2012-01-18 贵州省烟草科学研究所 Mixed seeding green manure dressing method for tobacco field
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