CN103134721A - Dynamic triaxial testing machine servo-driven by electric cylinder - Google Patents

Dynamic triaxial testing machine servo-driven by electric cylinder Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103134721A
CN103134721A CN2013100497537A CN201310049753A CN103134721A CN 103134721 A CN103134721 A CN 103134721A CN 2013100497537 A CN2013100497537 A CN 2013100497537A CN 201310049753 A CN201310049753 A CN 201310049753A CN 103134721 A CN103134721 A CN 103134721A
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pressure chamber
sample
pressure
sensor
base
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CN103134721B (en
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邵生俊
褚峰
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Xian University of Technology
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Xian University of Technology
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Abstract

The invention discloses a dynamic triaxial testing machine servo-driven by an electric cylinder. According to the dynamic triaxial testing machine, a pressure chamber base is upwards connected with a pressure chamber top cover, and a pressure cavity is formed by a side wall cylindrical shell between the pressure chamber top cover and the pressure chamber base. A side direction measuring mechanism is installed on an inner steel column of an inner cavity of the pressure cavity. The pressure chamber base is provided with the servo electric cylinder, a vertical displacement sensor is arranged at the lower end of the servo electric cylinder, the upper end of the servo electric cylinder is connected with a sample base through a lead screw, a rubber membrane is disposed on the sample base, a pore water pressure sensor is mounted in a sample drainage pipe of the sample base, and a confining pressure sensor is installed in an air source passage of the pressure cavity. A sample cap is arranged on the upper end face of the rubber membrane. The sample cap is upwards connected with a vertical force transmission shaft, and an axial pressure sensor is installed on an axial force transmission rod. The dynamic triaxial testing machine resolves the problems that occupied area is large, noise is high, pollution is heavy and accuracy is not high enough in the prior art.

Description

A kind of moving three-axis tester by the electric cylinder servo driving
Technical field
The invention belongs to Geotechnical Engineering testing apparatus technical field, relate to a kind of moving three-axis tester by the electric cylinder servo driving.
Background technology
Earth structure and ground thereof except bearing the dead load effect, also can be subject to the effect of dynamic load sometimes, the pinking load that the oscillatory load that causes as seismic earthquake load, vehicle and machine vibration, blast cause etc.Relatively say, the size of dead load and the static stress that causes in the soil body thereof and action direction are not change with time of effect, and the big or small action direction of dynamic load and the dynamic stress that causes in the soil body thereof is to change the time with effect.This variation has belongs to random wave, as seismic earthquake stress; What have is similar to sine wave, the vibration that causes as reciprocator; What have is the vibrations of the impulse type of snap, the stress that causes in the soil body as pinking.
When the stability of people earth structure and ground thereof under the assessment dynamic loading and distortion, need to grasp and understand the power engineering character of relevant earth material, such as the dynamic strength of soil characteristic, liquefaction property and dynamic stress emergent property etc.In order as far as possible correctly to understand these character of various earth materials, except carrying out at the scene some in-situ test, also need to carry out various dynamic tests indoor, such as moving triaxial test etc.Moving triaxial test is divided into electromagnetic type, machinery inertial formula, pneumatic type and hydraulic pressure electro-hydraulic servo formula and electric cylinder servo driven type by exciting mode.
The electromagnetic type vibration triaxial apparatus is to apply dynamic stress with electromagnetic exciter, it is all to apply with hydraulic pressure or air pressure that quiet side pressure and dead axle are pressed, and its representative products is Wuhan Inst. of Rock and Soil Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences and the DSZ-100 type electromagnetic type dynamic triaxial apparatus of New Technique Application Inst., Beijing City development and the DSZ-500 type dynamic triaxial apparatus of manufacturing experimently in 1981.
Machinery inertial formula dynamic triaxial test machine is to fix a triaxial chamber that can add confined pressure at eccentric wheel type shaking table soil, counterweight is made axial static pressure, during vibration, the inertial force of this mass formation is added in the top of sample together, and representative products is that Chinese Water Conservancy electricity research institute is in 65 type inertial force formula dynamic triaxial apparatus of development in 1958.
Active dynamic triaxial test and principle are by valve, constant air pressure to be converted to the air pressure of circulation change, and this fluctuation air pressure promotes pneumatic piston and produces vibration force, and representative products is the pneumatic circulating three-axis tester of China Seismological Bureau Engineering Mechanical Institute's development.
The confined pressure of the moving three-axis tester of existing electro-hydraulic servo formula adopts water, gas system to apply, and vertical static pressure adopts oil pressure or air pressure to apply, and vertical dynamic pressure adopts the oil pressure servo-drive system to apply, all exist floor area large, noise is high, pollutes greatly the deficiency that precision is not high enough.
Summary of the invention
The purpose of this invention is to provide a kind of moving three-axis tester by the electric cylinder servo driving, solved and exist floor area large in prior art, noise is high, pollute large, the problem that precision is not high enough.
The technical solution adopted in the present invention is, a kind of moving three-axis tester by the electric cylinder servo driving comprises main body and control section, and described agent structure is,
Comprise pressure chamber's base, pressure chamber's base upwards is fixedly connected with pressure chamber's top cover by four support bars, and top cover upper surface, pressure chamber is fixedly connected with main body rack, surrounds pressure chamber by the sidewall cylindrical shell between pressure chamber's top cover and pressure chamber's base; Be connected with in addition steel column in two pairs between the pressure chamber of pressure chamber inner chamber top cover and pressure chamber's base, every mount pad that internally is horizontally installed with a cover side direction measurement mechanism between steel column;
base axle center, pressure chamber vertically is equipped with servo electric jar, the lower end of servo electric jar is provided with the vertical displacement sensor, the vertical displacement sensor is connected with base lower surface, pressure chamber by erection column, the upper end of servo electric jar is connected with specimen mount by screw mandrel, be provided with rubber membrane at the specimen mount upper surface, be used for placing sample in rubber membrane, also be provided with porous disc between rubber membrane and specimen mount, porous disc and specimen mount are provided with sample water drain jointly, pore water pressure sensor and water discharging valve are installed in sample water drain, pressure chamber is by source of the gas passage and tensimeter UNICOM, the confined pressure sensor is installed in the source of the gas passage,
The upper surface of rubber membrane is provided with the sample cap, also is provided with exhaustion plate between rubber membrane and sample cap, and upper exhaustion plate and sample cap are provided with the exhaust passage jointly; The sample cap upwards is connected with vertical force transmission shaft, axially on transmission rod, the axle pressure sensor is installed, and vertical force transmission shaft upwards is connected with main body rack.
The invention has the beneficial effects as follows:
1) the moving three-axis tester confined pressure of electric cylinder servo driven type of the present invention adopts air pressure to apply, vertical static pressure adopts the electric cylinder servo-drive system to apply with vertical dynamic pressure, electric cylinder rotatablely moves servomotor, convert rectilinear motion to by screw mandrel, can apply the reciprocal dynamic load of different frequency, has good operating performance, for the research of soil dynamics aspect provides a kind of good ways and means.
2) using the electric cylinder servo driving, to have floor area little, and noise is low, and the precision high is particularly installed respectively two groups of lateral deformation measuring equipments on interior steel column, can realize in shear history when sample the real-time and precise of sample lateral deformation is measured.The present invention is reasonable in design, use easy and simple to handle, the high and dependable performance of intelligent degree.
3) device of the present invention can be good at realizing the various experimental studies of soil dynamics aspect, comprise native dynamic stress-dynamic strain experiment, dynamic strength of soil test, sand liquefaction test, seismic subsidence of loess test etc., experimental result is reliable and stable, and experimental result contrast property is strong.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is that the present invention is by the one-piece construction schematic diagram of the moving three-axis tester of electric cylinder servo driving;
Fig. 2 is the mounting structure schematic diagram of the side direction measurement mechanism in apparatus of the present invention;
Fig. 3 is the structural representation of the sample lateral deformation measurement mechanism in apparatus of the present invention;
Fig. 4 is the structure front schematic view of the sample lateral deformation measurement mechanism in apparatus of the present invention;
Fig. 5 is the structure elevational schematic view of the sample lateral deformation measurement mechanism in apparatus of the present invention;
Fig. 6 is servo electric jar structural representation of the present invention;
Fig. 7 is servo electric jar structural section schematic diagram of the present invention;
Fig. 8 is the connection block diagram of the control section in apparatus of the present invention.
In figure, 1, pressure chamber's base; 2, pressure chamber's top cover; 3, sidewall cylindrical shell; 4, sample; 5, sample cap; 6, source of the gas passage; 7, pressure chamber; 8, servo electric jar; 9, screw mandrel; 10, erection column; 11, vertical displacement sensor; 12, interior steel column; 13, mount pad; 14, exhaust passage; 15, sample water drain; 16, specimen mount; 17, porous disc; 18, pore water pressure sensor; 19, confined pressure sensor; 20, vertical force transmission shaft; 21, tension-compression sensor; 22, tensimeter; 23, water discharging valve; 24, main body rack; 25, upper exhaustion plate; 26, rubber membrane; 27, " L " type connecting rod; 28, thixotroping formula sensor; 29, pin; 30, screw; 31, signal wire; 32, cylinder body; 33, servo power supply connector interface; 34, planetary ball collar; 35, signal conditioner; 36, A/D converter; 37, single-chip microcomputer; 38, computing machine; 39, keyboard; 40, displacement transducer.
Embodiment
The present invention is a kind of moving three-axis tester by the electric cylinder servo driving, and its structure is to comprise main body and control section.Wherein main body comprises again confined pressure loading section, pore water pressure part, is the core to the sample load application; The confined pressure loading section applies ambient pressure by source of the gas to sample, and vertical dead-load loads sample with the to-and-fro movement of vertical dynamic load by servo electric jar; The pressure transducer that pore water pressure partly is communicated with the specimen mount drainpipe measures.Control section and main part are unified co-ordination, jointly realize the testing goal of apparatus of the present invention.
With reference to Fig. 1, the structure of apparatus of the present invention is, be installed with pressure chamber's base 1 on the table top of mobile handcart, pressure chamber's base 1 upwards is fixedly connected with pressure chamber's top cover 2 by four support bars, top cover 2 upper surfaces in pressure chamber's are fixedly connected with main body rack 24, surround pressure chamber 7 by sidewall cylindrical shell 3 between pressure chamber's top cover 2 and pressure chamber's base 1; Be connected with in addition steel column 12 in two pairs between pressure chamber's top cover 2 of pressure chamber 7 inner chambers and pressure chamber's base 1, every mount pad 13 that internally is horizontally installed with a cover side direction measurement mechanism between steel column 12;
base 1 axle center in pressure chamber's vertically is equipped with servo electric jar 8, the lower end of servo electric jar 8 is provided with vertical displacement sensor 11, vertical displacement sensor 11 is connected with pressure chamber's base 1 lower surface by erection column 10, the upper end of servo electric jar 8 is by the preferred roller screw mandrel of screw mandrel 9() be connected with specimen mount 16, be provided with rubber membrane 26 at specimen mount 16 upper surfaces, be used for placing sample 4 in rubber membrane 26, also be provided with porous disc 17 between rubber membrane 26 and specimen mount 16, porous disc 17 and specimen mount 16 are provided with sample water drain 15 jointly, pore water pressure sensor 18 and water discharging valve 23 are installed in sample water drain 15, pressure chamber 7 is by source of the gas passage 6 and tensimeter 22 UNICOMs, confined pressure sensor 19 is installed in source of the gas passage 6,
The upper surface of rubber membrane 26 is provided with sample cap 5, also is provided with exhaustion plate 25 between rubber membrane 26 and sample cap 5, and upper exhaustion plate 25 is provided with exhaust passage 14 jointly with sample cap 5; Sample cap 5 upwards is connected with vertical force transmission shaft 20, axially on transmission rod 20, axle pressure sensor 21 is installed, and vertical force transmission shaft 20 upwards is connected with main body rack 24.
When apparatus of the present invention are tested, first close exhaust passage 14 before beginning, apply ambient pressure by source of the gas passage 6 in pressure chamber 7, then, start the screw mandrel 9 upwards axially-movables in servo electric jar 8, axial force is uniformly applied to power on sample cap 5 by axial transmission rod 20, thus by sample cap 5 with axle pressure be applied to uniformly sample 4 axially on, to sample 4 all press or bias voltage fixed.
with reference to Fig. 2, Fig. 3, Fig. 4, Fig. 5, the structure of the side direction measurement mechanism in apparatus of the present invention is, two groups of mount pad 13 levels are arranged on two interior interior steel columns 12 of pressure chamber 7, have groove in every group of mount pad 13 fronts, the groove mouth is equipped with thixotroping formula sensor 28 by easy-to-dismount screw 30, mount pad 13 is connected with " L " type connecting rod 27 by pin 29, " L " type connecting rod 27 and take pin 29 as center of rotation, can rotate, one termination of " L " type connecting rod 27 is used for contact sample 4, another termination extends through after groove corresponding with the contact of thixotroping formula sensor 28, thixotroping formula sensor 28 is connected with control section by signal wire 31.
The two that must make " L " type connecting rod 27 in the dress sample process before on-test is close contact sample 4 and thixotroping formula sensor 28 contacts respectively, just can accurately measure so in test the lateral deformation in the fixed and to-and-fro movement of sample 4.
as Fig. 6, Fig. 7, the structure of the servo electric jar in apparatus of the present invention is, be included in the outer power connection 33 that is equipped with of cylinder body 32 of servo electric jar 8, be provided with servomotor in cylinder body 32 inside, the servomotor output shaft is by planetary ball collar 34 and the coaxial socket of screw mandrel 9, be provided with the displacement transducer 40 of oneself on servo electric jar 8, rotatablely moving of servomotor converts rectilinear motion to by screw mandrel 9, (be that precise rotation is controlled with the servomotor optimum benefits simultaneously, accurately revolution is controlled, accurately moment of torsion control) being transformed into precise speed controls, Accurate Position Control, the accurately control of thrust, realize the high precision rectilinear motion of screw mandrel 9.In process of the test, screw mandrel 9 drives specimen mount moving linearly Shang Xia 16, provides accurate vertical load at sample 4 in fixed or to-and-fro movement.
As Fig. 8, the structure of the control section in apparatus of the present invention is, pore water pressure sensor 18, shaft position sensor 11, axle pressure sensor 21, thixotroping formula sensor 28, confined pressure sensor 19 are connected with the input end of signal conditioner 35 simultaneously, the output terminal of signal conditioner 35 is connected with single-chip microcomputer 37 by A/D converter 36, single-chip microcomputer 37 is connected with servo electric jar 8, servo electric jar 8 passes through displacement transducer 40 and signal conditioner 35 feedback links, thereby realizes closed loop control and adjusting automatically; Single-chip microcomputer 37 is connected with keyboard with computing machine 38 in addition and is connected simultaneously, realizes robotization control and manual operation.
The principle of work of apparatus of the present invention is that described right cylinder sample 4 is between the sample cap 5 and pressure chamber's base 1 of central axis position, pressure chamber; Gas source interface 6 can apply air pressure in pressure chamber 7, namely sample 4 is applied consolidation stresses, and confined pressure sensor 19 can accurately be measured the size of sample 4 ambient pressures, and a precision pressure gauge 22 is drawn at 6 places at gas source interface, can understand intuitively the numerical value of confined pressure; Servo electric jar 8 drives screw mandrel 9 and vertically sample 4 is applied xial feed, adopts closed-loop control can guarantee load application on request, and xial feed is measured by the axle pressure sensor 21 on vertical force transmission shaft 20; Vertical displacement sensor 11 is fixed on axial erection column 10 without distortion, and the distortion of sample 4 can realize direct measurement when axial loading; Interior steel column 12 is installed respectively two groups of lateral deformation amount side devices 13, can realize direct measurement when lateral deformation occurs sample 4; Discharging atmospheric pressure when finish for experiment exhaust passage 14; Sample water drain 15 is used at fixed or shear history, the interstitial water in sample 4 being discharged by the porous disc 17 on specimen mount 16; Interstitial hydraulic pressure sensor 18 is used for when process of the test is closed water discharging valve 23, to the real-time measurement of interstitial hydraulic pressure.
Sample 4 is between upper exhaustion plate 25 and lower drain bar 17, by rubber membrane 26 parcels of upper/lower terminal opening.
Moving three-axis tester by the electric cylinder servo driving of the present invention is by applying the moving principle stress of simulation, the dynamic response of test sample when bearing dynamic loading to sample.Most importantly the relation of dynamic stress and corresponding dynamic strain, dynamic stress and the variation relation of pore water pressure accordingly.According to the relativeness of these three kinds of indexs of stress, strain and pore water pressure, inquire into unearthed every the dynamical elasticity parameter and comprise that dynamic modulus of elasticity, dynamic shear modulus, fatigue resistance, viscoelastic parameters damping ratio and the soil sample proterties that produces such as the thixotropy of saturated sand, the shake of collapsible loess under the dynamic stress effect of certain actual vibration of simulation fall into.The lateral strain in process of the test measures to sample to adopt special lateral strain measuring equipment, has overcome in existing moving triaxial test to measure or to measure indeterminable technical barrier to the lateral strain of sample; Realized the electric cylinder servo driving, had precision high, noise is low, and the characteristics such as take up room little; The sample ambient pressure adopts air pressure to apply, and applies to compare with in the past hydraulic pressure to have the characteristics little to instrumental pollution.

Claims (5)

1. moving three-axis tester by the electric cylinder servo driving is characterized in that: comprise main body and control section, described agent structure is,
Comprise pressure chamber's base (1), pressure chamber's base (1) upwards is fixedly connected with pressure chamber's top cover (2) by four support bars, pressure chamber's top cover (2) upper surface is fixedly connected with main body rack (24), surrounds pressure chamber (7) by sidewall cylindrical shell (3) between pressure chamber's top cover (2) and pressure chamber's base (1); Be connected with in addition steel column in two pairs (12) between pressure chamber's top cover (2) of pressure chamber (7) inner chamber and pressure chamber's base (1), every mount pad (13) that internally is horizontally installed with a cover side direction measurement mechanism between steel column (12);
pressure chamber's base (1) axle center vertically is equipped with servo electric jar (8), the lower end of servo electric jar (8) is provided with vertical displacement sensor (11), vertical displacement sensor (11) is connected with pressure chamber's base (1) lower surface by erection column (10), the upper end of servo electric jar (8) is connected with specimen mount (16) by screw mandrel (9), be provided with rubber membrane (26) at specimen mount (16) upper surface, be used for placing sample (4) in rubber membrane (26), also be provided with porous disc (17) between rubber membrane (26) and specimen mount (16), porous disc (17) and specimen mount (16) are provided with sample water drain (15) jointly, pore water pressure sensor (18) and water discharging valve (23) are installed in sample water drain (15), pressure chamber (7) is by source of the gas passage (6) and tensimeter (22) UNICOM, confined pressure sensor (19) is installed in source of the gas passage (6),
The upper surface of rubber membrane (26) is provided with sample cap (5), also is provided with exhaustion plate (25) between rubber membrane (26) and sample cap (5), and upper exhaustion plate (25) is provided with exhaust passage (14) jointly with sample cap (5); Sample cap (5) upwards is connected with vertical force transmission shaft (20), axially on transmission rod (20), axle pressure sensor (21) is installed, and vertical force transmission shaft (20) upwards is connected with main body rack (24).
2. the moving three-axis tester by the electric cylinder servo driving according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: the structure of described side direction measurement mechanism is, two groups of mount pads (13) level is arranged on the interior interior steel column (12) of pressure chamber (7), have groove in every group of mount pad (13) front, the groove mouth is equipped with thixotroping formula sensor (28) by screw (30), mount pad (13) is connected with " L " type connecting rod (27) by pin (29), " L " type connecting rod (27) and take pin (29) as center of rotation, one termination of " L " type connecting rod (27) is used for contact sample (4), another termination extends through after groove corresponding with the contact of thixotroping formula sensor (28), thixotroping formula sensor (28) is connected with control section.
3. the moving three-axis tester by the electric cylinder servo driving according to claim 1 and 2, it is characterized in that: the upper/lower terminal of described rubber membrane (26) is provided with opening.
4. the moving three-axis tester by the electric cylinder servo driving according to claim 3, it is characterized in that: the syndeton of described servo electric jar (8) is, be included in the outer power connection (33) that is equipped with of cylinder body (32) of servo electric jar (8), be provided with servomotor in cylinder body (32) inside, the servomotor output shaft is provided with the displacement transducer (40) of oneself by planetary ball collar (34) and the coaxial socket of screw mandrel (9) on servo electric jar (8).
5. the moving three-axis tester by the electric cylinder servo driving according to claim 4, it is characterized in that: the structure of described control section is, pore water pressure sensor (18), shaft position sensor (11), axle pressure sensor (21), thixotroping formula sensor (28), confined pressure sensor (19) is connected with the input end of signal conditioner (35) simultaneously, the output terminal of signal conditioner (35) is connected with single-chip microcomputer (37) by A/D converter (36), single-chip microcomputer (37) is connected with servo electric jar (8), servo electric jar (8) is by displacement transducer (40) and signal conditioner (35) feedback link, single-chip microcomputer (37) is connected 39 with computing machine (38) with keyboard in addition) be connected simultaneously.
CN201310049753.7A 2013-02-07 2013-02-07 Dynamic triaxial testing machine servo-driven by electric cylinder Active CN103134721B (en)

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Cited By (8)

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CN104062108A (en) * 2014-06-04 2014-09-24 浙江工业大学 Multifunctional mechanical property testing machine
CN104596852A (en) * 2014-11-25 2015-05-06 宁波大学 Rock-soil body temperature-control dynamic characteristic test system and test method
CN106092756A (en) * 2016-06-07 2016-11-09 中国科学院武汉岩土力学研究所 A kind of hollow ring shear apparatus applying confined pressure
CN106289989A (en) * 2016-07-20 2017-01-04 西安理工大学 A kind of large-scale real triaxial instrument of three-dimensional independent loads
CN109187924A (en) * 2018-09-12 2019-01-11 长安大学 A kind of miniature soil sample waterpower consolidation loading system
CN109297834A (en) * 2018-09-28 2019-02-01 深圳大学 A kind of carbon fiber prevention and treatment sand static liquefaction experimental method
CN112362487A (en) * 2020-11-30 2021-02-12 湖北科技学院 Rock-soil compression test method
CN113933181A (en) * 2021-09-03 2022-01-14 中南大学 Shield foam improved muck triaxial shear test device and method

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CN101592574A (en) * 2009-06-30 2009-12-02 三峡大学 Triaxial creep tester of unsaturated soil
CN101614638A (en) * 2009-07-10 2009-12-30 清华大学 A kind of horizontal triaxial tension and compression tester
CN102121887A (en) * 2010-01-08 2011-07-13 上海市城市建设设计研究院 Improved type triaxial apparatus
CN102507334A (en) * 2011-10-28 2012-06-20 西安理工大学 Measurement mechanism for lateral deformation of pressure chamber of true triaxial apparatus

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CN101169356A (en) * 2007-11-15 2008-04-30 西安理工大学 Triaxial independent loading pressure chamber structure true triaxial apparatus
CN101592574A (en) * 2009-06-30 2009-12-02 三峡大学 Triaxial creep tester of unsaturated soil
CN101614638A (en) * 2009-07-10 2009-12-30 清华大学 A kind of horizontal triaxial tension and compression tester
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Cited By (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN104062108A (en) * 2014-06-04 2014-09-24 浙江工业大学 Multifunctional mechanical property testing machine
CN104062108B (en) * 2014-06-04 2016-06-15 浙江工业大学 Multi-functional Mechanics Performance Testing testing machine
CN104596852A (en) * 2014-11-25 2015-05-06 宁波大学 Rock-soil body temperature-control dynamic characteristic test system and test method
CN104596852B (en) * 2014-11-25 2017-03-01 宁波大学 A kind of Rock And Soil temperature control Dynamic Characteristics Test method
CN106092756A (en) * 2016-06-07 2016-11-09 中国科学院武汉岩土力学研究所 A kind of hollow ring shear apparatus applying confined pressure
CN106092756B (en) * 2016-06-07 2018-11-09 中国科学院武汉岩土力学研究所 A kind of hollow ring shear apparatus applying confining pressure
CN106289989A (en) * 2016-07-20 2017-01-04 西安理工大学 A kind of large-scale real triaxial instrument of three-dimensional independent loads
CN109187924A (en) * 2018-09-12 2019-01-11 长安大学 A kind of miniature soil sample waterpower consolidation loading system
CN109297834A (en) * 2018-09-28 2019-02-01 深圳大学 A kind of carbon fiber prevention and treatment sand static liquefaction experimental method
CN112362487A (en) * 2020-11-30 2021-02-12 湖北科技学院 Rock-soil compression test method
CN113933181A (en) * 2021-09-03 2022-01-14 中南大学 Shield foam improved muck triaxial shear test device and method

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