CN101169356A - Triaxial independent loading pressure chamber structure true triaxial apparatus - Google Patents

Triaxial independent loading pressure chamber structure true triaxial apparatus Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101169356A
CN101169356A CNA2007100190665A CN200710019066A CN101169356A CN 101169356 A CN101169356 A CN 101169356A CN A2007100190665 A CNA2007100190665 A CN A2007100190665A CN 200710019066 A CN200710019066 A CN 200710019066A CN 101169356 A CN101169356 A CN 101169356A
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China
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pressure
pressure chamber
baffle plate
hydraulic
axle
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CNA2007100190665A
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CN100573095C (en
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邵生俊
吴利言
罗爱忠
陶虎
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Xian University of Technology
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Xian University of Technology
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Abstract

The invention discloses a true triaxial apparatus with a three-directional independent loading pressure room structure, wherein, an axial pressure cavity of the main part of the apparatus is connected with the axial pressure source pressure cylinder through a hydraulic pressure conduit. A hydraulic bag is respectively arranged in four side pressure cavities of a sampling base, every hydraulic bag is connected with a lateral pressure source pressure cylinder through lateral pressure inlet conduit; a hydraulic load control part, and a detection signal gathering and control part are both controlled by a control device. The true triaxial apparatus provided by the invention overcomes the disadvantage of the prior true triaxial apparatus that the three major stresses can not be totally separated and the three major stresses are mutually affected in a loading process; and the true triaxial apparatus has the advantage of simulating the trials of various engineering conditions under the dead stress, thus the testing condition is much better in accordance with the practical conditions of the engineering; the true triaxial apparatus also has the advantage of low manufacture cost.

Description

A kind of true triaxil tester of three-dimensional independent loads pressure chamber structure
Technical field
The invention belongs to Geotechnical Engineering testing apparatus technical field, relate to a kind of device that is used for soil mechanical properties test under true three complex stress conditions, be specifically related to a kind of true triaxil tester of three-dimensional independent loads pressure chamber structure.
Background technology
Present existing soil mechanical properties testing apparatus mainly contains direct shear apparatus, normal triaxial instrument, plane strain triaxial apparatus, true triaxil tester.Wherein direct shear apparatus is normal stress and the tangential stress on the simulate given shear surface, can test shear stress and shearing strain on the shear surface, but can not control drainage condition; The normal triaxial instrument can only be simulated the axi symmetrical stress condition, can not realize general stress condition; Although the plane strain triaxial apparatus can be controlled three-dimensional principle stress difference, one of them is axial answers vanishing, also can not simulate general stress condition; True triaxil tester can be realized three principle stresses that axially apply different sizes respectively, and three axially produce strain, can simulate stress condition general in the soil body.
In order to realize that three axially apply principle stress, true three samples are generally a cube.Existing true triaxil tester generally adopts the dull and stereotyped loading of three-dimensional or two to load to hydrodynamic pressure to flat board loading,, loads flat board and is generally steel plate, and rigidity is big.With respect to soil sample, load flat board and can be considered rigid plate.After sample deformed, the rigid plate that contacts with sample certainly led to and is in contact with one another and restricts their motion, and this has just influenced three axial loadings and distortion.In addition, after sample deforms, certainly lead to the relative motion between sample and the rigid plate, on the surface of contact of rigid plate and sample, will produce shear stress, can not guarantee to have only normal stress on the surface of contact, be main stress action surface, thereby influence the true triaxial test test result.Therefore, improve true three sample load maintainers, mutual restriction between existing true triaxil tester three-dimensional loading rigid plate of elimination or the two-way rigid plate and rigid plate are to the effect of constraint value of sample deformation, make sample along three axial independent deformation, not only can overcome the problem that existing true triaxil tester exists, and make the stress of simulation and deformation condition more realistic.
Summary of the invention
The object of the present invention is to provide a kind of true triaxil tester of three-dimensional independent loads pressure chamber structure, solved existing soil mechanical properties testing apparatus and loaded the dull and stereotyped rigid plate that is, mutual restriction during loading and between the sample and rigid plate produce the problem of constraint to sample deformation.
The technical solution adopted in the present invention is, a kind of true triaxil tester of three-dimensional independent loads pressure chamber structure, comprise host machine part, the hydraulic load control section, measurement signal is gathered and the processing section, be characterized in, described host machine part comprises the base plate by the pressure chamber, the pressure chamber that pressure chamber's top cover and sidewall constitute, be connected with the axle pressure piston in the lower end of pressure chamber's base plate, the lower end of axle pressure piston is connected with the axle pressure chamber, the axle pressure chamber is connected with axial pressure source by hydraulic pipe, pressure chamber's base plate has down drainage channel, and pressure chamber's base plate is provided with the rubber membrane of parcel sample; The middle opening of described pressure chamber top cover, opening is provided with the sample cap, the sample cap is provided with one and goes up drainage channel, the upper surface of sample cap is connected with host rack by axial transmission rod, axially transmission rod is provided with the axle pressure sensor, axially also is being connected with shaft position sensor on the transmission rod; Be symmetrically arranged with four wall pressure chambeies in the pressure chamber, a hydraulic pressure capsule is all placed in each wall pressure chamber, and each hydraulic pressure capsule all is connected with the pressure source of side direction, is provided with the baffle plate in wall pressure chamber between adjacent hydraulic pressure capsule; Described hydraulic load control section comprises two side direction stepmotor actuator,s and an axial stepmotor actuator,, each stepmotor actuator, accepts to measure the control of signals collecting and processing section, and be connected with separately pressure source pressure cylinder, axle pressure source pressure cylinder is connected with the axle pressure chamber of pressure chamber, and the pressure source pressure cylinder of side direction is connected with the hydraulic pressure capsule of direction separately.
Axially stepmotor actuator, comprises stepper motor, and stepper motor is connected with ball-screw by shaft joint, and ball-screw passes rack-mount screw and is connected with the leading screw piston, and the leading screw piston is connected with the pressure source pressure cylinder.
The side direction stepmotor actuator, comprises stepper motor, stepper motor is connected with ball-screw by shaft joint, ball-screw passes rack-mount screw and is connected with the leading screw piston, the leading screw piston is connected with the pressure source pressure cylinder, the lateral pressure sensor is installed on the export pipeline of pressure source pressure cylinder, on ball-screw, also is provided with the lateral shift sensor.
Measurement signal collection and control section comprise programmable amplifier, programmable amplifier is connected with axle pressure sensor, shaft position sensor, two lateral shift sensors, two lateral pressure sensors with the input end of logic controller with timing simultaneously, the output terminal of programmable amplifier is connected with the input end of logic controller with timing with sampling holder, sampling holder is connected with A/D converter, A/D converter is connected with computing machine, regularly also is connected with computing machine with logic controller.
Last drainage channel is measured tube with following drainage channel and endosome variable and is connected, and is respectively arranged with a hole pressure sensor on last drainage channel and following drainage channel.
Baffle plate is connected with the baffle plate coil tension spring, and baffle plate coil tension spring and baffle plate are regulated bolt and be connected, and baffle plate adjusting bolt is connected with the baffle plate regulating spring, and the baffle plate regulating spring is connected with baffle plate regulating spring set bolt on being installed in the pressure chamber shell.
The invention has the beneficial effects as follows, realized that general following three axial normal stress of stress condition independently apply in the actual engineering, three axial independent measuring deformations, lateral deformation is about the simulation means of vertical axis symmetry, can test the power proterties reaction of soil under the complex stress conditions such as comprising the deflection of principle stress main shaft, stress path rotation, improve native power property detection technical merit.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is a host machine part structural representation of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is the horizontal cross-section synoptic diagram of the pressure chamber of the embodiment of the invention, wherein ó 2Be intermediate principal stress, ó 3Be minor principal stress;
Fig. 3 is pressure chamber's vertical cross section synoptic diagram of the embodiment of the invention;
Fig. 4 is the stepmotor actuator, synoptic diagram of the embodiment of the invention;
Fig. 5 is the measurement signal collection of the embodiment of the invention and handles synoptic diagram;
Fig. 6 is a sample load-bearing stress state synoptic diagram in the instrument of the present invention.
Among the figure, 1, the main frame base, 2, the fine tuning handle, 3, the thickness tune switch, 4, the axial adjustment piston, 5, the axle pressure chamber, 6, pressure chamber's base plate, 7, last drainage channel, 8, the hole pressure sensor, 9, axial transmission rod, 10, the axle pressure sensor, 11, the coarse adjustment handle, 12, the axle pressure piston, 13, switch valve, 14, shaft position sensor, 15, the endosome variable is measured tube, 16, baffle plate, 17, the baffle plate coil tension spring, 18, sample rubber membrane set bolt, 19, the side pressure inlet ducts, 20, the hydraulic pressure capsule, 21, the wall pressure chamber, 22, specimen mount, 23, following drainage channel, 24, baffle plate regulating spring set bolt, 25, the base plate set bolt, 26, the baffle plate regulating spring, 27, baffle plate is regulated bolt, 28, sample, 29, pressure chamber's top cover, 30, the sample cap, 31, the leading screw piston, 32, the lateral shift sensor, 33, shaft joint, 34, the pressure source pressure cylinder, 35, screw, 36, ball-screw, 37, stepper motor, 38, the lateral pressure sensor, 39, programmable amplifier, 40, sampling holder, 41, A/D converter, 42, computing machine, 43, timing and logic controller.
Embodiment
The present invention is described in detail below in conjunction with the drawings and specific embodiments.
The present invention includes host machine part, hydraulic load control section, measurement signal collection and processing section.Wherein main frame is the core that realizes cuboid sample stress application and control drainage condition; The hydraulic load control section is by step motor drive compression system mechanism load application; Measurement signal collection and processing section are controlled automatically to the output of signal input and sensor measurement signal, can control vertical stress and lateral stress automatically.
As shown in Figure 1, be the host machine part structural representation of the embodiment of the invention.Comprise the fine tuning handle 2 and the coarse adjustment handle 11 that are installed on the main frame base 1, fine tuning handle 2 is connected with axial adjustment piston 4 by gear train with coarse adjustment handle 11, fine tuning handle 2 is connected with thickness tune switch 3 with coarse adjustment handle 11 simultaneously, by fine tuning or the coarse adjustment of thickness tune switch 3 Control Shafts to regulating piston 4.The upper end of axial adjustment piston 4 is connected with axle pressure chamber 5, axle pressure chamber 5 is connected with axial pressure source pressure cylinder 34 by hydraulic pipe, the upper end in axle pressure chamber 5 is provided with axle pressure piston 12, the upper end of axle pressure piston 12 is connected with pressure chamber's base plate 6, the upper end of pressure chamber's base plate 6 is connected with specimen mount 22, pressure chamber's base plate 6 has down drainage channel 23, following drainage channel 23 is measured tube 15 with the endosome variable and is connected, pressure chamber's base plate 6 constitutes the pressure chamber with pressure chamber's top cover 29 and sidewall, the middle opening of pressure chamber's top cover 29, opening is provided with sample cap 30, sample cap 30 is provided with one and goes up drainage channel 7, last drainage channel 7 is also measured tube 15 with the endosome variable and is connected, and respectively is provided with a hole pressure sensor 8 on above-mentioned two drainage channels, can obtain the water saturation data of sample.The upper surface of sample cap 30 is connected with host rack by axial transmission rod 9, axially transmission rod 9 is provided with axle pressure sensor 10, axially also be connected with shaft position sensor 14 on the transmission rod 9, the sensing feeler of shaft position sensor 14 is connected with the upper surface of pressure chamber's top cover 29.
Open switch valve 13 during test, liquid flows into axle pressure chamber 5 by pipeline, when axle pressure piston 12 moved upward, axial force was applied to power on the sample cap 30 of pressure chamber by axial transmission rod 9, thus by sample cap 30 with axle pressure be applied to uniformly sample 28 axially on.
As shown in Figure 2, be horizontal cross-section synoptic diagram in pressure chamber's in the embodiment of the invention; As shown in Figure 3, be vertical cross section synoptic diagram in pressure chamber's among the present invention.Sample rubber membrane set bolt 18 and base plate set bolt 25 are installed on pressure chamber's base plate 6, respectively be provided with a wall pressure chamber 21 on four limits of specimen mount 22, each wall pressure chamber 21 all is placed with a hydraulic pressure capsule 20, each hydraulic pressure capsule 20 is connected with the pressure source pressure cylinder 34 of side direction by side pressure inlet ducts 19, axially and the outlet of the pressure source pressure cylinder 34 of side direction be provided with a switch valve 13, between adjacent hydraulic pressure capsule 20, be provided with the baffle plate 16 in wall pressure chamber, baffle plate 16 is connected with baffle plate coil tension spring 17, baffle plate coil tension spring 17 is regulated bolt 27 with baffle plate and is connected, baffle plate is regulated bolt 27 and is connected with baffle plate regulating spring 26, and baffle plate regulating spring 26 is connected with baffle plate regulating spring set bolt 24 on being installed in the pressure chamber shell.
During test, hydraulic power source enters the hydraulic pressure capsule 20 that is built in four wall pressure chambeies 21 by side pressure import 19 all around, thereby is applied to by hydraulic pressure capsule 20 on the side direction of sample 28.Wherein baffle plate 16 plays the built-in hydraulic pressure capsule 20 interactive effects of isolating four wall pressure chambeies 21.When testing lateral compression or expansion, by stretching of baffle plate regulating spring 26 controllable registers 16, baffle plate regulating spring 26 also plays regulates four hydraulic pressure capsules 20 not to the effect of certain deviation in driction, when sample in the process of the test 28 when certain direction expands, moment can cause baffle plate to depart to the pressure chamber 21 of another one side direction, and regulate its position by baffle plate regulating spring 26 this moment.
Fig. 4 provides the stepmotor actuator, structural representation of pressure source for the embodiment of the invention.This stepmotor actuator, one has three covers, and two lateral pressures of the axle pressure and the horizontal direction of vertical direction are provided respectively.The side direction stepmotor actuator, comprises stepper motor 37, stepper motor 37 is connected with ball-screw 36 by shaft joint 33, ball-screw 36 passes rack-mount screw 35 and is connected with leading screw piston 31, leading screw piston 31 is connected with pressure source pressure cylinder 34, lateral pressure sensor 38 is installed on the export pipeline of pressure source pressure cylinder 34, and ball-screw 36 is provided with lateral shift sensor 32; Axially there be not installation side to displacement transducer 32 and lateral pressure sensor 38 in the stepmotor actuator.
When testing laboratory's work is used, measurement signal collection and control section are by the run time version of stepper motor 37, the ball-screw 36 of pushing stepping motor topworks moves forwards or backwards, and then the motion of promotion leading screw piston 31, make the liquid in the pressure source pressure cylinder 34 in the hydraulic pressure capsule 20 on four limits, pressure chamber, do the inflow pressurising or the decompression that refluxes, when leading screw piston 31 travelled forward, the liquid of pressure source pressure cylinder 34 entered hydraulic pressure capsule 20, thereby lateral pressure is applied on the sample 28; When leading screw piston 31 moved backward, liquid refluxed from hydraulic pressure capsule 20 and enters pressure source pressure cylinder 34, thereby can make that suffered stress reduces to a certain numerical value on the sample side.
As shown in Figure 5, be collection of embodiment of the invention measurement signal and control section structural representation.Programmable amplifier 39 and input end while and the axle pressure sensor 10 of timing with logic controller 43, shaft position sensor 14, two lateral shift sensors 32, two lateral pressure sensors 38 connect, the output terminal of programmable amplifier 39 is connected with the input end of logic controller 43 with timing with sampling holder 40, sampling holder 40 is connected with A/D converter 41, A/D converter 41 is connected with computing machine 42, regularly also be connected with computing machine 42 with logic controller 43, computing machine 42 also is connected with an axial stepmotor actuator, with two side direction stepmotor actuator,s.
As shown in Figure 6, be six of cuboid sample experiment face load-bearing stress state synoptic diagram.ó wherein 1Be axial stress, ó 2Be intermediate principal stress, ó 3Be minor principal stress.
Principle of work of the present invention is, the pressure chamber is made up of urceolus, pressure chamber's top cover 29 and pressure chamber's base plate 6, and its material all adopts antirust steel; The following rigidity specimen mount 22 and the last rigid panel sample cap 30 that insert and put the soil property sample in the pressure chamber are also made by antirust steel; Axially transmission rod 9 is also made by antirust steel.At the Nei Sijiao of pressure chamber four dividing plates 16 are installed simultaneously, make side direction be divided into four different trapezoidal portions, they can make applying mutually of minor principal stress and intermediate principal stress not disturb, and dividing plate can also be realized flexible and rotation when sample deformation.Three cover stepmotor actuator,s provide pressure source, by conduit pressure is input in axle pressure piston 12 and four the hydraulic pressure capsules 20, thereby make sample 28 be subjected to the normal stress of six direction,, obtain various data again by the work of signals collecting and processing section.In addition, the variation and the wriggling of each stress can also be controlled, more sample performance data will be obtained by computing machine.The present invention can also use endosome variable measurement tube 15 to carry out the saturability experiment test, and the information of computing machine is carried out subtest, works in coordination.
In true triaxial test, the intermediate principal stress of sample 28 and minor principal stress are provided by hydraulic pressure capsule 20 in the pressure chamber of two pairs of symmetries, and two pairs of flexible hydraulic capsules 20 are positioned between four dividing plates 16, and concrete shape is seen Fig. 2.During test, full of liquid in the hydraulic pressure capsule 20, two pairs of side direction pressure are to be applied on the sample 28 by the pipeline transmission by the hydraulic power source that stepper motor 37 driven plunger are pressurizeed.Flexible hydraulic capsule 20 is the chief components in wall pressure chamber 21, it is made by latex film, enough deflections are arranged on the direction perpendicular to sample 28, so that can follow the tracks of the distortion of sample 28 on side direction, simultaneously intermediate principal stress and minor principal stress can be applied on sample 28 surfaces equably.Latex film is slightly larger than the size of sample 28 in the size that is parallel to sample 28 surface elevation directions, on Width, equal the size of sample 28, the rubber case of sample 28 is contacted with latex film in process of the test all the time, thereby eliminate the corner stress influence as much as possible.The size of the latex film of moulding is determined according to square sample 28 sizes and pressure chamber size.Pressure chamber is the prismatic of trapezoid cross section, and the shape of latex film is similar to pressure chamber, and the xsect of latex film is slightly less than the xsect of pressure chamber, and the height of latex film is slightly larger than the height of sample 28.
True triaxil tester of the present invention, can be according to testing requirements, to cuboid sample 28 axially load, side direction loads, automatically when integrated control system and saturated soil measuring pore water pressure data acquisition control, measure tube 15 (pore pressure gauges) by xial feed sensor, side hydraulic sensor, shaft position sensor, side hydraulic piston displacement sensor and endosome variable and can test and obtain axial stress in sample axial stress, the side direction, the little axial stress of side direction, axial strain and lateral strain; And by A/D and D/A enforcement test volume collection and output quantity control.The consolidation stress of three directions does not disturb mutually and influences in true triaxil tester of the present invention test, and the adjusting of the consolidation stress by three directions, consolidation stress condition that can real simulation reality.
The present invention has improved native power property detection technical merit, can obtain the technical data of three-dimensional principle stress, three-dimensional principal strain, saturated soil three-dimensional principal effective stress by true triaxial test; Can also obtain under the different stress conditions three-dimensional principal strain Development Technology data over time by rheological test; Can under complex stress condition, study the mechanical characteristic and the strength and deformation change mechanism of unsaturated soil by the measurement technology of pore water pressure and pore air pressure.The present invention can realize that not only conventional ess-strain loads, and can also realize that creep loading and simple cycle stress load, and has improved the functions of use and the scope of instrument of the present invention greatly, makes test condition meet engineering reality, low cost of manufacture more.

Claims (6)

1. the true triaxil tester of a three-dimensional independent loads pressure chamber structure comprises host machine part, hydraulic load control section, measurement signal collection and processing section, it is characterized in that:
Described host machine part comprises the pressure chamber that is made of pressure chamber's base plate (6), pressure chamber's top cover (29) and sidewall, the lower end of pressure chamber's base plate (6) is connected with axle pressure piston (12), the lower end of axle pressure piston (12) is connected with axle pressure chamber (5), axle pressure chamber (5) is connected with axial pressure source by hydraulic pipe, pressure chamber's base plate (6) has down drainage channel (23), and pressure chamber's base plate (6) is provided with the rubber membrane of parcel sample; The middle opening of described pressure chamber top cover (29), opening is provided with sample cap (30), sample cap (30) is provided with one and goes up drainage channel (7), the upper surface of sample cap (30) is connected with host rack by axial transmission rod (9), axially transmission rod (9) is provided with axle pressure sensor (10), axially also is being connected with shaft position sensor (14) on the transmission rod (9); Be symmetrically arranged with four wall pressure chambeies (21) in the described pressure chamber, a hydraulic pressure capsule (20) is all placed in each wall pressure chamber (21), each hydraulic pressure capsule (20) all is connected with the pressure source of side direction, is provided with the baffle plate (16) in wall pressure chamber between adjacent hydraulic pressure capsule (20);
Described hydraulic load control section comprises two side direction stepmotor actuator,s and an axial stepmotor actuator,, each stepmotor actuator, accepts to measure the control of signals collecting and processing section, and be connected with separately pressure cylinder, the axle pressure cylinder is connected with the axle pressure chamber (5) of pressure chamber, and the pressure cylinder of side direction is connected with the hydraulic pressure capsule (20) of direction separately.
2. the true triaxil tester of three-dimensional independent loads pressure chamber structure as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that: described axial stepmotor actuator, comprises stepper motor (37), stepper motor (37) is connected with ball-screw (36) by shaft joint (33), ball-screw (36) passes rack-mount screw (35) and is connected with leading screw piston (31), and leading screw piston (31) is connected with pressure source pressure cylinder (34).
3. the true triaxil tester of three-dimensional independent loads pressure chamber structure as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that: described side direction stepmotor actuator, comprises stepper motor (37), stepper motor (37) is connected with ball-screw (36) by shaft joint (33), ball-screw (36) passes rack-mount screw (35) and is connected with leading screw piston (31), leading screw piston (31) is connected with pressure source pressure cylinder (34), lateral pressure sensor (38) is installed on the export pipeline of pressure source pressure cylinder (34), and ball-screw (36) is provided with lateral shift sensor (32).
4. the true triaxil tester of three-dimensional independent loads pressure chamber structure as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that: described measurement signal collection and control section comprise programmable amplifier (39), programmable amplifier (39) and regularly with the input end of logic controller (43) simultaneously and axle pressure sensor (10), shaft position sensor (14), two lateral shift sensors (32), two lateral pressure sensors (38) connect, the output terminal of programmable amplifier (39) is connected with the input end of logic controller (43) with timing with sampling holder (40), sampling holder (40) is connected with A/D converter (41), A/D converter (41) is connected with computing machine (42), regularly also is connected with computing machine (42) with logic controller (43).
5. the true triaxil tester of three-dimensional independent loads pressure chamber structure as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that: the described drainage channel (7) of going up is connected with following drainage channel (23) and endosome variable measurement tube (15), and described going up on drainage channel (7) and the following drainage channel (23) is respectively arranged with a hole pressure sensor (8).
6. the true triaxil tester of three-dimensional independent loads pressure chamber structure as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that: described baffle plate (16) is connected with baffle plate coil tension spring (17), baffle plate coil tension spring (17) is regulated bolt (27) with baffle plate and is connected, baffle plate is regulated bolt (27) and is connected with baffle plate regulating spring (26), and baffle plate regulating spring (26) is connected with baffle plate regulating spring set bolt (24) on being installed in the pressure chamber shell.
CNB2007100190665A 2007-11-15 2007-11-15 A kind of true triaxil tester of three-dimensional independent loads pressure chamber structure Expired - Fee Related CN100573095C (en)

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