CN101839488B - Method for gasifying and incinerating combustible solid wastes by utilizing rotary kiln - Google Patents

Method for gasifying and incinerating combustible solid wastes by utilizing rotary kiln Download PDF

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CN101839488B
CN101839488B CN2010101284746A CN201010128474A CN101839488B CN 101839488 B CN101839488 B CN 101839488B CN 2010101284746 A CN2010101284746 A CN 2010101284746A CN 201010128474 A CN201010128474 A CN 201010128474A CN 101839488 B CN101839488 B CN 101839488B
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gas
solid wastes
proportion
sludge
rotary kiln
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CN2010101284746A
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CN101839488A (en
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胡建杭
王�华
刘慧利
赵鲁梅
李磊
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昆明理工大学
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Abstract

The invention discloses a process for the combined gasification and incineration of oily sludge, municipal sludge, coal refuse, municipal solid wastes and biomasses by utilizing a rotary kiln, which comprises the following steps of: dehydrating the oily sludge and the municipal sludge respectively, and at the same time, crushing the coal refuse, the municipal solid wastes and the biomasses into particles of a certain particle size; mixing the oily sludge and the municipal sludge which are hydrated, and the coal refuse, the municipal solid wastes and the biomasses which are rushed in a certain proportion; delivering the mixture into a gasification furnace of the rotary kiln by using a spiral feeder and also delivering a gasification medium into the rotary kiln; performing pyrolysis and gasification reaction on the mixture of the various combustible solid wastes at the high temperature of 1,000 to 1,200 DEG C to generate a crude gas rich in H2 and CO; and under the co-action of the high-temperature rotary kiln and subsequent treatment facility, recycling energy in the combustible solid wastes and rationally treating most of pollutants.

Description

A kind of method for gasifying and incinerating combustible solid wastes by utilizing rotary kiln
Technical field
The present invention relates to the resource and environment technical field, specifically a kind of oily sludge, municipal sludge, gangue, domestic waste and living beings rotary kiln combined vaporizing burning process.
Background technology
Along with the raising of industrial development of China and living standards of the people, the contracts amount and the accumulating amount of the combustible solid wastes by utilizing that people produce in production and life process constantly increase.Combustible solid wastes by utilizing mainly comprises oily sludge, gangue, living beings (agriculture and forestry organic waste material), municipal sludge and domestic waste etc.; The stacking meeting of these combustible solid wastes by utilizing works the mischief to the healthy of environment and people, and how handling these combustible solid wastes by utilizing rationally and effectively and reclaiming the energy that wherein contains becomes the important topic of pendulum in face of people.
Oily sludge is the solid waste that produces in oil exploitation, processing and the transportation, and its main component is crude oil, water and mud, and oil content is usually between 10~50%.According to estimates, China produces nearly 3,000,000 tons of oily sludge per year, and the crude resources that wherein contains is about about 600,000 tons.In the oily sludge except containing materials such as a large amount of aging crude oil, wax, colloid; Also contain poisonous, harmful substances such as a large amount of benzene series things, phenols, Polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxin; Also contain a large amount of pathogens, parasite in addition in the oily sludge; As do not carry out rationally effectively handling, not only can waste petroleum resources, and can cause severe contamination environment.
Municipal sludge is the solid waste that produces in city domestic sewage, the Industrial Wastewater Treatment process.High, the complicated component of municipal sludge water content, the aggregate that zoogloea that is formed by multiple microorganism and adsorbed organic matter thereof and inorganic matter are formed.Municipal sludge not only contains nutrients such as great number of organic matters and N, P, K, and perishable, strong stink is arranged, and contain harmful substances such as parasitic ovum and heavy metal.
Gangue is the byproduct that produces in coal mining and the dressing of coal by washing, is one of maximum industrial solid castoff of China's discharge capacity, and its generation is about 15% of raw coal output.Gangue is the mixture of carbonaceous, shale and arenaceous shale, and its calorific value is generally between 4.0~13.0MJ/kg.The accumulating amount of China's gangue has reached more than 3,000,000,000 tons at present, and discharge capacity is also increasing year by year.The stacking of gangue not only occupies cultivated land, and wherein sulfide overflow the severe contamination that can cause atmosphere, farmland, water body, and the spontaneous combustion of hillock also can cause serious environmental to pollute and energy loss.
Domestic waste is the final enrichment state that contains the sanitary waste of harmful and innocuous substance.China's domestic waste generation is huge, and national application of city life garbage in 2008 produces total amount and reaches 2.2 hundred million tons, and with annual about 9% speed increment.The average Lower heat value of China's domestic waste is 3~5kJ/kg.The stacking of domestic waste can discharge the toxic gas that contains ammonia, sulfide, also contains organic pollution, heavy metal and pathogenic microorganism etc., serious harm surrounding environment and health in addition in the domestic waste.
Agriculture and forestry organic waste material is the important component part of biomass resource, and China produces about 1,400,000,000 tons of agricultural crop straw per year, is roughly equal to 700,000,000 tons of standard coals, and yule logs and the annual production of forestry industrial wood waste are roughly equal to 300,000,000 tons of standard coals.China's agriculture and forestry organic waste material generation is big, but at present and be underutilized its utilization rate less than 20%.
At present, the processing method that oily sludge is commonly used mainly contains solvent extraction, burning method, biological treatment, pyrogenic process and solid-liquid isolation method etc.Solvent extraction can reclaim most of petroleum substance, but has problems such as handling process length, disposal cost height simultaneously; Burning method handle the oily sludge flow process short, subtract hold effective, but have the serious problem of secondary pollution simultaneously; The general cycle of biological treatment is longer; The pyrogenic process small investment, but relate to the transformation more complicated of coking plant, treating capacity is few; Solid-liquid isolation method is for the high Treatment of Sludge poor effect of oil content, and oil recovery rate is lower.The approach that utilizes of gangue mainly contains recovery coal and pyrite, generating and manufacturing construction material etc., and wherein utilize the technical comparative maturity of coal gangue power generation, but also cause the reduction of gangue utilization rate simultaneously, and easy generation of secondary pollution.The processing method that municipal sludge and domestic waste are commonly used has sanitary landfills, compost, burning etc.The sanitary landfills investment is low, but the searching in landfill place is very difficult; Composting process subtracts the appearance DeGrain, and floor space is big, long processing period, and also the heavy metal in the composting material possibly jeopardize human body health through food chain; The burning method processing speed is fast, and it is obvious to subtract the appearance effect, but also has the problem that investment is big, operational and administrative expenses is high and secondary pollution is serious.Therefore, development of new combustible solid wastes by utilizing resource, harmless treatment process are very important.
Summary of the invention
The objective of the invention is problem to above-mentioned existence; A kind of technology of utilizing rotary kiln the mixture of oily sludge, municipal sludge, gangue, domestic waste and living beings to be carried out gasification, and combustion is provided; This technology not only can reclaim the energy that contains in the various combustible solid wastes by utilizing to greatest extent, and can reduce secondary pollution.
The present invention realizes through following technical scheme: contain following processing step:
(1) carries out mechanical dehydration after respectively oily sludge and municipal sludge fully being stirred; Obtain the mud cake of moisture content 40~50%; Then that mud cake is broken and air-dry under field conditions (factors); It is subsequent use to treat that its moisture content reaches storage in 10~20% o'clock; Gangue, domestic waste and the living beings of bulk are carried out fragmentation respectively in disintegrating machine, will be made into mixture in proportion through gangue, domestic waste and living beings after oily sludge, municipal sludge and the fragmentation of super-dry and desulfurizing agent subsequently;
(2) through screw feeder said mixture is delivered in the kiln gas gasifier, gasifying medium also is delivered in the kiln gas gasifier simultaneously, and the pyrolytic gasification reaction takes place under 1000~1200 ℃ high temperature mixture, generates and is rich in H 2With the thick combustion gas of CO, H 2With the CO volume fraction more than 70%;
(3) capture uncombusted carbon granules and the flying dust of part in primary cyclone of carrying secretly in the thick combustion gas of gasification reaction generation; And return kiln gas gasifier and participate in pyrolytic gasification again; Thick combustion gas after secondary cyclone is isolated more flying dusts perhaps gets into secondary combustion chamber and fully burns; The high-temperature flue gas that produces carries out waste heat recovery by waste heat boiler; Flue gas after the cooling carries out innoxious discharging after flue gas purifying equipment is further handled, in addition, and thick combustion gas of coming out from secondary cyclone or the cleaning combustible gas that after further gas purification, can be used for production application; Moreover the flying dust that secondary cyclone captures perhaps carries out innoxious landfill;
(4) flying dust that captures in combustible gas, the flue gas purifying equipment carries out innoxious landfill, and the gasification lime-ash that produces in the kiln gas gasifier can carry out recycling treatment and utilization.
The mixture that is made in proportion described in the step (1) is meant: the adding proportion of dry oily sludge is 0~100%; The adding proportion of dry municipal sludge is 0~100%; The adding proportion of gangue is 0~100%; The adding proportion of domestic waste is 0~100%, and the adding proportion of living beings is 0~100%, and the adding proportion of lime stone is 3~10%.
Air-dry under field conditions (factors) more than 100 hours described in the step (1), described desulfurizing agent is a lime stone.
Gasifying medium described in the step (2) is: oxygen, steam or oxygen and mixture of steam
The invention has the beneficial effects as follows:
(1) H is rich in the pyrolytic gasification generation at high temperature of the mixture of various combustible solid wastes by utilizing 2With the thick combustion gas of CO, burning and utilize waste heat boiler to reclaim the high-temperature flue gas waste heat or through further producing the combustible gas that cleans after the gas purification, the energy that contains in the combustible solid wastes by utilizing is utilized effectively in secondary combustion chamber.
(2) the various organic pollutions in oily sludge, municipal sludge, the domestic waste at high temperature decompose; Pathogen, parasite also at high temperature are killed; The sulphur that contains in the combustible solid wastes by utilizing is removed and gets into the gasification lime-ash under the effect of desulfurizing agent lime stone, reduced the discharging of sour gas.Most of heavy metal enrichment in flying dust in the combustible solid wastes by utilizing, the flying dust that captures through secondary cyclone and combustible gas, flue gas purifying equipment carries out innoxious landfill, has effectively avoided secondary pollution, has environmental benefit preferably.
(3) the gasification lime-ash that produces in the kiln gas gasifier carries out recycling treatment and utilization, has effectively improved resource utilization.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the flow chart of the present invention to oily sludge, municipal sludge, gangue, domestic waste and living beings rotary kiln combined vaporizing burning process.
The specific embodiment
Further specify flesh and blood of the present invention below in conjunction with accompanying drawing with instance, but content of the present invention is not limited to this.
Oily sludge and municipal sludge to producing in oil exploitation and the process carry out processed respectively; Respectively gangue, domestic waste and living beings are crushed to the certain particle size simultaneously; Oily sludge, municipal sludge and broken gangue, domestic waste, living beings and the desulfurizing agent lime stone of warp with dehydration mixes by a certain percentage subsequently; And be delivered in the kiln gas gasifier by screw feeder, gasifying medium (oxygen, steam or oxygen and mixture of steam) also is delivered in the rotary kiln simultaneously.The pyrolytic gasification reaction takes place in the mixture of various combustible solid wastes by utilizing under 1000~1200 ℃ high temperature, generate and be rich in H 2With the thick combustion gas of CO, under the acting in conjunction of high temperature rotary kiln and subsequent treatment facility, the energy that contains in the combustible solid wastes by utilizing obtains reclaiming, and most of pollutant is all rationally disposed.
Concrete technology is following:
(1) carry out mechanical dehydration after respectively oily sludge and municipal sludge fully being stirred, obtain the mud cake of moisture content 40~50%, then that mud cake is broken and air-dry under field conditions (factors), treat that its moisture content reaches at 10~20% o'clock and store subsequent use.Gangue, domestic waste and the living beings of bulk are carried out fragmentation respectively in disintegrating machine; To mix in proportion through gangue, domestic waste and living beings and the desulfurizing agent (lime stone) after the oily sludge of super-dry, municipal sludge and the fragmentation subsequently; Wherein the adding proportion of dry oily sludge is 0~100%; The adding proportion of dry municipal sludge is 0~100%, and the adding proportion of gangue is 0~100%, and the adding proportion of domestic waste is 0~100%; The adding proportion of living beings is 0~100%, and the adding proportion of lime stone is 3~10%.
(2) be delivered in the kiln gas gasifier through the mixture of screw feeder with oily sludge, municipal sludge, gangue, domestic waste, living beings and lime stone, gasifying medium (oxygen, steam or oxygen and mixture of steam) also is delivered in the kiln gas gasifier simultaneously.The pyrolytic gasification reaction takes place in the mixture of various combustible solid wastes by utilizing under 1000~1200 ℃ high temperature, generate and be rich in H 2With the thick combustion gas of CO, H 2With the CO volume fraction generally more than 70%.Organic pollution in oily sludge, municipal sludge, the domestic waste at high temperature decomposes, and pathogen, parasite also at high temperature are killed.Most of heavy metal in the combustible solid wastes by utilizing gets into flue gas because of vaporization at high temperature, and finally enrichment in flying dust.Lime stone is natural desulfurizing agent, and the sulphur that contains in the combustible solid wastes by utilizing is removed and gets into the gasification lime-ash under the effect of desulfurizing agent lime stone.
(3) uncombusted carbon granules of carrying secretly in the thick combustion gas that gasification reaction generates and part flying dust are captured in primary cyclone and return kiln gas gasifier and participate in pyrolytic gasification again.Thick combustion gas after secondary cyclone is isolated more flying dusts perhaps gets into secondary combustion chamber and fully burns, and the high-temperature flue gas of generation carries out waste heat recovery by waste heat boiler, and the flue gas after the cooling carries out innoxious discharging after flue gas purifying equipment is further handled; The thick combustion gas of coming out from secondary cyclone in addition, perhaps can be used for the cleaning combustible gas of production application after further gas purification.
(4) flying dust that captures in secondary cyclone and combustible gas, the flue gas purifying equipment carries out innoxious landfill, eliminates secondary pollutions such as heavy metal.The gasification lime-ash that produces in the kiln gas gasifier can carry out recycling treatment and utilization.
Embodiment 1: carries out mechanical dehydration after respectively oily sludge and municipal sludge fully being stirred, obtains the mud cake of moisture content 40~50%, and the mud cake that obtains is broken and air-dry under field conditions (factors) more than 100 hours, when its moisture content is stored 10~20% the time subsequent use.Dry oily sludge, dry municipal sludge and broken good gangue, domestic waste, living beings and lime stone are also imported in the counter current rotary kiln gasification furnace through screw feeder with 25%, 25%, 10%, 20%, 15% and 5% mixed respectively.Under 1100 ℃, combustible component in the combustible solid wastes by utilizing mixture and oxygen generation partial combustion reaction generate and contain H 2, CO, CO 2And a small amount of C nH mThick combustion gas, H wherein 2Reach about 77% with the CO volume fraction.Thick combustion gas gets into secondary combustion chamber and fully burns behind the two stage cyclone separator, the high-temperature flue gas of generation reclaims heat and further carries out innoxious discharging after the purified treatment through waste heat boiler.Organic pollution in oily sludge, municipal sludge, the domestic waste at high temperature decomposes, and pathogen, parasite also at high temperature are killed.The sulphur that contains in the gasified raw material is removed and gets into the gasification lime-ash under the effect of desulfurizing agent lime stone; Most of heavy metal enrichment in flying dust in the combustible solid wastes by utilizing; The flying dust that captures in secondary cyclone and the flue gas purifying equipment carries out innoxious landfill, and the gasification lime-ash that produces in the kiln gas gasifier carries out recycling treatment and utilization.
Embodiment 2: the dry run of oily sludge, municipal sludge such as embodiment 1.Dry oily sludge, dry municipal sludge and broken good gangue, domestic waste, living beings and lime stone are also imported in the kiln gas gasifier through screw feeder with 20%, 20%, 20%, 25%, 10% and 5% mixed respectively.Under 1150 ℃, combustible component in the combustible solid wastes by utilizing mixture and oxygen generation partial combustion reaction generate and contain H 2, CO, CO 2And a small amount of C nH mThick combustion gas, H wherein 2Reach about 74% with the CO volume fraction.Thick combustion gas gets into secondary combustion chamber and fully burns behind the two stage cyclone separator, the high-temperature flue gas of generation reclaims heat and further carries out innoxious discharging after the purified treatment through waste heat boiler.Organic pollution in oily sludge, municipal sludge, the domestic waste at high temperature decomposes, and pathogen, parasite also at high temperature are killed.The sulphur that contains in the gasified raw material is removed and gets into the gasification lime-ash under the effect of desulfurizing agent lime stone; Most of heavy metal enrichment in flying dust in the combustible solid wastes by utilizing; The flying dust that captures in secondary cyclone and the flue gas purifying equipment carries out innoxious landfill, and the gasification lime-ash that produces in the kiln gas gasifier carries out recycling treatment and utilization.
Embodiment 3: the dry run of oily sludge, municipal sludge such as embodiment 1.Dry oily sludge, dry municipal sludge and broken good gangue, domestic waste, living beings and lime stone are also imported in the kiln gas gasifier through screw feeder with 15%, 15%, 10%, 20%, 37% and 3% mixed respectively.Under 1200 ℃, combustible component in the combustible solid wastes by utilizing mixture and oxygen generation partial combustion reaction generate and contain H 2, CO, CO 2And a small amount of C nH mThick combustion gas, H wherein 2Reach about 80% with the CO volume fraction.The thick combustion gas of isolating more flying dusts through secondary cyclone is used for producing after further gas purification is rich in H 2With the cleaning combustible gas of CO, wherein H 2Be respectively 29% and 53% with the CO volume fraction.Organic pollution in oily sludge, municipal sludge, the domestic waste at high temperature decomposes, and pathogen, parasite also at high temperature are killed.The sulphur that contains in the gasified raw material is removed and gets into the gasification lime-ash under the effect of desulfurizing agent lime stone; Most of heavy metal enrichment in flying dust in the combustible solid wastes by utilizing; The flying dust that captures in secondary cyclone and the combustible gas purifying equipment carries out innoxious landfill, and the gasification lime-ash that produces in the kiln gas gasifier carries out recycling treatment and utilization.

Claims (4)

1. method for gasifying and incinerating combustible solid wastes by utilizing rotary kiln is characterized in that containing following processing step:
(1) oily sludge and municipal sludge are fully carried out mechanical dehydration after the stirring respectively; Obtain the mud cake of moisture content 40~50%; Then that mud cake is broken and air-dry under field conditions (factors); It is subsequent use to treat that its moisture content reaches storage in 10~20% o'clock; Gangue, domestic waste and the living beings of bulk are carried out fragmentation respectively in disintegrating machine, will be made into mixture in proportion through gangue, domestic waste and living beings after oily sludge, municipal sludge and the fragmentation of super-dry and desulfurizing agent subsequently;
(2) through screw feeder said mixture is delivered in the kiln gas gasifier, gasifying medium also is delivered in the kiln gas gasifier simultaneously, and the pyrolytic gasification reaction takes place under 1000~1200 ℃ high temperature mixture, generates and is rich in H 2With the thick combustion gas of CO, H 2With the CO volume fraction more than 70%;
(3) downstream of kiln gas gasifier connect primary cyclone and secondary cyclone successively; Primary cyclone captures uncombusted carbon granules and the part flying dust of carrying secretly in the thick combustion gas of gasification reaction generation; Above-mentioned uncombusted carbon granules is returned kiln gas gasifier participate in pyrolytic gasification again; The some of the thick combustion gas after secondary cyclone is isolated more flying dusts gets into secondary combustion chamber and fully burns; Get into flue gas purifying equipment then, the high-temperature flue gas that burning produces carries out waste heat recovery by waste heat boiler
Another partly thick combustion gas obtains can be used for the cleaning combustible gas of production application through further gas purification; In addition, the flying dust of secondary cyclone capture carries out innoxious landfill;
(4) flying dust that captures in thick combustion gas gas purification and the flue gas purifying equipment carries out innoxious landfill, and the gasification lime-ash that produces in the kiln gas gasifier carries out recycling treatment and utilization.
2. a kind of method for gasifying and incinerating combustible solid wastes by utilizing rotary kiln according to claim 1; It is characterized in that the mixture that is made in proportion described in the step (1) is meant: the adding proportion of dry oily sludge is 0~100%; The adding proportion of dry municipal sludge is 0~100%, and the adding proportion of gangue is 0~100%, and the adding proportion of domestic waste is 0~100%; The adding proportion of living beings is 0~100%; Desulfurizing agent is a lime stone, and its adding proportion is 3~10%, and wherein above-mentioned each constituent content sum is 100%.
3. a kind of method for gasifying and incinerating combustible solid wastes by utilizing rotary kiln according to claim 1 is characterized in that in the natural conditions air dried described in the step (1) described desulfurizing agent is a lime stone more than 100 hours.
4. a kind of method for gasifying and incinerating combustible solid wastes by utilizing rotary kiln according to claim 1 is characterized in that the gasifying medium described in the step (2) is: oxygen, steam or oxygen and mixture of steam.
CN2010101284746A 2010-03-22 2010-03-22 Method for gasifying and incinerating combustible solid wastes by utilizing rotary kiln CN101839488B (en)

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