CN104632221A - Liquid carbon dioxide blasting induced caving mining method - Google Patents

Liquid carbon dioxide blasting induced caving mining method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104632221A
CN104632221A CN201410798159.2A CN201410798159A CN104632221A CN 104632221 A CN104632221 A CN 104632221A CN 201410798159 A CN201410798159 A CN 201410798159A CN 104632221 A CN104632221 A CN 104632221A
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ore
carbon dioxide
liquid carbon
rock
nugget
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CN104632221B (en
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周科平
高峰
高宏伟
邓红卫
李杰林
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Central South University
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Central South University
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21CMINING OR QUARRYING
    • E21C41/00Methods of underground or surface mining; Layouts therefor
    • E21C41/16Methods of underground mining; Layouts therefor
    • E21C41/22Methods of underground mining; Layouts therefor for ores, e.g. mining placers

Abstract

The invention discloses a liquid carbon dioxide blasting induced caving mining method. During operation, a reusable carbon dioxide blaster instead of an explosive is delivered into a blast hole; the liquid carbon dioxide in the tube is vaporized under an electrified heating condition to form a high-pressure gas; the blasting energy of the high-pressure gas leads to quick development of joint fissures inside the ore body, and therefore, the ore body is capable of collapsing continuously and naturally under the action of the gravity stress. The liquid carbon dioxide blasting induced caving mining method is suitable for exploiting fracture, joint or structure developed large massive ore deposits or above medium-thick steep-dip solid underground mines crushed to medium solid degree. The method is controllable in blasting energy and release manner, and has the characteristics of operation safety, high production efficiency and low mining cost; the blaster is reusable.

Description

A kind of employing liquid carbon dioxide explosion induction caving mining method
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of mining methods, particularly relate to a kind of sub-terrain mines avalanche mining methods, be particularly useful for the exploitation of the medium firm ore body of thick large bulk of the structure development such as crack, joint.
Background technology
The exploitation of thick large medium firm ore body, tradition adopts segmentation or block chambering method, Mining by caving method, and the mineral deposit that fraction grades is high, ore and rock stability is poor adopts filling method to exploit.When the change of such orebody thickness greatly, developmental joint fissure, walking upwards discontinuous, the grade of ore is high and when changing large, and exploitation losses dilution greatly, cannot ensure the safety of operation.
Such ore body also can adopt natural caving method exploitation.Although natural caving method exploitation have production capacity large, be convenient to the advantages such as organization and administration, job safety, cost of winning are low, but apply less at home, it is main because it requires higher for ore body itself and collapsing property of country rock thereof, and need large area to undercut, if the developmental joint fissure degree in ore body is low, then the avalanche of rock mass is difficult to continuous and effective and carries out.Drilling big gun hole in the drilling drift arranged on avalanche border of some mines both at home and abroad, explosive blasting presplitting is adopted to control avalanche border, simultaneously to being difficult to free breakage part big gun hole forced caving, expand the scope of application of natural caving method, but the explosive blasting ore caving of routine, exist as ore body roof and floor country rock dynamic damage is large, explosion scope and lumpiness are difficult to control, blind big gun is difficult to the problems such as process, and this causes the application of natural caving method to be restricted.
Also have the method for some non-blasting minings for underground mine at present, such as high-pressure water jet and country rock weaken technology.But high-pressure water jet is applicable to coal mining, and because metallic ore rock mass itself is harder, employing the method cost is high and effect is difficult in order to be effective; The country rock technology that weakens is used comparatively general in mining, the methods such as such as drilling hole, grooving and loosening blasting, but is having in the efficient mining of the big thick ore body of requirement to production scale, is mostly the ancillary technique as mining technology.
Summary of the invention
Technical problem to be solved by this invention is for above-mentioned thick large medium firm ore body, especially the medium growth of joint fissure and the larger orebody mining of varied in thickness, a kind of area that undercuts that can greatly reduce needed for ore avalanche is provided, be conducive to the progressive caving of ore nature, and there is the employing liquid carbon dioxide explosion induction caving mining method of job safety, production efficiency is high, explosion power is controlled and mining cost is low feature.
In order to solve the problem, the employing liquid carbon dioxide explosion induction caving mining method that the present invention adopts, the gases at high pressure utilizing liquid carbon dioxide vaporization physical action to produce carry out induced fracture to ore body key position, control the development of balanced arch, thus effectively realize joint fissure in rock germinating, expansion and through, greatly reduce rock mass strength and integrality, to such an extent as to there is continuous print free breakage in final ore body, realize safety and high efficiency under ore deadweight and ground pressure effect.
The technical solution adopted for the present invention to solve the technical problems is: the collapsing property first determining ore body and country rock, by digital panoramic borehole camera and the detection of rock mass internal fissure and cranny development situation, according to the Transform algorithm of panoramic picture, reduce and formed three-dimensional core figure and hole wall expansion plan view; Based on image processing and computer vision technique, obtain the structural surface information such as rock fracture, joint; Boring digital picture is converted into the distribution map of petrophysical parameter, numerical simulation evaluation is carried out to rock-mass quality; And in conjunction with Test in Situ engineering geology, set up the fine graded model of the collapsing property of rock mass, to determine the burst pressure force value of the CO 2 high pressure gas of follow-up use;
On the basis that collapsing property is evaluated, in conjunction with orebody occurrence, select suitable mining type, use nugget exploitation when collapsing property of ore is good, when collapsing property of ore is medium, adopt paneling, during collapsing property difference, then adopt comprehensively exploitation continuously; Then carry out adopting accurate work arrangement, the design of Structural Parameters of stope, comprise the value of nugget height and horizontal dimension; Carry out adopting cut again to do, mainly comprise driving haulage way and crosscut, slusher runner or scraper road, ore chute, pedestrian's vent (-escape) raise, rock drilling courtyard, observe courtyard or humanity and cut side gallery; Utilize and cut side and weaken contacting of nugget and raw ore and rock mass along nugget border, the balance skewback formed in destruction ore free breakage process, control avalanche border, and improve region of high stress Drift stability near border; Carry out dragging down formation free space bottom nugget, make ore reach free breakage, the method adopting explosive blasting and liquid carbon dioxide explosion to combine in the process that undercuts is to reduce the stability influence of explosion to discharging tunnel; Ore under collapsing is released through bottom ore tunnel, adopts scraper or scraper ore removal.
Particularly, first the mining ore deposit section of ore body and the physical dimension of nugget is arranged according to the actual (real) thickness of ore body and inclination angle; By conventional method at nugget bottom phase of boring haulage drift and wear arteries and veins ore removal crosscut, spacing gets 30 ~ 40m; Tunnel and excavate shape ore removal crosscut and ore removal route, wherein ore removal drift interval gets 10 ~ 15m; Then in ore body, tunnel horizontal direction connecting taxiway, unload along the pulse on chassis, top, ore body two ends in tunnel, ore deposit to tunnel from the bottom up and arrange drop shaft, drop shaft spacing is equal with ore removal Chuan Mai tunnel spacing; Arrange at 7 ~ 10m place, periphery, nugget border and observe courtyard, and observe human from observing courtyard towards ore body direction driving horizontal direction, and make itself and ore body side direction tunnel horizontal direction to cut slope laneway and be connected; And driving cuts side courtyard from bottom to top; Borehole camera rock drilling road is tunneled in cutting in the middle part of slope laneway of being formed on ore body top, utilize the large diameter, deep borehole of down-the-hole drill Drilling 90 millimeters, vertical orebody trend, spacing gets 8 ~ 10m, photogrammetric and evaluate the collapsing property of ore body for digital borehole, can uninterruptedly detect in exploitation process, with the breakout conditions of Real-Time Monitoring ore body simultaneously; The ore of free breakage after undercuting, scraper enters stope by dress ore deposit route and carries out mine shovel dress, and be transported to drop shaft by ore removal crosscut and carry out ore drawing, the ore put down is transported by stage haulage way;
In carriage return process, employing is cut slope laneway and is carried out cutting side, weaken contacting of nugget border and raw ore and rock mass, or form when ore body part is difficult to avalanche the inbreak continuously naturally that more firm balanced arch prevents rock, presplitting big gun hole is induced at the Drilling in slope laneway of cutting of ore body both sides, the fan-shaped layout in big gun hole, the degree of depth is no more than the middle part of ore body, liquid carbon dioxide blaster is adopted to carry out explosion induced fracture, blaster specification is determined according to hole depth and rock stability, principle is artificially controlled, do not form rock mass inbreak immediately, so that safe retrieving liquid carbon dioxide blaster, also adopting liquid carbon dioxide blaster to carry out explosion in the process that undercuts expands in leakage, to control the outlet damage of route and the damage of periphery rock mass, adopt down-the-hole drill Drilling diameter 45mm on undercut to fan shaped medium length hole, the liquid carbon dioxide blaster of dimension to be made a gift to someone big gun hole according to required burst pressure force value, then carries out shutoff, carry out bursting work, every separate explosion 3 artillery salvo hole, according to collapsing property of ore, the speed that undercuts is made to keep consistent with ore free breakage speed.
For the ore deposit section of determining to dig up mine physical dimension and adopt carbon dioxide blaster parameter value to provide foundation, borehole camera is operated in back production and undercuts before ore deposit and carry out.
Adopt the employing liquid carbon dioxide explosion induction caving mining method of technique scheme, be applied in the big gun hole on avalanche border, except can controlling avalanche border, artificial induction can also destroy stable equilibrium's arch that avalanche rock temporarily formed, or even forced caving part is difficult to the ore deposit rock mass of free breakage, be difficult to the problem of continuous free breakage to reach fall ore deposit and process of manual control.Meanwhile, to undercut etc. to around tunnel there is larger explosion dynamic damage time, utilize carbon dioxide explosion to realize explosion power and energy and to release the controlled blasting technique of mode, reach the mining object of safe and efficient low cost.
The carbon dioxide blaster that can reuse during operation replaces explosive to send into big gun hole, liquid carbon dioxide in pipe is vaporized and is formed gases at high pressure under electrified regulation condition, high pressure pneumatic component energy makes the joint fissure of ore body inside grow rapidly, impels ore body to realize continuous print free breakage under selfweight stress effect.
The invention has the beneficial effects as follows, utilize CO 2 high pressure gas blast, solve the safety and high efficiency problem of the medium hard ore body of broken uneasily mining orebody or the medium growth of joint fissure in underground mine.Liquid carbon dioxide adds thermogenetic gases at high pressure ore caving induction free breakage; traditional (explosive) chemical explosion is instead of in physical explosion mode; do not have the discharge of toxic gas, blaster is reusable, simple to operate; blasting energy is controlled; effectively control the rock power damage that explosion brings, protection tunnel and surrounding rock stability, the danger of non-processor miso-fire, blind big gun; the safety of producing is largely increased, and mining cost significantly reduces.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the stage Block caving system front view adopting liquid carbon dioxide explosion to induce ore deposit, namely along I-I sectional drawing of Fig. 2.
Fig. 2 is along II-II line sectional drawing in Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is along III-III line sectional drawing in Fig. 1.
In figure: 1-level haulageway; 2-Chuan Mai crosscut; 3-drop shaft; 4-ore removal crosscut; 5-ore removal route; 6-connecting taxiway; 7-observe courtyard; 8-observe human; 9-cut side courtyard; 10-cut slope laneway; 11-borehole camera rock drilling road; 12-borehole camera hole; 13-induction presplitting big gun hole; 14-broken ore.
Detailed description of the invention
The concrete use case of the mining concept that the present invention proposes is: for the exploitation of above-mentioned classification ore body, level interval gets 60 ~ 80m, and nugget length generally gets 50 ~ 60m, can be reduced to 30 ~ 40m when ore body is broken and ground pressure is larger.Accurate method is adopted along orebody trend direction phase of boring haulage way with traditional mine development; Tunnel 4 at nugget four edges and cut side courtyard, side sky bottom of autotomying rises cuts slope laneway every 8 ~ 10m height along nugget periphery driving.At edge according to collapsing property of rock mass, the pre-ceasma of suitable driving induction, adopt hammer drill driving diameter to be the fan-shaped middle deep blasting hole of 45 ~ 75mm, presplitting forced by employing carbon dioxide blaster and avalanche part is difficult to free breakage ore body, or controls the avalanche sequential of balanced arch.When nugget undercuts, the mode that undercuts is according to nugget arrangement, and across pitch adopts mediad two ends to undercut, and capwise then adopts and upwards coiled by lower wall, adopt the carbon dioxide blaster of dimension to force blasting demolish to control the avalanche time of upper dish, prevent too early avalanche.And final form pulling end space and discharging tunnel and mine chute.
Scraper ore removal polycrystalline substance can adopt flat-bottom structure, and design parameters is determined by the reliability of scraper model and safe operation thereof, and ore removal drift interval generally gets 15m.Broken ore 14 flows to discharging tunnel from poly-ore deposit ditch under gravity, is discarded to level haulageway by scraper through drop shaft.During ore drawing, first release 1/3rd, remaining ore deposit wait until full stage free breakage complete after a large amount of ore drawing.Scraper process bulk ability is strong, maneuverability, and equipment productivity is high, is suitable for centralized management, and Oredrawing control is better, and cost of production is lower.But because scraper ore removal requires comparatively large to drift section, when ore body is more broken, supporting can be considered to adopt electric scraper discharging at need.
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing, the present invention is further illustrated.
See Fig. 1, Fig. 2 and Fig. 3, first arrange the mining ore deposit section of ore body and the physical dimension of nugget according to the actual (real) thickness of ore body and inclination angle; By conventional method at nugget bottom phase of boring haulage drift 1 and wear arteries and veins ore removal crosscut 2, spacing gets 30 ~ 40m; Tunnel and excavate shape ore removal crosscut 4 and ore removal route 5, wherein ore removal drift interval gets 10 ~ 15m; Then in ore body, tunnel horizontal direction connecting taxiway 6, unload along the pulse on chassis, top, ore body two ends in tunnel, ore deposit to tunnel from the bottom up and arrange drop shaft 3, drop shaft spacing is equal with ore removal Chuan Mai tunnel spacing; Arrange at 7 ~ 10m place, periphery, nugget border and observe courtyard 7, and observe human 8 from observing courtyard 7 towards ore body direction driving horizontal direction, and make itself and ore body side direction tunnel horizontal direction to cut slope laneway 10 and be connected; And driving cuts side courtyard 9 from bottom to top; Borehole camera rock drilling road 11 is tunneled in cutting in the middle part of slope laneway of being formed on ore body top, utilize the large diameter, deep borehole 12 of down-the-hole drill Drilling 90 millimeters, vertical orebody trend, spacing gets 8 ~ 10m, photogrammetric and evaluate the collapsing property of ore body for digital borehole, for determining the physical dimension of mining ore deposit section and adopting carbon dioxide blaster parameter value to provide foundation, borehole camera work should be carried out before back production undercuts ore deposit, can uninterruptedly detect in exploitation process, with the breakout conditions of Real-Time Monitoring ore body simultaneously.The ore of free breakage after undercuting, scraper enters stope by dress ore deposit route 5 and carries out mine shovel dress, and be transported to drop shaft by ore removal crosscut 4 and carry out ore drawing, the ore put down is transported by stage haulage way.
In carriage return process, employing is cut slope laneway 10 and is carried out cutting side, weaken contacting of nugget border and raw ore and rock mass, or form when ore body part is difficult to avalanche the inbreak continuously naturally that more firm balanced arch prevents rock, presplitting big gun hole 13 is induced at the Drilling in slope laneway 10 of cutting of ore body both sides, big gun hole can fan-shapedly be arranged, the degree of depth should not exceed the middle part of ore body, liquid carbon dioxide blaster is adopted to carry out explosion induced fracture, blaster specification is determined according to hole depth and rock stability, principle is artificially controlled, do not form rock mass inbreak immediately, so that safe retrieving liquid carbon dioxide blaster, also adopting liquid carbon dioxide blaster to carry out explosion in the process that undercuts expands in leakage, to control the outlet damage of route and the damage of periphery rock mass, can adopt down-the-hole drill Drilling diameter 45mm on undercut to fan shaped medium length hole, the liquid carbon dioxide blaster of dimension to be made a gift to someone big gun hole according to required burst pressure force value, then carries out shutoff, carry out bursting work, every separate explosion 3 artillery salvo hole.According to collapsing property of ore, the speed that undercuts is made to keep consistent with ore free breakage speed.
Present invention alleviates the difficult problem of natural caving method in management and in flexibility, for the exploitation of the broken Varied ore deposit of high-dipping provides one mining type safely and efficiently.Application this patent method, uses CO 2 high pressure gas ore caving to accelerate developmental joint fissure and induces ore body free breakage, the reliability of natural caving method is improved greatly, and overcomes all drawbacks that conventional explosives explosion brings; Improve the efficiency of mining, reduce cost and loss and dilution rate, especially for deep mining, alleviate the problem such as rock power Damage Coutrol and blasting fume harm brought by explosion, improve the safety of operation.

Claims (4)

1. one kind adopts liquid carbon dioxide explosion induction caving mining method, it is characterized in that: the gases at high pressure utilizing liquid carbon dioxide vaporization physical action to produce carry out induced fracture to ore body key position, control the development of balanced arch, thus effectively realize joint fissure in rock germinating, expansion and through, greatly reduce rock mass strength and integrality, to such an extent as to there is continuous print free breakage in final ore body, realize safety and high efficiency under ore deadweight and ground pressure effect.
2. employing liquid carbon dioxide explosion induction caving mining method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: the collapsing property first determining ore body and country rock, by digital panoramic borehole camera and the detection of rock mass internal fissure and cranny development situation, according to the Transform algorithm of panoramic picture, reduce and formed three-dimensional core figure and hole wall expansion plan view; Based on image processing and computer vision technique, obtain the structural surface information such as rock fracture, joint; Boring digital picture is converted into the distribution map of petrophysical parameter, numerical simulation evaluation is carried out to rock-mass quality; And in conjunction with Test in Situ engineering geology, set up the fine graded model of the collapsing property of rock mass, to determine the burst pressure force value of the CO 2 high pressure gas of follow-up use;
On the basis that collapsing property is evaluated, in conjunction with orebody occurrence, select suitable mining type, use nugget exploitation when collapsing property of ore is good, when collapsing property of ore is medium, adopt paneling, during collapsing property difference, then adopt comprehensively exploitation continuously; Then carry out adopting accurate work arrangement, the design of Structural Parameters of stope, comprise the value of nugget height and horizontal dimension; Carry out adopting cut again to do, mainly comprise driving haulage way and crosscut, slusher runner or scraper road, ore chute, pedestrian's vent (-escape) raise, rock drilling courtyard, observe courtyard or humanity and cut side gallery; Utilize and cut side and weaken contacting of nugget and raw ore and rock mass along nugget border, the balance skewback formed in destruction ore free breakage process, control avalanche border, and improve region of high stress Drift stability near border; Carry out dragging down formation free space bottom nugget, make ore reach free breakage, the method adopting explosive blasting and liquid carbon dioxide explosion to combine in the process that undercuts is to reduce the stability influence of explosion to discharging tunnel; Ore under collapsing is released through bottom ore tunnel, adopts scraper or scraper ore removal.
3. employing liquid carbon dioxide explosion induction caving mining method according to claim 2, is characterized in that: first arrange the mining ore deposit section of ore body and the physical dimension of nugget according to the actual (real) thickness of ore body and inclination angle; By conventional method at nugget bottom phase of boring haulage drift and wear arteries and veins ore removal crosscut, spacing gets 30 ~ 40m; Tunnel and excavate shape ore removal crosscut and ore removal route, wherein ore removal drift interval gets 10 ~ 15m; Then in ore body, tunnel horizontal direction connecting taxiway, unload along the pulse on chassis, top, ore body two ends in tunnel, ore deposit to tunnel from the bottom up and arrange drop shaft, drop shaft spacing is equal with ore removal Chuan Mai tunnel spacing; Arrange at 7 ~ 10m place, periphery, nugget border and observe courtyard, and observe human from observing courtyard towards ore body direction driving horizontal direction, and make itself and ore body side direction tunnel horizontal direction to cut slope laneway and be connected; And driving cuts side courtyard from bottom to top; Borehole camera rock drilling road is tunneled in cutting in the middle part of slope laneway of being formed on ore body top, utilize the large diameter, deep borehole of down-the-hole drill Drilling 90 millimeters, vertical orebody trend, spacing gets 8 ~ 10m, photogrammetric and evaluate the collapsing property of ore body for digital borehole, can uninterruptedly detect in exploitation process, with the breakout conditions of Real-Time Monitoring ore body simultaneously; The ore of free breakage after undercuting, scraper enters stope by dress ore deposit route and carries out mine shovel dress, and be transported to drop shaft by ore removal crosscut and carry out ore drawing, the ore put down is transported by stage haulage way;
In carriage return process, employing is cut slope laneway and is carried out cutting side, weaken contacting of nugget border and raw ore and rock mass, or form when ore body part is difficult to avalanche the inbreak continuously naturally that more firm balanced arch prevents rock, presplitting big gun hole is induced at the Drilling in slope laneway of cutting of ore body both sides, the fan-shaped layout in big gun hole, the degree of depth is no more than the middle part of ore body, liquid carbon dioxide blaster is adopted to carry out explosion induced fracture, blaster specification is determined according to hole depth and rock stability, principle is artificially controlled, do not form rock mass inbreak immediately, so that safe retrieving liquid carbon dioxide blaster, also adopting liquid carbon dioxide blaster to carry out explosion in the process that undercuts expands in leakage, to control the outlet damage of route and the damage of periphery rock mass, adopt down-the-hole drill Drilling diameter 45mm on undercut to fan shaped medium length hole, the liquid carbon dioxide blaster of dimension to be made a gift to someone big gun hole according to required burst pressure force value, then carries out shutoff, carry out bursting work, every separate explosion 3 artillery salvo hole, according to collapsing property of ore, the speed that undercuts is made to keep consistent with ore free breakage speed.
4. employing liquid carbon dioxide explosion induction caving mining method according to claim 3, it is characterized in that: for the ore deposit section of determining to dig up mine physical dimension and adopt carbon dioxide blaster parameter value to provide foundation, borehole camera is operated in back production and undercuts before ore deposit and carry out.
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Cited By (7)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN105888666A (en) * 2016-04-12 2016-08-24 东北大学 High-stress induced blasting ore caving method for deep stope
CN106288988A (en) * 2016-08-31 2017-01-04 北京龙德时代技术服务有限公司 Intelligence carbon dioxide blasting technology method
CN107542468A (en) * 2017-08-17 2018-01-05 东北大学 A kind of natural caving method
CN107975373A (en) * 2018-01-16 2018-05-01 中南大学 A kind of lower continuous digging hard-rock mine method of mechanization of liquid-gas phase transition induction
CN108442928A (en) * 2018-03-06 2018-08-24 安徽理工大学 A kind of direct injection orientation gas blast method based on V-arrangement grooving
CN108894782A (en) * 2018-07-31 2018-11-27 中南大学 A kind of low temperature frost heave fracturing induction ore body inbreak mining codes
CN110057634A (en) * 2019-04-11 2019-07-26 东北石油大学 A kind of device and method manufacturing rock core crack

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Cited By (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN105888666A (en) * 2016-04-12 2016-08-24 东北大学 High-stress induced blasting ore caving method for deep stope
CN106288988A (en) * 2016-08-31 2017-01-04 北京龙德时代技术服务有限公司 Intelligence carbon dioxide blasting technology method
CN107542468A (en) * 2017-08-17 2018-01-05 东北大学 A kind of natural caving method
CN107975373A (en) * 2018-01-16 2018-05-01 中南大学 A kind of lower continuous digging hard-rock mine method of mechanization of liquid-gas phase transition induction
CN108442928A (en) * 2018-03-06 2018-08-24 安徽理工大学 A kind of direct injection orientation gas blast method based on V-arrangement grooving
CN108442928B (en) * 2018-03-06 2019-10-25 安徽理工大学 A kind of direct injection orientation gas blast method based on V-arrangement grooving
CN108894782A (en) * 2018-07-31 2018-11-27 中南大学 A kind of low temperature frost heave fracturing induction ore body inbreak mining codes
CN110057634A (en) * 2019-04-11 2019-07-26 东北石油大学 A kind of device and method manufacturing rock core crack
CN110057634B (en) * 2019-04-11 2021-09-07 东北石油大学 Device and method for manufacturing core cracks

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