CN102909610B - Five-axis linkage ultra-precise machine tool - Google Patents

Five-axis linkage ultra-precise machine tool Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102909610B
CN102909610B CN201210429045.1A CN201210429045A CN102909610B CN 102909610 B CN102909610 B CN 102909610B CN 201210429045 A CN201210429045 A CN 201210429045A CN 102909610 B CN102909610 B CN 102909610B
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China
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axis
axle
described
guide rail
machine tool
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CN201210429045.1A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN102909610A (en
Inventor
梁迎春
张强
陈国达
王波
孙雅洲
刘海涛
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哈尔滨工业大学
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Abstract

The invention relates to a five-axis linkage machine tool, in particular to a five-axis linkage ultra-precise machine tool, and aims at solving problems that the traditional ultra-precise machine tool is single in function, simple in processing object shape, difficult to meet processing requirements of complex fine structure surfaces and micro components and the like. An X-axis guide rail and a Z-axis guide rail are arranged on a tool body of the machine tool, an X-axis slide plate is connected onto the X-axis guide rail in sliding mode, and a Z-axis slide plate is connected onto the Z-axis guide rail. A column is arranged on the X-axis slide plate in the vertical direction, a Y-axis middle slide plate is connected onto the column in the vertical direction in sliding mode, and a Y-axis front slide plate is fixedly connected onto the Y-axis middle slide plate. A C axis is fixedly arranged on the Y-axis front slide plate in the horizontal direction, a vacuum sucker is arranged on the C axis, and a B axis is arranged on the Z-axis slide plate in the vertical direction. The X-axis, the Y-axis and the Z-axis are in hydrostatic pressure guide rail supporting mode, the B axis and the C axis are in gas static pressure supporting mode, a clamp device and a cutter are arranged on the B axis, and the C axis achieves double-feedback control by aid of a first grating and a second grating. The five-axis linkage machine tool is used for processing fine structure surfaces and micro components.

Description

Five-axle linkage ultra-precision machine tool

Technical field

The present invention relates to a kind of five-axis linkage machine tools, be specifically related to a kind of five-axle linkage ultra-precision machine tool, can realize multiple machining functions, the five-axle linkage ultra-precision machine tool towards superfine structure surface and micro component processing, belongs to machining equipment technical field.

Background technology

Superfine structure surface refers to that surface figure accuracy reaches the tiny area topology that submicron order, surface roughness reach nanoscale, have specific function.Fine structure is widely used in photovoltaic, communication product, micro electronmechanical product and military affairs, astronomy and the high-tech industry such as medical.Along with the trend of development and the system miniaturization of these new and high technologies, no matter superfine structure surface and micro component are civilian or in national defence field, all demonstrate more and more important using value and wide application prospect.

Superfine structure surface and micro component manufacturing technology have been carried out to extensive and deep research both at home and abroad, there is multiple process technology, as photoetching technique, etching technique, deposition and image etching technique, LIGA technology, electron beam writing technology, laser beam writing technology, reproduction technology and coating technique etc.But along with precision and the complexity of superfine structure surface and micro component improves constantly, the application of these technical methods is subject to restriction in various degree.As being difficult to, process true 3D structure, or in curved surface substrate, process 3D structure; Be difficult to obtain smooth mirror surface fine structure; Machinable material is restricted; Apparatus expensive, cost are high; Efficiency is low, is difficult to produce in batches; Maybe need mould having degree of precision and durability etc.And adopt ultra-precision machine tool not only can process the true 3D structure of high-aspect-ratio, and the formed precision of processing parts can reach submicron order, and the processing that is suitable for multiple material, efficiency is high, and cost is low etc.

Tradition ultra-precision machine tool exists following not enough: 1. machining functions is single, and its working (machining) efficiency is relatively low; 2. processing object simple shape, narrow application range, is difficult to meet the requirement of complicated superfine structure surface and micro component processing.3. machine tool motion flexibility is relatively low.

Summary of the invention

The object of the invention is in order to solve the machining functions that traditional ultra-precision machine tool exists singlely, working (machining) efficiency is low; Processing object simple shape, narrow application range, is difficult to meet the requirement of complicated superfine structure surface and micro component processing; The problem that machine tool motion flexibility is low, and then a kind of five-axle linkage ultra-precision machine tool is provided.

Technical scheme of the present invention is: five-axle linkage ultra-precision machine tool comprises bed piece, X-axis, Y-axis, Z axis, B axle and C axle, described X-axis, Y-axis and Z axis are linear motion axis, described B axle and C axle are gyration axle, described X-axis and Z axis are horizontal shafting, described Y-axis is vertical shaft series, on described bed piece, be installed with X-axis guide rail and Z axis guide rail, on described X-axis guide rail, slidably connect X-axis slide carriage, on described Z axis guide rail, slidably connect Z axis slide carriage;

Further, on described X-axis slide carriage, column is vertically installed, the vertical direction of column slidably connects Y-axis middle slide carriage, is fixedly connected with the front slide carriage of Y-axis before described Y-axis middle slide carriage; Before described Y-axis, on slide carriage, along continuous straight runs is installed with C axle, on described C axle, vacuum cup is installed, and on described Z axis slide carriage, B axle is vertically installed;

Further, described X-axis, Y-axis, Z axis are hydrostatic slideway supporting way, drive, and adopt the striated pattern of nanometer resolution to realize position feedback with linear electric motors;

Further, described B axle and C axle adopt gas-static to support, and by driving without frame torque motor, adopt circle grating to feed back as angular displacement;

Further, sectional fixture device and cutter on described B axle;

Further, described C axle adopts the first grating and the second grating to realize two FEEDBACK CONTROL, and the resolution ratio of the first grating is lower than the resolution ratio of the second grating.

Further, Y-axis comprises gas-static main shaft, Y-axis slide carriage, feed screw nut seat, torque motor, ball-screw, lead screw shaft bearing, crossbeam, spindle motor seat, off-load cylinder, spindle motor and two columns, longitudinal longitudinal height that is highly less than column of Y-axis slide carriage, Y-axis slide carriage comprises the front slide carriage of Y-axis, slide carriage after Y-axis middle slide carriage and Y-axis, two column left and right are set up in parallel on X-axis slide carriage, Y-axis middle slide carriage is slidably connected between two columns, column provides guide rail function for Y-axis middle slide carriage, the installed in front of Y-axis middle slide carriage has the front slide carriage of Y-axis, the rear side of Y-axis middle slide carriage is provided with slide carriage after Y-axis, slide carriage before Y-axis, after Y-axis middle slide carriage and Y-axis, the center of slide carriage all has and runs through circular hole, gas-static main shaft is arranged on running through in circular hole of the front slide carriage of Y-axis and Y-axis middle slide carriage, spindle motor seat is arranged on running through in circular hole of slide carriage after Y-axis middle slide carriage and Y-axis, spindle motor is arranged in spindle motor seat, the rear end of gas-static main shaft is connected with the spindle motor in spindle motor seat, crossbeam is arranged on the upper surface of two columns, the center of crossbeam has centre bore, lead screw shaft bearing is arranged on centre bore, in lead screw shaft bearing, torque motor is installed, the lower end of ball-screw is connected with the feed screw nut seat that is placed in crossbeam below through the centre bore of lead screw shaft bearing and crossbeam, feed screw nut seat is arranged on Y-axis middle slide carriage, the upper end of ball-screw is connected with torque motor, ball-screw is driven by torque motor, between described Y-axis middle slide carriage and X-axis slide carriage, be connected with off-load cylinder.

Further, Y-axis also comprises balancing weight, and described balancing weight is arranged on after Y-axis on slide carriage.

The present invention compared with prior art has following effect: the X-axis of five-axle linkage ultra-precision machine tool of the present invention, Y-axis and Z axis are linear motion axis, for hydrostatic slideway supports, with linear electric motors, drive, and adopt the striated pattern of nanometer resolution to realize position feedback.B axle and C axle are the axle that rotatablely moves, and adopt gas-static to support, and by driving without frame torque motor, adopt circle grating to feed back as angular displacement.The present invention can realize the ultraprecise processing to non-ferrous metal, glass and ferrous material.Adjust tool type and installation site, can realize the multiple machining functions such as turning, fly cutting, milling, sharp knife processing; In addition, C axle has dual modes of operation, both can be used as required high speed work spindle, can be used as again position servo axle, by the control panel of digital control system, select the mode of operation of C axle, when described C axle is used as high speed work spindle, motor driver is accepted the feedback from the first grating, and feedback signal is used as the angular displacement feedback of axle system.When described C axle is used as position servo axle, motor driver is accepted the feedback from the second grating, and feedback signal is used as the angular displacement feedback of axle system.

To sum up, advantage of the present invention is: (1) applied range, and working (machining) efficiency is high, can realize the ultraprecise processing to complicated superfine structure surface and micro component, can be processed with non-ferrous metal, glass and ferrous material; (2) integrated functionality is many, can realize the multiple machining functions such as turning, fly cutting, milling, sharp knife processing; (3) kinematic dexterity is high, precision is high, Technological adaptability is strong.

Accompanying drawing explanation

Fig. 1 is the overall structure stereogram of five-axle linkage ultra-precision machine tool of the present invention;

Fig. 2 is lens array element figure;

Fig. 3 is the micro-pyramid array structure chart that is of a size of 50 μ m;

Fig. 4 is the micro-pyramid array structure that is of a size of 150 μ m;

Fig. 5 is the overall structure three-dimensional exploded view of Y-axis;

Fig. 6 is spindle motor seat, the annexation schematic diagram after the axle middle slide carriage that moves both vertically, the axle that moves both vertically between slide carriage, spindle motor, gas-static main shaft.

The specific embodiment

The specific embodiment one: in conjunction with Fig. 1, Fig. 5 and Fig. 6 illustrate present embodiment, the five-axle linkage ultra-precision machine tool of present embodiment comprises bed piece 1, X-axis 2, Y-axis 3, Z axis 4, B axle 5 and C axle 6, described X-axis 2, Y-axis 3 and Z axis 4 are linear motion axis, described B axle 5 and C axle 6 are gyration axle, described X-axis 2 and Z axis 4 are horizontal shafting, described Y-axis 3 is vertical shaft series, on described bed piece 1, be installed with X-axis guide rail 21 and Z axis guide rail 41, on described X-axis guide rail 21, slidably connect X-axis slide carriage 22, on described Z axis guide rail 41, slidably connect Z axis slide carriage 42,

Further, on described X-axis slide carriage 22, column 10 is vertically installed, described column 10 provides the guide rail function of Y-axis 3, and the vertical direction of column 10 slidably connects Y-axis middle slide carriage 31, is fixedly connected with the front slide carriage 32 of Y-axis before described Y-axis middle slide carriage 31; Before described Y-axis, on slide carriage 32, along continuous straight runs is installed with C axle 6, on described C axle 6, vacuum cup 7 is installed, and can be used for fixing workpiece, on described Z axis slide carriage 42, B axle 5 is vertically installed;

Further, described X-axis 2, Y-axis 3, Z axis 4 are hydrostatic slideway supporting way, drive, and adopt the striated pattern of nanometer resolution to realize position feedback with linear electric motors;

Further, described B axle and C axle adopt gas-static to support, and by driving without frame torque motor, adopt circle grating to feed back as angular displacement;

Further, sectional fixture device 8 and cutter 9 on described B axle;

Further, described C axle adopts the first grating and the second grating to realize two FEEDBACK CONTROL, and the resolution ratio of the first grating is lower than the resolution ratio of the second grating.

The axle system that moves both vertically that Y-axis 3 is ultra-precision machine tool.

Further, Y-axis comprises gas-static main shaft y1, Y-axis slide carriage, feed screw nut seat y4, torque motor y5, ball-screw y6, lead screw shaft bearing y7, crossbeam y8, spindle motor seat y11, off-load cylinder y12, spindle motor y15 and two columns 10, longitudinal longitudinal height that is highly less than column 10 of Y-axis slide carriage, Y-axis slide carriage comprises the front slide carriage 32 of Y-axis, slide carriage y13 after Y-axis middle slide carriage 31 and Y-axis, two column 10 left and right are set up in parallel on X-axis slide carriage 22, Y-axis middle slide carriage 31 is slidably connected between two columns 10, column 10 provides guide rail function for Y-axis middle slide carriage 31, the installed in front of Y-axis middle slide carriage 31 has the front slide carriage 32 of Y-axis, the rear side of Y-axis middle slide carriage 31 is provided with slide carriage y13 after Y-axis, slide carriage 32 before Y-axis, after Y-axis middle slide carriage 31 and Y-axis, slide carriage y13 center all has and runs through circular hole y14, gas-static main shaft y1 is arranged on running through in circular hole y14 of the front slide carriage 32 of Y-axis and Y-axis middle slide carriage 31, spindle motor seat y11 is arranged on running through in circular hole 14 of slide carriage y13 after Y-axis middle slide carriage 31 and Y-axis, spindle motor y15 is arranged in spindle motor seat y11, the rear end of gas-static main shaft y1 is connected with the spindle motor y15 in spindle motor seat y11, crossbeam y8 is arranged on the upper surface of two columns 10, crossbeam y8 center has centre bore y16, lead screw shaft bearing y7 is arranged on centre bore y16, on lead screw shaft bearing y7, torque motor y5 is installed, the lower end of ball-screw y6 is connected with the feed screw nut seat y4 that is placed in crossbeam y8 below through the centre bore y16 of lead screw shaft bearing y7 and crossbeam y8, feed screw nut seat y4 is arranged on Y-axis middle slide carriage 31, the upper end of ball-screw y6 is connected with torque motor y5, ball-screw y6 is driven by torque motor y5, between described Y-axis middle slide carriage 31 and X-axis slide carriage 22, be connected with off-load cylinder y12.

Further, Y-axis 3 also comprises balancing weight y9, and described balancing weight is arranged on after Y-axis on slide carriage y13.

The motion of Y-axis system utilizes fluid pressure to support, and column provides guide rail function for Y-axis slide carriage.The gravitational equilibrium of Y-axis relies on off-load cylinder to realize.The driving of Y-axis utilizes motor and ball-screw to realize.(1) column in Y-axis serves as the guide rail function of Y-axis, and rotating shaft member is placed in slide carriage hollow region, compact conformation; (2) Static and dynamic rigidity is high; (3) can meet towards the needs of complicated fine structure machining tool; (4) precision is high, and antijamming capability is strong, and dynamic motion performance is good.

The technical indicator of the five-axle linkage ultra-precision machine tool of present embodiment is as table 1:

Table 1

One, adopt five-axle linkage ultra-precision machine tool to carry out fine turning

Embodiment: non-rotating Symmetry Microstructure surface: convex lens array

The form parameter of convex lens array: lenticular height 12 μ m, lens bottom opening radius 300 μ m, the radius 3.756mm of lens place ball, lens centre distance 800 μ m, machining area radius 10mm.In experiment, adopting corner radius is the diamond cutter of 637 μ m, and workpiece material is duralumin, and microlens array elements is referring to Fig. 2.

Two, adopt five-axle linkage ultra-precision machine tool to carry out minuteness milling

Embodiment: micro-pyramid array

Adopt the ultrafine gain size V-type slotting cutter of diameter 0.5mm, with 60000 revs/min of the speeds of mainshaft, feed speed 10mm/s, the technological parameter of cutting depth 10 μ m, carried out the Milling Process experiment of micro-pyramid array structure, obtained respectively and be of a size of 50 μ m, micro-pyramid array structure of 150 μ m, as shown in Figure 3 and Figure 4.

Described in this description embodiment, content is only that the part of inventive concept institute way of realization is enumerated; protection scope of the present invention should only not be confined to the concrete form that embodiment states, protection scope of the present invention and in those skilled in the art according to the thinkable equivalent technologies means of technical conceive of the present invention.

Claims (7)

1. a five-axle linkage ultra-precision machine tool, it is characterized in that: five-axle linkage ultra-precision machine tool comprises bed piece (1), X-axis (2), Y-axis (3), Z axis (4), B axle (5) and C axle (6), described X-axis (2), Y-axis (3) and Z axis (4) are linear motion axis, described B axle (5) and C axle (6) are gyration axle, described X-axis (2) and Z axis (4) are horizontal shafting, described Y-axis (3) is vertical shaft series, on described bed piece (1), be installed with X-axis guide rail (21) and Z axis guide rail (41), on described X-axis guide rail (21), slidably connect X-axis slide carriage (22), on described Z axis guide rail (41), slidably connect Z axis slide carriage (42), on described X-axis slide carriage (22), column (10) is vertically installed, described column (10) is as the guide rail of Y-axis (3), the vertical direction of column (10) slidably connects Y-axis middle slide carriage (31), the front front slide carriage (32) of Y-axis that is fixedly connected with of described Y-axis middle slide carriage (31), before described Y-axis, the upper along continuous straight runs of slide carriage (32) is installed with C axle (6), on described C axle (6), vacuum cup (7) is installed, and on described Z axis slide carriage (42), B axle (5) is vertically installed, described X-axis (2), Y-axis (3), Z axis (4) are hydrostatic slideway supporting way, drive, and adopt the striated pattern of nanometer resolution to realize position feedback with linear electric motors, described B axle and C axle adopt gas-static to support, and by driving without frame torque motor, adopt circle grating to feed back as angular displacement, sectional fixture device (8) and cutter (9) on described B axle, described C axle adopts the first grating and the second grating to realize two FEEDBACK CONTROL, and the resolution ratio of the first grating is lower than the resolution ratio of the second grating.
2. five-axle linkage ultra-precision machine tool according to claim 1, is characterized in that: X-axis range of movement is 75mm, and Y-axis range of movement is 35mm, and Z axis range of movement is 75mm, and B axle range of movement is ± 90 °, and C axle range of movement is 360 °.
3. five-axle linkage ultra-precision machine tool according to claim 2, is characterized in that: the positioning precision of X-axis, Y-axis and Z axis is ± 0.2 μ m/50mm, and repetitive positioning accuracy is 0.1 μ m.
4. five-axle linkage ultra-precision machine tool according to claim 1 and 2, is characterized in that: the linearity of X-axis guide rail (21), column (10) inner side and Z axis guide rail (41) is 0.1 μ m/50mm.
5. five-axle linkage ultra-precision machine tool according to claim 4, is characterized in that: the rigidity of X-axis guide rail (21), column (10) and Z axis guide rail (41) is 500N/ μ m.
6. five-axle linkage ultra-precision machine tool according to claim 5, is characterized in that: the rigidity of X-axis guide rail (21), column (10) and Z axis guide rail (41) is 500N/ μ m.
7. five-axle linkage ultra-precision machine tool according to claim 6, is characterized in that: the positioning precision of B axle and C axle is 3 rads.
CN201210429045.1A 2012-11-01 2012-11-01 Five-axis linkage ultra-precise machine tool CN102909610B (en)

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CN103357978B (en) * 2013-07-16 2015-06-03 山东理工大学 Small bi-functional special type micro processing machine tool
CN103722453A (en) * 2013-12-12 2014-04-16 济南第一机床有限公司 High-wall compact high-speed precision vertical machining center
CN104440894A (en) * 2014-12-05 2015-03-25 重庆朗正科技有限公司 Take-out device for riveting machine
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CN104999080B (en) * 2015-08-03 2017-10-24 北京理工大学 A kind of compound increasing material manufacturing method for precise fine complex structural member
CN105033747A (en) * 2015-08-21 2015-11-11 佛山市普拉迪数控科技有限公司 Five-axis linkage machining center
CN106112048A (en) * 2016-03-11 2016-11-16 无锡市中伦精密机床设备制造有限公司 A kind of numerical control horizontal boring machine
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