CN102590555B - Resonance dynamic balance capacitance-type triaxial acceleration transducer and manufacture method - Google Patents

Resonance dynamic balance capacitance-type triaxial acceleration transducer and manufacture method Download PDF

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CN102590555B
CN102590555B CN201210059374.1A CN201210059374A CN102590555B CN 102590555 B CN102590555 B CN 102590555B CN 201210059374 A CN201210059374 A CN 201210059374A CN 102590555 B CN102590555 B CN 102590555B
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mass
fixed
resonator
silicon chip
axis acceleration
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CN201210059374.1A
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CN102590555A (en
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韩建强
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中国计量学院
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Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of structure of resonance dynamic balance capacitance-type triaxial acceleration transducer and manufacture method, belong to microelectromechanical systems field.Its architectural feature is that 3-axis acceleration sensor is made up of middle silicon chip (1), upper cover plate (2) and lower shoe (3);Wherein, middle silicon chip (1) is made up of two-end fixed beam resonator (4), mass (6) and support beam (5), movable electrode (7) and framework (8).This sensor is characterised by terms of Cleaning Principle in chip plane that X-axis and Y-axis acceleration signal are detected using two-end fixed beam resonator (4), the size and Orientation of the change reflection acceleration of two-end fixed beam resonator (4) resonant frequency;The Z axis acceleration signal of vertical chip plane is detected using capacitance type sensitivity principle, and works in closed loop dynamic balance mode of operation., in chip normal direction moving displacement very little, the acceleration signal of Z axis input is minimum to X-axis and Y-axis acceleration detection introducing cross interference for mass (6).

Description

Resonance-dynamic balance capacitance-type triaxial acceleration transducer and manufacture method

Technical field

The present invention relates to the operation principle of 3-axis acceleration sensor, structure and manufacture method, particularly a kind of resonance-power The working mechanism of balancing capacitance formula 3-axis acceleration sensor, structure and manufacture method, belong to microelectromechanical systems (Micro- Electro-Mechanical Systems, MEMS) field.

Background technology

Miniature acceleration sensor is the important mechanical quantity sensor of a class.Early in the end of the sixties in last century, people begin to Study one-dimensional miniature silicon acceleration sensor.Start the large-scale production of one-dimensional miniature acceleration sensor the end of the eighties.Enter To the nineties, with development and the demand of military, commercial market of science and technology, begin one's study three-dimensional micro acceleration sensing Device, is applied to the fields such as military affairs, automotive electronics, industrial automation, roboticses, consumer electronics product.Added due to miniature Velocity sensor have small volume, lightweight, power consumption and low cost, overload capacity strong, easy of integration, can large-scale mass production etc. Advantage, not only becomes the core parts of Micro Inertial Measurement Unit, is also applied to rapidly wagon control, high-speed railway, robot, work The civil areas such as industry automatization, mine locating, toy, medical treatment.

Micro accelerometer is the sensor of the inertia force measurement acceleration using sensing quality.Fortune according to detection quality Flowing mode can be divided into linear accelerometer and pendulous accelerometer;Can be pressure resistance type, condenser type, tunnel according to signal detecting mode point Road current type, resonant mode, heat convection type, piezoelectric acceleration transducer.Open loop deviation type can be divided into according to feedback signal is whether there is With closed loop force balance type acceleration transducer.According to the quantity of sensitive axes, it is divided into single shaft, twin shaft and 3-axis acceleration sensing Device.After the nineties in last century, with continuous development and military affairs, the demand of commercial market of MEMS technology, single direction Acceleration test can not have been met to the higher and higher demand of acceleration transducer, and acceleration transducer forward direction three-dimensional is sent out Exhibition, for detect steric acceleration, be satellite navigation, missile guidance, shell orientation etc. military defense project and automobile shockproof protection, The civilian projects service such as self-actuating brake, medical treatment.Three axle miniature acceleration sensors can measure mutually orthogonal three axle simultaneously To acceleration.Its measuring principle includes condenser type, pressure resistance type, piezoelectric type and heat convection type, can be divided into according to mass number many Mass and single mass system.

The 3-axis acceleration sensor of capacitance detecting is easiest to realize, and better performances.T.Mineta is developed within 1996 A kind of three axles capacitance acceleration transducer.The acceleration analysis sensitivity of three axial directions is identical, and the center of gravity of mass is being propped up On support beam, using translation detection X-axis and the Y-axis acceleration of mass, the tilt detection Z axis acceleration of mass.Three axles Often change 1g to acceleration, capacitance gap changes 0.3 μm, and sensitivity 40mV/g, cross sensitivity are about 10%.California in 1997 The research worker of university's Berkeley on the Research foundation of single shaft micro-acceleration gauge have developed one kind and adopt surface micro-fabrication The monolithic tri-axial capacitive accelerometer that technique makes, the acceleration for detecting three axial directions using three different masses.X、Y The measurement of axle acceleration is measured using pectination interdigital capacitor, and the Z axis acceleration of vertical aspect is measured with capacity plate antenna.Sensor is adopted Manufactured with surface micromechanical process, micro structure is integrated with cmos circuit, structure sheaf is 2 μm of polysilicon, circuit contains Sigma- Integrated A/D convertor circuit on the feedback closed-loop control circuit and piece of Delta manipulators.The electric capacity of X, Y, Z axis respectively 101fF, 78fF and 322fF;Interdigital gap is respectively 2.13,2.13 and 2.3 μm;Noise isWithThe same year, the research group also successfully develop single mass capacitance sensing force balance type three-axis micro accelerometer, adopt With three feeding back closed-loop control systems containing Sigma-Delta modulator, the detection electric capacity in each direction is respectively using one.Pass Sense part includes mass, the spring beam of four diagonal struts and interdigital capacitor.Plane acceleration by interdigital capacitor detect, The capacitance detecting that the acceleration of vertical direction is constituted with bottom electrode by mass.Micro structure is the polysilicon of 2.3 μ m-thicks, interdigital Gap when static is 2.2 μm, and mass is 0.2 μ g.Circuit is that 2 μm of CMOS technology makes, and 5V powers.The electricity of X, Y, Z axis Hold and be respectively 98fF, 98fF and 177fF.Maximum range is 11g, 11g, 5.5g.Sensitivity is respectively 0.24fF/g, 0.24fF/g And 0.82fF/g.Noise isWithMaximum intersecting axle interference is -36dB.2003, close Junseok Chae of Xi Gen universities et al. succeed in developing a kind of capacitance-type triaxial micro-acceleration gauge.The accelerometer includes three Independent single-axis accelerometer, polysilicon sensing are larger with drive electrode area, between the small sensing formed by sacrificial oxide layer Only 1.5 μm of gap.The size of the accelerometer system is 7 × 9mm2, range 1g, sensitivity are more than 5pF/g, the most low noise of three axles Sound is belowWhen accelerometer after integrated works with interface circuit in its X/Y plane and Z axis to lowest noise It is respectivelyWithThe Y.W.Hsu in Taiwan Industrial Technology Research Institute microsystems technology research center in 2008 A kind of three axles capacitance acceleration transducer have developed using SOG body microcomputer techniques and DRIE lithographic techniques, its planar dimension is only For 1.3 × 1.28mm2, range ± 2g, its Z axis output sensitivity be up to 1.434V/g, and resolution isX-axis sensitivity Be respectively 1.442V/g and 0.03% with cross sensitivity, Y-axis sensitivity and cross sensitivity be respectively 1.241V/g and 0.21%.Hongwei Qu report a kind of monolithic integrated capacitor type CMOS-MEMS realized using single mass within 2008 3-axis acceleration sensor.The amplifying circuit of low-power consumption, low noise, double copped waves is designed with chip reducing making an uproar for sensor Sound.Sensors X, Y, the sensitivity of Z axis are respectively 520mV/g, 460mV/g, 320mV/g.Correspondingly, its noise level is respectivelyChih-Ming Sun in 2010 report a kind of single mass three-shaft condenser type and accelerate Degree sensor.Chip area comprising transducing part and measuring circuit only has 1.78 × 1.38mm2, range is 0.8~6g. The sensitivity of X, Y, Z axis is respectively 0.53mV/, 0.28mV/g and 0.2mV/g, and nonlinearity is respectively 2.64%, 3.15% and 3.36%.Between 1%~8.3%, the noise of X, Y, Z axis is respectively cross sensitivityWith

During the three-axis piezoresistance formula acceleration transducer measurement plane acceleration that is realized using varistor, action direction is not Along the length of side of mass, but the diagonal along mass, mass is pushed up along two of the direction of acceleration Point one rises a decline, and therefore the pressure drag change direction of spring beam is different.Piezoresistance type acceleration sensor can also adopt P The strain of the micro- beam of type mos transistor measurement.Hidekuni Takao adopt the differential amplification of cmos compatible stress sensitive within 1999 Device achieves a kind of monolithic integrated tri-axial acceleration meter.Its cmos signal process circuit is produced on center, senses the used of acceleration Property amount is located at periphery, is therebetween four support beams, and beam root makes has N-type MOS transistor to cause to measure inertia force Beam deformation.The structure is referred to as periphery quality structure, it is possible to reduce the impact of encapsulation stress.Z axis sensitivity is 192mV/g, Resolution 0.024g;The sensitivity of X-axis and Y-axis be 23mV/g, resolution 0.23g.Calendar year 2001 Hidekuni, Takao was in commercialization A kind of low g three axis accelerometers are made using body micromechanical process on 0.8 micrometre CMOS process line, using the P on folded beam Type MOS transistor detects the size of acceleration, 3 × 3mm of device size2With 6 × 6mm2, Z axis resolution is 2mg, X-axis and Y-axis point Resolution is 10.8mg.

Q.Zou of University of Southern California in 2004 et al. reports a kind of three axles piezoelectric bimorph acceleration transducer, adopts one The four beam bimorph structures for planting high degree of symmetry support a mass.The sensitivity of X, Y and Z axis respectively 0.9mV/g, 1.13mV/g and 0.88mV/g.2008, Abdul Haseeb Ma reported a kind of using polymer matrix surface micromachining technique The three axle thermal acceleration degree sensors based on lateral deflection cantilever beam for making, X, Y and Z axis sensitivity are respectively 10 μ V/g, 14.4 μ V/g With 9.8 μ V/g.A.Chaehoi et al. have developed a kind of 3-axis acceleration sensor of hybrid working mechanism, and X-axis and Y-axis accelerate The measurement of degree adopts thermal convection current mode, and sensitivity is 370mV/g, and resolution is 30mg.The measurement of Z axis acceleration adopts pressure-sensitive electricity Resistance, sensitivity is 24mV/g, resolution 1g.

In a word, the implementation method of miniature 3-axis acceleration sensor can be divided three classes:[1] by 3 single-degree-of-freedom acceleration Together, only actually is the composite module of three Miniature single-shaft acceleration transducers to the orthogonally located post package of sensor.Should The shortcomings of method existence and stability is poor, subject range is little, assembling is difficult.[2] adding for sensitive 3 axial directions, is realized on same silicon chip Speed, simplest way are 3 independent sensitive meta structures of making on same substrate.The method needs larger chip face Product.[3] measurement to 3-axis acceleration is realized using a sensitive meta structure.

Realize that the detection mode of 3-axis acceleration is relatively simple at present, examined using principle of uniformity more than three axial accelerations Survey.Cross interference than more serious, typically between 3%~25%.

Content of the invention

It is an object of the invention to a kind of new 3-axis acceleration sensor of invention, to realize the high-precision of 3-axis acceleration Degree, high-resolution, the interference of low intersecting axle, the output of low noise sound measurement sum wordization.

For achieving the above object, the technical solution adopted in the present invention is:Described 3-axis acceleration sensor is by centre Silicon chip (1), upper cover plate (2) and lower shoe (3) composition.Middle silicon chip (1) by two-end fixed beam resonator (4), support beam (5), Mass (6), movable electrode (7) and framework (8) composition.Using single mass (6) three axial acceleration signals of sensitivity.Double Clamped beam resonator (4) is held to be located at the upper surface of middle silicon chip (1), two-end fixed beam resonator (4) one end is clamped in framework (8) On four sides of upper surface, the other end is clamped on the four edges of mass (6).The neutral surface of support beam (5) and mass (6) Center of gravity in same level.X-axis and Y-axis acceleration in two-end fixed beam resonator (4) detection chip plane.In middle silicon Made on piece (1), upper cover plate (2) and lower shoe (3) respectively the detection movable electrode (7) of Z axis acceleration, Top electrode (9) and under Electrode (10).

The operation principle of resonance involved in the present invention-dynamic balance capacitance-type triaxial acceleration transducer:Add in X-axis forward direction Under speed effect, mass (6) is moved in X-direction.Axial direction suffered by one of two-end fixed beam resonator (4) of X-direction Tension increases or axial compression stress reduces, and resonant frequency increases;Another two-end fixed beam resonator (4) of X-direction are axially Tension reduces or axial compression stress increases, and resonant frequency reduces.Two two-end fixed beam resonator (4) resonance of X-direction The difference of frequency reflects the size and Orientation of X-axis acceleration.Similarly, mass (6) is made under Y-axis acceleration effect in Y-axis Direction is moved, and one of two-end fixed beam resonator (4) of Y direction axial tension stress increases or axial compression stress reduces, resonance Frequency increases;Another two-end fixed beam resonator (4) axial tension stress of Y direction reduces or axial compression stress increases, resonance Frequency reduces, the size of the difference of two two-end fixed beam resonator (4) resonant frequencies of Y direction reflection Y-axis acceleration and Direction.The Z axis acceleration signal of vertical chip plane is detected using capacitance type sensitivity principle, and works in closed loop dynamic balance Mode of operation.Mass (6) be subject to Z axis acceleration effect and during to upper cover plate (2), between mass (6) and upper cover plate (2) Electric capacity increases, and the electric capacity between mass (6) and lower shoe (3) reduces.Control circuit will produce one and move with mass (6) Trend electrostatic force in opposite direction, promotes sensitive-mass block (6) to return to equilbrium position.Therefore, mass (6) is in chip normal direction Moving displacement very little, the acceleration signal of Z axis input are minimum to the cross interference of X-axis and the introducing of Y-axis acceleration detection.

The X-axis acceleration signal of resonance involved in the present invention-dynamic balance capacitance-type triaxial acceleration transducer can also Only with two-end fixed beam resonator (4) detection, according to its resonant frequency increased or decrease the size of reflection X-axis acceleration with Direction, but detection sensitivity is less.Similarly, Y-axis acceleration signal only can also be examined with a two-end fixed beam resonator (4) Survey, according to the size and Orientation that its resonant frequency increaseds or decreases reflection Y-axis acceleration

The two-end fixed beam resonator (4) of resonance involved in the present invention-dynamic balance capacitance-type triaxial acceleration transducer Can both be two fixed ends single-beam resonator, three beam resonator of two fixed ends twin beams resonator or two fixed ends had may also be employed.Beam On can slot or perforate with improve quality factor or realizes electric isolation.Two fixed ends twin beams resonator is by two parallel beams Composition, the end of beam merge, and clamped with substrate.When the anti-phase vibration of two prongs is made by appropriate energisation mode, The stress and torque that their combined region is produced is in opposite direction, cancels each other, and therefore total is by clamped end and the external world Energy coupling minimum, the energy loss of vibrational system is little, with higher Q-value.Triple-beam structure two-end fixed beam resonator (4) The width of intermediate beam be equal to the width sum of adjacent two beam in left and right, and three is mutually interconnected into one in end via energy isolation area Individual entirety.When the antisymmetry phase place from three beam resonators three rank mode of oscillations as beam resonance mode when, middle beam , because direction of vibration is mutually cancelled out each other on the contrary, vibrational energy is stored in for the counter-force produced at clamped end with the two of both sides beams and torque Resonator inside, so as to reduce energy loss, plays a part of to improve Q-value.

The two-end fixed beam resonator (4) of resonance involved in the present invention-dynamic balance capacitance-type triaxial acceleration transducer Using one of electric heating excitation, photothermal excitation, inverse piezoelectric excitation, electromagnetic excitation, static excitation excitation so as in resonant condition, The resonant frequency signal that it exports is realized using one of piezoresistive detection, electromagnetic detection, piezoelectric detection, optical interference, capacitance detecting.

The basic manufacturing process steps of resonance involved in the present invention-dynamic balance capacitance-type triaxial acceleration transducer are such as Under:

1) used as middle silicon chip (1), thermal oxide or CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) method are in low-resistivity for the silicon chip using low-resistivity Insulation film is made on silicon chip;

2) photoetching, burn into diffusion, thin film deposition processes combine and make two-end fixed beam resonator (4) on silicon chip Vibrator and vibration detecting element.

3) in middle silicon chip (1) front photoetching two-end fixed beam resonator (4) and mass (6) figure, anisotropic wet Method corrosion or the forming tank of dry etching two-end fixed beam resonator (4) and mass (6).

4) evaporation or sputtering technology deposit metallic film, photoetching are combined with etching process and make metal lead (13).

5) front protecting, back side photoetching, the insulation film in corrosion or etched backside window.Anisotropic wet corrosion or Dry etching release two-end fixed beam resonator (4) and support beam (5).

6) using the silicon wafer to manufacture upper cover plate (2) of low-resistivity.With silicon dioxide, silicon nitride film as mask wet etching Or front side of silicon wafer is removed in the face of mass (6) and two-end fixed beam resonator as mask dry etching with photoresist, metallic film (4) a part of silicon, is provided activity space and electric capacity by Z axis acceleration in the small movements of chip normal direction for mass (6) Gap, also provides space for two-end fixed beam resonator (4).Sputtering or evaporation technology deposit metal foil in silicon chip back side Film, photoetching Top electrode (9), alloying technology make metallic film form good Ohmic contact with low resistance silicon chip.

7) using the silicon wafer to manufacture lower shoe (3) of low-resistivity.With silicon dioxide, silicon nitride film as mask wet etching Or a part of silicon of the front side of silicon wafer in the face of mass (6) lower surface is removed as mask dry etching with photoresist, metallic film, it is Mass (6) is subject to Z axis acceleration to provide activity space and capacitance gap in the small movements of chip normal direction.Sputtering or evaporator man Skill deposits metallic film in silicon chip back side, and alloying technology makes metallic film form good Ohmic contact, shape with low resistance silicon chip Into bottom electrode (10).

8) front of upper cover plate (2) and lower shoe (3) faces the front and back of middle silicon chip (1) respectively, by three's key Be combined, and using eutectic bonding technique or conducting resinl by sensor chip sealing-in good for sealing-in at Can or tube core bottom Portion has in the ceramic cartridge of metal level.Welding lead between the pad and encapsulating package on sensor chip, and by shell bottom The metal level in portion is coupled together with a binding post on shell, realizes the extraction of sensor lower electrode (10) electrical signal.

The upper cover plate (2) and lower shoe (3) of resonance involved in the present invention-dynamic balance capacitance-type triaxial acceleration transducer The silicon wafer to manufacture that electrical conductivity can also be adopted larger, but need Top electrode (9) and bottom electrode (10) are produced in the face of mass (6) one side, and need through-hole interconnection technology to realize the extraction of Top electrode (9) and bottom electrode (10) electrical signal.

There is three below advantage in resonance involved in the present invention-dynamic balance capacitance-type triaxial acceleration transducer:[1]Z Axle acceleration signal adopts dynamic balance mode of operation, and mass (6) is in chip normal direction moving displacement very little, the acceleration of Z axis input It is minimum that degree signal introduces cross interference to X-axis and Y-axis acceleration detection.Similarly, mass (6) experiences X-axis and Y-axis accelerates Degree signal and the displacement in chip plane also will not bring cross sensitivity to the detection of Z axis acceleration signal.[2] X-axis and Y Axle acceleration signal is using two-end fixed beam resonator (4) measurement to axial stress with extremely sensitive characteristic, tested acceleration Degree be converted directly into the higher frequency signal of stability and reliability, be not likely to produce distortion in transmitting procedure, without the need for through A/D converter can be high with digital display circuit interface, certainty of measurement, disclosure satisfy that the high performance requirements to acceleration transducer. [3] Z axis acceleration signal adopts closed loop dynamic balance mode of operation, with the linearity is good, dynamic range big, low noise and other advantages.

Description of the drawings

Fig. 1 is the knot of the middle silicon chip (1) of resonance-dynamic balance capacitance-type triaxial acceleration transducer involved in the present invention Structure schematic diagram.

Fig. 2 is the knot of the embodiment as resonance involved in the present invention-dynamic balance capacitance-type triaxial acceleration transducer Structure schematic diagram, two-end fixed beam resonator (4) detection X-axis of the embodiment using the excitation of polysilicon resistance electric heating and piezoresistive detection With Y-axis acceleration signal.

Fig. 3 is the processing technology stream of the resonance-dynamic balance capacitance-type triaxial acceleration transducer as the embodiment of the present invention Cheng Tu.

In accompanying drawing:

Silicon chip 2- upper cover plates 3- lower shoes in the middle of 1-

4- two-end fixed beam resonator 5- support beam 6- masses

7- movable electrode 8- framework 9- Top electrodes

10- bottom electrodes 11- encourages resistance 12- varistors

13- lead 14- silica membrane 15- polysilicon membranes

The silica 1 7- ion implanting window 18- silicon nitride films of 16- polycrystalline silicon growths

19- sealing rings

Specific embodiment

The present invention will be further described with reference to the accompanying drawings and examples, but is not limited to the embodiment.

Embodiment:

A kind of resonance-dynamic balance capacitance-type triaxial acceleration transducer is made using technical scheme.Wherein X-axis With Y-axis acceleration signal using the excitation of polysilicon resistance electric heating, miniature two-end fixed beam resonator (4) detection of piezoresistive detection. Its fabrication processing is as follows:

1) adopt N-type, (100) face, resistivity for 0.1 Ω .cm silicon chip as middle silicon chip (1).(see accompanying drawing 3 [1])

2) thermal oxide, generates the silica membrane (14) of 1 micron of thickness.(see accompanying drawing 3 [2])

3) low-pressure chemical vapor phase deposition method depositing polysilicon thin film (15), 1 micron of thickness.(see accompanying drawing 3 [3])

4) thermal oxide, partial polysilicon thin film (15) are oxidized to silicon dioxide (16), and photoetching and etching process combine system Make the ion implanting window (17) of excitation resistance (11) and varistor (12).(see accompanying drawing 3 [4])

5) boron ion implantation makes polysilicon excitation resistance (11) varistor (12).950 DEG C, anneal 30 in oxygen atmosphere Minute, activation doping boron ion.(see accompanying drawing 3 [5])

6) front photoresist protection, slow release hydrofluoric acid solution are corroded the silicon dioxide (16) at the back side, are removed photoresist.Anisotropy is molten The polysilicon membrane (15) at the corrosion back side.(see accompanying drawing 3 [6])

7) low-pressure chemical vapor phase deposition method cvd nitride silicon thin film (18), thickness 250nm.In middle silicon chip (1) front lighting Carve two-end fixed beam resonator (4) and mass (6) figure, anisotropic wet corrosion or dry etching two-end fixed beam resonance Device (4) and the forming tank of mass (6);(see accompanying drawing 3 [7])

8) lithography contact hole, the silicon nitride film and silica membrane in dry etching contact hole.Photoetching is formed sediment with thin film Product technique combines and makes metal lead (13).(see accompanying drawing 3 [8])

9) front photoetching sealing ring (19) figure, electron beam evaporation technique deposit 8329 glass of Schott, stripping technology system Make sealing ring (19).(see accompanying drawing 3 [9])

10) front protecting, back side photoetching, the silicon nitride film (18) and silica membrane (14) at the dry etching back side, Remove photoresist.There is mask corrosion to form two-end fixed beam resonator (4) and support beam (5) with without the mask corrosion corrosion that combines.(see attached Fig. 3 [10])

11) using in addition a piece of N-type, (100) face, resistivity is the silicon wafer to manufacture upper cover plate (2) of 0.1 Ω .cm.Thermal oxide Method silicon dioxide thin film growth.With silica membrane as mask wet etching remove front side of silicon wafer in the face of mass (6) and pair A part of silicon of clamped beam resonator (4) is held, is provided in the small movements of chip normal direction by Z axis acceleration for mass (6) Activity space and capacitance gap, also provide space for two-end fixed beam resonator (4).Slow release hydrofluoric acid solution corrodes dioxy SiClx thin film., in silicon chip back side deposit metallic film, photoetching Top electrode (9), alloying technology makes metal for sputtering or evaporation technology Thin film forms good Ohmic contact with low resistance silicon chip.(see accompanying drawing 3 [11])

12) using in addition a piece of N-type, (100) face, resistivity is the silicon wafer to manufacture lower shoe (3) of 0.1 Ω .cm.Thermal oxide Method silicon dioxide thin film growth.Front side of silicon wafer is removed in the face of the one of mass (6) as mask wet etching with silica membrane Part silicon, is provided activity space and capacitance gap by Z axis acceleration in the small movements of chip normal direction for mass (6).Slow Release Fluohydric acid. corrosion silica membrane.Sputtering or evaporation technology deposit metallic film in silicon chip back side, and alloying technology makes gold Category thin film forms good Ohmic contact with low resistance silicon chip, forms bottom electrode (10).(see accompanying drawing 3 [12])

13) front of upper cover plate (2) and lower shoe (3) faces the front and back of middle silicon chip (1) respectively, by three's key Be combined, and using eutectic bonding technique or conducting resinl by sensor chip sealing-in good for sealing-in at Can or tube core bottom Portion has in the ceramic cartridge of metal level.Welding lead between the pad and encapsulating package on sensor chip, and by shell bottom The metal level in portion is coupled together with a binding post on shell, realizes the extraction of sensor lower electrode (10) electrical signal.Weldering Connect outer lead.(see accompanying drawing 3 [13])

Claims (4)

1. a kind of resonance-dynamic balance capacitance-type triaxial acceleration transducer, it is characterised in that:Described 3-axis acceleration sensor Be made up of middle silicon chip (1), upper cover plate (2) and lower shoe (3), middle silicon chip (1) by four two-end fixed beam resonators (4), Eight support beam (5), mass (6), movable electrode (7) and framework (8) compositions;Two-end fixed beam resonator (4) is located at centre The upper surface of silicon chip (1), two-end fixed beam resonator (4) one end are clamped in framework (8) upper surface, and the other end is clamped in mass (6) on four edges;The center of gravity of the neutral surface of support beam (5) and mass (6) is in same level;Middle silicon chip (1), Movable electrode (7), top crown (9) and the bottom electrode of detection Z axis acceleration are made on upper cover plate (2) and lower shoe (3) respectively (10).
2. resonance according to claim 1-dynamic balance capacitance-type triaxial acceleration transducer, it is characterised in that:In X-axis just To under acceleration effect, mass (6) is moved in X-direction, suffered by one of two-end fixed beam resonator (4) of X-direction Axial tension stress increases or axial compression stress reduces, and resonant frequency increases, another two-end fixed beam resonator (4) of X-direction Axial tension stress reduces or axial compression stress increases, and resonant frequency reduces, and the two-end fixed beam that can pass through to measure X-direction is humorous Shake one of device (4) resonant frequency variable quantity or the difference reflection X-axis acceleration of two two-end fixed beam resonators (4) Size and Orientation;Under Y-axis acceleration effect, mass (6) is made to move in Y direction, the two-end fixed beam resonance of Y direction The axial tension stress of one of device (4) increases or axial compression stress reduces, and resonant frequency increases, and another both-end of Y direction is clamped Beam resonator (4) axial tension stress reduces or axial compression stress increases, and resonant frequency reduces, and can pass through to measure Y direction The difference of the variable quantity of the resonant frequency of one of two-end fixed beam resonator (4) or two two-end fixed beam resonators (4) is anti- Reflect the size and Orientation of Y-axis acceleration;The Z axis acceleration signal of vertical reference chip plane is using former using capacitance type sensitivity Reason detection, and closed loop dynamic balance mode of operation is worked in, mass (6) is subject to Z axis acceleration effect and moves to upper cover plate (2) When, the electric capacity increase between mass (6) and upper cover plate (2), the electric capacity between mass (6) and lower shoe (3) reduce, control Circuit will produce an electrostatic force in opposite direction with mass (6) movement tendency, promote sensitive-mass block (6) to return to balance Position.
3. resonance according to claim 1-dynamic balance capacitance-type triaxial acceleration transducer, it is characterised in that:Described The two-end fixed beam resonator (4) of 3-axis acceleration sensor is swashed using electric heating excitation, photothermal excitation, inverse piezoelectric excitation, electromagnetism Encourage, the excitation of one of static excitation so as in resonant condition, the resonant frequency signal that it exports is examined using piezoresistive detection, electromagnetism One of survey, piezoelectric detection, optical interference, capacitance detecting are realized.
4. resonance according to claim 1-dynamic balance capacitance-type triaxial acceleration transducer, it is characterised in that:Described The basic manufacturing process steps of 3-axis acceleration sensor are as follows:
1) used as middle silicon chip (1), thermal oxide or CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) method are in low-resistivity silicon chip for the silicon chip using low-resistivity Upper making insulation film;
2) photoetching, burn into diffusion, thin film deposition processes combine and make the exciting of two-end fixed beam resonator (4) on silicon chip Device and vibration detecting element;
3) in middle silicon chip (1) front photoetching two-end fixed beam resonator (4) and mass (6) figure, anisotropic wet is rotten Erosion or the forming tank of dry etching two-end fixed beam resonator (4) and mass (6);
4) evaporation or sputtering technology deposit metallic film, photoetching are combined with etching process and make metal lead (13);
5) front protecting, back side photoetching, the insulation film in corrosion or etched backside window, anisotropic wet corrosion or dry method Etching release two-end fixed beam resonator (4) and support beam (5);
6) using low-resistivity silicon wafer to manufacture upper cover plate (2), with silicon dioxide, silicon nitride film as mask wet etching or with Photoresist, metallic film are that mask dry etching removes front side of silicon wafer in the face of mass (6) and two-end fixed beam resonator (4) A part of silicon, is provided activity space and capacitance gap by Z axis acceleration in the small movements of chip normal direction for mass (6), Also space is provided for two-end fixed beam resonator (4);Sputtering or evaporation technology deposit metallic film in silicon chip back side;Photoetching Top electrode (9), alloying technology make metallic film form good Ohmic contact with low resistance silicon chip;
7) using low-resistivity silicon wafer to manufacture lower shoe (3), with silicon dioxide, silicon nitride film as mask wet etching or with Photoresist, metallic film are that mask dry etching removes a part of silicon of the front side of silicon wafer in the face of mass (6) lower surface, are quality Block (6) is subject to Z axis acceleration to provide activity space and capacitance gap in the small movements of chip normal direction;Sputtering or evaporation technology exist Silicon chip back side deposits metallic film, and alloying technology makes metallic film form good Ohmic contact with low resistance silicon chip, under formation Electrode (10);
8) three is bonded in by the front of upper cover plate (2) and lower shoe (3) respectively in the face of the front and back of middle silicon chip (1) Together, and using eutectic bonding technique or conducting resinl sensor chip sealing-in good for sealing-in is had in Can or die bottom In the ceramic cartridge of metal level;Welding lead between the pad and encapsulating package on sensor chip, and by tube shell bottom Metal level is coupled together with a binding post on shell, realizes the extraction of sensor lower electrode (10) electrical signal.
CN201210059374.1A 2011-11-23 2012-03-01 Resonance dynamic balance capacitance-type triaxial acceleration transducer and manufacture method CN102590555B (en)

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN201110374249.5 2011-11-23
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CN201110374249 2011-11-23
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