CN103233739A - Mining method for thick and large ore pillar under filling body wrapping - Google Patents

Mining method for thick and large ore pillar under filling body wrapping Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103233739A
CN103233739A CN201310131972XA CN201310131972A CN103233739A CN 103233739 A CN103233739 A CN 103233739A CN 201310131972X A CN201310131972X A CN 201310131972XA CN 201310131972 A CN201310131972 A CN 201310131972A CN 103233739 A CN103233739 A CN 103233739A
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China
Prior art keywords
obturation
mining
ore pillar
exploitation
anchor pole
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CN201310131972XA
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Inventor
杨小聪
方志甫
解联库
卫明
冯盼学
邹贤季
杨志强
史传哲
郭利杰
王林
董凯程
罗皖东
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ANQING COPPER MINE OF TONGLING NONFERROUS METALS GROUP Co Ltd
Beijing General Research Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
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ANQING COPPER MINE OF TONGLING NONFERROUS METALS GROUP Co Ltd
Beijing General Research Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
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Priority to CN201310131972XA priority Critical patent/CN103233739A/en
Publication of CN103233739A publication Critical patent/CN103233739A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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Abstract

The present invention provides a mining method for a thick and large ore pillar under filling body wrapping. The mining method comprises: combined supporting of a drift inside a filling body, heterogenous interface control blasting, and non-contact type laser precision scanning and digital modeling three-dimensional visualization mining. The mining method is suitable for stoping mine through a filling mining method. With the mining method, a thick and large ore pillar under a filling body wrapping condition can be safely, efficiently and continuously mined, deep well ground pressure is effectively controlled and managed, stability of a mining stope and a filling body are ensured, large scale and high strength centralized strengthening mining on a deep well orebody can be achieved, ore mining cost can be reduced, and economic benefits of mining can be increased.

Description

The obturation parcel is thick big ore pillar exploitation method down
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of obturation parcel thick big ore pillar exploitation method down, belong to the mining with stowing technical field.
Background technology
In recent years, because the fast development of filling technique and the extensive use of down-hole trackless mobile equipment, mining with stowing has become a kind of exploitation method safely and efficiently.Along with the existing mineral resources of verifying constantly consume, to dig up mine to the deep development, press constantly on ground temperature ground increases, the strictness day by day of environmental protection, the method for mining by the way of filling will obtain bigger application and development from now on.
A series of irreplaceable advantages such as rate of extraction height, flexibility are big though the method for mining by the way of filling has, wide accommodation, environmental protection, but have some drawback that self can't overcome and deficiencies simultaneously, wherein the back production in ore pillar or residual ore deposit is one of technical barrier that generally faces in the filling method mining later stage under the obturation parcel condition.Mainly there are following technological difficulties in the existing obturation parcel back production of ore pillar down:
(1) partly adopts the cut journey and need be arranged in the soft broken obturation, how to realize effective driving and the maintenance of roadway engineering in the obturation;
(2) how to control the reasonable distribution of ore deposit rock-obturation heterogeneous interface blasting energy, reach not only effective broken ore deposit rock, but also the purpose of avoiding obturation to destroy;
(3) how to realize quick-fried precompensation space, blasting process, quick-fried back is overbreak with owe quick-fried accurately measuring and Blasting Control, and accurately analyzes loss, dilution and the obturation situation that falls that collapses.
Summary of the invention
The present invention for solve exist in the existing mining with stowing technology cause easily collapsing of obturation fall, be difficult to effective broken ore deposit rock avoid again obturation destroy and be difficult to quick-fried precompensation space, blasting process, quick-fried back is overbreak with owe quick-fried accurately measuring and Blasting Control, and accurately analyze loss, dilution and the obturation problem of situation that falls that collapses, and then provide a kind of obturation parcel thick big ore pillar exploitation method down.For this reason, the invention provides following technical scheme:
A kind of obturation parcel is thick big ore pillar exploitation method down, comprising:
The combined supporting in tunnel in the obturation;
Heterogeneous interface controlled blasting;
Non-contact laser is scanning and the exploitation of digital modeling three-dimensional visualization precisely.
The present invention is suitable for the mine of method of mining by the way of filling back production, at the safe and efficient continuous exploitation of the thick big ore pillar under the obturation parcel condition, both effectively pressed on control and management deep-well ground, ensure the stable of stope and obturation, can realize extensive, the high-intensity concentrated enhanced recovery of deep-well ore body again, reduce the cost of winning of ore, improve the economic benefit of exploitation.
The tool description of drawings
First kind of drilling chamber support pattern schematic diagram that Fig. 1 provides for the specific embodiment of the present invention;
Second kind of drilling chamber support pattern schematic diagram that Fig. 2 provides for the specific embodiment of the present invention;
The ore removal that Fig. 3 provides for the specific embodiment of the present invention is worn pulsation and is protected the mode schematic diagram;
The ore removal that Fig. 4 provides for the specific embodiment of the present invention is worn arteries and veins open wiring place support pattern schematic diagram;
The development heading driving that Fig. 5 provides for the specific embodiment of the present invention and the construction process schematic diagram of supporting;
The upward dish stope cloth hole schematic diagram that Fig. 6 provides for the specific embodiment of the present invention.
The specific embodiment
Below in conjunction with the embodiment of the invention, the technical scheme in the embodiment of the invention is clearly and completely described, obviously, described embodiment only is the present invention's part embodiment, rather than whole embodiment.Based on the embodiment among the present invention, those of ordinary skills belong to the scope of protection of the invention not making all other embodiment that obtain under the creative work prerequisite.
The mine that this specific embodiment is 3500t/d with a production capacity is example, its ore body average thick be 40 to 50m, maximum ga(u)ge reaches 80 to 100m, the inclination angle is more than 70 °, the ore body form is more regular, and mining methods are mainly the large diameter, deep borehole afterwards filling mining method, and the vertical orebody trend of stope is arranged, divide mineral building, ore pillar, compartment two step back production.For ease of explanation, present embodiment select ore body at-400m to-560m between the stage, be 3 stages from top to bottom.According to-400m~-integrated planning of 560m stage casing, follow the back production filling of top R12 and east, both sides, west P23, P1 stope to finish, the R3 stope is under the parcel of top board and both sides obturation, is bearing the immense pressure from upper lower burrs simultaneously.In exploitation process, whether exist because the possibility of slight back production disturbance generation catastrophe, it is the unexpected unstability of obturation or ore pillar, it is the matter of the whole that is related to orebody mining, therefore, compare P23 and P1 stope, the ore pillar stope R3 under the obturation parcel condition beyond doubt-400m~-the 560m zone in safety factor require stope the highest, production technique difficulty maximum.
This specific embodiment provides a kind of obturation parcel thick big ore pillar exploitation method down, comprising:
1, the combined supporting in obturation tunnel.
(1) supporting scheme
1. drilling chamber supporting scheme
According to the position, rock stratum that drilling chamber is arranged, can adopt sprayed mortar and anchor cable combined supporting mode and anchor pole, anchor net and sprayed mortar combined supporting mode.
As shown in Figure 1, when the chamber top board is rock mass, can adopt full section sprayed mortar and arch anchor cable combined supporting mode, concrete jetting thickness is 50-150mm, be preferably 100mm, the parameter of anchor cable is: anchor cable adopts the rust cleaning oil removing wire of diameter 10-20mm (preferred 10-20mm), long 5~10m (preferred 6~8m), the net degree is arch hoop 1000-2000mm (preferred 1500mm), chamber moves towards direction 1500-2500mm (preferred 2000mm), the slip casting concrete proportioning is cement: sand: water=1:1:0.4, anchor cable arrangement are quincunx or rhombus.
As shown in Figure 2, when the chamber top board is obturation, adopt anchor pole linked network and full section sprayed mortar combined supporting mode, concrete jetting thickness is 50-150mm, is preferably 100mm, and the anchor pole arrangement is that full section is arranged, concrete parameter is: the long 1.8~2.5m (preferred 2.0~2.2m) of anchor pole, spacing is circumferential distance 0.5-1m (preferred 0.80m), and (preferred 0.8~1.0m), wire lath is arranged in the position of arch and wall to longitudinal pitch 0.6~1.2m.
2. ore removal is worn pulsation and is protected scheme
As shown in Figure 3, stope bottom ore removal wears arteries and veins and ore removal return air connecting taxiway major part is tunneled formation in cemented fill, and immediate roof is the tailing cemented filling body, and anchor pole, anchor net and sprayed mortar combined supporting mode are adopted in design.Concrete jetting thickness is 50-150mm, be preferably 100mm, the anchor pole arrangement is that full section is arranged, concrete parameter is: the long 1.8~2.5m of anchor pole (is preferably 2.0~2.2m), spacing is circumferential distance 0.5-1m (preferred 0.80m), and (preferred 0.8~1.0m), wire lath is arranged in the position of arch and wall to longitudinal pitch 0.8~1.2m.
3. ore removal route open wiring place supporting scheme
As shown in Figure 4, ore removal route open wiring place is the support work emphasis, particularly drawhole iso-stress concentrated area is easy to destroy, so this part adopts the combined type support pattern: constitute preliminary bracing by sprayed mortar, anchor pole and wire lath combined supporting mode, when treating that surrouding rock deformation is gradually stablized (rate of deformation is near 0), apply mould and build the steel concrete supporting.It is 20-40cm (preferred 30cm) that mould is built the reinforced concrete soil thickness, and strength grade is C30, and reinforcing bar adopts Φ 22 screw-thread steels, and the net degree is 30cm * 30cm.Because stope adopts one-sided moat ditch ore removal polycrystalline substance, in the exploitation process, when explosion the 5th round, carry out different shot depth controlled blasting simultaneously, the stability of protection drawhole ore deposit rock.
(2) construction process
According to the theoretical principle of underground construction New Austrian Tunneling Method supporting design and construction, tunnel the controlled blasting technology of appropriate to the occasion employing smooth blasting at roadway or chamber, combined bolting and shotcrete should in time carry out immediately following work plane.Generally, should follow as shown in Figure 5 standard technology flow process.
2, heterogeneous interface controlled blasting.
Under the obturation parcel condition during explosion of ore pillar stope mining, transmission and reflection take place during through ore deposit rock-consolidated fill body interface in blast wave, and a part returns to enter in the ore body from boundary reflection, and another part sees through interface and enters cemented fill.Therefore, the key of Interface Control blasting technique is will control by the interface to enter the destruction that the explosion energy in the tailing cemented filling body produces, and requires simultaneously to make ore reduction at the interface become qualified lumpiness.
(1) the charge constitution form determines
The definite of charge constitution form should do following consideration: reducing hole charge is first-selected technological means; Multistage spaced loading structure can effectively reduce the effect of detonation stresses ripple, improves the explosion gas expansion relatively, makes the control of explosion destructiveness in scope of design; Under the situation of coupling charging, compare the column cartridge bag, the pulverizing district radius of spheric cartridge is less.
Based on above analysis and small-sized explosion simulated experiment, the little dose spheric cartridge of multi-segment airspace charge constitution is adopted in heterogeneous interface controlled blasting.
(2) theoretical calculation of lateral opening distance
Blast process is an extremely complicated process, and in order to make the theoretical computational short cut of lateral opening distance, make the following assumptions earlier: 1. the interface of ore body and tailing cemented filling body is a regular plane; 2. there is not any the air gap between tailing cemented filling body and the ore body; 3. ore body and tailing cemented filling body are the isotropic elasticity body; 4. cartridge bag is considered as spheric cartridge; 5. do not consider to demarcate secondary reflection and the transmission of detonation stresses ripple at the interface; When 6. the detonation stresses ripple arrives the interface, by vertical incidence calculated stress wave reflection; 7. the detonation stresses wave load is pressed the theoretical calculating of one-dimensional stress ripple.
Reflect stress during according to attenuation of seismic waves particle peak value vibration velocity, one-dimensional stress ripple theory and incident dynamic pressure vertical incidence and penetrate the stress calculation formula, the opposite side pitch-row is from calculating, and the theoretical calculation value that the substitution supplemental characteristic can be tried to achieve lateral opening distance should be not less than 0.506m.
(3) small-sized explosion bulge test
Small-scale test is chosen in the 12# ore pillar, the adjacent 10# mineral building obturation (cement-sand ratio 1: 8) of having adopted of one side, and test big gun hole horizontal is arranged aperture Φ 42mm.Test is carried out in the mode of tunnelling, drift section 2.5m * 2m.The test explosive is common emulsified oil explosive.By the little dose spheric cartridge of the lateral opening employing multi-segment airspace charge constitution of obturation one side, the long 200mm of powder stick, heavy 200g, the cartridge bag draw ratio is 5.For avoiding the caused testing error of obturation interface irregularity, each separate explosion drilling depth is 0.9-1.0m.
Test has been carried out 16 times altogether, carry out comprehensive grading by the parameters such as destructiveness, explosion bulk and blasting cost to obturation behind each separate explosion, utilize quadratic regression equation to ask optimal solution to draw: for the big gun hole of Φ 42mm, when the layered charge amount is 0.2kg, its lateral opening to obturation interface optimum distance be 0.41m, the optimum air gap length is 0.174m.
According to the livingston explosive funnel theoretical with the explosion theory of similarity, when adopting Φ 165mm macropore stooping pillaring, lateral opening to the obturation interface distance be 1.51m, the optimum air gap length is 0.52-0.7m.
3, precisely scanning and the exploitation of digital modeling three-dimensional visualization of non-contact laser.
Adopt the non-contact 3-D laser scanning measurement system that stope before and after each explosion is accurately measured, determine the goaf form, and import in the software of 3-dimensional digital mine, realize process simulation and the effect control of mining.
(1) the big gun hole is arranged and construction
As shown in Figure 6, stope is arranged 5 artillery salvo holes, and loosen blasting technique is pressed in the 1st row, the 5th artillery salvo hole, and lateral opening distance is all got 1.7m, and distance is got 2.5m at the bottom of the lateral opening hole.1P~2P, 4P~5P row spacing is got 2.8m, and 2P~3P, 3P~4P row spacing is got 3.0m, makes an exception apart from getting 3m(part hole at the bottom of the interstitial hole hole).
The Simba-261 down-the-hole drill that rock drilling adopts Atlas Copco company to produce, drill bit is button bit, and diameter is 165mm, and drill pipe diameter is 110mm, the long 1.5m of every joint, two ends have flat thread.The aperture generally adds the long sleeve pipe of 0.8m, protection boring.Each machine-team 2~3 people's operation is more than the machine-team efficient 40m.Last dish stope design hole depth 4205m, lower wall stope design hole depth 2517.8m.
(2) blasting process digital simulation
Each blast working is divided into steps such as gaging hole, plug-hole, filling, powder charge, and it is 36 times that the stope explosion is divided into, and consumes explosive charge 39030kg, explosion ore deposit amount 140175t.Average explosive specific charge 0.28kg/t.Simulation hole depth behind the 16th time and the 29th separate explosion can obviously be found out the technical characterstic of application of Large-Diameter Longhole Mining Method, in blasting process, can improve design efficiency and monitoring blasting process simultaneously.And the forward and backward ore body form of the 29th separate explosion is carried out modeling, draw accumulative total explosion ore volume 29563m during test stope to the 29 separate explosions as calculated 3, ore amount 112339t; Slave fortune work area obtains the ore removal data and learns, by test on May 30th, 2010 stope accumulative total ore removal 8189 cars, yield is 48315t, it is 64024t that the ore removal chamber is possessed ore amount, such trial can be accomplished to dig up mine and being connected of ore removal, and has both guaranteed the compensation space of each explosion, can accomplish the shrink explosion again, support the both sides obturation, further reduce the rate of dilution.
(3) demolition effect assessment and control
After stope mining finishes, use dead zone precision detection system to carry out the scene and survey, accurately obtain the three-dimensional configuration in goaf, use large-scale mining software to calculate the dead zone volume, and be analyzed with plan boundary, calculate the stope rate of dilution.
Demolition effect is assessed.Stope drilling chamber base plate absolute altitude-505m, the chamber height is 3.8m, and chamber top board absolute altitude is-501.2m, and the dead zone model is higher than-and the volume of 501.2m level is 280m 3, the highest drop height degree that collapses is 2.5m, collapses to fall to mainly concentrating on stope lower wall zone line.Stope thing both sides are respectively 9P and 11P stope, and 9P post obturation collapses and falls morely, and volume is 2314m 3, the 11P obturation collapses and falls lessly relatively, and volume is 240m 3The dead zone cumulative volume that equipment detection at present obtains is 21652m 3, the test stope ore cumulative volume that obtains according to geologic information is 44941m 3As calculated, the final rate of dilution of test stope is 7.8%, and loss late is 5.5%, all reaches designing requirement.
The technical scheme that this specific embodiment provides is suitable for the mine of method of mining by the way of filling back production, at the safe and efficient continuous exploitation of the thick big ore pillar under the obturation parcel condition, both effectively pressed on control and management deep-well ground, ensure the stable of stope and obturation, can realize extensive, the high-intensity concentrated enhanced recovery of deep-well ore body again, reduce the cost of winning of ore, improve the economic benefit of exploitation.
The above; only be the preferable specific embodiment of the present invention; but protection scope of the present invention is not limited thereto; anyly be familiar with those skilled in the art in the technical scope that the embodiment of the invention discloses; the variation that can expect easily or replacement all should be encompassed within protection scope of the present invention.Therefore, protection scope of the present invention should be as the criterion with the protection domain of claim.

Claims (8)

1. an obturation is wrapped up thick big ore pillar exploitation method down, it is characterized in that, comprising:
The combined supporting in tunnel in the obturation;
Heterogeneous interface controlled blasting;
Non-contact laser is scanning and the exploitation of digital modeling three-dimensional visualization precisely.
2. obturation according to claim 1 is wrapped up thick big ore pillar exploitation method down, it is characterized in that the combined supporting in described obturation tunnel comprises:
Adopt sprayed mortar and anchor cable combined supporting mode or anchor pole linked network and sprayed mortar combined supporting mode that drilling chamber is carried out supporting;
Adopt anchor pole, anchor net and sprayed mortar combined supporting mode that ore removal is worn arteries and veins and carry out supporting;
Adopt sprayed mortar, anchor pole and wire lath combined supporting mode as preliminary bracing, treat that adopting mould to build the steel concrete supporting when surrouding rock deformation reaches predetermined degree of stability carries out supporting to ore removal route open wiring place.
3. obturation according to claim 2 is wrapped up thick big ore pillar exploitation method down, it is characterized in that, described sprayed mortar and anchor cable combined supporting mode comprise: when the chamber top board is rock mass, concrete jetting thickness is 50-150mm, anchor cable adopts the rust cleaning oil removing wire of diameter 10-20mm, long 5~10m, the net degree is arch hoop 1000-2000mm, chamber moves towards direction 1500-2500mm, the slip casting concrete proportioning is cement: sand: water=1:1:0.4, anchor cable arrangement are quincunx or rhombus.
4. obturation according to claim 2 is wrapped up thick big ore pillar exploitation method down, it is characterized in that, described anchor pole linked network and sprayed mortar combined supporting mode comprise: when the chamber top board is obturation, concrete jetting thickness is 50-150mm, the anchor pole arrangement is that full section is arranged, the long 1.8~2.5m of anchor pole, and spacing is circumferential distance 0.5-1m, longitudinal pitch 0.6~1.2m, net hang over the position of arch and wall.
5. obturation according to claim 2 is wrapped up thick big ore pillar exploitation method down, it is characterized in that, described anchor pole, anchor net and sprayed mortar combined supporting mode comprise: concrete jetting thickness is 50-150mm, the anchor pole arrangement is that full section is arranged, long 1.8~the 2.5m of anchor pole, spacing is circumferential distance 0.5-1m, and longitudinal pitch 0.8~1.2m, net hang over the position of arch and wall.
6. obturation according to claim 2 is wrapped up thick big ore pillar exploitation method down, it is characterized in that described mould is built the steel concrete supporting and comprised: the thickness that mould is built steel concrete is 20-40cm, and strength grade is C30, reinforcing bar adopts Φ 22 screw-thread steels, and the net degree is 30cm * 30cm.
7. obturation according to claim 1 is wrapped up thick big ore pillar exploitation method down, it is characterized in that described heterogeneous interface controlled blasting comprises:
Adopt the little dose spheric cartridge of multi-segment airspace charge constitution;
Reflect stress during according to attenuation of seismic waves particle peak value vibration velocity, one-dimensional stress ripple theory and incident dynamic pressure vertical incidence and penetrate the stress calculation formula, the opposite side pitch-row is from calculating, and the theoretical calculation value of trying to achieve lateral opening distance is not less than 0.506m;
For the big gun hole of Φ 42mm, when the layered charge amount is 0.2kg, lateral opening to obturation interface optimum distance be 0.41m, the optimum air gap length is 0.174m; When adopting Φ 165mm macropore stooping pillaring, lateral opening to the obturation interface distance be 1.51m, the optimum air gap length is 0.52-0.7m.
8. thick big ore pillar exploitation method under the obturation parcel according to claim 1 is characterized in that, described non-contact laser precisely scanning comprises with the exploitation of digital modeling three-dimensional visualization:
Precisely scan (comprehensive 360 ° of scannings by advanced in the world non-contact laser, covering is up to whole space in the 150m scope, the data capture rate can reach 200 of per seconds and accuracy for+/-5cm), determine the form in goaf after each explosion, pass through data transaction, and import in the 3-dimensional digital mine model, the simulation mining process that becomes more meticulous realizes effective control of mining effect (loss late, the rate of dilution etc.).
CN201310131972XA 2013-04-16 2013-04-16 Mining method for thick and large ore pillar under filling body wrapping Pending CN103233739A (en)

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Cited By (4)

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CN103742144A (en) * 2013-09-30 2014-04-23 贵州开磷(集团)有限责任公司 Ore loss and dilution control method and application thereof
CN104234716A (en) * 2014-07-22 2014-12-24 长沙矿山研究院有限责任公司 Bagged-cofferdam filling mining method
CN104240133A (en) * 2014-09-02 2014-12-24 广东宏大爆破股份有限公司 Acceptance inspection method of mine goaf caving and blasting treatment effect in conversion from underground mining to opencast mining
CN109505602A (en) * 2019-01-11 2019-03-22 湖北三鑫金铜股份有限公司 To high stratification skew wall route continuous exploitation method under one kind

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103742144A (en) * 2013-09-30 2014-04-23 贵州开磷(集团)有限责任公司 Ore loss and dilution control method and application thereof
CN103742144B (en) * 2013-09-30 2016-04-20 贵州开磷集团股份有限公司 Control method of a kind of mine loss and dilution and uses thereof
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CN104234716B (en) * 2014-07-22 2016-08-24 长沙矿山研究院有限责任公司 The packed cofferdam method of mining by the way of filling
CN104240133A (en) * 2014-09-02 2014-12-24 广东宏大爆破股份有限公司 Acceptance inspection method of mine goaf caving and blasting treatment effect in conversion from underground mining to opencast mining
CN104240133B (en) * 2014-09-02 2017-08-15 广东宏大爆破股份有限公司 Ground, which is adopted, turns Opencast mining Hill caving explosion treatment effect acceptance method
CN109505602A (en) * 2019-01-11 2019-03-22 湖北三鑫金铜股份有限公司 To high stratification skew wall route continuous exploitation method under one kind

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