CN102912236B - High-performance and abrasion-resistant hot work die steel and technology for manufacturing same - Google Patents

High-performance and abrasion-resistant hot work die steel and technology for manufacturing same Download PDF

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CN102912236B
CN102912236B CN201210454624.1A CN201210454624A CN102912236B CN 102912236 B CN102912236 B CN 102912236B CN 201210454624 A CN201210454624 A CN 201210454624A CN 102912236 B CN102912236 B CN 102912236B
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steel
cooling
forging
temperature
stove
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CN102912236A (en
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李静媛
霍建华
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北京科技大学
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Abstract

The invention relates to high-performance and abrasion-resistant hot work die steel and a technology for manufacturing the same and belongs to the alloy steel manufacturing process field. The steel is characterized in that appropriate nitrogen is added in steel, the carbon amount is reduced correspondingly, and the steel comprises 0.30% to 0.37% of C, 0.02% to 0.07% of N, 0.8% to 1.20% of Si, 0.2% to 0.5% of Mn, 5.00% to 5.50% of Cr, 1.20% to 1.75% of Mo, 0,80% to 1.20% of V, less than 0.025% of P, less than 0.005% of S, and the balance Fe. Processes for manufacturing the die steel include compounding, atmospheric furnace smelting, electroslag re-melting, stress relief annealing, six direction forging, isothermal spheroidizing and tough strengthening treatment, that is, oil cooling when the steel is heated to 1040 DEG C to 1070 DEG C and tempering at a temperature ranging from 570 DEG C to 600 DEG C. The high-performance and abrasion-resistant hot work die steel has proprieties of rigidity, impact toughness and the like are superior than those of ordinary H13 steel.

Description

A kind of high-performance abrasion-proof hot-work die steel and preparation technology thereof
Technical field
The present invention relates to the wear-resisting hot-work die steel of a kind of novel high-performance and preparation technology thereof.Novel high-performance abrasion-proof die steel steel makes full use of the similarities and differences of nitrogen carbon effect in iron-based body, by adding micro-alloying element nitrogen, suitably reduce carbon element content, after Overheating Treatment, the strengthening of performance nitrogen element solid solution, crystal grain thinning, suppress the effect of Carbide Precipitation, have than the more outstanding performance of common H13 steel, and nitrogen belongs to green element, have very large development prospect.Belong to steel alloy manufacturing process technology field.
Background technology
H13 die steel is a kind of application hot-work die steel very widely.The H13 die steel ubiquity using at present wears no resistance, and the phenomenon that work-ing life is on the low side makes metal fever converted products production cost high.High rigidity and high tenacity are to improve the prerequisite in die steel life-span.Improve die steel performance, can set about from both direction, the one, change alloying constituent and smelting technology, the 2nd, optimize thermal treatment process.The alloying element that plays high temperature heat resistance and thermostability in hot-work die steel is the element such as Cr, V normally, and therefore current many research work are mainly the adjustment to these alloying elements.Yet, die steel is to be used for realizing its highly malleablized by secondary hardening during Carbide Precipitation in drawing process, is not reducing under the prerequisite of die steel performance as seen, changes carbon content, seek also may adjust hot-work die steel performance for carbon, pursuing, low-carbon economy is all the more so in future.
In North America die casting standard NADCA#207-2003, the chemical composition of high-quality H13 steel adopts C 0.37 ~ 0.42wt% at present, Cr 5.00 ~ 5.50wt%, V 0.80 ~ 1.20wt%, Mo 1.20 ~ 1.75wt%, Si 0.80 ~ 1.20wt%, Mn 0.20 ~ 0.50wt%, P≤0.025wt%, S≤0.005wt%,, owing to containing a large amount of secondary hardening elements, the alligatoring of easily growing up under condition under arms of its tempering state proeutectoid carbide, and the alloying element in tempered martensite also easily separates out and reduce the intensity of steel, thereby the high-temperature behavior of die steel is also decreased.In NADCA#207-2003, the performance index of high-quality H13 steel are: after 1030 ℃ are quenched+590 tempering, Rockwell hardness number is 44HRC ~ 46HRC, and the summer is than the notched bar impact strength aK>=10J/cm of v-notch 2, above hardness value and notched bar impact strength are key technical index, are to weigh the main technical details of steel quality quality for hot-extrusion mold.
We find summary of the invention recently, adding of the nitrogen alloying element of trace, original austenite grain after can the tempering of refinement H13 steel, and after tempering, nitrogen element is replaced solid solution in matrix by carbon, thereby plays raising hardness, the effect of refinement carbide, below all contribute to, guaranteeing that die steel hardness is technical, to improve the toughness of steel.Therefore, pursuing under the Development patterns of low-carbon economy, high-performance abrasion-proof hot-work die steel arises at the historic moment.
In order to address the above problem, the object of this invention is to provide a kind of by adding micro-nitrogen alloying element, original austenite grain after can the tempering of refinement H13 steel, and after tempering, nitrogen element is replaced solid solution in matrix by carbon, thereby plays raising hardness, the effect of refinement carbide, below all contribute to, guaranteeing that die steel hardness is technical, to improve high-performance abrasion-proof hot-work die steel and the thermal treatment process thereof of the toughness of steel.
Technical scheme of the present invention is: a kind of high-performance abrasion-proof hot-work die steel, hot-work die steel is characterised in that sets up new alloy ingredient scope and system of heat treatment process, obtains high-strength and high ductility long lifetime hot-work die steel.The mass percent of each principal element is:
C:0.30 ~ 0.37%; N:0.02 ~ 0.07%; Si:0.8 ~ 1.20%; Mn:0.2 ~ 0.5%; Cr:5.00 ~ 5.50%; Mo:1.20 ~ 1.75%; V:0.80 ~ 1.20%; P < 0.025%, S < 0.005%, Fe, surplus.
Further, in the chemical composition of this steel, the mass ratio of each main alloy element is: C:0.37%, N:0.03%, Si:0.93%, Mn:0.39%, Cr:5.23%, Mo:1.58%, V:1.06%, P < 0.025%, S < 0.005%, Fe, surplus.
Another object of the present invention is to provide for the step of preparation process of above-mentioned high-performance abrasion-proof hot-work die steel as follows:
A, smelting: according to the chemical composition mass percent of high-performance abrasion-proof hot-work die steel: C:0.30 ~ 0.37%; N:0.02 ~ 0.07%; Si:0.8 ~ 1.20%; Mn:0.2 ~ 0.5%; Cr:5.00 ~ 5.50%; Mo:1.20 ~ 1.75%; V:0.80 ~ 1.20%; P < 0.025%, S < 0.005%, Fe, surplus is prepared burden, and then induction melting carries out esr;
B, stress relief annealing: after esr, obtain steel ingot, steel ingot be warmed up to 800 ℃ with stove, be then down to 740 ℃ insulation 3 ~ 6h after furnace cooling;
C, forging: the steel ingot of processing through above-mentioned steps is slowly warmed up to 850 ℃ of preheating 3h with the rate of heating of≤50 ℃/h, guarantee uniform well-burnt, then continue to be heated to 1100 ℃ of above insulation 2h, come out of the stove and carry out six sides forging, each operation upset ratio >=2, total forging ratio >=4, final forging temperature is controlled at more than 850 ℃, proceeds in time and in hot sand, carry out Slow cooling after stopping forging;
D, isothermal spheroidizing: the steel ingot that above-mentioned steps was processed is warming up to 890 ℃ ~ 930 ℃ insulations with stove, be chilled to 730 ℃ of constant temperature soon afterwards, insulation 3-6 hour, then to be less than the speed of 50 ℃/h, drop to below 450 ℃ the air cooling of coming out of the stove;
E, quenching and tempering process: the steel ingot of processing through above-mentioned steps is quenched, and quenching temperature is 1030 ℃ ~ 1070 ℃, below oil cooling to 200 ℃, tempering immediately 2 ~ 3 times, each 2 ~ 4h, 570 ℃ ~ 600 ℃ of tempering temperatures, high-performance abrasion-proof hot-work die steel.
The principle that the present invention improves thermal treatment process is as follows:
This hot-work die steel is compared with common H13 steel, has suitably added nitrogen element, and has reduced corresponding carbon content, guarantees that the total amount of carbon nitrogen meets 0.37 ~ 0.42%.Nearest research finds that nitrogen element can refine austenite crystal grain, and after tempering, nitrogen element solid solution, in matrix, suppresses Carbide Precipitation, and above to guaranteeing die steel hardness, improving die steel toughness has very large benefit.High-performance abrasion-proof H13 steel will be brought into play the effect of nitrogen, must make corresponding adjustment to thermal treatment process.The isothermal temperature in two stages during common H13 steel isothermal spheroidizing is respectively 870 ℃ ~ 890 ℃ and 740 ℃ ~ 760 ℃.Due to many nitrogen elements in nitrogen alloying H13 steel, for making composition even, suitably the isothermal temperature of first stage is increased to 890 ℃ ~ 930 ℃, in addition the A of common H13 steel r1temperature is about 770 ℃, after adding the nitrogen element that expands austenitic area, and A r1can suitably reduce, so subordinate phase, if be still as the criterion with 750 ℃ of original left and right, will cause because condensate depression is less the annealing uneven distribution of carbide afterwards, the final toughness of H13 steel be produced to adverse influence.So subordinate phase isothermal temperature is reduced to 730 ℃ of left and right.
Quenching temperature, also selects, than 1040 ℃ ~ 1070 ℃ of 1030 ℃ higher of common H13 steel, can improve like this content of solid solution alloy element in matrix, increases temper resistance potentiality.According to phasor, can learn, 570 ℃ ~ 600 ℃ is the temperature of nitrogen element solubleness maximum in matrix, now can bring into play the maximum effect of nitrogen element.
High-performance abrasion-proof hot-work die steel is after the above-mentioned thermal treatment of process, and under its identical toughness reguirements, hardness will be higher than top grade (premium) the H13 steel requirement of North America die casting standard (NADCA#207-2003).
Annex explanation
Fig. 1 high-performance abrasion-proof hot-work die steel after heat treatment organize metallograph.
The tempered-hardness curve of Fig. 2 high-performance abrasion-proof hot-work die steel and common H13 steel.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with specific embodiment to technical scheme of the present invention
Embodiment 1:
The chemical composition of the high-performance abrasion-proof hot-work die steel adopting in this example and content (wt%) thereof are as follows:
C:0.37; N:0.029; Si:0.93; Mn:0.39; Cr:5.23; Mo:1.58; V:1.06; P:0.022%, S:0.045%, Fe surplus.
In this example, technological process and the step of die steel are as follows:
A) electrosmelting: by above-mentioned alloying element proportioning, carry out melting, be cast into the electric shock baton of Φ 90mm.
B) esr: the steel ingot of casting is placed in to electroslag furnace, carries out esr.Electrode voltage 45V, current of electric 3000A.
C) stress relief annealing: after electroslag, steel ingot is warmed up to 800 ℃ with stove, be then down to 740 ℃ insulation 4h after furnace cooling.
D) forge: by the steel ingot after above-mentioned annealing, Heating temperature to 1150 ℃, carries out six sides forging; Total forging ratio >=4, each operation upset ratio >=2, final forging temperature is controlled at more than 850 ℃.After stopping forging, proceed in time and in hot sand, carry out Slow cooling.
E, isothermal spheroidizing technique are: 890 ℃ * 4h/ rapid cooling+730 ℃ * 3h/ stove is cold, with the rate of cooling of≤50 ℃/h, is down to 450 ℃ of air coolings of coming out of the stove below.
F, the temper of quenching: 1050 ℃ of quenching temperatures, oil cooling.Tempering temperature is 590 ℃, double tempering, for the first time 2.0h, for the second time 2h.
High-performance abrasion-proof hot-work die steel of the present invention allows after thermal treatment through above-mentioned, carries out performance test:
Hardness test: after tempering, hardness is 49HRC.
On blank, the average impact value of room temperature is 15.8J/cm than V mouth impact specimen (North America die casting standard) the accurate summer of label taking -2, minimum value > 11.0J/cm -2.
In North America die casting standard, H13 steel should satisfied condition be: hardness 44HRC ~ 46HRC, average notched bar impact strength > 13.5J/cm -2, minimum value > 10cm -2.So can find out that nitrogen alloying hot-work die steel is through after thermal treatment in the present invention, in the situation that toughness approaches, hardness has improved 3 ~ 5HRC.
In accompanying drawing two, can find out, the wear-resisting hot-work die steel in this example is also better than common H13 steel aspect temper resistance.
Embodiment 2:
In this example, high-performance abrasion-proof hot-work die steel is processed into the mould of extruding louvres in Guangdong Chinalco, carries out the on probation of actual production.Actual result on trial: two mold output have all reached 12t, and the mean yield of the said firm's common H13 steel die is in the past 6.5t, has improved nearly 85% die life.
The chemical composition of the high-performance abrasion-proof hot-work die steel adopting in this example and content (wt.%) thereof are as follows:
C:0.35; N:0.04; Si:1.00; Mn:0.31; Cr:5.00; Mo:1.40; V:0.9; P:0.02%, S:0.004%, Fe surplus.
In this example, technological process and the step of die steel are as follows:
E) electrosmelting: by above-mentioned alloying element proportioning, carry out melting, be cast into the electric shock baton of Φ 90mm.
F) esr: the steel ingot of casting is placed in to electroslag furnace, carries out esr.Electrode voltage 45V, current of electric 3000A.
G) stress relief annealing: after electroslag, by steel ingot with stove be warmed up to 800 ℃ carry out " zero " insulation, be then down to 740 ℃ insulation 3h after furnace cooling.
H) forge: by the steel ingot after above-mentioned annealing, Heating temperature to 1150 ℃, carries out six sides forging; Total forging ratio >=4, each operation upset ratio >=2, final forging temperature is controlled at more than 850 ℃.After stopping forging, proceed in time and in hot sand, carry out Slow cooling.
E, isothermal spheroidizing technique are: 930 ℃ * 4h/ rapid cooling+730 ℃ * 4h/ stove is cold, with the rate of cooling of≤50 ℃/h, is down to 450 ℃ of air coolings of coming out of the stove below.
F, the temper of quenching: 1030 ℃ of quenching temperatures, oil cooling.Tempering temperature is 570 ℃, double tempering, for the first time 2.5h, for the second time 3h.
Embodiment 3:
C:0.30; N:0.07; Si:1.2; Mn:0.50; Cr:5.50; Mo:1.75; V:1.20; P:0.015%, S:0.003%, Fe surplus.
In this example, technological process and the step of die steel are as follows:
I) electrosmelting: by above-mentioned alloying element proportioning, carry out melting, be cast into the electric shock baton of Φ 90mm.
J) esr: the steel ingot of casting is placed in to electroslag furnace, carries out esr.Electrode voltage 45V, current of electric 3000A.
K) stress relief annealing: after electroslag, steel ingot is warmed up to 800 ℃ with stove, be then down to 740 ℃ insulation 6h after furnace cooling.
L) forge: by the steel ingot after above-mentioned annealing, Heating temperature to 1150 ℃, carries out six sides forging; Total forging ratio >=4, each operation upset ratio >=2, final forging temperature is controlled at more than 850 ℃.After stopping forging, proceed in time and in hot sand, carry out Slow cooling.
E, isothermal spheroidizing technique are: 930 ℃ * 4h/ rapid cooling+730 ℃ * 6h/ stove is cold, with the rate of cooling of≤50 ℃/h, is down to 450 ℃ of air coolings of coming out of the stove below.
F, the temper of quenching: 1070 ℃ of quenching temperatures, oil cooling.Tempering temperature is 600 ℃, double tempering, for the first time 3h, for the second time 4h.

Claims (2)

1. a preparation technology for high-performance abrasion-proof hot-work die steel, is characterized in that, step is as follows:
The chemical composition of a, die steel and content wt.% thereof are as follows: C:0.35; N:0.04; Si:1.00; Mn:0.31; Cr:5.00; Mo:1.40; V:0.9; P:0.02%, S:0.004%, Fe surplus, carries out melting, is cast into the electric shock baton of Φ 90mm, and the steel ingot of casting is placed in to electroslag furnace, carries out esr, electrode voltage 45V, current of electric 3000A;
B, stress relief annealing: after electroslag, by steel ingot with stove be warmed up to 800 ℃ carry out " zero " insulation, be then down to 740 ℃ insulation 3h after furnace cooling;
C. forge: the steel ingot of processing through step b is slowly warmed up to 850 ℃ of preheating 3h with the rate of heating of≤50 ℃/h, assurance uniform well-burnt, continuation Heating temperature to 1150 ℃, carries out six sides forging; Total forging ratio >=4, each operation upset ratio >=2, final forging temperature is controlled at more than 850 ℃,
After stopping forging, proceed in time and in hot sand, carry out Slow cooling;
D, isothermal spheroidizing technique are: 930 ℃ * 4h/ rapid cooling+730 ℃ * 4h/ stove is cold, with the rate of cooling of≤50 ℃/h, is down to 450 ℃ of air coolings of coming out of the stove below;
E, the temper of quenching: the steel ingot of processing through steps d is quenched, and quenching temperature is 1030 ℃, below oil cooling to 200 ℃, tempering temperature is 570 ℃, double tempering, for the first time 2.5h, for the second time 3h.
2. a preparation technology for high-performance abrasion-proof hot-work die steel, is characterized in that, step is as follows: a.C:0.30; N:0.07; Si:1.2; Mn:0.50; Cr:5.50; Mo:1.75; V:1.20; P:0.015%, S:0.003%, Fe surplus, carries out melting, is cast into the electric shock baton of Φ 90mm, and the steel ingot of casting is placed in to electroslag furnace, carries out esr, electrode voltage 45V, current of electric 3000A;
B. stress relief annealing: after electroslag, steel ingot is warmed up to 800 ℃ with stove, is then down to furnace cooling after 740 ℃ of insulation 6h;
C. forge: the steel ingot of processing through step b is slowly warmed up to 850 ℃ of preheating 3h with the rate of heating of≤50 ℃/h, assurance uniform well-burnt, continuation Heating temperature to 1150 ℃, carries out six sides forging; Total forging ratio >=4, each operation upset ratio >=2, final forging temperature is controlled at more than 850 ℃;
After stopping forging, proceed in time and in hot sand, carry out Slow cooling;
D. isothermal spheroidizing technique is: 930 ℃ * 4h/ rapid cooling+730 ℃ * 6h/ stove is cold, with the rate of cooling of≤50 ℃/h, is down to 450 ℃ of air coolings of coming out of the stove below;
E. the temper of quenching: the steel ingot of processing through steps d is quenched, and quenching temperature is 1070 ℃, below oil cooling to 200 ℃, tempering temperature is 600 ℃, double tempering, for the first time 3h, for the second time 4h.
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