CN102909610A - Five-axis linkage ultra-precise machine tool - Google Patents

Five-axis linkage ultra-precise machine tool Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102909610A
CN102909610A CN2012104290451A CN201210429045A CN102909610A CN 102909610 A CN102909610 A CN 102909610A CN 2012104290451 A CN2012104290451 A CN 2012104290451A CN 201210429045 A CN201210429045 A CN 201210429045A CN 102909610 A CN102909610 A CN 102909610A
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China
Prior art keywords
axis
axle
described
guide rail
machine tool
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CN2012104290451A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN102909610B (en
Inventor
梁迎春
张强
陈国达
王波
孙雅洲
刘海涛
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哈尔滨工业大学
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Publication of CN102909610B publication Critical patent/CN102909610B/en

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Abstract

The invention relates to a five-axis linkage machine tool, in particular to a five-axis linkage ultra-precise machine tool, and aims at solving problems that the traditional ultra-precise machine tool is single in function, simple in processing object shape, difficult to meet processing requirements of complex fine structure surfaces and micro components and the like. An X-axis guide rail and a Z-axis guide rail are arranged on a tool body of the machine tool, an X-axis slide plate is connected onto the X-axis guide rail in sliding mode, and a Z-axis slide plate is connected onto the Z-axis guide rail. A column is arranged on the X-axis slide plate in the vertical direction, a Y-axis middle slide plate is connected onto the column in the vertical direction in sliding mode, and a Y-axis front slide plate is fixedly connected onto the Y-axis middle slide plate. A C axis is fixedly arranged on the Y-axis front slide plate in the horizontal direction, a vacuum sucker is arranged on the C axis, and a B axis is arranged on the Z-axis slide plate in the vertical direction. The X-axis, the Y-axis and the Z-axis are in hydrostatic pressure guide rail supporting mode, the B axis and the C axis are in gas static pressure supporting mode, a clamp device and a cutter are arranged on the B axis, and the C axis achieves double-feedback control by aid of a first grating and a second grating. The five-axis linkage machine tool is used for processing fine structure surfaces and micro components.

Description

The five-axle linkage ultra-precision machine tool

Technical field

The present invention relates to a kind of five-axis linkage machine tools, be specifically related to a kind of five-axle linkage ultra-precision machine tool, can realize multiple machining functions, the five-axle linkage ultra-precision machine tool towards superfine structure surface and micro component processing belongs to the machining equipment technical field.

Background technology

Superfine structure surface refers to that surface figure accuracy reaches the tiny area topology that submicron order, surface roughness reach nanoscale, have specific function.Fine structure is widely used in photovoltaic, communication product, micro electronmechanical product and military affairs, astronomy and the high-tech industry such as medical.Along with the trend of development and system's miniaturization of these new and high technologies, no matter superfine structure surface and micro component are civilian or in the national defence field, all demonstrate more and more important using value and wide application prospect.

Superfine structure surface and micro component manufacturing technology have been carried out extensive and deep research both at home and abroad, multiple process technology has appearred, such as photoetching technique, etching technique, deposition and image etching technique, LIGA technology, electron beam writing technology, laser beam writing technology, reproduction technology and coating technique etc.But along with precision and the complexity of superfine structure surface and micro component improves constantly, the application of these technical methods is subject to restriction in various degree.As be difficult to process true 3D structure, or in curved surface substrate processing 3D structure; Be difficult to obtain the smooth mirror surface fine structure; Machinable material is restricted; Apparatus expensive, cost are high; Efficient is low, is difficult to produce in batches; Maybe need mould that has degree of precision and durability etc.And adopt ultra-precision machine tool not only can process the true 3D structure of high-aspect-ratio, and the formed precision of processing parts can reach submicron order, and the processing that is suitable for multiple material, efficient is high, and cost is low etc.

There is following deficiency in the tradition ultra-precision machine tool: 1. machining functions is single, and its working (machining) efficiency is relatively low; 2. processing object simple shape, narrow application range is difficult to satisfy the requirement of complicated superfine structure surface and micro component processing.3. the machine tool motion flexibility is relatively low.

Summary of the invention

The machining functions that the objective of the invention is in order to solve traditional ultra-precision machine tool existence is single, and working (machining) efficiency is low; The processing object simple shape, narrow application range is difficult to satisfy the requirement of complicated superfine structure surface and micro component processing; The problem that the machine tool motion flexibility is low, and then a kind of five-axle linkage ultra-precision machine tool is provided.

Technical scheme of the present invention is: the five-axle linkage ultra-precision machine tool comprises bed piece, X-axis, Y-axis, Z axis, B axle and C axle, described X-axis, Y-axis and Z axis are linear motion axis, described B axle and C axle are the gyration axle, described X-axis and Z axis are horizontal shafting, described Y-axis is vertical shaft series, be installed with X-axis guide rail and Z axis guide rail on the described bed piece, slidely connect the X-axis slide carriage on the described X-axis guide rail, slidely connect the Z axis slide carriage on the described Z axis guide rail;

Further, on the described X-axis slide carriage column is installed vertically, the vertical direction of column slidely connects the Y-axis middle slide carriage, is fixedly connected with the front slide carriage of Y-axis before the described Y-axis middle slide carriage; Along continuous straight runs is installed with the C axle on the front slide carriage of described Y-axis, on the described C axle vacuum cup is installed, and described Z axis vertically is equipped with the B axle on slipping;

Further, described X-axis, Y-axis, Z axis are the hydrostatic slideway supporting way, drive with linear electric motors, and adopt the striated pattern of nanometer resolution to realize position feedback;

Further, described B axle and C axle adopt gas-static to support, and by driving without the frame torque motor, adopt the circle grating to feed back as angular displacement;

Further, sectional fixture device and cutter on the described B axle;

Further, described C axle adopts the first grating and the second grating to realize two FEEDBACK CONTROL, and the resolution ratio of the first grating is lower than the resolution ratio of the second grating.

Further, Y-axis comprises the gas-static main shaft, the Y-axis slide carriage, the feed screw nut seat, torque motor, ball-screw, the lead screw shaft bearing, crossbeam, the spindle motor seat, the off-load cylinder, spindle motor and two columns, vertical height of Y-axis slide carriage is less than vertical height of column, the Y-axis slide carriage comprises the front slide carriage of Y-axis, slide carriage after Y-axis middle slide carriage and the Y-axis, be set up in parallel on the X-axis slide carriage about two columns, the Y-axis middle slide carriage is slidingly connected between two columns, column provides the guide rail function for the Y-axis middle slide carriage, the installed in front of Y-axis middle slide carriage has the front slide carriage of Y-axis, the rear side of Y-axis middle slide carriage is equipped with slide carriage after the Y-axis, slide carriage before the Y-axis, the center of slide carriage all has and runs through circular hole after Y-axis middle slide carriage and the Y-axis, the gas-static main shaft is installed in running through in the circular hole of the front slide carriage of Y-axis and Y-axis middle slide carriage, the spindle motor seat is installed in running through in the circular hole of slide carriage after Y-axis middle slide carriage and the Y-axis, spindle motor is installed in the spindle motor seat, spindle motor in the rear end of gas-static main shaft and the spindle motor seat is connected, crossbeam is installed on the upper surface of two columns, the center of crossbeam has centre bore, the lead screw shaft bearing is installed on the centre bore, on the lead screw shaft bearing torque motor is installed, the centre bore that lead screw shaft bearing and crossbeam are passed in the lower end of ball-screw is connected with the feed screw nut seat that places the crossbeam below, the feed screw nut seat is installed on the Y-axis middle slide carriage, the upper end of ball-screw is connected with torque motor, ball-screw is driven by torque motor, is connected with the off-load cylinder between described Y-axis middle slide carriage and the X-axis slide carriage.

Further, Y-axis also comprises balancing weight, and described balancing weight is installed in after the Y-axis on the slide carriage.

The present invention compared with prior art has following effect: the X-axis of five-axle linkage ultra-precision machine tool of the present invention, Y-axis and Z axis are linear motion axis, for hydrostatic slideway supports, drive with linear electric motors, and adopt the striated pattern of nanometer resolution to realize position feedback.B axle and C axle are the axle that rotatablely moves, and adopt gas-static to support, and by driving without the frame torque motor, adopt the circle grating to feed back as angular displacement.The present invention can realize the ultraprecise processing to non-ferrous metal, glass and ferrous material.Adjust tool type and installation site, can realize the multiple machining functions such as turning, fly cutting, milling, sharp knife processing; In addition, the C axle has dual modes of operation, both can be used as required the high speed work spindle, can be used as again the position servo axle, select the mode of operation of C axle by the control panel of digital control system, when described C axle was used as the high speed work spindle, motor driver was accepted the feedback from the first grating, and feedback signal is used as the angular displacement feedback of axle system.When described C axle was used as the position servo axle, motor driver was accepted the feedback from the second grating, and feedback signal is used as the angular displacement feedback of axle system.

To sum up, advantage of the present invention is: (1) applied range, and working (machining) efficiency is high, can realize the ultraprecise processing to complicated superfine structure surface and micro component, can be processed with non-ferrous metal, glass and ferrous material; (2) integrated functionality is many, can realize the multiple machining functions such as turning, fly cutting, milling, sharp knife processing; (3) kinematic dexterity is high, precision is high, Technological adaptability is strong.

Description of drawings

Fig. 1 is the overall structure stereogram of five-axle linkage ultra-precision machine tool of the present invention;

Fig. 2 is lens array element figure;

Fig. 3 is the little pyramid array structure chart that is of a size of 50 μ m;

Fig. 4 is the little pyramid array structure that is of a size of 150 μ m;

Fig. 5 is the overall structure three-dimensional exploded view of Y-axis;

Fig. 6 is the spindle motor seat, the annexation schematic diagram behind the axle middle slide carriage that moves both vertically, the axle that moves both vertically between slide carriage, spindle motor, the gas-static main shaft.

The specific embodiment

The specific embodiment one: in conjunction with Fig. 1, Fig. 5 and Fig. 6 illustrate present embodiment, the five-axle linkage ultra-precision machine tool of present embodiment comprises bed piece 1, X-axis 2, Y-axis 3, Z axis 4, B axle 5 and C axle 6, described X-axis 2, Y-axis 3 and Z axis 4 are linear motion axis, described B axle 5 and C axle 6 are the gyration axle, described X-axis 2 and Z axis 4 are horizontal shafting, described Y-axis 3 is vertical shaft series, be installed with X-axis guide rail 21 and Z axis guide rail 41 on the described bed piece 1, slidely connect X-axis slide carriage 22 on the described X-axis guide rail 21, slidely connect Z axis slide carriage 42 on the described Z axis guide rail 41;

Further, on the described X-axis slide carriage 22 column 10 is installed vertically, described column 10 provides the guide rail function of Y-axis 3, and the vertical direction of column 10 slidely connects Y-axis middle slide carriage 31, is fixedly connected with the front slide carriage 32 of Y-axis before the described Y-axis middle slide carriage 31; Along continuous straight runs is installed with C axle 6 on the front slide carriage 32 of described Y-axis, on the described C axle 6 vacuum cup 7 is installed, and can be used for fixing workpiece, in the described Z axis slide 42 B axle 5 is installed vertically;

Further, described X-axis 2, Y-axis 3, Z axis 4 are the hydrostatic slideway supporting way, drive with linear electric motors, and adopt the striated pattern of nanometer resolution to realize position feedback;

Further, described B axle and C axle adopt gas-static to support, and by driving without the frame torque motor, adopt the circle grating to feed back as angular displacement;

Further, sectional fixture device 8 and cutter 9 on the described B axle;

Further, described C axle adopts the first grating and the second grating to realize two FEEDBACK CONTROL, and the resolution ratio of the first grating is lower than the resolution ratio of the second grating.

Y-axis 3 is the axle system that moves both vertically of ultra-precision machine tool.

Further, Y-axis comprises gas-static main shaft y1, the Y-axis slide carriage, feed screw nut seat y4, torque motor y5, ball-screw y6, lead screw shaft bearing y7, crossbeam y8, spindle motor seat y11, off-load cylinder y12, spindle motor y15 and two columns 10, vertical height of Y-axis slide carriage is less than vertical height of column 10, the Y-axis slide carriage comprises the front slide carriage 32 of Y-axis, slide carriage y13 after Y-axis middle slide carriage 31 and the Y-axis, two columns about 10 are set up in parallel on X-axis slide carriage 22, Y-axis middle slide carriage 31 is slidingly connected between two columns 10, column 10 provides the guide rail function for Y-axis middle slide carriage 31, the installed in front of Y-axis middle slide carriage 31 has the front slide carriage 32 of Y-axis, the rear side of Y-axis middle slide carriage 31 is equipped with slide carriage y13 after the Y-axis, slide carriage 32 before the Y-axis, the center of slide carriage y13 all has and runs through circular hole y14 after Y-axis middle slide carriage 31 and the Y-axis, gas-static main shaft y1 is installed in running through in the circular hole y14 of the front slide carriage 32 of Y-axis and Y-axis middle slide carriage 31, spindle motor seat y11 is installed in running through in the circular hole 14 of slide carriage y13 after Y-axis middle slide carriage 31 and the Y-axis, spindle motor y15 is installed in the spindle motor seat y11, spindle motor y15 in the rear end of gas-static main shaft y1 and the spindle motor seat y11 is connected, crossbeam y8 is installed on the upper surface of two columns 10, the center of crossbeam y8 has centre bore y16, lead screw shaft bearing y7 is installed on the centre bore y16, on the lead screw shaft bearing y7 torque motor y5 is installed, the centre bore y16 that lead screw shaft bearing y7 and crossbeam y8 are passed in the lower end of ball-screw y6 is connected with the feed screw nut seat y4 that places crossbeam y8 below, feed screw nut seat y4 is installed on the Y-axis middle slide carriage 31, the upper end of ball-screw y6 is connected with torque motor y5, ball-screw y6 is driven by torque motor y5, is connected with off-load cylinder y12 between described Y-axis middle slide carriage 31 and the X-axis slide carriage 22.

Further, Y-axis 3 also comprises balancing weight y9, and described balancing weight is installed in after the Y-axis on the slide carriage y13.

The motion of Y-axis system utilizes fluid pressure to support, and column provides the guide rail function for the Y-axis slide carriage.The gravitational equilibrium of Y-axis relies on the off-load cylinder to realize.The driving of Y-axis utilizes motor and ball-screw to realize.(1) column in the Y-axis serves as the guide rail function of Y-axis, and rotating shaft member places slide carriage hollow region, compact conformation; (2) Static and dynamic rigidity is high; (3) can satisfy towards the needs of complicated fine structure machining tool; (4) precision is high, and antijamming capability is strong, and the dynamic motion performance is good.

Technical indicator such as the table 1 of the five-axle linkage ultra-precision machine tool of present embodiment:

Table 1

One, adopt the five-axle linkage ultra-precision machine tool to carry out fine turning

Embodiment: non-rotating Symmetry Microstructure surface: convex lens array

The form parameter of convex lens array: lenticular height 12 μ m, lens bottom opening radius 300 μ m, the radius 3.756mm of lens place ball, lens centre distance 800 μ m, machining area radius 10mm.Adopting corner radius in the experiment is the diamond cutter of 637 μ m, and workpiece material is duralumin, and microlens array elements is referring to Fig. 2.

Two, adopt the five-axle linkage ultra-precision machine tool to carry out minuteness milling

Embodiment: little pyramid array

Adopt the ultrafine gain size V-type slotting cutter of diameter 0.5mm, with 60000 rev/mins of the speeds of mainshaft, feed speed 10mm/s, the technological parameter of cutting depth 10 μ m, carried out the Milling Process experiment of little pyramid array structure, obtained respectively to be of a size of 50 μ m, little pyramid array structure of 150 μ m, as shown in Figure 3 and Figure 4.

The described content of this specification embodiment only is that the part of inventive concept institute way of realization is enumerated; protection scope of the present invention should only not be confined to the concrete form that embodiment states, protection scope of the present invention reaches in those skilled in the art according to the thinkable equivalent technologies means of technical conceive of the present invention.

Claims (7)

1. five-axle linkage ultra-precision machine tool, it is characterized in that: the five-axle linkage ultra-precision machine tool comprises bed piece (1), X-axis (2), Y-axis (3), Z axis (4), B axle (5) and C axle (6), described X-axis (2), Y-axis (3) and Z axis (4) are linear motion axis, described B axle (5) and C axle (6) are the gyration axle, described X-axis (2) and Z axis (4) are horizontal shafting, described Y-axis (3) is vertical shaft series, be installed with X-axis guide rail (21) and Z axis guide rail (41) on the described bed piece (1), slidely connect X-axis slide carriage (22) on the described X-axis guide rail (21), slidely connect Z axis slide carriage (42) on the described Z axis guide rail (41); Column (10) vertically is installed on the described X-axis slide carriage (22), described column (10) is as the guide rail of Y-axis (3), the vertical direction of column (10) slidely connects Y-axis middle slide carriage (31), the front front slide carriage (32) of Y-axis that is fixedly connected with of described Y-axis middle slide carriage (31); The upper along continuous straight runs of slide carriage (32) is installed with C axle (6) before the described Y-axis, and vacuum cup (7) is installed on the described C axle (6), in the described Z axis slide (42) B axle (5) is installed vertically; Described X-axis (2), Y-axis (3), Z axis (4) are the hydrostatic slideway supporting way, drive with linear electric motors, and adopt the striated pattern of nanometer resolution to realize position feedback; Described B axle and C axle adopt gas-static to support, and by driving without the frame torque motor, adopt the circle grating to feed back as angular displacement; Sectional fixture device (8) and cutter (9) on the described B axle; Described C axle adopts the first grating and the second grating to realize two FEEDBACK CONTROL, and the resolution ratio of the first grating is lower than the resolution ratio of the second grating.
2. five-axle linkage ultra-precision machine tool according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: the X-axis range of movement is 75mm, and the Y-axis range of movement is 35mm, and the Z axis range of movement is 75mm, and B axle range of movement is ± 90 °, C axle range of movement is 360 °.
3. five-axle linkage ultra-precision machine tool according to claim 2, it is characterized in that: the positioning accuracy of X-axis, Y-axis and Z axis is 0.2 μ m50mm, repetitive positioning accuracy is 0.1 μ m.
4. five-axle linkage ultra-precision machine tool according to claim 1 and 2 is characterized in that: X-axis guide rail (21), column (10) is inboard and linearity Z axis guide rail (41) is 0.1 μ m/50mm.
5. five-axle linkage ultra-precision machine tool according to claim 4, it is characterized in that: the rigidity of X-axis guide rail (21), column (10) and Z axis guide rail (41) is 500N/ μ m.
6. five-axle linkage ultra-precision machine tool according to claim 5, it is characterized in that: the rigidity of X-axis guide rail (21), column (10) and Z axis guide rail (41) is 500N/ μ m.
7. five-axle linkage ultra-precision machine tool according to claim 6, it is characterized in that: the positioning accuracy of B axle and C axle is 3 rads.
CN201210429045.1A 2012-11-01 2012-11-01 Five-axis linkage ultra-precise machine tool CN102909610B (en)

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Cited By (11)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103237402A (en) * 2013-05-14 2013-08-07 哈尔滨工业大学 Air plasma processing device
CN103722453A (en) * 2013-12-12 2014-04-16 济南第一机床有限公司 High-wall compact high-speed precision vertical machining center
CN104440894A (en) * 2014-12-05 2015-03-25 重庆朗正科技有限公司 Take-out device for riveting machine
CN103357978B (en) * 2013-07-16 2015-06-03 山东理工大学 Small bi-functional special type micro processing machine tool
CN104999080A (en) * 2015-08-03 2015-10-28 北京理工大学 Composite material increase manufacturing method for precise fine complex structural component
CN105033747A (en) * 2015-08-21 2015-11-11 佛山市普拉迪数控科技有限公司 Five-axis linkage machining center
CN105619181A (en) * 2015-06-16 2016-06-01 深圳市万嘉科技有限公司 Processing equipment
CN106112048A (en) * 2016-03-11 2016-11-16 无锡市中伦精密机床设备制造有限公司 A kind of numerical control horizontal boring machine
CN108788904A (en) * 2018-07-11 2018-11-13 淮安信息职业技术学院 A kind of five-axle linkage ultra-precision machine tool
CN109849079A (en) * 2019-04-11 2019-06-07 北京理工大学 A kind of ultra-precision processing apparatus of processing micro structure array
CN108788904B (en) * 2018-07-11 2020-06-26 淮安信息职业技术学院 Five-axis linkage ultra-precise machine tool

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Cited By (13)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103237402A (en) * 2013-05-14 2013-08-07 哈尔滨工业大学 Air plasma processing device
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CN103357978B (en) * 2013-07-16 2015-06-03 山东理工大学 Small bi-functional special type micro processing machine tool
CN103722453A (en) * 2013-12-12 2014-04-16 济南第一机床有限公司 High-wall compact high-speed precision vertical machining center
CN104440894A (en) * 2014-12-05 2015-03-25 重庆朗正科技有限公司 Take-out device for riveting machine
CN105619181A (en) * 2015-06-16 2016-06-01 深圳市万嘉科技有限公司 Processing equipment
CN104999080A (en) * 2015-08-03 2015-10-28 北京理工大学 Composite material increase manufacturing method for precise fine complex structural component
CN104999080B (en) * 2015-08-03 2017-10-24 北京理工大学 A kind of compound increasing material manufacturing method for precise fine complex structural member
CN105033747A (en) * 2015-08-21 2015-11-11 佛山市普拉迪数控科技有限公司 Five-axis linkage machining center
CN106112048A (en) * 2016-03-11 2016-11-16 无锡市中伦精密机床设备制造有限公司 A kind of numerical control horizontal boring machine
CN108788904A (en) * 2018-07-11 2018-11-13 淮安信息职业技术学院 A kind of five-axle linkage ultra-precision machine tool
CN108788904B (en) * 2018-07-11 2020-06-26 淮安信息职业技术学院 Five-axis linkage ultra-precise machine tool
CN109849079A (en) * 2019-04-11 2019-06-07 北京理工大学 A kind of ultra-precision processing apparatus of processing micro structure array

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