CN102034912B - Light-emitting diode epitaxial wafer, manufacturing method and manufacturing method of chip - Google Patents

Light-emitting diode epitaxial wafer, manufacturing method and manufacturing method of chip Download PDF

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CN102034912B
CN102034912B CN200910258858.7A CN200910258858A CN102034912B CN 102034912 B CN102034912 B CN 102034912B CN 200910258858 A CN200910258858 A CN 200910258858A CN 102034912 B CN102034912 B CN 102034912B
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semiconductor layer
type semiconductor
sapphire substrate
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CN102034912A (en
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张旺
苏喜林
胡红坡
谢春林
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比亚迪股份有限公司
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L33/00Semiconductor devices with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier specially adapted for light emission; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof
    • H01L33/005Processes
    • H01L33/0062Processes for devices with an active region comprising only III-V compounds
    • H01L33/0066Processes for devices with an active region comprising only III-V compounds with a substrate not being a III-V compound
    • H01L33/007Processes for devices with an active region comprising only III-V compounds with a substrate not being a III-V compound comprising nitride compounds
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    • H01L21/02Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof
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    • H01L21/02365Forming inorganic semiconducting materials on a substrate
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    • H01L33/00Semiconductor devices with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier specially adapted for light emission; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof
    • H01L33/005Processes
    • H01L33/0062Processes for devices with an active region comprising only III-V compounds
    • H01L33/0079Processes for devices with an active region comprising only III-V compounds wafer bonding or at least partial removal of the growth substrate
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    • H01L33/00Semiconductor devices with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier specially adapted for light emission; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof
    • H01L33/02Semiconductor devices with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier specially adapted for light emission; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof characterised by the semiconductor bodies
    • H01L33/12Semiconductor devices with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier specially adapted for light emission; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof characterised by the semiconductor bodies with a stress relaxation structure, e.g. buffer layer
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    • H01L33/00Semiconductor devices with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier specially adapted for light emission; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof
    • H01L33/02Semiconductor devices with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier specially adapted for light emission; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof characterised by the semiconductor bodies
    • H01L33/26Materials of the light emitting region
    • H01L33/30Materials of the light emitting region containing only elements of group III and group V of the periodic system
    • H01L33/32Materials of the light emitting region containing only elements of group III and group V of the periodic system containing nitrogen

Abstract

The invention discloses a manufacturing method of a light-emitting diode epitaxial wafer, a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) device is adopted, and the method comprises the following steps: forming a back coat on the back surface of a sapphire substrate, wherein the thermal expansion coefficient of the material of the back coat is less than that of sapphire, and the material of the back coat is not reacted with matters in the MOCVD device during the epitaxial growth process; carrying out epitaxial growth of a buffer layer on the front surface of the sapphire substrate; carrying out the epitaxial growth of an N type semiconductor layer on the surface of the buffer layer; carrying out the epitaxial growth of multiple quantum wells on the surface of the N type semiconductor layer; and carrying out the epitaxial growth of a P type semiconductor layer on the surface of the multiple quantum wells. The invention further discloses the light-emitting diode epitaxial wafer formed by the method, and the manufacturing method of a chip comprising the epitaxial wafer. By adopting method in the invention, the luminescence consistency of the light-emitting diode chip can be effectively improved.

Description

The preparation method of LED epitaxial slice, its preparation method and chip

Technical field

The present invention relates to technical field of semiconductor illumination, particularly the preparation method of a kind of LED epitaxial slice, its preparation method and chip.

Background technology

At present, due to semiconductor light-emitting-diode (LED) advantage in service life, capacity usage ratio etc., the new type light source of alternative conventional light source is become.For semiconductor light-emitting-diode, the color of light is corresponding with the frequency of light, namely corresponding with the energy gap of semi-conducting material, InGaN is blue, green, that purple LED is desirable emitting layer material, the energy gap of gallium nitride reaches 3.4 electron volts, by the doping of indium, can from modulating its energy gap between 0.7 to 3.4 electron volts scope.

The epitaxial wafer of light emitting diode comprises the cushion, n type semiconductor layer, MQW and the p type semiconductor layer that grow successively on a sapphire substrate.Wherein, semiconductor layer can be the various basic units be made up of iii-v element, such as gallium nitride (GaN), GaAs (GaAs) etc.Present specification is described for gallium nitride light-emitting diode.

The making of gallium nitride light-emitting diode epitaxial wafer in prior art, carry out in strong interaction between metal and support (MOCVD) equipment, the method comprises the following steps:

Step 11, on a sapphire substrate epitaxial growth buffer;

Step 12, surperficial epitaxial growth n type gallium nitride layer at described cushion;

Step 13, surperficial epitaxial growth MQW at described n type gallium nitride, this layer is luminescent layer;

Step 14, surperficial epitaxial growth P type gallium nitride layer at described MQW.

It should be noted that how many emission wavelengths of light emitting diode is determined by indium content in MQW.Be the MQW of 13% for indium content, growth temperature is generally 750 degrees Celsius.Indium content is very responsive to temperature, variations in temperature 1K, and cause indium content to change 0.3%, emission wavelength changes 1.5 nanometers.And MOCVD device mode of heating is bottom-heated, such equipment cavity produces the gradient distribution of temperature from bottom to top, more arrive equipment cavity upper temp lower, thus make sapphire upper and lower surface have the temperature difference of 2K, this temperature difference causes the higher lower surface of sapphire relative temperature to have larger thermal expansion, finally makes sapphire become bowl-type from writing board shape is upturned.The existence of thermograde makes the centerand edge of warpage epitaxial wafer have 10 micron height poor, 7K temperature difference.So the MOCVD device of bottom-heated can cause the emission wavelength of same sheet epitaxy sheet centerand edge to have the difference of 1.5 × 7=10.5 nanometer, the LED chip emission uniformity namely formed is very poor.The yield of such product is just lower, and after causing grinding in LED chip manufacture process, polishing, scribing thus, bursting apart, also needs a survey, sorting, the LED chip of different wave length sorted out, add production stage and production cost.

Summary of the invention

In view of this, goal of the invention of the present invention is: improve LED chip emission uniformity.

For achieving the above object, technical scheme of the present invention is specifically achieved in that

The invention discloses a kind of preparation method of LED epitaxial slice, adopt strong interaction between metal and support MOCVD device, the method comprises:

Back of the body coating is formed at the back side of Sapphire Substrate; The thermal coefficient of expansion of described back of the body coating material is less than sapphire thermal coefficient of expansion; Described back of the body coating material does not react with the material in MOCVD device in epitaxial process;

In the front epitaxial growth buffer of Sapphire Substrate;

At the surperficial epitaxial growth n type semiconductor layer of described cushion;

At the surperficial epitaxial growth MQW of described n type semiconductor layer;

At the surperficial epitaxial growth p type semiconductor layer of described MQW.

The method forming described back of the body coating is physical vapour deposition (PVD), chemical vapour deposition (CVD), plating, printing or spin coating.

Described semiconductor layer is gallium nitride layer.

Described back of the body coating is aln layer, and when the thickness of Sapphire Substrate is 400 microns, the thickness of described aln layer is 0.27 ~ 0.31 micron.

Described back of the body coating is copper-tungsten.

When in described copper-tungsten, the content of copper is 10%, when the thickness of Sapphire Substrate is 400 microns, the thickness of copper-tungsten layer is 0.51 ~ 0.56 micron.

The invention also discloses a kind of LED epitaxial slice formed by said method, the cushion, n type semiconductor layer, MQW and the p type semiconductor layer that comprise Sapphire Substrate and formed successively in Sapphire Substrate front, it is characterized in that, described epitaxial wafer is also included in the back of the body coating at the Sapphire Substrate back side.

The invention also discloses a kind of preparation method of light-emitting diode chip for backlight unit, the method comprises:

Back of the body coating is formed at the back side of Sapphire Substrate; The thermal coefficient of expansion of described back of the body coating material is less than sapphire thermal coefficient of expansion; Described back of the body coating material does not react with the material in MOCVD device in epitaxial process;

In the front epitaxial growth buffer of Sapphire Substrate;

At the surperficial epitaxial growth n type semiconductor layer of described cushion;

At the surperficial epitaxial growth MQW of described n type semiconductor layer;

At the surperficial epitaxial growth p type semiconductor layer of described MQW;

The appointed area of p type semiconductor layer in Sapphire Substrate and MQW is etched, successively until expose n type semiconductor layer; The n type semiconductor layer exposed makes N-type electrode; P type semiconductor layer makes P-type electrode;

Back carried out to the back side of Sapphire Substrate thinning, remove the Sapphire Substrate of described back of the body coating and predetermined thickness.

As seen from the above technical solutions, the invention provides the preparation method of a kind of LED epitaxial slice, its preparation method and chip.Mainly be less than sapphire material at sapphire backsides back of the body plating one deck thermal coefficient of expansion, the thermal expansion of sapphire lower surface is balanced by this back of the body plating material, suppress sapphire warpage, thus ensure the smooth of sapphire upper surface, improve the uniformity of epitaxial wafer emission wavelength.

Accompanying drawing explanation

Fig. 1 is the schematic flow sheet of gallium nitride light-emitting diode epitaxial wafer preparation method of the present invention.

Fig. 2 is the structural representation of gallium nitride light-emitting diode epitaxial wafer of the present invention.

When Fig. 3 is aluminium nitride for carrying on the back coating, the aerosol schematic diagram of sapphire surface.

When Fig. 4 is copper-tungsten for carrying on the back coating, the aerosol schematic diagram of sapphire surface.

Fig. 5 is the structural representation of chip of gallium nitride LED of the present invention.

Detailed description of the invention

For making object of the present invention, technical scheme and advantage clearly understand, to develop simultaneously embodiment referring to accompanying drawing, the present invention is described in more detail.

Core concept of the present invention is: be less than sapphire material at sapphire backsides back of the body plating one deck thermal coefficient of expansion, the thermal expansion of sapphire lower surface is balanced by this back of the body plating material, suppress sapphire warpage, thus ensure the smooth of sapphire upper surface, improve the uniformity of epitaxial wafer emission wavelength.

The epitaxial wafer of light emitting diode comprises the cushion, n type semiconductor layer, MQW and the p type semiconductor layer that grow successively on a sapphire substrate.Wherein, semiconductor layer can be the various basic units be made up of iii-v element, such as gallium nitride, GaAs etc.The embodiment of the present invention is still described for gallium nitride light-emitting diode.

The schematic flow sheet of gallium nitride light-emitting diode epitaxial wafer preparation method of the present invention as shown in Figure 1, the making of epitaxial wafer is still carried out in MOCVD device, high-purity hydrogen and nitrogen are as carrier gas, and gallium (Ga), indium (In), nitrogen (N) source are respectively high-purity trimethyl gallium (Ga), trimethyl indium (In) and ammonia (NH 3).It comprises the following steps:

Step 21, the back side of Sapphire Substrate 101 formed the back of the body coating 102;

As the material of back of the body coating 102 in the present invention, its thermal coefficient of expansion is less than sapphire thermal coefficient of expansion; And need to guarantee that this material can not be decomposed in whole epitaxially grown pyroprocess; The metal organic source do not used with epitaxial growth, such as gallium (Ga), indium (In), silicon (Si), magnesium (Mg) source, and ammonia, hydrogen and nitrogen react, namely in epitaxial process not with other material generation chemical reactions in MOCVD device.The making of back of the body coating 102 can adopt various method, and the methods such as such as physical vapour deposition (PVD) (PVD), chemical vapour deposition (CVD) (CVD), plating, printing or spin coating realize.

For example, aluminium nitride (AlN), copper-tungsten etc., can reach the effect of the thermal expansion balancing sapphire lower surface well.Obviously, back of the body coating material of the present invention comprises aluminium nitride, copper-tungsten, but is not limited thereto, as long as meet above-mentioned condition.

Step 22, front epitaxial growth buffer 103 in Sapphire Substrate 101;

This cushion is epitaxially grown one deck Amorphous SiC layer at low temperature 450 DEG C ~ 600 DEG C.

Step 23, surperficial epitaxial growth n type gallium nitride layer 104 at described cushion 103;

The temperature of growth n type gallium nitride layer is 1050 DEG C, and n type gallium nitride layer can mix silicon, and silicon source can be silane (SiH 4) etc.

Step 24, surperficial epitaxial growth MQW 105 at described n type gallium nitride layer 104, this layer is luminescent layer;

Described InGaN MQW is grown under the condition of 750 DEG C.

Step 25, surperficial epitaxial growth P type gallium nitride layer 106 at described MQW 105.

The temperature of growing P-type gallium nitride layer is 1050 DEG C, and P type gallium nitride layer can mix magnesium, and magnesium source is two luxuriant magnesium (Cp 2mg) etc.

So far, the present invention can obtain uniform wavelength distribution epitaxial wafer complete, its structural representation is as shown in Figure 2.

Find through research, in order to obtain uniform wavelength distribution epitaxial wafer, the thickness of back of the body coating is decided by the thermal coefficient of expansion and elastic modelling quantity carrying on the back plating material, according to the thickness of Sapphire Substrate, by the THICKNESS CONTROL of back of the body coating within the specific limits, can effectively suppress sapphire warpage, thus obtain the epitaxial wafer of uniform wavelength distribution.

In the present invention first specific embodiment, to carry on the back coating for aluminium nitride, its thermal coefficient of expansion is 4.5e-6/K, and elastic modelling quantity was 270 seasons handkerchief (GPa).It is 400 microns at Sapphire Substrate thickness, when AlN thickness is 0.27 ~ 0.31 micron, when can obtain 750 DEG C in current MOCVD device when Vertical Temperature field, the vertical drop of sapphire surface is less than 0.476 micron, the emission wavelength fluctuation of the extension MQW caused by temperature, namely the emission wavelength difference of same sheet epitaxy sheet centerand edge, is reduced to below 1 nanometer.

Fig. 3 is when the thickness carrying on the back plating aluminium nitride is 0.28 micron, when can obtain 750 DEG C in current MOCVD device when Vertical Temperature field, and the aerosol of sapphire surface.As can be seen from Figure 3, more to sapphire edge, its vertical height is higher, and peak reaches 1.0421 microns, and the vertical height at its center is 0.85275 micron, thus the vertical difference that can obtain sapphire surface is reduced to 0.2 micron.With prior art, compare when sapphire backsides does not carry on the back coating, the vertical difference of its sapphire surface greatly reduces, and so the emission wavelength difference of epitaxial wafer centerand edge also just greatly reduces.

In the present invention second specific embodiment, for carry on the back coating for copper content be the copper-tungsten of 10%, its thermal coefficient of expansion is 5.7e-6/K, and elastic modelling quantity is 128GPa.It is 400 microns at Sapphire Substrate thickness, when copper-tungsten thickness is 0.51 ~ 0.56 micron, when can obtain 750 DEG C in current MOCVD device when Vertical Temperature field, the vertical drop of sapphire surface is less than 0.476 micron, the emission wavelength fluctuation of the extension MQW caused by temperature, namely the emission wavelength difference of same sheet epitaxy sheet centerand edge, is reduced to below 1 nanometer.

Fig. 4 is when the thickness carrying on the back copper facing tungsten alloy is 0.53 micron, when can obtain 750 DEG C in current MOCVD device when Vertical Temperature field, and the aerosol of sapphire surface.As can be seen from Figure 4, more to sapphire edge, its vertical height is higher, and peak reaches 0.9414 micron, and the vertical height at its center is 0.81121 micron, thus the vertical difference that can obtain sapphire surface is reduced to 0.1 micron.With prior art, compare when sapphire backsides does not carry on the back coating, the vertical difference of its sapphire surface greatly reduces, and so the emission wavelength difference of epitaxial wafer centerand edge also just greatly reduces.

As can be seen from above-described embodiment, in the process making epitaxial wafer, first form the back of the body coating that can suppress sapphire warpage at sapphire backsides, just effectively can improve the uniformity of epitaxial wafer emission wavelength.

LED chip comprises epitaxial wafer and electrode, and after electrode fabrication completes, needs the method adopting back thinning, and grinding, polishing, by sapphire back side wear down, are easy to the segmentation section of LED chip like this.So back of the body coating is removed just in the thinning process in back, so following, the manufacture craft of chip is same as the prior art, do not need to take measures in addition to process back of the body coating, so the preparation method of chip of gallium nitride LED of the present invention, be simple and easy to realize, the output efficiency of chip can not be reduced.

Therefore, the invention also discloses a kind of preparation method of chip of gallium nitride LED, the method comprises:

Step 51, the back side of Sapphire Substrate 101 formed the back of the body coating 102;

Step 52, front epitaxial growth buffer 103 in Sapphire Substrate 101;

Step 53, surperficial epitaxial growth n type gallium nitride layer 104 at described cushion 103;

Step 54, surperficial epitaxial growth MQW 105 at described n type gallium nitride layer 104, this layer is luminescent layer;

Step 55, surperficial epitaxial growth P type gallium nitride layer 106 at described MQW 105;

Step 56, the appointed area of P type gallium nitride layer 106 and MQW 105 in Sapphire Substrate 101 to be etched, successively until expose n type gallium nitride layer 104; The n type gallium nitride layer 104 exposed makes N-type electrode 501; P type gallium nitride layer 106 makes P-type electrode 502.

Step 57, the back side of Sapphire Substrate 101 to be carried out to back thinning, removes the Sapphire Substrate 101 of back of the body coating 102 and predetermined thickness.

The structural representation of the chip of gallium nitride LED formed by above-mentioned steps as shown in Figure 5, as can be seen from Figure 5, now the structure of chip is substantially identical with prior art, and back of the body coating is removed in the thinning process in back, but the emission uniformity of this chip is effectively improved.This warpage just because of wherein epitaxial wafer obtains suppression, even if so MOCVD device is bottom-heated, and thermograde is produced in equipment cavity, also can not produce the larger temperature difference on epitaxial wafer surface, therefore would not affect the emission uniformity of LED chip.

The above, be only preferred embodiment of the present invention, be not intended to limit protection scope of the present invention.For various light emitting diode, as long as form the warpage of carrying on the back coating and can suppress Sapphire Substrate, improve the technical scheme of the emission uniformity of chip, all in protection scope of the present invention.Within the spirit and principles in the present invention all, any amendment done, equivalent replacement, improvement etc., all should be included within protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (5)

1. a preparation method for LED epitaxial slice, adopt strong interaction between metal and support MOCVD device, the method comprises:
Back of the body coating is formed at the back side of Sapphire Substrate; The thermal coefficient of expansion of described back of the body coating material is less than sapphire thermal coefficient of expansion; Described back of the body coating material does not react with the material in MOCVD device in epitaxial process; The thickness of described Sapphire Substrate is 400 microns; Described back of the body coating is aln layer, and the thickness of described aln layer is 0.27 ~ 0.31 micron; Or described back of the body coating is copper-tungsten, in described copper-tungsten, the content of copper is 10%, and the thickness of copper-tungsten layer is 0.51 ~ 0.56 micron;
In the front epitaxial growth buffer of Sapphire Substrate;
At the surperficial epitaxial growth n type semiconductor layer of described cushion;
At the surperficial epitaxial growth MQW of described n type semiconductor layer;
At the surperficial epitaxial growth p type semiconductor layer of described MQW.
2. the method for claim 1, is characterized in that, the method forming described back of the body coating is physical vapour deposition (PVD), chemical vapour deposition (CVD), plating, printing or spin coating.
3. method as claimed in claim 1 or 2, it is characterized in that, described semiconductor layer is gallium nitride layer.
4. the LED epitaxial slice formed by the method described in any one of claims 1 to 3, the cushion, n type semiconductor layer, MQW and the p type semiconductor layer that comprise Sapphire Substrate and formed successively in Sapphire Substrate front, it is characterized in that, described epitaxial wafer is also included in the back of the body coating at the Sapphire Substrate back side.
5. a preparation method for light-emitting diode chip for backlight unit, the method comprises:
Back of the body coating is formed at the back side of Sapphire Substrate; The thermal coefficient of expansion of described back of the body coating material is less than sapphire thermal coefficient of expansion; Described back of the body coating material does not react with the material in MOCVD device in epitaxial process; The thickness of described Sapphire Substrate is 400 microns; Described back of the body coating is aln layer, and the thickness of described aln layer is 0.27 ~ 0.31 micron; Or described back of the body coating is copper-tungsten, in described copper-tungsten, the content of copper is 10%, and the thickness of copper-tungsten layer is 0.51 ~ 0.56 micron;
In the front epitaxial growth buffer of Sapphire Substrate;
At the surperficial epitaxial growth n type semiconductor layer of described cushion;
At the surperficial epitaxial growth MQW of described n type semiconductor layer;
At the surperficial epitaxial growth p type semiconductor layer of described MQW;
The appointed area of p type semiconductor layer in Sapphire Substrate and MQW is etched, successively until expose n type semiconductor layer; The n type semiconductor layer exposed makes N-type electrode; P type semiconductor layer makes P-type electrode;
Back carried out to the back side of Sapphire Substrate thinning, remove the Sapphire Substrate of described back of the body coating and predetermined thickness.
CN200910258858.7A 2009-12-29 2009-12-29 Light-emitting diode epitaxial wafer, manufacturing method and manufacturing method of chip CN102034912B (en)

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CN200910258858.7A CN102034912B (en) 2009-12-29 2009-12-29 Light-emitting diode epitaxial wafer, manufacturing method and manufacturing method of chip

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN200910258858.7A CN102034912B (en) 2009-12-29 2009-12-29 Light-emitting diode epitaxial wafer, manufacturing method and manufacturing method of chip
EP10840425.2A EP2519982B1 (en) 2009-12-29 2010-10-08 Epitaxial wafer, method for manufacturing the same and method for manufacturing led chip
PCT/CN2010/077604 WO2011079636A1 (en) 2009-12-29 2010-10-08 Epitaxial wafer, method for manufacturing the same and method for manufacturing led chip
US13/536,745 US8932892B2 (en) 2009-12-29 2012-06-28 Epitaxiay wafer, method for manufacturing the same and method for manufacturing LED chip

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CN102034912A CN102034912A (en) 2011-04-27
CN102034912B true CN102034912B (en) 2015-03-25

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