CN103109040B - Drillng operation is monitored with flow and density measurements - Google Patents

Drillng operation is monitored with flow and density measurements Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103109040B
CN103109040B CN201180044729.3A CN201180044729A CN103109040B CN 103109040 B CN103109040 B CN 103109040B CN 201180044729 A CN201180044729 A CN 201180044729A CN 103109040 B CN103109040 B CN 103109040B
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Prior art keywords
well
fluid
density
drilling
flow
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CN201180044729.3A
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CN103109040A (en
Inventor
D·A·埃德伯里
J·V·古雷罗
D·C·麦克唐纳德
J·B·诺曼
J·B·罗格斯
D·R·斯特昂
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Shell Internationale Research Maatschappij BV
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Shell Internationale Research Maatschappij BV
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Priority to US61/369,631 priority
Application filed by Shell Internationale Research Maatschappij BV filed Critical Shell Internationale Research Maatschappij BV
Priority to PCT/US2011/045727 priority patent/WO2012016045A1/en
Publication of CN103109040A publication Critical patent/CN103109040A/en
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B44/00Automatic control systems specially adapted for drilling operations, i.e. self-operating systems which function to carry out or modify a drilling operation without intervention of a human operator, e.g. computer-controlled drilling systems; Systems specially adapted for monitoring a plurality of drilling variables or conditions
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B21/00Methods or apparatus for flushing boreholes, e.g. by use of exhaust air from motor
    • E21B21/08Controlling or monitoring pressure or flow of drilling fluid, e.g. automatic filling of boreholes, automatic control of bottom pressure
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B37/00Methods or apparatus for cleaning boreholes or wells
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B47/00Survey of boreholes or wells
    • E21B47/10Locating fluid leaks, intrusions or movements
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06TIMAGE DATA PROCESSING OR GENERATION, IN GENERAL
    • G06T11/002D [Two Dimensional] image generation
    • G06T11/20Drawing from basic elements, e.g. lines or circles
    • G06T11/206Drawing of charts or graphs

Abstract

Disclose to flow and density measure supervision drillng operation.System comprises the one or more sensors being configured at least one feature sensing entry well fluid, is configured to one or more sensors of at least one feature sensing well fluids; And one or more control systems of data are received from least one described sensor.

Description

Drillng operation is monitored with flow and density measurements
Technical field
In general, the present invention relates to the method and system crept in various subsurface formations such as hydrocarbon containing formation.
Background technology
The hydro carbons obtained from subterranean strata is often used as the energy, raw material and consumer products.The worry that available hydrocarbon resources is exhausted and split to the process that worry that extraction hydro carbons total quality declines has caused the research and development more efficient recovery ratio of available hydrocarbon resources, process and/or use.
In drillng operation, be usually assigned with multiple monitoring and controlling function to drilling implementer.Such as, drilling implementer can control or monitor the position of drilling equipment (such as rotating disk drives or carriage drive), the sample gathering drilling fluid and supervision vibrosieve.As another example, drilling implementer according to circumstances adjusts well system (" swing " drill string) to adjust or to correct rate of penetration, track or stability.Driller can use control stick, manual switch or other manual equipment to control drilling parameter, and uses gauge, instrument, dial, fluid sample or audible alarm to monitor drilling condition.The needs of Non-follow control and supervision may raise the cost crept on stratum.In addition, performed by driller some operate may based on the tiny prompting (accident of such as drill string is vibrated) from drilling equipment.Because different drilling implementers has different experiences, knowledge, technical ability and instinct, so the performance of creeping into depending on such manual processes may with stratum or not reproducible with boring tower.In addition, some drilling operation (no matter manual or automatic) may require that drill bit stops or lift-off shaft bottom, such as, when changing slipping drilling pattern into from rotary drilling pattern.Creep into during such operation to suspend and may reduce the overall progress and efficiency that creep into.
Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) in well system often comprises instrument, such as measurement while drilling (MWD) instrument.Data from downhole instrument may be used for monitoring and controlling drillng operation.There is provided, cost that device for subsurface measuring that operation and maintenance is such significantly may raise well system.In addition, owing to must be sent to surface of stratum (such as by mud-pulse or regularly electromagnetic transmission) from the data of downhole instrument, so downhole instrument only can provide limited " snapshot " with regular intervals of time during drilling process.Such as, driller may have to wait for for 20 or more seconds between the renewal from MWD instrument.During gap between updates, the information from downhole instrument may be run ragged and lose its value controlling to creep into.
Summary of the invention
In general, the some embodiments introduced herein relate to the system and method automatically crept in subsurface formations.
In certain embodiment, system comprises the one or more sensors being configured at least one feature sensing entry well fluid; Be configured to one or more sensors of at least one feature sensing well fluids; And be configured to the one or more control systems receiving data from least one described sensor.
In certain embodiment, the method quantizing well washing effect comprises the fluid density measuring entry well fluid; Measure the fluid density of well fluids; Determine the difference between the fluid density of entry well fluid and the fluid density going out well fluids; And the coal powder quantity of bore that estimation is removed from described well.
Accompanying drawing explanation
After benefiting from following detailed description and with reference to accompanying drawing, advantage of the present invention can become apparent for those skilled in the art, wherein:
Fig. 1 and Figure 1A illustrates the schematic diagram according to an embodiment with the well system of the control system automatically performing drillng operation;
Figure 1B illustrates an embodiment of the Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) comprising bent sub;
Fig. 2 schematically illustrates an embodiment of control system;
Fig. 3 illustrate according to embodiment assessment motor output torque and across MTR pressure reduction between the method flow diagram of relation;
The relation of moment of torsion/pressure reduction when Fig. 4 illustrates to determine from rotary drilling to slipping drilling transition, in an embodiment of the torque time change that test period is measured on surface of stratum drill string;
Fig. 5 is that MTR output torque is to the diagram of the pressure reduction across this motor according to an embodiment;
Fig. 6 illustrates and uses pressure reduction to assess the method flow diagram of the pressure of the drill according to an embodiment;
Fig. 7 illustrates the relationship example using multiple test point to set up;
Fig. 8 illustrates the method flow diagram of assessment the pressure of the drill relation, and it comprises the pressure of the drill using the measurement result determination side load moment of torsion of surface of stratum moment of torsion and pressure reduction to cause;
Fig. 8 A illustrates the figure of rotary drilling, shows moment of torsion that is measured and that calculate and changes in time;
Fig. 9 illustrates the relation in pipeline between pressure reduction and viscosity;
Figure 10 illustrates and detects MTR stall and the method flow diagram recovered from stall according to an embodiment;
Figure 11 illustrates the method flow diagram determining well elimination effect;
Figure 11 A illustrates an embodiment of the automatic well drill system including well fluids and go out well fluids flow meter;
Figure 11 Aa is according to an embodiment, the diagrammatic top view of coriolis flowmeter in stream pipeline;
Figure 11 Ab is according to an embodiment, the diagrammatic elevation view of coriolis flowmeter in stream pipeline;
Figure 11 B illustrates an embodiment of the figure display that can present to driller or mud engineer;
Figure 11 C is the time dependent diagram of mud density for high density well-flushing;
Figure 11 D is the time dependent diagram of mud density for high viscosity well-flushing;
Detailed description of the invention
In general, below explanation relates to the system and method crept in the earth formation.Such stratum can be processed to produce hydrocarbon product, hydrogen and other products.
In signal (such as magnetic, electromagnetism, voltage or other electrical or magnetic signals) linguistic context, " continuous print " or " continuously " comprises continuous signal and repeatedly pulsed signal on the selected period.Continuous signal can regularly interval or irregular intervals send or receive.
" fluid " can be but be not limited to gas, liquid, emulsion, cement paste and/or have the solid particle stream of the flow performance being similar to liquid stream.
" fluid pressure " is the pressure that in stratum, fluid produces." lithostatic pressure " (being sometimes referred to as " quiet rock stress ") is the pressure of the per unit area weight equaling to cover rock quality in stratum." hydrostatic pressure " is by fluid column applied pressure in stratum.
" stratum " comprises one or more hydrocarbon bearing formation, one or more non-hydrocarbon layers, overlying strata and/or underlying bed." hydrocarbon layers " refers to the layer comprising hydrocarbon in stratum.Hydrocarbon layers can comprise non-hydrocarbon materials and hydrocarbon materials." overlying strata " and/or " underlying bed " comprises one or more dissimilar impermeable materials.Such as, overlying strata and/or underlying bed can comprise rock, shale, mud stone or infiltration/dense carbonate.
" formation fluid " refers to the fluid that occurs in stratum and can comprise pyrolyzation fluid, forming gas, the hydro carbons of migration and water (steam).Formation fluid can comprise hydrocarbon fluid and non-hydrocarbon fluids.Term " fluid of movement " refers to the fluid in hydrocarbon containing formation, can flow as the heat treated result in stratum." produced fluid " refers to the fluid shifted out from stratum.
" in real time " used herein can comprise event (such as senses flow body characteristics) and moment and report occur or uses the time delay between this event time.Such as, " in real time " process can to comprise from sensor to processor transmission signal and this signal of process (such as, to driller's display well liquid flow, carry out calculating and/or controlling drilling process according to this signal according to this signal) time.
" thickness " of certain layer refers to the thickness in this layer of cross section, and wherein this cross section is orthogonal with this aspect.
" viscosity " refers to the kinematic viscosity 40 DEG C time, unless specified otherwise herein.Viscosity is determined by ASTMMethodD445.
Term " well " refers to by creeping into or insert the hole formed in the earth formation in pipeline to stratum.Well can have circular cross sections in essence, or another kind of transverse shape.As utilized herein, term " well " and " hole " can use with term " well " interchangeably when referring to the hole in stratum.
In certain embodiments, some or all drilling operation of formation carries out automatically.In certain embodiment, control system can perform the function for monitoring usually distributing to driller, and mode is direct measurement result and Model Matching.In certain embodiment, control system can be programmed to comprise some control signals, the control signal (such as, from the control inputs of control stick and manual switch) that their emulation drillers send.In certain embodiments, TRAJECTORY CONTROL is provided by unmanned observation system and integrating control logic.
Fig. 1 illustrates the well system according to an embodiment with the control system automatically performing drillng operation.Well system 100 provides at stratum 102 place.Well system 100 comprises offshore boring island 104, pump 108, drill string 110, Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) 112 and control system 114.Drill string 110 is formed by a series of drilling rod 116, and when well 117 formation drilling 102, they are sequentially added to drill string 110.
Offshore boring island 104 comprises bracket 118, swing drive system 120 and drilling rod control system 112.Offshore boring island 104 can operate drilling well 117 and impel drill string 110 and Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) 112 to enter stratum 102.Annular space 126 can be formed between the outside of drill string 110 and the side of well 117.Sleeve pipe 124 can be provided in well 117.Sleeve pipe 124 can be provided, as the description in Fig. 1 in the whole length of well 117 or in a part for well 117.
Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) 112 comprises drill collar 130, MTR 132, drill bit 134 and measurement while drilling (MWD) instrument 136.Drill bit 134 can be driven by MTR 132.MTR 132 can be driven by the drilling fluid by MTR.The speed of drill bit 134 approximately can be proportional to the pressure reduction across MTR 132.As utilized herein, " pressure reduction across MTR " can refer to flow into the pressure reduction between fluid in MTR and the fluid flowing out MTR.Drilling fluid can be called " mud " in this article.
In certain embodiments, drill bit 134 and/or MTR 132 are installed on the bent sub of Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) 112.This bent sub can make drill bit with relative to Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) 112 and/or drill string 110 end angle (from axle) towards.Bent sub may be used for the directional drilling of such as well.Figure 1B illustrates an embodiment of the Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) comprising bent sub.Bent sub 133 can set up the drilling direction relative to Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) and/or well direction of principal axis angle.
MWD instrument 136 can comprise multiple sensor, for measuring the feature on well system 100, well 117 and/or stratum 102.The example of the feature can measured by MWD instrument comprises natural gamma, attitude (inclination angle and azimuth), lip surface, borehole pressure and temperature.MWD instrument can utilize the data of mud-pulse, em telemetry technology or any other form to transmit (such as sound wave or wired drill pipe) and data are sent to surface of stratum.In certain embodiments, MWD instrument spatially can separate with Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) and/or MTR.
In certain embodiments, by the central passage 138 of mud transfer line 137, drill string 110 during pump 108 circulating fluid, by MTR 132, return out surface of stratum by the annular space 126 between the outside of drill string 110 and well 117 sidewall, show as in Figure 1A.Pump 108 comprises pressure sensor 150, suction flowmeter 152 and returns flow meter 154.Pressure sensor 150 may be used for measuring fluid pressure in well system 100.In one embodiment, standpipe pressure measured by one of pressure sensor 150.Flow meter 152 and 154 can measure the fluid mass flowing into and flow out drill string 110.
The control system of well system can comprise computer system.In general, term " computer system " can refer to have any equipment of processor execution from the instruction of storage medium.As utilized herein, computer system can comprise processor, server, microcontroller, microcomputer, programmable logic controller (PLC) (PLC), special IC and other programmable circuits, and uses these terms interchangeably herein.
In typical case, computer system comprises some assemblies, the CPU be such as associated with storage medium.Storage medium can store the programmed instruction of computer program.Programmed instruction can be performed by CPU.Computer system may further include display apparatus such as monitor, Alphanumeric Entry Device such as keyboard and directional input device such as mouse or control stick.
Computer system can comprise storage medium, wherein can store the computer program according to multiple embodiment.Term " storage medium " is intended to comprise device medium, CD-ROM, computer system memory such as DRAM, SRAM, EDORAM, memory bus RAM etc., or nonvolatile memory such as magnetic medium, as hard disk drive or disk storage.Storage medium can also comprise memory or its combination of other types.In addition, storage medium can be arranged in the First computer performing some programs, and also can be arranged in second different computer, it is connected to First computer on network.In example below, second computer can provide programmed instruction for performing to the first computer.Computer system can take various ways, such as personal computer system, large computer system, work station, network appliance, the Internet appliance, personal digital assistant (" PDA "), television system or other equipment.
Storage medium can store certain software program or some programs, can be used for performing insurance claim processing method.Software program can perform in many ways, includes, but are not limited to the technology of Kernel-based methods, technology and/or Object-oriented technology etc. based on assembly.Such as, implement software program time can freely use Java, ActiveX control, C++ object, JavaBeans, microsoft foundation class (" MFC "), based on the application program (as Java small routine) of browser, traditional program or other technologies or method.CPU such as performs and can comprise device for creating and perform according to the software program or some programs introducing embodiment herein from the code of storage medium and the host CPU of data.
Fig. 2 schematically illustrates an embodiment of control system.Control system 114 can perform control, the receiving sensor data of multiple devices and perform calculating.In one embodiment, following subroutine implemented by the programmable logic controller (PLC) (" PLC ") of control system: start; Shaft bottom is arrived under drill bit; Start to creep into; Supervision is crept into; Slipping drilling from rotary drilling; Keep lip surface and slipping drilling; Rotary drilling from slip; Stopping is crept into; Drill string is risen to final position.
Each subroutine can control according to the output of user-defined set-point and multiple software routines.Once connect every root drilling rod, just can the PLC controlling to be transferred to control system.
Drillng operation can comprise rotary drilling, slipping drilling and combination thereof.Generally, rotary drilling can follow relatively straight path and slipping drilling can follow the path of local inclination.In certain embodiments, rotary drilling and slipping drilling pattern can use the track that realizes specifying in combination.
Multiple parameters that can monitor comprise drives position, drilling speed and torque stability to MTR stall detection and recovery, the restriction of surface of stratum thrust, mud inflow/outflow balance, moment of torsion, the pressure of the drill, standpipe pressure stability, top.To these parameters any or all of, PLC automatically can implement out-of-range conditions response.
In certain embodiments, only only used rotary drilling (not having slipping drilling) and produce opening in stratum.Control drilling parameter to adjust inclination angle.In certain embodiments, reducing drilling speed by increase mud flow rate simultaneously and achieve landing, then achieving construction by reducing RPM with the combination of the reduction flow raised under drilling speed.
In certain embodiments, well system comprises integrated automatic drill lever operating device.This integrated automatic drill lever operating device can allow well system automatically to creep into whole well section.The services such as such as drill-in fluid, fuel and waste scavenging can be maintained.
PLC can automatically control one or more parameter.
In certain embodiments, control system provides a set of engineering calculation required for drilling well.Such as observation, Drilling Design, directional drilling, moment of torsion and dilatory and hydraulics can provide engineering module.In one embodiment, to from rig equipment sensor, mud equipment sensor and the real time data that receives of MWD with calculate the report of control system via database (such as sql server database).Result of calculation may be used for this rig equipment of monitoring and controlling when execution is crept into.
In certain embodiments, control system comprises graphic user interface.This graphic user interface can show and allow to input multiple drilling parameter.This gui screen can constantly upgrade while program is run and received data.The information that this display can comprise is as follows:
The current depth of-well and drill string, pressure and moment of torsion, and the performance evaluation of BHA, it provide the slip of creeping into and the directional properties rotating well section gathers.
The position of-last observation position, the current end of wellhole, represent from the point on the Drilling Design of wells end closest approach, and the gathering of the position of the final projector distance from Drilling Design.These can be represented as observation position, illustrate the degree of depth of each position, inclination angle, azimuth and true vertical depth.
Distance geometry direction between-wells end and Drilling Design, and current creep into state and direction adjustment result.
In some drilling operation, some tests are carried out with calibrating instrument with determine between multiple parameter and feature relation.Such as, in the beginning of drillng operation, may operate in drilling testing to determine the relation etc. of flow to pressure.But, the state of creeping into the actual experience of period institute may inaccurately be reflected demarcating the state of test period.As a result, the data from some conventional demarcation test may be not suitable for effectively controlling to creep into.Moreover, some existing demarcation is tested the accuracy of information provided and is not enough to make Performance optimization (such as best drilling speed or direction controlling), or process is creeping into period issuable unfavorable conditions, the stall of such as MTR.
In certain embodiments, to concrete MTR assessment motor output torque and across MTR pressure reduction between relation.The relation of evaluation may be used for the drillng operation controlling to use MTR.Fig. 3 illustrate according to embodiment assessment motor output torque and across MTR pressure reduction between relation.160, the drill string on formation surface is applied with moment of torsion, so that with the drill string rpm specified, rotates the drill string in stratum.In certain embodiments, can test and special rotary drill column, to assess the relation between motor output torque and pressure reduction, as the introduction in this width Fig. 3 for demarcating.In other embodiments, start demarcate time drill string may rotation, as a part for the rotary drilling on a part of stratum.
162, drilling fluid is pumped into MTR with rotary drilling-head formation drilling with target flow.164, MTR is run with the pressure reduction of specifying (it can be proportional to the flow of drilling fluid) with rotary drilling-head formation drilling.
166, reduce to the moment of torsion that drill string applies so that the rotary speed of drill string is reduced to zero, continue to run MTR with the pressure reduction of specifying simultaneously.Moment of torsion can be realized by the rotary speed reducing well system to reduce.
168, measure the maintenance moment of torsion on surface of stratum drill string.Keep moment of torsion can be keep drill string MTR zero drill string speed while to be in the moment of torsion required for pressure reduction (thus drill bit continues to creep into) of specifying.
170, according to the maintenance moment of torsion measured and the pressure reduction of specifying, simulate torque-on-bit and across MTR pressure reduction between relation.In certain embodiments, suppose that torque-on-bit is for the value indicated by the pressure reduction of MTR.
The time dependent embodiment of moment of torsion that the test period that Fig. 4 illustrates moment of torsion/pressure reduction relation when determining from rotary drilling to slipping drilling transition is measured at the drill string of surface of stratum.Curve 176 depicts drill string torque to be changed in time.At the beginning, rotating disk drives and just can be in metastable grade (in this example about 5,500 foot-pounds) at rotary drill column to make the moment of torsion measured at surface of stratum.178, rotating disk slows down.Along with drill string slows down, drill string torque declines.180, moment of torsion can reach metastable value (in this example about 650 foot-pounds).The moment of torsion at surface of stratum place will be reduced to the moment of torsion of the moment of torsion output equaling MTR.Therefore, 180 at surface of stratum place, the steady torque reading of moment of torsion can close to the moment of torsion at MTR place.
Torque-on-bit and across MTR pressure reduction between relation can be linear relationship.Fig. 5 is according to an embodiment, and the contrast of MTR output torque is across the diagram of the pressure reduction of this motor.Curve 182 illustrates the relation in this example between torque-on-bit and pressure reduction.In certain embodiments, linear relationship uses two points to set up: first point is [moment of torsion=at the maintenance moment of torsion of stated pressure differential, the pressure reduction of pressure reduction=specify], and second point is [moment of torsion=0; Pressure reduction=0].Because testing results just can not suppose [moment of torsion=0; Pressure reduction=0], therefore only can determine this linear relationship by a test point, namely, [moment of torsion=at the maintenance moment of torsion of stated pressure differential, the pressure reduction of pressure reduction=specify].
In order to contrast, Fig. 5 comprises motor specification curve 184.Motor specification curve 184 represents for for producing curve 182 and the MTR of testing, the motor specification curve possible form in a typical case of manufacturer.
In certain embodiments, the distortion of drill string solution is allowed then to measure maintenance moment of torsion.Refer again to Fig. 4, when curve 186 illustrates this drill string solution distortion Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) towards.The figure illustrates moment of torsion and BHA lip surface when surface of stratum drill string RPM is zero roll between relation.Utilize the drill bit that creeps into of bottom, when drilling rod RPM is set to zero, this BHA to right rotation, balances until moment of torsion in surface of stratum place drill string and motor attempt to rotate in the opposite direction the reaction torque that BHA produces by the moment of torsion of catching in this drill string.Therefore, 188, when the rotation of rotating disk is stopped, drill string is positioned at the right rolling of 0 degree.As time goes by, stable grade (in this example, about 750 degree, 2.1 turns) the front drill string solution distortion 190 is reached at drill string.Surface of stratum torque measurement when BHA roll stabilization can be the direct measurement that motor torsional moment exports.Separate distortion in an example and can spend about 2.5 minutes.
In certain embodiments, assess torque-on-bit and across MTR pressure reduction between the test of relation repeated termly.This test can be used, for example, in the performance of creeping into inspection motor when carrying out in stratum.In addition, to occur and surface of stratum moment of torsion stable any time can both carry out this test at slipping drilling.
Pressure reduction across MTR can directly be measured, the feature assessment also can measured from other.In certain embodiments, the pressure reduction across MTR is estimated from standpipe pressure reading." zero " can be carried out termly to make the error minimize of " leaving shaft bottom " standpipe pressure measurement result of capturing.In other embodiments, by calculating the circulating pressure of leaving shaft bottom and by itself and actual riser pressure ratio comparatively, the pressure reduction across MTR can being set up.
In certain embodiments, repeatedly the pressure of the drill calculating has been monitored as diagnostic tool.In one embodiment, these values are automatically monitored.Such as, control system can monitor some states and assess: the surface tension in (1) Current surface tension force-leave shaft bottom; (2) surface tension and moment of torsion and dilatory model the pressure of the drill (" WOB ") of leaving shaft bottom friction factor is used; (3) use moment of torsion and leave the moment of torsion of shaft bottom friction factor and dilatory model WOB; And (4) are at drilling testing contrast motor pressure reduction.
In certain embodiments, control system can comprise and controls the logic of creeping into according to the different subsets of the above evaluation introduced.Such as, if slipping drilling, above method 1 and 3 may be invalid.If hung up at slipping drilling period BHA, method 2 also may become invalid (such as method 2 may read get Tai Gao, because be not that total weight is all passed to drill bit).In certain embodiments, watchdog logic can based on the one or more contrasts between the two or more appraisal procedures provided above.An example of watchdog logic is: " if during slipping drilling, method 4 and the difference large (user set-point %) of method 2, detect ' hang-up ' ".As another example, if during rotary drilling, the WOB from appraisal procedure 3 is greater than appraisal procedure 2 more than (user set-point %), and so automated system just can report the state " excessive to rotary drill column moment of torsion " being detected.In certain embodiments, ROP can be reduced or drill string RPM gets back in tolerance to the pressure of the drill assessment result.
In certain embodiments, in automatic drilling process, employ mechanical ratio can (" MSE ") calculate.Such as when above introduction, " excessive to rotary drill column moment of torsion " can be registered as high MSE.
In certain embodiment, the measurement result across the pressure reduction of MTR is used to assess the pressure of the drill forming wellhole and use in subsurface formations.
Fig. 6 illustrates according to an embodiment, uses pressure reduction to assess the pressure of the drill.200, establish formed wellhole torque-on-bit used and work bit used across motor pressure reduction between relation.In certain embodiments, the measurement result being used in moment of torsion on surface of stratum drill string sets up this relation, as the above introduction about Fig. 4.
202, the relation of simulation the pressure of the drill and motor pressure reduction.In one embodiment, the pressure of the drill is simulated according to suspending weight differences method.In another embodiment, the pressure of the drill based on dynamic torque and dilatory model, such as, can use the side load moment of torsion to the drill bit of the pressure of the drill causes to estimate.
204, during drillng operation, measure the pressure reduction across motor.206, the pressure of the drill estimated by the model being used in 202 foundation.Pass between the pressure of the drill evaluated as above place of matchmakers and motor pressure reduction (torque-on-bit) ties up to when creeping in given lithology and can remain valid.
In certain embodiments, WOB be have evaluated to multiple delta pressure readings that drilling operation course is formed.These data points can be the continuous estimation WOB that basis measures pressure reduction by curve.This curve can define the linear relationship between WOB and pressure reduction.In one embodiment, pressure reduction is read out during drilling testing at one or many.Fig. 7 illustrates the example of the relation using multiple test point to set up.Point 210 can by curve to produce linear relationship 212.
In certain embodiments, while a large amount of drill string is in well casing, carried out the test that WOB is associated with pressure reduction.When a large amount of drill string is in well casing, to use or the pressure of the drill that " suspending weight difference " method or dynamic torque and dilatory model are measured can be relatively accurate, because the uncertainty of wellhole friction factor can minimize.In one embodiment, when getting out testing results when casing string enters new stratum first.In certain embodiments, WOB/ pressure reduction closes to tie up in the net horizontal section of well and determines.
In some embodiment that the pressure of the drill of formation is assessed, the torque measurement result obtained when using drill string in this stratum, describes the increase of the side load be associated with the pressure of the drill increased.Such as, torque measurement result may be used for the pressure of the drill using moment of torsion and dilatory model solution the unknown.In one embodiment, at every root drilling rod, such as, when starting to creep at every turn, all obtain measurement result and assess the pressure of the drill, as the part at drilling testing.In certain embodiments, suppose that friction factor is constant.
Fig. 8 illustrates the relation of assessment the pressure of the drill, and it comprises the pressure of the drill using the measurement result determination side load moment of torsion of surface of stratum moment of torsion and pressure reduction to cause.214, across the pressure reduction of MTR when gaging pressure is to determine to creep into.This measurement can be such as the above explanation about Fig. 3.216, according to pressure reduction determination motor output torque.In certain embodiments, suppose that torque-on-bit is identical with motor output torque.The determination of torque-on-bit can be such as the above explanation about Fig. 3.
218, the moment of torsion on surface of stratum place drill string can be measured during creeping into.Utilize the moment of torsion can directly measured on surface of stratum place drill string at the instrument of surface of stratum.
220, measure the rotation torque leaving shaft bottom.In certain embodiments, control system is used automatically to sample to the rotation torque leaving shaft bottom.
222, from the side load that torque measurement and estimated result determination the pressure of the drill cause.In one embodiment, the moment of torsion caused due to the pressure of the drill increases to use following equation to determine:
The rotation torque in side load moment of torsion=surface of stratum moment of torsion that WOB causes (creeping into period)-motor output torque-leave shaft bottom
224, determine to leave the friction factor in shaft bottom from the rotation torque data leaving shaft bottom.The pressure of the drill and torque-on-bit can be zero.
226, determine the WOB required for the pressure of the drill of the side load moment of torsion causing the pressure of the drill to cause.This WOB is based on being used in 224 moment of torsion leaving shaft bottom friction factor determined and dilatory models.228, the estimated result of the pressure of the drill is for controlling drillng operation.
Fig. 8 A illustrates the figure of rotary drilling, shows moment of torsion that is measured and that calculate and changes in time.Curve 231 shows standpipe pressure.Curve 232 shows motor torsional moment.Motor torsional moment can be determined from differential pressure calibration.Curve 233 shows the surface of stratum moment of torsion measured.Curve 234 shows the side load moment of torsion that WOB causes.The side load moment of torsion that WOB causes can be calculated as the above introduction about Fig. 8.Curve 235 shows drill string torque.Drill string torque can be the difference between surface of stratum moment of torsion and motor torsional moment.Curve 236 shows the surface of stratum moment of torsion leaving shaft bottom.
In certain embodiments, use pressure reduction across pump motor as main control variable, perform automatic drillng operation.In certain embodiments, be used in surface of stratum and pressure reduction across pump motor and the relation that exports between motor torsional moment are established, as the above explanation about Fig. 3 to the measurement result of moment of torsion on drill string.Control system can automatically monitor some states, the flow of such as mud, WOB and surface of stratum moment of torsion.In one embodiment, as long as meet predefined condition, automatic control system just moves forward into the movement velocity of wellhole by raising drill string and seeks target differential pressure.Predefined condition can be the scope that such as user-defined set-point maybe cannot exceed.The example of set-point comprises: WOB within (the user set-point) of maximum WOB, surface of stratum moment of torsion within (the user set-point) of maximum moment of torsion, mud flow rate drop on target flow (user set-point) under, moment of torsion unstability surmounts (user set-point), flow out flow is greater than (user set-point) with the difference flowing into flow, stall detected, detects and hangs up, detect drilling torque excessive, standpipe pressure reduction and the difference of circulating pressure calculated are greater than (user set-point).In one embodiment, target differential pressure is 250psi.
In certain embodiment, directional drilling comprises the whereabouts by increasing mud flow rate, and by reducing the construction of RPM and/or flow.In certain embodiments, have adjusted rotary drilling parameter and coordinate TRAJECTORY CONTROL (such as, not needing to seek help from slipping drilling) to adjust horizontal inclination.
In certain embodiment, each subroutine in PLC combines with being incremented, the combination of rotation and slipping drilling can be utilized independently to creep into all single.In certain embodiments, drill bit is retained in shaft bottom and low RPM creeps into make BHA lip surface again slipping drilling synchronous with surface of stratum position.This can allow PLC BHA is parked in lip surface target and continues in sliding mode to creep into, and does not need stopping to creep into or make drill bit to leave shaft bottom.
In certain embodiments, moment of torsion, dilatory, windup and Hydraulic pressure model are run in real time.This model can be estimated the windup of drill string and produce the estimation of continuous print lip surface, to support autonomous control system while creeping into high drilling speed (ROP).In certain embodiments, this model can both produce at any time and export windup value, and fills the space between the renewal of down-hole.In order to obtain motor torsional moment, the degree of accuracy on demand hydraulic pressure can be calculated.Can also the pressure of the drill be obtained, such as can (" MSE ") analysis purpose for mechanical ratio.
In certain embodiments, friction factor can be determined from some thermometrically results.Such as friction factor can be set up from the moment of torsion that motor exports and surface of stratum is measured.Utilize drilling parameter such as RPM, the ROP of input, surface of stratum rotation torque, surface of stratum suspending weight, can torque-on-bit be calculated.By making motor torsional moment value mate with the torque-on-bit calculated, wellhole friction factor (such as, by iteration to determine friction factor value when some moments of torsion mate) can be determined.In certain embodiments, obtain the pressure of the drill, along the moment of torsion of drill string and drill string distortion, such as, the wellhole friction factor of mode for automatically measuring between moving period of being used in drill string and leaving shaft bottom.In certain embodiments, if friction factor or lower than the minimum value of specifying (such as 0.2), or or higher than the maximum value of specifying (such as 0.7), can stop creeping into and carry out fault diagnosis.
Once the down-hole WOB of prediction and motor torsional moment can be used, just can calculate, draw and show the moment of torsion as WOB function.In certain embodiments, determine and show MSE curve.The WOB using the value calculated such as to calculate, can automatically creep into.In certain embodiments, friction factor can recalculate when creeping into and be used in and automatically creep into.
In one embodiment, the appraisal procedure forming wellhole pressure used in subsurface formations comprises measures baseline pressure when drill bit freely rotates in the wellhole of stratum.The Baseline viscosity of the fluid of drill bit is flow through according to the assessment of measured baseline pressure.Along with drill bit pierces stratum further, flow through the flow of the fluid of this drill bit, density and viscosity evaluated.Along with the continuation of drillng operation, according to the flow flowing through the fluid of this drill bit evaluated, density and viscosity, baseline pressure of can reappraising.
In certain embodiments, can from pressure reduction determination viscosity.In one embodiment, coriolis flowmeter is for measuring into well and the flow and the density that go out well.Pressure reduction measured by slurry transportation pipeline (it can between the pump of well system and boring tower) across defined length.Fig. 9 illustrates the relation in pipeline between pressure reduction and viscosity.The example shown in Fig. 9 is based on 2 inches of slurry transportation pipelines of 20 meters of length.Curve 240 is based on the flow of 400 gallons per minute.Curve 242 is based on the flow of 250 gallons per minute.
Use pressure reduction determination viscosity can get rid of the needs to viscosity gauge.But, in certain embodiments, viscosity gauge can be included in well system.
In one embodiment, drill bit is automatically placed the bottom of subsurface formations wellhole.Slush pump starts and flow (at a predetermined velocity) is slow is after a predetermined time raised to target flow.The flow flowing into drill string fluid is monitored and controls as the flow identical (limiting within set-point user) with outflow well.Standpipe pressure is allowed to reach metastable state.This drill string rotates with predetermined RPM.Drill bit moves towards the bottom of wellhole, until the stable increase of measuring pressure reduction shows the bottom of this drill bit in wellhole with selected pace.In certain embodiments, this correspond to bit depth=wellbore depth (but, borehole bottom cave in or error in depth survey may cause detecting " bottom ", although do not mate in depth calculation).Many set-points can be set up and monitor some variablees during the routine in " lower drill bit is to shaft bottom ".The rotation that first can perform drill string enables slush pump again to be reduced in annular space pressure when restarting mud flowing.
During drillng operation, once creep into the maximum available depth of the drilling rod proceeding to given length, just use boring tower to terminate to creep into and prepare to add the drilling rod of another length.
In one embodiment, drilling rod proceeds in stratum.(such as, when reaching the maximum available degree of depth of run of steel) stops drilling rod advancing.The pressure reduction across MTR is allowed to reduce.In certain embodiments, permissible pressure is reduced to user set-point.Once pressure reduction has been reduced to the grade of regulation, just drill string can be mentioned.Moment of torsion and dilatory model may be used for monitoring that performing this mentions required power.In one embodiment, these power itself can be predicted and be used as alarm flag (if having exceeded such as user-defined amount).In another embodiment, the friction factor leaving shaft bottom is employed.Such as, if the friction factor leaving shaft bottom exceedes the amount (such as >0.5) of regulation, " undergauge trip-out " alert consitions can be triggered.After alert trigger, can start to alleviate process.
In certain embodiment, during creeping into, have evaluated bore hole friction factor.In certain embodiments, bore hole friction factor is assessed continuously.Such as in an embodiment, bore hole friction factor is assessed continuously, to verify that the borehole condition of " normally " exists as the license completing selected task.Can definition error process subroutine with prevention and alleviate disadvantageous borehole condition.
MTR stall is common event.In typical case, the power section of this motor comprises rotor, is flowed and drive it to rotate by the drilling fluid by this unit.Rotary speed is controlled by fluid flow.Power section is positive displacement system, so apply to rotating to rotor resistance (braking torque) along with (from drill bit), maintains fixing pressure increase required for fluid flow.Under numerous conditions, power section keeps the ability possibility of rotor turns not enough so drill bit stops operating, i.e. stall.Stop state may occur sometimes within one second.
Figure 10 illustrates according to an embodiment, detects MTR stall and the method recovered from stall.260, maximum differential pressure is arranged to drillng operation.261, creep into and can start.262, pressure reduction can be assessed.If evaluation pressure reduction or higher than the maximum differential pressure of specifying, 263 assessment these motors stop state.
After detecting stall, be automatically cut to the flow (such as, by closing the pump of this motor) of this MTR 264.In certain embodiments, the rotation of the drill string being connected to drill bit is automatically stopped 265.In certain embodiments, after detecting stall, just automatically stop drilling rod motion (drill string travels forward and is reduced to zero).266, before allowing to restart motor, permissible pressure is reduced to the maximum differential pressure lower than specifying.In certain embodiments, superpressure is released or allows release.268, drill bit can be raised and leave shaft bottom.270, motor is restarted.272, restart to creep into.
In one embodiment, during creeping into, measure the standpipe pressure leaving shaft bottom.The maximum differential pressure of assessment MTR.Just stall is indicated when the maximum differential pressure sum of the standpipe pressure and motor that leave shaft bottom has exceeded the rank of specifying.In one embodiment, boring tower standpipe pressure sensor measurement standpipe pressure is utilized.
In traditional well system, may not density measurement and flow in real time.Such as in the system that some is traditional, enter well yield and calculate from the slush pump stroke of periodic manner acquisition.In typical case, density is measured by mud engineer, often approximately only twice per hour.Such as, in typical drillng operation, density can be obtained every 30 minutes sampled points from vibrosieve downstream.Going out well yield has used the device measuring of paddlewheel type to go out sometimes, and in general it merely illustrates certain percentage of flow in stream pipeline.Therefore, in traditional well system, driller or mud engineer may have outmoded, infrequently or the information of interval about drilling liquid parameter.Creeping into decision-making virtual condition in well may not be described based on such information.In addition, such informed drilling decisions may be subjective and may be inconsistent to another subjob from one-stop operation.
In certain embodiments, boring tower control system provides the tidal data recovering of some sensors, to monitor the many aspects of well system, comprises density, mass flow and volume flow.Collection density and data on flows can help to lower drilling cost and help to identify the leading indicators to potential drilling operation problem by reducing nonproductive time (" NPT ") in real time.Accurately and timely the measurement result of mass/volume flow and density can increase objectivity, and likely makes an immediate response to the change of drilling fluid character.In certain embodiments, real time data is pooled in boring tower control system, to show some figures with built-in warning system, provides the leading notice to any Main change of drilling liquid parameter to driller and/or mud engineer.
In certain embodiments, the coriolis flowmeter that being used in the suction side of well and return side has collects flow and density data.In one embodiment, coriolis flowmeter can be MicroMotion coriolis flow and density sensor, and it can purchased from Emerson Electric Applicance Co., Ltd (Missouri, USA St.Louis).
In certain embodiments, coriolis flowmeter is arranged between wet mud-active tank and slush pump by online.Coriolis flowmeter can measure entry well fluid.Second coriolis flowmeter can be arranged on stream pipeline place, to measure well fluids.The cumulant of well drilling cuttings can be measured.The full current density of drilling fluid, volume flow and mass flow can physically be measured.
In the linguistic context measuring the some character of well system, as utilized herein, measure the character of " drilling fluid ", such as flow or density, the material measured in drilling fluid and suspend or carried by it can be comprised.Such as, the density going out well drilling fluid can reflect any drilling cuttings brought by drilling fluid.
In certain embodiments, from the quality of flow meter (such as coriolis flowmeter), volume and density turnover data for improvement of drillng operation.Turnover flow transmitter is integrated into real-time well surveillance process and can provides real-time tool to driller or mud engineer, help the problem in the some fields of alleviation, such as well elimination efficiency, well washing effect, supervision circulating mud, the supervision of environment conjunction rule, formation fluid loss, well kick detection, pressure control creep into and bulging.
Figure 11 A illustrates an embodiment of automatic well drill system, and it includes well fluids and goes out the flow meter of well fluids.System 1110 comprises drill string 110 and borehole fluid system 1112.Pump 108 can draw drilling fluid via suction line 1116 from slurry tank 1114, and utilizes slurry transportation pipeline 137 in drill string 110.Drilling fluid can flow through central passage 138, the Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) 112 of drill string 110, and passes through the annular space 126 between the outside of drill string 110 and well 117 sidewall, returns out surface of stratum.From annular space 126, drilling fluid can flow through pipeline 1118 and enter shale vibrosieve 1120.Drilling fluid from vibrosieve 1120 can get back to slurry tank 1114.
Suction line 1116 provides flow transmitter 1122.In order to measure flow into well and density, flow transmitter 1122 can provide data.Stream pipeline 1118 provides flow transmitter 1124.In order to measure flow and the density of well, flow transmitter 1122 can provide data.In certain embodiments, flow transmitter 1122 and 1124 can measurement quality flow and density.Volume flow can be calculated from the mass flow measured and density.In certain embodiments, flow transmitter 1122 and 1124 is coriolis flowmeters.Other sensor can be comprised in many embodiment:, to measure the density of drilling fluid, mass flow, volume flow or other character multiple of circulating via borehole fluid system 1112.In addition, in some systems, measurement result can be gathered at the diverse location of borehole fluid system 1112.Such as, use some sensors in this pump downstream (such as slurry transportation pipeline) that flow and/or the density of drilling fluid into well can be measured.In certain embodiments, some measurement results (some measurement results of the sample such as, obtained by regular intervals of time from mud engineer) can manually be collected.Be with or without at tool in the system of swivel head to operate and return out stream device.
Figure 11 Aa is according to an embodiment, the diagrammatic top view of coriolis flowmeter in stream pipeline.Figure 11 Ab is according to an embodiment, the diagrammatic elevation view of coriolis flowmeter in stream pipeline.Flow transmitter 1124 is provided in stream pipeline 1118.The drilling fluid returned out from well can by flow transmitter 1124 before entering vibrosieve 1120.
Although in the above embodiment introduced, system comprises the some sensors all measured the flow of turnover well, and in certain embodiments, system can comprise only at the sensor of side.Such as, system only can go out well side and comprises coriolis flowmeter.In certain embodiments, system can not comprise any sensor for measuring fluid flow or pressure.
In certain embodiments, a part of boring tower control system (such as, special drilling fluid data module) is exclusively used in process continuous print drilling fluid data.Special drilling fluid data module can utilize early warning warning indicator to promote clear and display well liquid information concisely.
Creeping into period, in well, the excess accumulation of drilling cuttings may have a negative impact to drillng operation.In certain embodiment, the mass balance employing drilling cuttings is measured with the state monitoring well.In certain embodiments, the information measured from mass balance is used for automatically performing drillng operation.
In certain embodiments, the appraisal procedure of the well elimination effect crept in subsurface formations comprises to be determined in well by the quality of excavating rock.In one embodiment, by using the volume density logging data of side well, well logging during (" LWD ") instrument or stratum volume density, the quality excavating drilling cuttings from well can be determined.Length of hole and diameter may be used for providing volume, and volume density well logging can provide density Estimation.
By measuring the gross mass of entry well fluid and going out the gross mass of fluid of well, then from go out well fluid gross mass deduct the gross mass of the fluid into well, the quality of the drilling cuttings removed from well can be determined.By being deducted the quality of the drilling cuttings removed from well determined in the rock quality that excavates from the well determined, the quality of remaining drilling cuttings in well can be estimated.In certain embodiments, the quantitative measurement of well elimination efficiency can be assessed according to drilling cuttings quality remaining in the well determined.Can consider that segment fluid flow loses by the fluid mass getting rid of loss from balance.
Figure 11 illustrates an embodiment of the method determining well elimination effect.280, the gross mass into well yield can be measured.282, the gross mass of well yield can be measured.284, the difference between the gross mass of well yield and the gross mass entering well yield can be determined.286, the quality of the drilling cuttings removed from this well can be determined.288, the quality of the rock excavated in well can be determined.
290, the difference between the quality that the rock excavated in well can be determined and the quality of drilling cuttings removed from this well.292, determine the share of drill bit wellhole area of section relative to the area of section occupied by drilling cuttings.This share can be used as the tolerance of well conditional.
In certain embodiments, coriolis mass flowmeters is used to achieve the continuous monitoring of drilling fluid density and flow.In one embodiment, at suction line with return out pipeline and both provide coriolis flowmeter, physically to measure the mass flow of the fluid of turnover well in real time.Coriolis flowmeter can provide flow, density and temperature data.In one embodiment, online (on the drag-over unit such as, placed between wet mud-active tank and slush pump) has installed densometer, flow meter and viscometer.In one embodiment, viscometer is TT-100 viscometer.Densometer, flow meter and viscometer can measure the fluid into well.Second coriolis flowmeter is installed in stream pipeline to measure the fluid of well.
In certain embodiments, control system is programmed to provide autonomous creeping into and data-gathering process.This process can comprise the many aspects monitoring and creep into performance.Part control system can be exclusively used in the process of drilling fluid data.Control system can use the craft input of drilling fluid data, sensing measurement and/or mathematical computations to help to set up index and trend, and performance is crept in checking in real time.In certain embodiments, the data of collection may be used for determining well elimination effect.
In certain embodiments, some drilling liquid parameters are measured in real time.Real-time measurement can also increase the objectivity of data to promote making an immediate response to drilling fluid fluctuation.In certain embodiments, real-time density measurement, viscosity and flow while creeping into.Drilling parameter Zhou Youhua accurately can be realized to the real-time control and Data Collection that pass in and out well mud flow rate and density.Such as, optimization adjustment can automatically be reacted and make to control system according to sensor signal (being with or without manual intervention).
In certain embodiments, the mass balance metering of drilling cuttings is for providing the trend of well elimination effect to indicate.In one embodiment, by calculating drilling cuttings volume remaining in well and making the hypothesis that whole drilling cuttings distributes equably along net horizontal section, determine that well removes the mass balance calculation$ of index (HCI).Drilling cuttings bed height can be calculated and be converted into the area of section occupied by drilling cuttings.
The area that HCI=drill bit wellhole area/drilling cuttings occupies
The well post of fluid can with surface of stratum system independence.Be passed to and with the mass balance of the fluid circulated by well, can not there is any real-time relationship with the powder-product of system or liquid additive (if there is any such product or liquid additive).Therefore the drilling cuttings excavated may be only " additive " of convection cell post.The exception to drilling cuttings being the hypothesis of only " additive " may for there being the current from stratum fashionable.In certain embodiments, determine that water flows into by supervision from any unexpected reduction of the rheological property measured by online viscometer.In other embodiments, the total entering volume vs's out volume can indicate the inflow of fluid.HCI can be adjusted to illustrate that water flows into according to any minimizing like this.
In one embodiment, coriolis flowmeter has default nominal time table.Coriolis flowmeter can have built-in high/low liquid level alarm to have acknowledged receipt of data accurately.In an example, 6 " coriolis flowmeter has two flowtube, and every root all has 3.5 " diameter of (88.9mm).In one embodiment, coriolis flowmeter material flowing control to preset flow ± degree of accuracy of 0.5%.
Use the automatic monitoring of elimination effect can eliminate or reduce the needs of the direct surveillance to some operations, such as to the supervision of vibrosieve.Such as, personnel may not be needed to measure viscosity and mud weight with regular intervals of time at vibrosieve.As another example, mud engineer may not need to capture mud sample with regular intervals of time.
Below provide the example that mass balance monitors:
Example #1--start circulation
Read and assess suction flowmeter and stream pipeline flow meters to balance.(be not slightly inconsistent because fluid temperature (F.T.) may have, because the fluid left will be warmer so may be light a little.)
Fluid entry/exit: 2m 3/ min × 1040kg/m 3=2080kg/min
Online liquid viscosity meter can 600,300,200,100,6 and 3rpm survey measurements.It can be 1 second in each rpm speed acquisition time.Within 6 seconds, measure whole six readings.
Temperature correction can be carried out according to " searching " table.
Example #2--start to creep into
The quality of the rock produced can based on rate of penetration (ROP) and borehole size.The quality of the rock of the generation calculated can real-time graphic.
May have in fluid temperature (F.T.) and slightly not be inconsistent, because the fluid left will be warmer so may be light a little.)
Borehole size 311mm × ROP100m/hr=7.59m 3excavate drilling cuttings/hour
(7.59m 3/hr×2600kg/m 3)/60min=329kg/min
2600kg/m 3can be the default of drilling cuttings density--as an alternative, the density log from side well " is searched " table and be can be used in describing the density feature on each stratum to improve the degree of accuracy, can provide the look-up table of the caliper log data comprised from side well.
Can provide to comprise and wash away the look-up table of percentage with change in depth from side well.
Creating 329kg/min × 5% washes away=rock of 345kg/min.
Wash away the data point set that percentage can be illustrated as separation.
The time that this mud annular space spends that empties according to calculating from annular volume and flow can calculate the delay time (" shaft bottom is to well head " time).
Can assess drilling cuttings shape, size, fluid sliding speed, horizontal drilling contrast vertically creep into.
Example #3--mass balance
Measure the gross mass of entry well fluid and gone out the gross mass of well fluids.The gross mass of entry well fluid is deducted from the gross mass going out well fluids.Difference can represent the drilling cuttings quality removed from this well.
Fluid enters: 2m 3/ min × 1040kg/m 3=2080kg/min
Fluid goes out: 2m 3/ min × 1180kg/m 3=2360kg/min
Difference is 280kg/min.
Poor by deducting this from the rock actual mass excavated, obtain the Theoretical Mass of the drilling cuttings not yet removed from this well.
So 345kg/min-280kg/min=65kg/min stays in well.
In certain embodiment, flow measurement may be used for the license arranged in control system.Such as, whether equal into well yield according to going out well yield in the tolerance set up, can license be set.
In certain embodiment, system produces figure display, and it comprises one or more indexs of well elimination efficiency.In certain embodiment, figure display comprise flow into well quality, flow out well quality and/or not from well remove the time dependent diagram of drilling cuttings.The display of this figure can such as to driller or mud engineer's display.The quality flowing into or flow out well can be determined according to the real-time measurements of the flow meter (such as coriolis flowmeter) had on the suction side and return side of well.
Figure 11 B illustrates an embodiment of the figure display that can present to driller or mud engineer.In Figure 11 B, the mass flow of total is contrasted time drafting.Curve 1130 represents that inflow quality adds the summation of newborn drilling cuttings.Curve 1132 represents outflow quality.Curve 1134 represents the estimation of the drilling cuttings do not removed from this well.
In certain embodiments, the mass flow contrast passing in and out well provides the leading indicators of insufficient well removing.The rock quality flow that drill bit produces can use drilling speed and borehole size to calculate.Calculate produce rock mass flow can draw in real time." look-up table " can be utilized to comprise bulk density log data from side well, or use LWD instrument to make this calculating accurate as far as possible.On the figure that the rock quality flow that these data can be plotted in drill bit produces is identical.
Data flow (such as real-time density or mass flow rate data) can provide information accurately to driller and mud engineer, makes it alleviate to help possible problem of creeping into before reality occurs.According to the problem-instance that mass flow measurement result/EQUILIBRIUM CALCULATION FOR PROCESS can more effectively manage, can comprise bit freezing, excessive-torque and dilatory, ring-type is peeled off, the ECD that increases, lost-circulation, excessive viscosity and gel strength, bad sleeve pipe and well cementing operation, high slurry thinner cost or lower rate of penetration.
In certain embodiments, according to the well washing effect of the density measurements assessment drillng operation of fluid in well system.Well washing effect can be used for the quality quantizing the drilling cuttings removed by well-flushing, and/or judges whether well-flushing adds value to drillng operation.In one embodiment, the difference between well well-flushing density (" entering well density ") and the well-flushing density (" going out well density ") returning out well side is calculated.Enter well density and the difference gone out between well density can be proportional to the coal powder quantity of bore of removing.
In certain embodiment, the method quantizing well washing effect comprises the drilling fluid density and the drilling fluid density returning out well measured into well.Entry well fluid density and the difference gone out between well fluids density may be used for the coal powder quantity of bore estimating to remove.In one embodiment, be used in the Coriolis flowmeters measure entry well fluid density with online installation between slurry tank and slush pump, and be used in the Coriolis flowmeters measure installed in stream pipeline and go out well fluids density.
Figure 11 C and Figure 11 D passes in and out the diagram of the measuring density of slurry result of the drilling fluid of well during being displaying well-flushing.Figure 11 C is the time dependent diagram of mud density for high density well-flushing.Curve 1136 represents drilling fluid into well density (entering well density).Curve 1138 indicates well drilling fluid density (going out well density).1140, introduce well system along with increasing the weight of flushing fluid, entering well density can increase.After introducing the fluid for increasing the weight of well-flushing, entering well density and can return its initial level.1142, along with more highdensity fluid reaches the outlet of this well, and well-flushing removes drilling cuttings from this well, goes out well density and increases.1144, go out well density and can return its initial level.In 1142 go out well density and the tolerance of well washing effect can be provided in the difference entered between well density of 1140.
In certain embodiments, the trend feature returning out density can be cave in or index that well-flushing has been extended.Such as with reference to figure 11C, section 1146(dotted line) illustrate the substitution curves going out well density started in the time 1148.In the result reflected by section 1146, compared with the increase at 1142 places, go out well density increase relatively little.In addition, at section 1146, go out well density and keep high-order at more long duration.These features of section 1146 can indicate well-flushing invalid and be extended.
Figure 11 D is the time dependent diagram of mud density for high viscosity well-flushing.Curve 1150 represents drilling fluid into well density.Curve 1152 indicates well drilling fluid density.At section 1154, high viscosity flushing fluid be directed in well.Formed with the high density flushing fluid shown in Figure 11 C and contrast, enter the level that well density can remain on relative equilibrium during high viscosity well-flushing, reflected as by the smooth of curve 1150.1156, along with flushing fluid removes drilling cuttings from this well, go out well density and increase.1158, go out well density and can return its initial level.Density 1156 increases and/or returns its initial level in time 1156 and can show that well-flushing is effective to removing drilling cuttings from this well.
In certain embodiments, for helping, the density measurements from coriolis flowmeter judges whether well-flushing adds any important value.In certain embodiments, the assessment of the well washing effect of density based measurement result is for determining the well-flushing type that will perform and frequency, and it can help to increase the time quantum of boring tower for drilling well.
But the present invention includes disclosed in text and be not limited to following concept.
A kind of system, comprising: one or more detector, is configured at least one feature sensing entry well fluid; One or more detector, is configured at least one feature sensing well fluids; And one or more control system, be configured to receive data from least one described sensor.One or more described detector can comprise coriolis flowmeter, and it can flow in pipeline, or this system can comprise at least one pump, and coriolis flowmeter is on the suction side of at least one pump described.One or more described detector can be configured to senses flow bulk density or mass flow.Control system described at least one can be configured to automatically control drillng operation according to the data from one or more detector.
Quantize a method for well washing effect, comprising: the density measuring entry well fluid, the density measuring well fluids, determine entry well fluid density and and the density going out well fluids between difference, and estimate the amount of the drilling cuttings removed from this well.At least one trend feature according to the fluid density going out well fluids can assess well washing effect.Use the coriolis flowmeter of online installation between at least one wet mud-active tank and at least one slush pump, the density of entry well fluid can be measured, and use the coriolis flowmeter installed in stream pipeline, the density of well fluids can be measured.
In view of this part illustrates, the further amendment of many aspects of the present invention and alternate embodiment can be apparent for those skilled in the art.So this part of explanation should be construed as merely illustrative, and is to instruct those skilled in the art's general execution mode of the present invention.Should be appreciated that the of the present invention some forms showing and introduce should be regarded as currently preferred embodiment herein.The key element of showing herein and introduce and material can be replaced, and some parts and process can be put upside down, and some feature of the present invention can use independently, and those skilled in the art are after the benefit obtaining this part of explanation of the present invention, and all can be apparent.Change can be made to the key element introduced herein and not depart from the spirit and scope of the invention introduced in following claims.In addition, should be appreciated that the some features introduced independently can combine in certain embodiments herein.

Claims (8)

1. quantize a method for well washing effect, comprising:
The fluid density of continuous measurement entry well fluid;
Continuous measurement goes out the fluid density of well fluids;
Continuous measurement entry well fluid fluid density and go out well fluids fluid density while in the selected time, flushing fluid is introduced well, wherein this flushing fluid removes drilling cuttings from described well;
Determine the difference between the fluid density of entry well fluid and the fluid density going out well fluids; And
Estimate the coal powder quantity of bore removed from described well by described flushing fluid, wherein estimated amount is based on the difference between the fluid density of entry well fluid and the fluid density going out well fluids.
2. method according to claim 1, wherein, uses the fluid density of the Coriolis flowmeters measure entry well fluid of online installation between at least one wet mud-active tank and at least one slush pump.
3. method according to claim 1, wherein, uses the Coriolis flowmeters measure installed in stream pipeline to go out the fluid density of well fluids.
4. method according to claim 1, comprise at least one trend gone out in the fluid density of well fluids assessed and be continuously measured further, wherein, at least one trend described provides the instruction of the validity of the described flushing fluid being introduced into described well.
5. method according to claim 4, wherein when the measured fluid density going out well fluids returns its initial level after described flushing fluid is introduced into described well within the desired time, it is effective that the trend instruction assessed removes drilling cuttings from described well.
6. method according to claim 4, wherein when the measured fluid density going out well fluids does not return its initial level after described flushing fluid is introduced into described well within the desired time, it is invalid that the trend instruction assessed removes drilling cuttings from described well.
7. method according to claim 1, wherein, described flushing fluid comprises the flushing fluid or high density flushing fluid that increase the weight of.
8. method according to claim 1, wherein, described flushing fluid comprises high viscosity flushing fluid.
CN201180044729.3A 2010-07-30 2011-07-28 Drillng operation is monitored with flow and density measurements Expired - Fee Related CN103109040B (en)

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