CN102954603A - Flat-panel solar heat collector - Google Patents

Flat-panel solar heat collector Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102954603A
CN102954603A CN2012105152410A CN201210515241A CN102954603A CN 102954603 A CN102954603 A CN 102954603A CN 2012105152410 A CN2012105152410 A CN 2012105152410A CN 201210515241 A CN201210515241 A CN 201210515241A CN 102954603 A CN102954603 A CN 102954603A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
flat
low
collector
glass
plate solar
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Pending
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CN2012105152410A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
陆卫
王少伟
俞立明
王晓芳
陈飞良
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Shanghai Tephys Optoelectronics Co ltd
Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics of CAS
Original Assignee
Shanghai Tephys Optoelectronics Co ltd
Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics of CAS
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Priority to CN2012105152410A priority Critical patent/CN102954603A/en
Publication of CN102954603A publication Critical patent/CN102954603A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24SSOLAR HEAT COLLECTORS; SOLAR HEAT SYSTEMS
    • F24S10/00Solar heat collectors using working fluids
    • F24S10/70Solar heat collectors using working fluids the working fluids being conveyed through tubular absorbing conduits
    • F24S10/75Solar heat collectors using working fluids the working fluids being conveyed through tubular absorbing conduits with enlarged surfaces, e.g. with protrusions or corrugations
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24SSOLAR HEAT COLLECTORS; SOLAR HEAT SYSTEMS
    • F24S70/00Details of absorbing elements
    • F24S70/20Details of absorbing elements characterised by absorbing coatings; characterised by surface treatment for increasing absorption
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24SSOLAR HEAT COLLECTORS; SOLAR HEAT SYSTEMS
    • F24S80/00Details, accessories or component parts of solar heat collectors not provided for in groups F24S10/00-F24S70/00
    • F24S80/50Elements for transmitting incoming solar rays and preventing outgoing heat radiation; Transparent coverings
    • F24S80/52Elements for transmitting incoming solar rays and preventing outgoing heat radiation; Transparent coverings characterised by the material
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24SSOLAR HEAT COLLECTORS; SOLAR HEAT SYSTEMS
    • F24S80/00Details, accessories or component parts of solar heat collectors not provided for in groups F24S10/00-F24S70/00
    • F24S80/50Elements for transmitting incoming solar rays and preventing outgoing heat radiation; Transparent coverings
    • F24S80/56Elements for transmitting incoming solar rays and preventing outgoing heat radiation; Transparent coverings characterised by means for preventing heat loss
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24SSOLAR HEAT COLLECTORS; SOLAR HEAT SYSTEMS
    • F24S80/00Details, accessories or component parts of solar heat collectors not provided for in groups F24S10/00-F24S70/00
    • F24S80/60Thermal insulation
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/40Solar thermal energy, e.g. solar towers
    • Y02E10/44Heat exchange systems

Abstract

The invention relates to a solar heat collector, which sequentially consists of a heat insulation layer, working medium, a metal substrate, an absorption membrane and a low-radiation module from the bottom layer to the top layer; the heat insulation layer is arranged on the bottom layer of the heat collector; the upper part of the heat insulation layer is wrapped by a copper medium pipe or a copper medium cavity for holding the working medium, and the medium pipe or the medium cavity is distributed and welded on the lower part of the metal substrate; and the absorption membrane is precipitated on the upper part of the metal substrate, and the low-radiation module covers the upper part of the absorption membrane. The low-radiation module sequentially consists of coated glass, a low-emissivity membrane which is precipitated on the coated glass, a hollow layer which is arranged above the low-emissivity membrane, a sealing strip supporting the hollow layer and an upper layer of glass which is connected with the sealing strip and arranged above the hollow layer. Due to the adoption of the flat-panel solar heat collector, the performance and the efficiency of the flat-panel solar heat collector can be remarkably improved, and the application range of the flat-panel solar heat collector is greatly enlarged.

Description

A kind of flat-plate solar collector
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of solar thermal collector, particularly a kind of flat plate collector that is suitable for various high, medium and low temperature solar heat utilizations belongs to technical field of solar.
Technical background
Energy problem is that worldwide faces the most one of distinct issues, and solar energy is human inexhaustible, nexhaustible clean energy resource.The solar energy optical-thermal conversion is a kind of the most universal, the main form that solar energy utilizes in the present world wide, and wherein the most representative is exactly solar water heater.China has become and has produced in the world the maximum country of solar water heater, also has maximum in the world Solar Heater Market simultaneously.Can predict, solar water heater will become the solar energy of not replacing and utilize form.
The type of solar water heater is a lot, and its structure mainly is comprised of heat collector and storage heater two large divisions, and wherein heat collector is key problem in technology, is directly connected to utilization ratio, the serviceability of solar water heater and the ambient temperature conditions that can normally move.Be widely used at present solar water heater in the daily life according to the difference of heat collector by using basically can be divided three classes season:
The first kind: can only under summer or hot climate, use.Closing-sunning type and ordinary flat formula are generally arranged.
Equations of The Second Kind: can use when spring, summer, autumn and minimum environment temperature are higher than zero degree, main Types has all-glass vacuum tube type and double glazing flat.This type of heat collector must discharge water inactive when temperature is lower than zero degree, otherwise will cause the frostbite evil of heat collector.
The 3rd class: can use in any weather in the whole year, mainly contain heat pipe glass vacuum tube type heat collector.
20th century the mid-80; solar water heater take flat plate solar collector as critical piece has begun to take shape industry in China; this is for saving conventional energy resource, conservation of nature environment and improving the people's livelihood and all brought into play positive effect; yet because flat-plate solar heat collector can only provide low-temperature water heating and generally can not whole year operation, range of application is restricted.For further improving the operating temperature of heat collector, widen the Application of Solar Energy field, researched and developed all-glass vacuum tube type solar thermal collector and heat pipe one electron tubes type solar thermal collector.
The solar thermal collector of having widely applied mainly contains flat type solar heat collector, all-glass vacuum tube type solar thermal collector, hot pipe type solar heat collector, heat pipe one electron tubes type solar thermal collector, and wherein the all-glass vacuum tube type solar thermal collector captures most domestic market.But the per day efficient of flat type solar heat collector is higher than electron tubes type solar thermal collector in theory, and country is advocating energy-saving and emission-reduction energetically, because flat plate solar water heater separates with storage tank, more flexible, more perfect with Integration of building, easily realize and architecture-integral, caused the concern of industry.Therefore, from the development trend of solar energy collector, the flat solar water heater has huge development potentiality.
Once the flat plate solar water heater that accounted for China's solar water heater dominant position the eighties in 20th century was substituted by full glass vacuum tube solar water heater in nearly more than 20 years gradually, and the market share descends year by year, now is down to about 15%.Yet the same period, such variation did not occur in external solar thermal collector market, and flat plate solar water heater still accounts for dominant position in the world.The hot property of external flat-plate solar collector is compared with all-glass solar vacuum tubular collector, does not almost have difference when the domestic hot water is provided.Authority's Switzerland SPF shows (based on Aperture) to many factory's testing results, and flat-plate solar collector efficiency curve intercept is 0.78~0.81, and heat loss coefficient is at 3.54~4.03 W/ (m 2K); Full glass tube vacuum pipe heat collector (inserted heat pipe or U-shaped pipe) is 0.53~0.61, and heat loss coefficient is at 1.30~2.22 W/ (m 2K).When hot water for life was provided, take Switzerland middle part weather as example, flat-plate solar collector was output as 485~541 W/ (m the whole year 2K), full glass tube vacuum pipe heat collector is output as 466~561 W/ (m the whole year 2K).Although the heat loss coefficient of full glass tube vacuum pipe heat collector is far below flat-plate solar collector, the intercept of flat-plate solar collector efficiency curve is far above full glass tube vacuum pipe heat collector.It is to be noted that mostly the all-glass solar vacuum tubular collector that SPF detects is close arranging pipe.Domestic all-glass solar vacuum tubular collector tube pitch is much bigger, and the thermal efficiency is also lower.
Although the theoretic per day efficient of flat-plate solar collector is higher than electron tubes type solar thermal collector, and the hot property of external flat-plate solar collector is compared with all-glass solar vacuum tubular collector, when the domestic hot water is provided, almost do not have difference, still account for dominant position.But the market share of China's flat-plate solar collector is very low, and weak effect, cost are high.External flat-plate solar collector generally adopts the higher selective coating absorber plate of performance, and the sunshine absorptivity is greater than 90%, and infrared emittance is less than 6%.And the absorber plate of China's flat-plate solar collector, the best infrared emittance of performance also is higher than 20%, and such as the black nickel of electrochemical treatments (being used for aluminium sheet) or black chromium (being used for copper coin), some manufacturer is also at the pitch-dark coating of serviceability extreme difference.
Therefore, flat-plate solar collector (especially China) also has and significantly improves and the space of improving, and key is to improve collecting efficiency and reduces heat loss coefficient.Because the absorptivity size of selective coating has determined the collecting efficiency of whole heat collector, its emissivity has then determined the height of heat loss coefficient, thereby topmost improvement approach is exactly to improve the sunshine absorptivity of selective coating absorber plate and reduce infrared emittance.
Yet, because existing technological approaches is to wish to realize for the high-absorbility of sunshine and the low-launch-rate of medium-wave infrared at same material system, need to the same material system optimized simultaneously this aspect two performance be current whole domestic and international industrial circle all in the direction of making great efforts, also aspect cost and the weather resisteant requirement that cost is low as far as possible, weather resisteant is good is being proposed whole material system simultaneously.Patent of the present invention is exactly to have proposed a kind of new approach for these problems.
Summary of the invention
Deficiency for existing flat-plate solar collector technology and product, the invention discloses a kind of with infrared low emission and two kinds of flat-plate solar collector structures that key function is separated of the high absorption of sunshine, the two can accomplish respectively the best, and has relatively low cost and good weather resisteant energy.Therefore can solve well existing crucial absorbed layer and can't take into account the difficult problem of high absorption and low emission function, when improving solar energy heating efficient, reduce radiation loss, reach the purpose of further efficiently utilizing solar energy.
The technical scheme that realizes the object of the invention is a kind of flat-plate solar collector, is made of thermal insulation layer, working media, metal substrate, absorbing film and low Radiation Module successively to top layer from bottom; Thermal insulation layer is positioned at the heat collector bottom; What thermal insulation layer top coated is copper medium tube or the dielectric cavity of splendid attire working media, and medium tube or dielectric cavity are then laid the bottom that is welded in metal substrate; Absorbing film is deposited on metal substrate top, and low Radiation Module is covered in absorbing film top.Described low Radiation Module from bottom to top successively by coated glass, be deposited on low-emissivity film on the coated glass, be positioned at the hollow layer of low-emissivity film top, the sealing strip of support hollow layer, and formed by the upper strata glass that is positioned at the hollow layer top that sealing strip connects.
The basic functional principle of flat-plate solar collector structure disclosed in this invention is: sunlight incides on the absorbing film by low Radiation Module, be absorbed and be converted into heat after film all absorbs, the metal substrate good by thermal conductivity is passed to working media with heat, working media is heated, and by working media heat is taken away to the heat exchanger of heat storage water tank and to be carried out cycle heat exchange, the heating of the water in the water tank is used the most at last.Because thermal insulation layer is arranged at the absorbing film that temperature is the highest in the flat-plate solar collector during work and the bottom of working media, prevent that heat is by bottom escape loss; The glass of poor thermal conductivity and the low Radiation Module of hollow are arranged at top, have prevented conduction and the radiation loss of heat by top, greatly reduce the heat loss coefficient of product.
Described thermal insulation layer adopts good heat insulating, i.e. the little material of thermal conductivity, and not yielding or volatilization does not produce toxic gas, does not absorb, and usually requires thermal conductivity to be not more than 0.06W/ (m ℃).Available material has: rock wool, mineral wool, polyurethane, blowing agent, polystyrene, aeroge or phenol formaldehyde foam.Can select suitable heat-barrier material according to operating temperature.
Described working media is heat-conducting fluid, preferably, described working media is anti-icing fluid, can use pump to drive anti-icing fluid cycle heat exchange between the heat exchanger of flat-plate solar collector and heat storage water tank, freezing and freezing problem of water in the flat-plate solar collector can be fundamentally solved like this, the problem of water fouling in the flat-plate solar collector can be eliminated simultaneously.
Described metal substrate is the substrate that is coated with absorbing film, the Au of various good heat conductivity, Ag, Cu, Al, Ni metal or their alloy and combination all can be used as metal substrate, and its combination can be to be coated with another kind of metal film on a kind of metal substrate therein.Preferably, take the low Al of cost as substrate or the low Cu of infrared emittance as substrate or cost and infrared emittance all the lower upper plating of Al Cu film as substrate.
Described absorbing film is to the unrestricted high absorbing membrane material of sunshine that requires of emissivity, because solar radiant energy mainly is distributed in 0.3-2.5 μ m, commonly used has energy gap at the semiconductor of 0.5eV (2.5 μ m) to 1.24eV (1.0 μ m), such as Si (1.1eV), Ge (0.7eV) and PbS (0.4eV) etc., just meaningful for the selective absorption of solar energy.Transition metal such as Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Cr and Mn etc., its absorption mechanism is similar to semiconductor, such as black chromium (CrO x), the absorbing films such as black nickel (NiS-ZnS) and black cobalt, and NiCr.Preferably, with the high material of absorptivity as absorbing film, to improve the collecting efficiency of flat-plate solar collector, such as NiO x, CrN xO y, TiN xO y, AIN xO y, AlCuFe, maximum absorbance is near 99%.
Described coated glass is for being coated with simple glass, building glass or the float glass of low transmitting film, and thickness is 2~20mm.Preferably, with the good float glass of surface smoothness as coated glass.
Described low transmitting film is in order to prevent that the solar energy that flat-plate solar collector is collected by absorbing film from escaping with the form of radiation, to reduce the heat loss coefficient of whole heat collector, improve efficiency of utilization, can adopt low radiation monofilm or multilayer complex films, such as single silverskin system, two silverskin system and three silverskin system.Preferably, with emissivity can be less than 5%, lower-cost single silverskin system is coated on the coated glass as low transmitting film.
Described sealing strip is weather-proof sealing strip.
Described hollow layer is sealed in the hollow layer between coated glass and the upper strata glass, comprises air, nitrogen and inert gas helium, neon, argon gas, Krypton, xenon, radon gas, also can be evacuated; Its effect mainly contains two aspects: the low transmitting film that 1) is coated with on the protection coated glass, avoid its oxidation or sex change; 2) play effect heat insulation and the reduction heat loss.Preferably, hollow layer can be evacuated, with the heat loss coefficient of the whole heat collector of remarkable reduction.
Described upper strata glass material can be identical with coated glass, also can be different; Thickness can be identical with coated glass, also can be different, its thickness guarantee under the prerequisite of sufficient intensity thin as far as possible, to improve the light transmittance of sunlight.Preferably, upper strata glass adopts safety glass, when guaranteeing transmitance, and the security that improves whole solar thermal collector.
Calculate the employing limited element analysis technique based on the empty theory of burning temperature of collector structure of the present invention, computational process is as follows:
(1) at first constructs collector structure model of the present invention;
(2) then each parameter and edge-restraint condition thereof in this structure are set.Comprise: the heat conduction of the sun plane of incidence, convection current, radiation, the glass heat coefficient of conductivity, the air coefficient of heat conduction, the thermoradiation efficiency of air layer both sides, the absorptivity of absorbed layer and emissivity in the heat collector;
(3) sky that utilizes at last thermal analysis module in the limited element analysis technique to calculate respectively collector structure of the present invention under the different radiances of absorbed layer and the absorptivity burns temperature;
(4) this calculating employing AM1.5 standard solar energy irradiation earth power is 1000 W/m 2
Following table is to utilize the empty result who burns temperature of limited element analysis technique calculating book invention collector structure, wherein laterally represents in the certain situation of radiance, empty burn temperature with the variation of sunlight irradiation (namely with the variation of absorption coefficient.For example, 900 W/m 2Changing into absorptivity is 90%; 800 W/m 2Changing into absorptivity is 80%, by that analogy); Vertically represent in the certain situation of solar irradiation, the empty temperature of burning is with emissivity change.
Result of calculation shows, when the thermal conductivity of thermal insulation layer is that vacuum layer (perhaps being inert gas or the air) thickness that the thickness of 0.005W/ (m ℃), glass and upper strata glass is 4mm, intermediate seal is 16 mm or 20mm, solar energy irradiation earth power is 1000 W/m 2When (this numerical value is generally taked in the solar cell analog computation), suppose that irradiation all arrives absorbed layer, then emptyly burn temperature with the variation of emissivity as shown in Figure 2.When emissivity increased gradually, the empty temperature of burning descended rapidly, tends towards stability at last.To partially absorb 90% absorptivity that material can both reach as example, when emissivity was 0.01, the empty temperature of burning can reach 471 ℃ high temperature solar heat utilization (T〉400 ℃) zone; When emissivity was between 0.02~0.10, the empty temperature of burning still was in 397 ℃~235 ℃ middle temperature solar heat utilization (400 ℃〉T〉100 ℃) zone.As long as absorptivity 330%, emissivity is burnt temperature between the sky of structure between 0.01~0.10 all can reach middle temperature solar heat utilization more than 115 ℃ (400 ℃〉T〉100 ℃) zone; When the emissivity of low transmitting film is not higher than 0.06, only need the absorptivity of absorbing film to reach 20%, can make the empty temperature of burning reach required 102 ℃ of middle temperature solar heat utilization.Therefore, adopt novel heat collector structure proposed by the invention, the performance indications requirement that can exceed easily the low-temperature solar energy heat utilization, reach the performance indications of middle temperature solar heat utilization, significantly reduce restriction and requirement to material, thereby so that carrying the high performance while, reduce cost.Even can be applied directly to high temperature solar heat utilization field, highly beneficial for improving flat-plate solar collector performance, reduction cost, expanded application field and enlarging market.
Empty burn temperature with the variation of absorptivity as shown in Figure 3.When absorptivity increased gradually, the empty temperature of burning rose rapidly; The emissivity of low-launch-rate module is lower, and the absorptivity of absorbing film is larger, and the raising of empty burning temperature is just more remarkable.For the low transmitting film that single silverskin system can reach 0.01 emissivity, as long as the absorptivity of absorbing film reaches more than 80%, can make the sky of heat collector burn temperature and reach high temperature solar heat utilization zone more than 435 ℃, be dirt cheap efficient.Same, as long as the absorptivity 330% of absorbing film, the emissivity of low transmitting film is burnt temperature between the sky of structure between 0.01~0.10 all can reach middle temperature solar heat utilization more than 115 ℃ (400 ℃〉T〉100 ℃) zone; When the emissivity of low transmitting film is not higher than 0.06, only need the absorptivity of absorbing film to reach 20%, can make the empty temperature of burning reach the required temperature of middle temperature solar heat utilization, very low to the requirement of absorbing film.
Further, consider the energy transmitance of practical structures, the energy with 60% sees through (namely only has 600 W/m 2Irradiation arrives absorbed layer) calculate, emptyly burn temperature with the variation of emissivity as shown in Figure 4.When emissivity increased gradually, the empty temperature of burning descended rapidly, tends towards stability at last.When the emissivity of low transmitter module was 0.01, as long as the absorptivity of absorbing film was greater than 83%, can make the empty temperature of burning reach middle temperature solar heat utilization more than 300 ℃; When absorptivity near 100% the time, as long as the emissivity of low-launch-rate module also can make the empty temperature of burning above 300 ℃ less than 0.02.As long as the absorptivity of absorbing film surpasses 40%, emissivity is between 0.01~0.10 the time, emptyly burns the zone (100 ℃<T<400 ℃) that temperature still can reach middle temperature solar heat utilization.Therefore, adopt novel heat collector structure proposed by the invention, the performance indications requirement that can exceed easily the low-temperature solar energy heat utilization, reach the performance indications of middle temperature solar heat utilization, significantly reduce restriction and requirement to material, thereby so that carrying the high performance while, reduce cost, highly beneficial for improving flat-plate solar collector performance, reduction cost, expanded application field and enlarging market.
Sky when considering practical structures 60% energy transmitance burns temperature with absorption variations as shown in Figure 5.When absorptivity increased gradually, the empty temperature of burning rose rapidly; The emissivity of low-launch-rate module is lower, and the absorptivity of absorbing film is larger, and the raising of empty burning temperature is just more remarkable.For the low transmitting film that single silverskin system can reach 0.01 emissivity, as long as the absorptivity of absorbing film reaches more than 25%, can make the sky of heat collector burn temperature and reach the zone of middle temperature solar heat utilization more than 100 ℃, be dirt cheap efficient.As long as the absorptivity 345% of absorbing film, the emissivity of low transmitting film is burnt temperature between the sky of structure between 0.01~0.10 all can reach middle temperature solar heat utilization (100 ℃<T<400 ℃) zone more than 100 ℃.
Adopted technique scheme, the present invention has following positive effect:
(1) compared to existing flat-plate solar collector structure, the present invention separates design with high the absorption with two kinds of key functions of infrared low emission of sunshine, can accomplish respectively the best, solved well and had the difficult problem that on the same material system, can't take into account high absorption and low emission function now, can obtain simultaneously the flat-plate solar collector of high absorption and low radiation, absorptivity and emissivity reach respectively 99% and 1%, significantly improve the collecting efficiency of flat-plate solar collector and reduce heat loss coefficient.
(2) since absorptivity and emissivity can independent design, The Gift of Being the Best You Can Be respectively, therefore the efficiency of utilization of heat collector significantly improves, temperature is burnt in high-altitude can surpass 400 degree, be suitable for various high, medium and low temperature solar heat utilizations, greatly expanded the scope of application of flat-plate solar collector.
(3) because structure of the present invention will absorb with emitting performance and separate, greatly increase flexibility and the range of choice of product design, can for the corresponding material of concrete Market Selection and structure, be conducive to reduce cost.
(4) adopt low radiation hollow structural design, significantly reduce because of radiation-induced heat loss.
Adopt the low Radiation Module of hollow above absorbing film, hollow structure is comprised of two blocks of glass and sealing strip, low-emissivity film that is coated with on glass wherein, and low-emissivity film is in the inboard of hollow structure; Preferably, low-radiation film is near absorbing film one side, to reduce better external radiation loss.Simultaneously, hollow structure itself also can play effect heat insulation and the reduction heat loss, farthest reduces the heat loss coefficient of whole heat collector.
Description of drawings
Accompanying drawing 1 high-efficient flat-plate solar thermal collector structural representation disclosed in this invention.
Attached number in the figure is:
1, thermal insulation layer; 2, working media; 3, metal substrate; 4, absorbing film; 5, low Radiation Module;
51, coated glass; 52, low transmitting film; 53, sealing strip; 54, hollow layer; 55, upper strata glass.
Accompanying drawing 2 hypothesis 1000 W/m 2When irradiation can all arrive heat-sink shell, in the different absorptivity situations, the empty temperature of burning was with the change curve of emissivity.
Accompanying drawing 3 hypothesis 1000 W/m 2When irradiation can all arrive heat-sink shell, in the different emissivity situations, the empty temperature of burning was with the change curve of absorptivity.
Accompanying drawing 4 hypothesis 1000 W/m 2When irradiation only had 60% can arrive heat-sink shell, in the different absorptivity situations, the empty temperature of burning was with the change curve of emissivity.
Accompanying drawing 5 hypothesis 1000 W/m 2When irradiation only had 60% can arrive heat-sink shell, in the different emissivity situations, the empty temperature of burning was with the change curve of absorptivity.
The specific embodiment
For making content of the present invention, technical scheme and advantage clearer, further set forth the present invention below in conjunction with specific embodiment, these embodiment only are used for explanation the present invention, but the present invention is not limited only to following examples.Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing the specific embodiment of the present invention is elaborated:
Embodiment 1: the empty temperature of burning is in the flat-plate solar collector structure of low-temperature solar energy heat utilization scope
As shown in Figure 1, the described flat-plate solar collector structure of the present embodiment is comprised of thermal insulation layer 1, working media 2, metal substrate 3, absorbing film 4 and low Radiation Module 5 to top layer successively from bottom.Thermal insulation layer 1 is positioned at the heat collector bottom; What its upper strata coated is copper medium tube or the dielectric cavity of splendid attire working media 2, and medium tube or dielectric cavity are then laid the reverse side that is welded in metal substrate 3; Absorbing film 4 is deposited on metal substrate 3 fronts, and low Radiation Module 5 is covered on the absorbing film 4.
Wherein low Radiation Module 5 from bottom to top successively by coated glass 51, be deposited on low-emissivity film 52 on 51, be positioned at the hollow layer 54 of 52 tops, the sealing strip 53 of support hollow layer 54, and formed by the upper strata glass 55 that is positioned at the hollow layer top that sealing strip connects.
Described thermal insulation layer 1 is that polyurethane plate is combined with blowing agent, or the thermal insulation layer of blowing agent formation.
Described working media 2 is antifreeze conductive fluid, can fundamentally solve freezing and freezing problem of water in the flat-plate solar collector, eliminates simultaneously the problem of water fouling in the flat-plate solar collector.
Described metal substrate 3 is for being coated with the substrate of absorbing film, and the present embodiment adopts the low Al substrate of cost.
Described absorbing film 4 is absorptivity greater than 80% black chromium (CrO x) as absorbing film.
Described coated glass 51 is the thick float glass of 4mm.
Described low transmitting film 52 be take emissivity as 10%, single silverskin system that cost is low is coated on the coated glass 51 as low transmitting film, film structure is Glass/ZnO/Ag/ZnO/Si 3N 4
Described sealing strip 53 is weather-proof sealing strips.
Described hollow layer 54 is sealed in the air layer between coated glass 51 and the upper strata glass 55.
Described upper strata glass 55 is the thick float glass of 4mm.
The theoretical empty temperature of burning that see through to arrive absorbed layer based on above-mentioned collector structure parameter, energy take 60% is 170 ℃.
The flat-plate solar collector of the present embodiment is applicable in the daily solar water heater of low-temperature solar energy heat utilization fully.
Embodiment 2: the empty temperature of burning is in the flat-plate solar collector structure of middle temperature solar heat utilization scope
The described flat-plate solar collector structure of the present embodiment is comprised of thermal insulation layer 1, working media 2, metal substrate 3, absorbing film 4 and low Radiation Module 5 to top layer successively from bottom.Thermal insulation layer 1 is positioned at the heat collector bottom; What its upper strata coated is copper medium tube or the dielectric cavity of splendid attire working media 2, and medium tube or dielectric cavity are then laid the reverse side that is welded in metal substrate 3; Absorbing film 4 is deposited on metal substrate 3 fronts, and low Radiation Module 5 is covered on the absorbing film 4.
Wherein low Radiation Module 5 from bottom to top successively by coated glass 51, be deposited on low-emissivity film 52 on 51, be positioned at the hollow layer 54 of 52 tops, the sealing strip 53 of support hollow layer 54, and formed by the upper strata glass 55 that is positioned at the hollow layer top that sealing strip connects.
Described thermal insulation layer 1 is that polyurethane plate is combined with blowing agent, or the thermal insulation layer of blowing agent formation.
Described working media 2 is antifreeze conductive fluid, can fundamentally solve freezing and freezing problem of water in the flat-plate solar collector, eliminates simultaneously the problem of water fouling in the flat-plate solar collector.
Described metal substrate 3 is for being coated with the substrate of absorbing film, and the present embodiment adopts the low Al substrate plating Cu film of cost.
Described absorbing film 4 is absorptivity greater than 90% blue titanium film (TiN xO y) as absorbing film, the high energy of absorptivity reaches 96%.
Described coated glass 51 is the thick float glass of 4mm.
Described low transmitting film 52 be take emissivity as 5%, lower-cost single silverskin system is coated on the coated glass 51 as low transmitting film, film structure is Glass/ZnO/Ag/ZnO/Si 3N 4
Described sealing strip 53 is weather-proof sealing strips.
Described hollow layer 54 is sealed in the blanket of nitrogen between coated glass 51 and the upper strata glass 55.
Described upper strata glass 55 is the thick float glass of 4mm.
The theoretical empty temperature of burning that see through to arrive absorbed layer based on above-mentioned collector structure parameter, energy take 60% is 230 ℃.
The flat-plate solar collector of the present embodiment is applicable in the daily solar thermal collector of middle temperature solar heat utilization fully.
Embodiment 3: the empty temperature of burning is in the flat-plate solar collector structure of middle temperature solar heat utilization scope
The described flat-plate solar collector structure of the present embodiment is comprised of thermal insulation layer 1, working media 2, metal substrate 3, absorbing film 4 and low Radiation Module 5 to top layer successively from bottom.Thermal insulation layer 1 is positioned at the heat collector bottom; What its upper strata coated is copper medium tube or the dielectric cavity of splendid attire working media 2, and medium tube or dielectric cavity are then laid the reverse side that is welded in metal substrate 3; Absorbing film 4 is deposited on metal substrate 3 fronts, and low Radiation Module 5 is covered on the absorbing film 4.
Wherein low Radiation Module 5 from bottom to top successively by coated glass 51, be deposited on low-emissivity film 52 on 51, be positioned at the hollow layer 54 of 52 tops, the sealing strip 53 of support hollow layer 54, and formed by the upper strata glass 55 that is positioned at the hollow layer top that sealing strip connects.
Described thermal insulation layer 1 is that polyurethane plate is combined with blowing agent, or the thermal insulation layer of blowing agent formation.
Described working media 2 is antifreeze conductive fluid, can fundamentally solve freezing and freezing problem of water in the flat-plate solar collector, eliminates simultaneously the problem of water fouling in the flat-plate solar collector.
Described metal substrate 3 is for being coated with the substrate of absorbing film, and the present embodiment adopts the Cu substrate.
Described absorbing film 4 is the CrN of absorptivity 83% xO yAs absorbing film.
Described coated glass 51 is the thick float glass of 4mm.
Described low transmitting film 52 be take emissivity as 1%, single silverskin system that performance is good is coated on the coated glass 51 as low transmitting film, film structure is Glass/ZnO/Ag/ZnO/Si 3N 4
Described sealing strip 53 is weather-proof sealing strips.
Described hollow layer 54 is sealed in the blanket of nitrogen between coated glass 51 and the upper strata glass 55.
Described upper strata glass 55 is the thick float glass of 4mm.
The theoretical empty temperature of burning that see through to arrive absorbed layer based on above-mentioned collector structure parameter, energy take 60% is 315 ℃.
The flat-plate solar collector of the present embodiment is applicable in the daily solar thermal collector of middle temperature solar heat utilization fully.
Embodiment 4: the empty temperature of burning is in the flat-plate solar collector structure of middle temperature solar heat utilization scope
The described flat-plate solar collector structure of the present embodiment is comprised of thermal insulation layer 1, working media 2, metal substrate 3, absorbing film 4 and low Radiation Module 5 to top layer successively from bottom.Thermal insulation layer 1 is positioned at the heat collector bottom; What its upper strata coated is copper medium tube or the dielectric cavity of splendid attire working media 2, and medium tube or dielectric cavity are then laid the reverse side that is welded in metal substrate 3; Absorbing film 4 is deposited on metal substrate 3 fronts, and low Radiation Module 5 is covered on the absorbing film 4.
Wherein low Radiation Module 5 from bottom to top successively by coated glass 51, be deposited on low-emissivity film 52 on 51, be positioned at the hollow layer 54 of 52 tops, the sealing strip 53 of support hollow layer 54, and formed by the upper strata glass 55 that is positioned at the hollow layer top that sealing strip connects.
Described thermal insulation layer 1 is that polyurethane plate is combined with blowing agent, or the thermal insulation layer of blowing agent formation.
Described working media 2 is antifreeze conductive fluid, can fundamentally solve freezing and freezing problem of water in the flat-plate solar collector, eliminates simultaneously the problem of water fouling in the flat-plate solar collector.
Described metal substrate 3 is for being coated with the substrate of absorbing film, and the present embodiment adopts the low Al substrate plating Cu film of cost.
Described absorbing film 4 reaches 99% NiO for absorptivity xAs absorbing film.
Described coated glass 51 is the thick float glass of 4mm.
Described low transmitting film 52 be take emissivity as 1%, single silverskin system that performance is good is coated on the coated glass 51 as low transmitting film, film structure is Glass/ZnO/Ag/ZnO/Si 3N 4
Described sealing strip 53 is weather-proof sealing strips.
Described hollow layer 54 is sealed in the vacuum layer between coated glass 51 and the upper strata glass 55.
Described upper strata glass 55 is the thick float glass of 4mm.
The theoretical empty temperature of burning that see through to arrive absorbed layer based on above-mentioned collector structure parameter, energy take 60% is 345 ℃.
The flat-plate solar collector of the present embodiment is applicable in the daily solar thermal collector of middle temperature solar heat utilization fully.
Above-described embodiment proves, of the present invention a kind of high, in, the flat plate collector that the low-temperature solar energy heat utilization all is suitable for, possessing simultaneously high solar from tradition by absorbing film selectively absorbs different with infrared low radiation functions, the present invention absorbs height and separates with low radiation functions, eliminated the relation that mutually restricts between the two, so that two kinds of functions can reach best simultaneously in the heat collector, thereby significantly promote the efficiency of utilization of heat collector, reduce its heat loss coefficient, add the insulated design of hollow, make high-altitude burn temperature and can surpass 400 ℃ high temperature solar heat utilization, significantly promote performance and the efficient of flat-plate solar collector, greatly expanded the scope of application of flat-plate solar collector.

Claims (12)

1. a flat-plate solar collector is characterized in that: be made of thermal insulation layer (1), working media (2), metal substrate (3), absorbing film (4) and low Radiation Module (5) successively to top layer from bottom; Thermal insulation layer (1) is positioned at the heat collector bottom; What thermal insulation layer (1) top coated is copper medium tube or the dielectric cavity of splendid attire working media (2), and medium tube or dielectric cavity are then laid the bottom that is welded in metal substrate (3); Absorbing film (4) is deposited on metal substrate (3) top, and low Radiation Module (5) is covered in absorbing film (4) top.
2. a kind of flat-plate solar collector according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: the material of described thermal insulation layer (1) is any one or more of rock wool, mineral wool, polyurethane, blowing agent, polystyrene, aeroge or phenol formaldehyde foam.
3. a kind of flat-plate solar collector according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: described working media (2) is the heat-conducting fluid of one of water, anti-icing fluid or oils.
4. a kind of flat-plate solar collector according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: the material of described metal substrate (3) is one of Au, Ag, Cu, Al, Ni or stainless steel metal, or their alloy, or their combination; The mode of described combination is to be coated with another kind of metal film on a kind of metal substrate therein.
5. a kind of flat-plate solar collector according to claim 4 is characterized in that: the material of described metal substrate (3) is Al, Cu or the upper plating of Al Cu film.
6. a kind of flat-plate solar collector according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: described absorbing film (4) material is to the unrestricted high absorbing membrane material of sunshine that requires of emissivity, according to different serviceability temperature scopes, choose the thin-film material of different absorptivities; Comprise Si, Ge, PbS, black chromium (CrO x), black nickel (NiS-ZnS), black cobalt (CoO x), black copper (CuO x), NiCr, NiO x, CrN xO y, TiN xO y, AlN xO y, AlCuFe, AlN-Al or Fe 3O 4
7. a kind of flat-plate solar collector according to claim 6 is characterized in that: with the high material of absorptivity as absorbing film, preferred NiO x, CrN xO y, TiN xO y, AlN xO or AlCuFe.
8. a kind of flat-plate solar collector according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: described low Radiation Module (5) from bottom to top successively by coated glass (51), be deposited on low-emissivity film (52) on the coated glass (51), be positioned at the hollow layer (54) of low-emissivity film (52) top, the sealing strip (53) of support hollow layer (54), and formed by the upper strata glass (55) that is positioned at the hollow layer top that sealing strip connects.
9. a kind of flat-plate solar collector according to claim 8, it is characterized in that: described coated glass (51) and upper strata glass (55) are that thickness is the common float glass process safety glass of 2~20mm.
10. a kind of flat-plate solar collector according to claim 8 is characterized in that: described low-emissivity film (52) is to adopt monofilm or the multilayer complex films of low radiation.
11. a kind of flat-plate solar collector according to claim 10 is characterized in that: described low-emissivity film (52) is emissivity less than 5% single silverskin system.
12. a kind of flat-plate solar collector according to claim 8, it is characterized in that: described hollow layer (54) is sealed between coated glass (51) and the upper strata glass (55), fills air, nitrogen, inert gas in the described hollow layer or is vacuum.
CN2012105152410A 2012-12-05 2012-12-05 Flat-panel solar heat collector Pending CN102954603A (en)

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