CN101575654B - Process and device for preparing iron alloy containing nickel and nickel-chromium - Google Patents

Process and device for preparing iron alloy containing nickel and nickel-chromium Download PDF

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CN101575654B
CN101575654B CN2009100282596A CN200910028259A CN101575654B CN 101575654 B CN101575654 B CN 101575654B CN 2009100282596 A CN2009100282596 A CN 2009100282596A CN 200910028259 A CN200910028259 A CN 200910028259A CN 101575654 B CN101575654 B CN 101575654B
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furnace
reduction
jar
internal heating
tank
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CN2009100282596A
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CN101575654A (en
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丁家伟
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丁家伟
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
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    • Y02P10/20Recycling

Abstract

The invention relates to a process for preparing iron alloy containing nickel and nickel-chromium and a reduction device thereof, and belongs to steelmaking raw materials of the metallurgical industry. The process comprises the following steps: mixing raw materials containing nickel and iron, reducing agent, fusing agent and catalytic additive to form ultrathin powder, manufacturing the mixed powder into a balling material, feeding the balling material into a reducing furnace, and drying and baking the balling material to form nickel-iron alloy after reduction reaction. The reduction device ischaracterized in that the upper part of a furnace base is connected with an upper furnace body, the lower part of the furnace base is connected with a lower furnace body, the upper end of the upper furnace body is connected with an upper furnace mantle, a drying bed furnace grill is positioned at the upper end in the upper furnace body, a purification device is connected with the upper furnace body and the lower furnace body through pipes, and a residual heat circulating device is connected with the lower furnace body. The process and the reduction device have the following advantages: 1, thereduction temperature is low, the speed is high, the energy consumption is reduced, the production cost is lowered, the production efficiency is high, and the evenness of quality is good; 2, the equipment is simple, the investment is little, the mechanization degree is high, the process is simple, the yield is large, and the large-scale production can be carried out; 3, the raw material waste isreduced, and the environment pollution is reduced; 4, the sources of raw materials from nickel oxide mineral or nickel-containing wastes are wide, and the cost is low; and 5, the waste resources are recycled, and the resource consumption is saved.

Description

The iron alloy preparation technology and the equipment of nickeliferous and nickel chromium triangle
Technical field
The invention belongs to the Non-ferrous Metallurgy field, the spy relates to a kind of iron alloy preparation technology who contains nickel and nickel chromium triangle fully, and the equipment of realizing this technology.
Background technology
Nickel is a kind of important strategic metal, is good corrosion resistant material, and nickel is not only the base mateiral of making nickelalloy, especially the alloying element in other alloy (iron, copper, aluminium base etc. alloy).Nickel is mainly used in metallurgy industry, is to produce stainless steel, special steel, the important alloying element of superalloy, Precise Alloy and refractory alloy etc.Nickel also has a wide range of applications in plating, magneticsubstance, electronics, electrical equipment and electromagnetism and transmitter, storage oxygen alloy, formative memory alloy and national defence and fields such as Aeronautics and Astronautics, rocketry, as super nickel or nickelalloy are used as high-temperature structural material, nickel and alloy thereof are used for component, instrument manufacturing, the machine manufacturing of special purpose, the rocketry equipment is in the reactor; Nickel also has special value in chemical industry, be used to produce Edison battery, porous filter, catalyzer, pigment, dyestuff etc.; Integrated mill often uses nickel cladding steel, and this nickel cladding is by hot rolling or be welded; Nickel is used to make the production parts of corrodibility Chemicals.At present, the consumption of whole world nickel is only second to copper, aluminium, lead, zinc and occupies the 5th of non-ferrous metal, is regarded as the grand strategy material of the development of the national economy, and its resources effective exploitation and comprehensive utilization are paid attention to by various countries always.
The nickel in the whole world about 2/3 is used for stainless production at present.China will be the nickel and the stainless steel consumption market that have development potentiality, and the nickel industry development is being contained great potential.According to statistics, surplus China's stainless output in 2007 is about 720 ten thousand tons, account for 25% of whole world stainless steel output, become the first in the world stainless steel big producing country, but the stainless import volume of China in 2007 still reaches 1,690,000 tons, according to the stainless steel consumption and the existing throughput of China, estimate that China's stainless steel industry still can be fast-developing in 2~3 years, annual production is expected to break through 1,000 ten thousand tons, and domestic limited nickel resources can't satisfy, has become the development bottleneck that influences the stainless steel industry.
Along with increasing substantially of stainless steel output, and the extensive development and the application of Refractoloy, the demand of metallic nickel is also grown with each passing day.But with regard to the nickel ore resource present situation, the nickeliferous goods and materials of China mainly concentrate on the sulfide mineral intergrowth in Jinchuan, and its output can not satisfy the needs of domestic economy fast development far away.Exist great gap between China's nickel output and the nickel consumption, for this reason, all to consume huge foreign exchange China's year from Philippines, Brazil, Colombia, Australia, a large amount of import Rhometals of states such as Canada or import red soil nickel ore, the serpentine nickel minerals is produced smelting ferronickel, and the red soil nickel ore of import and serpentine nickel minerals all are the nickel-containing minerals based on nickel oxide, it be nickeliferous peridotites in the torrid zone or the subtropical zone form through large-scale long-term weathering leaching is rotten, be by iron, aluminium, the loose argillaceous ore that hydrous oxides such as silicon are formed, because the oxidation of iron, rock takes on a red color, so be called as red soil nickel ore, the content of its nickel is inferior and different according to institute's production horizon, the content of limonite layer Ni is about 0.8~1.5%, the content of transition layer Ni is about 1.5~1.8%, the content of peat layer Ni is about 1.8~3.0%, because the low technology cost height that makes it extract nickel of nickel content, complex process, yield poorly, seriously polluted, thereby cause these mineral reserve not developed on a large scale for a long time.At this low ore grade nickel materials, the technology of the ferronickel of China's production at present mainly contains two kinds: one is the blast-furnace smelting ferronickel, the characteristics of this technology are that output is big, but it is costly, (128 cubic metres of blast furnaces need cost about 3,000 ten thousand), production cost height (coke ratio height, be about a times of reduction method), and to the blast furnace well damage, as China number of patent application 200510102985.X and 200510102984.5 be with behind the red soil nickel ore crushing and screening with coke powder, unslaked lime stone mix carries out obtaining agglomerate behind the sintering, then with agglomerate again with coke, lime/unslaked lime, carry out blast-furnace smelting behind rhombspar and the fluorite mixing match and obtain ferronickel.This technology is under nickel price condition with higher, the employing red soil nickel ore that domestic some areas propose is made raw material, utilize blast furnace (most of required eliminate small furnace) to smelt the method for making nickel-containing molten iron for country, show that through production practice this method has tangible deficiency: (1) quantity of slag is big (greater than 1120Kg/t); (2) basicity of slag is low, is unfavorable for desulfurization; (3) coke ratio height is greater than 1000Kg/t; (4) need to adjust slag viscosity with addition of fluorite; (5) capacity factor of a blast furnace is low, yields poorly; (6) ferronickel of being produced is of poor quality, and sulfur-bearing, phosphorus amount are higher, and silicon content is higher, is unfavorable for extra furnace dephosphorization; Defectives such as (7) this technology is traditional blast furnace process, and there is the tooling cost height in the ferronickel that this technology is produced, and environmental pollution is big, and operation is many; Two are electrosmelting ferronickel (also claiming scorification to smelt), and its technology is the same, and institute's difference only is to make blast furnace into the hot stove in ore deposit or electric arc furnace, and this technology power consumption is high, the production cost height.For reducing cost, improve the quality, China has carried out preparation technology and the equipment research that utilizes laterite to produce ferronickel, disclose a kind of technology that adopts rotary hearth furnace to produce nickeliferous iron ore pellets for No. 200610163832.0 as China's number of patent application,, had the technical process weak point though this technology is compared with spreading wet-method for leaching, simple to operate, Controllable Temperature, speed of response is fast, and the recovery time is short, the production efficiency advantages of higher, but the sulphur content height of ubiquity product can not satisfy the requirement of Electric furnace steel making in this technology, and exists the problem that reoxidizes of sponge iron simultaneously, reduced the degree of metalization of product, and the device structure complexity, the cost height, the operative technique difficulty is big; It is the method for raw material with tunnel kiln direct reduced ferronickel with the red soil nickel ore that China's number of patent application discloses for No. 200710072147.1 a kind of, this technology can solve and adopt the blast-furnace smelting ferronickel and adopt the existing investment of electrosmelting ferronickel big, the production cost height, the high problem of producing of ferronickel carbon containing, but owing to adopt tunnel furnace technology, its unit output is low, and floor space is big, and because the retort that tunnel furnace needs a large amount of refractory materialss to make, these retort need heating and cooling repeatedly, be a large amount of consumes energy, also increased the reaction times, reduced the life-span of retort, increased consumption, and dress need be set specially, go out the place of jar, cause floor space big, labour intensity is big, the cost height, mechanization degree is low, and thermo-efficiency is low, has influenced economic benefit.
In nickel-bearing raw material, except that red soil nickel ore and serpentine nickel minerals, in the flue dust that when stainless steel is produced, produces, layer mud, the iron phosphorus the like waste, all contain about 1~4% Cr 2O 3, noble metal and metal oxides such as Ni0, FeO and Ti, Mn, Mo, Cu, Nb bulk deposition is abandoned owing to reclaimed the restriction of technology.According to measuring and calculating, China smelts 1 ton of stainless steel average generation dedusting ash and is about 36.4 kilograms, wherein contains 40~60% metal and noble metal, and these wastes not only take a large amount of places, and can bring serious environmental to pollute, cause the huge waste of resource simultaneously.For this reason, domesticly contain josephinite and produce the research of ferronickel except that carrying out to adopt, carried out employing stainless steel and iron phosphorus in recent years simultaneously, flue dust in the stainless steel smelting, the technical study that nickeliferous alloy wastes such as layer mud, dust are produced ferronickel, its production technique adopts the tunneling method reduction mostly, as Chinese patent application numbers No. 200410092402.5, though this technology has solved the recycling of nickel resources, owing to adopt tunnel furnace technology, its relative merits are same as above.Therefore, research and develop a kind of novel low-cost, high-level efficiency, the preparation technology that can be extensive use of various low-cost resources production nickel-containing iron alloies and equipment and have certain practical significance promoting China's ferronickel development.
On reduction apparatus, except that the various reduction apparatuss of the above, also a large amount of both at home and abroad use shaft furnace process reduce, the shaft furnace process reduction is to work in the mode of convection current, ore adds from furnace roof, solid-state furnace charge from up to down moves, reducing gas autoreduction band bottom adds and moves up, and form convection current with furnace charge, furnace charge iron ore and reducing gas all are inverse motion and mobile reaction process, its reaction process is similar to blast furnace top indirect reduction band, is a reducing and smelting process that melting phenomenon do not occur.Go into furnace charge and reducing gas is evenly distributed, when solid charge moves downward in the shaft furnace with the reducing gas of rising between mass transfer carry out heat exchange (reduction), be an individual gas-solid countercurrent reaction process near perfect condition, the sponge iron that finishes that reduces is discharged from furnace bottom.This device structure is simple, the level of automation height, and output is big, but present shaft furnace both domestic and external all adopts the indirect heating reduction, and because bed of material height, resistance is big, and furnace charge center and peripheral air-flow is inhomogeneous, and the temperature difference is big, causes the energy consumption height, and output and quality are all unstable.Simultaneously,, make the configuration of furnace binding and air quantity not ideal enough, make pelletizing center iron protoxide fully be reduced and form low-melting mixtures, cause burner hearth dross and bulk to cause making blowing out, the carrying out that influence is produced owing to adopt indirect heating.
For eliminating the drawback of above-mentioned shaft furnace, announced a kind of pot furnace device of directly going back the original production sponge iron in China ZL96205053.9 patent.This device is to build body of heater, combustion chamber, quirk, air flue, flue, retort, grate and detection, control device on the furnace bottom basis by laying bricks or stones.Quirk grouping, layering, level is staggered and be looped around around the retort; Retort can be identical some groups of structure; Quirk, combustion chamber are corresponding with the group number of retort.Retort is positioned at the part of body of heater inside is built by laying bricks or stones by refractory materials, and the part that is positioned at the body of heater outside is the water jacket of metal construction, and this water jacket bottom is equipped with removal device.Owing to adopted the furnace binding of compact construction, make that this occupation area of equipment is little, be with below 1/10 of equal yield line tunnel furnace, because quirk adopts the multilayer level, staggered structure, make the thermo-efficiency in the quirk improve, burnup reduces, use this device to produce sponge iron, can make retort be in the working temperature state all the time, needn't heat cooling repeatedly, so compare the energy consumption of reduction by 30% with tunnel furnace, cost also reduces accordingly, and simultaneously, what this device adopted is some groups of relatively independent retort, each retort can be according to reducing operating mode independent control charge composition at any time, reduction parameter such as cooling time can make stable and reliable product quality.Its production technique is: with smart powder of iron and a certain amount of reductive agent, sweetening agent mixes or makes pelletizing, by feeder intermittently or add retort continuously, retort is by some groups quirk heating around it, heat is provided by the combustion chamber, furnace charge slowly moves down by deadweight in jar, be warming up to about 800 ℃ at preheating section earlier, in 800 ℃~1150 ℃, become sponge iron behind the reduction certain hour then, continue to move down, successively enter air cooling section and water-cooled section, the sponge iron temperature is reduced to about 100 ℃, by removal device control, intermittently or continuously discharge, by concentration equipment sponge iron is separated with residue then.Though this device has the production efficiency height, be fit to produce in enormous quantities, owing to still adopt a jar outer heating process, thereby thermo-efficiency is low, and reduction rate is slow, and coal consumption is big, and the cost height makes production application obtain restriction.
The deficiency of external heating type shaft furnace for a change, announced another kind of built-in coal-based sponge iron shaft furnace in China ZL200720032603.5 patent, this stove adopts and is provided with built-in flue in shaft furnace inside, furnace wall is provided with the gas stream through hole, flue bottom and vapourizing furnace upper end form tempering room, be provided with 2~10 charging conduits from top to bottom around the flue periphery, this charging conduit helically, because this body of heater is provided with built-in flue and spiral channel, can be controlled the temperature of each several part in the reduction furnace, iron ore and coal in the stove are from up to down gently moved around built-in flue simultaneously, and with the intravital ascending temperature of stove and reducing gas is reverse fully contacts, improve thermo-efficiency and reduction ratio.Because the heating of the built-in flue of this process using, increase than the shaft furnace thermo-efficiency of indirect heating, but, still do not reach the purpose of high-level efficiency heating owing to adopt unilateral heating.This stove is owing to adopt many volution feeding structures simultaneously, influenced production utilization of space in the stove, and the rising of air-flow produced hinder, and spiral helicine complex geometry, huge spirochete is processed very difficulty, owing to spirochete is under the worst hot case for a long time, to having relatively high expectations of spirochete material, used metallic substance cost height, the life-span is short.In the furnace charge folding process, also there is very big problem, in case ore sintering becomes piece, stop up spiral channel, will cause the accident of the logical stove of stopping work.
By as seen above-mentioned, the present main production technique of China remains and adopts traditional pyrometallurgical smelting process to produce ferronickel, the nickel content of the ferronickel of being produced can reach 6~15%, can directly use it for the products such as alloy of making stainless steel and low nickel content, can reduce production costs, and nickel-containing sponge iron (also claiming directly reduction ferronickel) can directly replace the stainless steel steel scrap to use, and has become the main raw material of stainless steel and the production of nickel-containing alloys steel.Above-mentioned research has improved the usage quantity and the low development and use that contain the metallurgy of nickel waste of low nickeliferous nickel oxide ore to a certain extent, has reduced production cost, but still has not had fundamentally to solve the use of red soil nickel ore, and exist metallurgical intensity low, be difficult for reduction, the production cost height, environmental pollution is big, the power consumption height, the reduction temperature height, energy consumption is big, production efficiency is low, deficiencies such as technical sophistication have limited applying of above-mentioned various ferronickel production technique, make it fail the production that moves towards the industrialization so far.
Therefore, the development research reduction temperature is low, speed is fast, cost is low, less energy consumption, quality is good, low in the pollution of the environment, can be extensive use of the low nickeliferous oxide ore of various low-cost resources, nickeliferous dust, flue dust, layer mud, the metallurgical waste of iron phosphorus is produced the technology and the equipment of Rhometal, minimizing is to the dependence of sulfide nickel ore resource and pure nickel, thereby is that stainless steel production and Rhometal application industry improve the high-quality low-cost raw material, is to reduce Rhometal and stainless steel smelting cost, improve an important development direction of steel products and Rhometal competitive capacity, have good social benefit and economic benefit.
The granularity that is used to produce the breeze of sponge iron of nickeliferous and nickel chromium triangle and reductive agent, sweetening agent in above-mentioned each document is the particle more than 200 orders, because raw materials used particle is thicker, make reduction reaction need under 1150 ℃~1300 ℃ high temperature, to carry out, energy-output ratio is big, reduction rate is slow, the reduction reaction time is long, and energy utilization efficiency is low, and environmental pollution is serious.For this reason, carried out the research of brown iron oxide low-temperature reduction both at home and abroad in recent years.Reported " micro-nano brown iron oxide low-temperature reduction The Characteristic Study " in document " China metallurgical " magazine (2007 the 8th phase 23-28 pages or leaves), (granularity is 61um~16um) through 3~20min iron powder is carried out the reductive achievement in research under hydrogen atmosphere in 280 ℃~400 ℃ to disclose the micro-nano brown iron oxide of a kind of usefulness in the report.But, the preparation cost costliness of H2, and the utilization ratio of H2 only is about 25%, ton iron energy consumption is higher, and industrial preparation micro-nano powder in enormous quantities is still difficult at present, and the preparation cost height, and this achievement is not still also possessing industrial applications under the condition at present, and this achievement only is used for the reduction of iron, is not useful on the reduction of ferronickel as yet.
Summary of the invention
The objective of the invention is to provide that a kind of reduction temperature is low, reduction rate is fast, energy consumption is few, production efficiency is high, production cost is low, mechanization degree is high, the metallurgical waste of the little low-grade nickel oxide ore of use of environmental pollution, nickel oxide chrome ore or nickeliferous, Ni and Cr contained or its mixture directly reduce the preparation technology and the equipment of Rhometal of the high-grade nickeliferous or nickel chromium triangle of preparation.
The equipment scheme that the present invention solves its technical problem is;
This reduction apparatus includes furnace base (12), upper furnace body, lower furnace body, goes up bonnet, oven dry pool furnace grate (25), sealing blanking device (1), refining plant and and the waste heat circulation device, above furnace base, be connected with upper furnace body, below furnace base, be connected with lower furnace body, be connected with bonnet in the upper end of upper furnace body, oven dry pool furnace grate is positioned at the upper furnace body upper end, refining plant is connected with lower furnace body with upper furnace body by pipeline, and the waste heat circulation device is connected with lower furnace body.
Described upper furnace body comprises internal heating jar (2), reducing gas outlet (3), add thermal reduction jar (4), heating air inlet hole (5), gas pipe (6), refractory brick (7), gas jet (8), refractory fibre (9), reduction furnace shell (10), inside and outside heating tank air inlet port (11), internal heating gas pipe (20), internal heating gas jet (21), heating chamber (39), roasting reduction district (43), the reduction furnace shell, fire brick layer, add thermal reduction jar and internal heating jar suit successively, the reduction furnace shell is positioned at outermost layer, the internal heating jar is positioned at innermost layer, at internal heating jar center the internal heating gas pipe is arranged, the end of internal heating gas pipe is connected with the internal heating gas jet, between reduction furnace shell and fire brick layer, refractory fibre is arranged, it in fire brick layer heating chamber, there is gas pipe to pass the reduction furnace shell, refractory fibre and fire brick layer, the gas pipe end is connected with gas jet, gas jet is positioned at heating chamber, internal heating jar and add between the thermal reduction jar and to be the roasting reduction district, epimere on the internal heating jar has the reducing gas outlet, at hypomere inside and outside heating tank air inlet port is arranged, adding outside has the heating air inlet hole on the thermal reduction jar; The part that upper furnace body stretches into protective guard is the V-shape structure; the middle part that adds thermal reduction jar and internal heating tank body is to having many oblique gas channels; the oblique gas channel of two tank bodies is V-shape to be arranged, upwards all has a plurality of and tank body parallel gas flow hole at two tank body middle parts.
Perhaps described upper furnace body comprises internal heating jar (2), reducing gas outlet (3), add thermal reduction jar (4), heating air inlet hole (5), refractory brick (7), refractory fibre (9), reduction furnace shell (10), inside and outside heating tank air inlet port (11), fired coal combustion chamber (33), slag removing chamber (34), internal heating quirk (38), heating chamber (39), roasting reduction district (43), the reduction furnace shell, fire brick layer, add thermal reduction jar and internal heating jar suit successively, the reduction furnace shell is positioned at outermost layer, the internal heating jar is positioned at innermost layer, fired coal combustion chamber (33), slag removing chamber (34) is positioned at the lower end of upper furnace body, internal heating quirk (38) is positioned at internal heating jar (2) and adds the lower end of thermal reduction jar (4), between reduction furnace shell and fire brick layer, refractory fibre is arranged, it in fire brick layer heating chamber, internal heating jar and add between the thermal reduction jar and to be the roasting reduction district, epimere on the internal heating jar has the reducing gas outlet, at hypomere inside and outside heating tank air inlet port is arranged, adding outside has the heating air inlet hole on the thermal reduction jar; The part that upper furnace body stretches into protective guard is the V-shape structure, the middle part that adds thermal reduction jar and internal heating tank body is to having many oblique gas channels, the oblique gas channel of two tank bodies is V-shape to be arranged, upwards all has a plurality of and tank body parallel gas flow hole at two tank body middle parts;
Described upper furnace body is single hole one a passage furnace binding, and perhaps upper furnace body is porous one a passage furnace binding; The arrangement form of body of heater is a single passage, and perhaps the arrangement form of body of heater is many row's one passages; Add thermal reduction jar and internal heating jar and in upper furnace body, be distributed with 1-50, the middle and lower part that adds the tank body of thermal reduction jar and internal heating jar outside has 10-50 and is oblique air inlet/outlet with the tank body vertical line, have the air inlet/outlet that is arranged in parallel with tank body in the middle and upper part of tank body, its air inlet/outlet uniform distribution on tank body; Add being shaped as circle or being rectangle of thermal reduction jar; Add the thermal reduction jar and use material to make, perhaps adopt two kinds of material co-manufactured as SiC or refractory brick material.
Described lower furnace body comprises that cooled transition section (13), spiral discharging machine (18), discharge port (29), body of heater support (31), inside and outside heating tank supports (32), fired coal combustion chamber (33), the cooled transition section is positioned at the internal heating jar and adds the bottom of thermal reduction jar, the fired coal combustion chamber is connected with the roasting reduction district of upper furnace body, body of heater supports and is positioned at the outside, inside and outside heating tank supports and is positioned at the center, is connected with spiral discharging machine in the bottom of cooled transition section, at an end of spiral discharging machine discharge port is arranged.
The described bonnet of going up comprises bonnet (27), chimney (28), fly-ash separator (44), and chimney is positioned at the upper end of bonnet, and fly-ash separator is connected on the chimney.
Described refining plant comprises waste heat transfer lime (19), middle waste heat recovery pipe (22), last waste heat recovery pipe (26), aerofoil fan (30), right cooling duct (36), right cooling blower (41), the waste heat recovery pipe is connected with last bonnet on passing through in the upper end of refining plant, in the middle part of refining plant by middle waste heat recovery pipe coupling in the upper furnace body upper end, last waste heat recovery pipe (26) and middle waste heat recovery pipe all feed to the roasting reduction district, bottom at refining plant feeds to the fired coal combustion of lower furnace body indoor by the waste heat transfer lime, on the waste heat transfer lime, be connected with aerofoil fan, on the waste heat transfer lime below the aerofoil fan, be connected with right cooling duct, on right cooling duct, be connected with right cooling blower.
Described waste heat circulation device comprises left waste heat transfer lime (14), water outlet (15), cooling cylinder (16), water-in (17), left cooling duct (35), left cooling blower (42), cooling cylinder is arranged outside lower furnace body, water-in and water outlet are arranged on cooling cylinder, left side waste heat transfer lime feeds to the fired coal combustion of lower furnace body indoor, on left waste heat transfer lime, be connected with left aerofoil fan, on the left waste heat transfer lime below the left aerofoil fan, be connected with left cooling duct (35), be connected with left cooling blower (42) on the left cooling duct.
The process program that solves its technical problem is:
Nickeliferous iron material is mixed with reductive agent, flux, catalytic additive, after mixing, be crushed to below 200 orders, make compound; Then compound is joined and carry out ball milling in the ball mill, be prepared into ultrafine powder, ultrafine powder is carried out passivation; In catalytic additive, add water-solubleization, obtain the aqueous solution,, cause the pelletizing material after mixing ultrafine powder, the aqueous solution and binding agent mixed together; Light the fuel in the inside and outside well heater in the vertical reduction furnace, the pelletizing material that is made is sent in the reduction furnace through helical screw feeder, evenly loosely is arranged to and is dried on the pool furnace grate, the pelletizing material is dried, the pelletizing material is through the laggard capable roasting of super-dry, in roast area with combustion gas in CO, H 2With the hydrocarbon reaction in the volatile matter, the pelletizing material is under 500 ℃-1100 ℃ the reduction temperature and under the acting in conjunction of catalyzer, after 15-180 minute reduction reaction, obtain ferronickel metallized pellet (sponge iron), nickel chromium iron metallized pellet (sponge iron) that degree of metalization reaches 90-95%, ferronickel metallized pellet or nickel chromium iron metallized pellet enter the cooled transition section; Waste-heat recovery device will react the hot gas that rises the back as combustion air with together metallized pellet is cooled off after cooling air mixes, the cooling air that is blown into absorbs the heat of metallized pellet, when arriving roast area, form oxygen containing high-temperature gas, carry out combustion-supporting to the combustion gas in the reduction furnace, circulation so successively, remaining waste gas enters atmosphere by chimney after dedusting, cooled ferronickel metallized pellet or nickel chromium iron metallized pellet are discharged cooling cylinder by spiral discharging machine, through fragmentation, carry out magnetic separation behind the vibrosieve, with residual coal with carry out briquetting after gangue separates, obtain the nichrome of high-grade nickeliferous Rhometal or Ni and Cr contained.
Described ferronickel raw material: be any one or two or more nickeliferous iron material that will be wherein in the iron phosphorus of nickel oxide ore, nickel oxide chrome ore or nickeliferous iron phosphorus, Ni and Cr contained, flue dust, the layer mud mixture after according to certain ratio proportioning;
Described ultrafine powder is that granularity is 75um-5um, and wherein granularity is that the powder of 10um-35um accounts for more than 85%.
The material proportion of described catalytic additive (weight percent) is made up of fusing agent 10-50%, oxygenant 10-30%, catalysis burning-rate accelerator 10-30%, pore former 5-15%, nucleus reinforcer 5-20%, fusing assistant 15-30%, radical initiator 5-10%; Wherein (following all be weight percentage);
Described fusing agent is by boron-containing iron concentrate powder 50-70%, sodium tetraborate (NaB 4O 710H 2O) 10-30%, bentonite 10-20% form, and perhaps are wherein any one;
Described oxygenant is by SODIUMNITRATE (NaNO 3) 50%, saltpetre (KNO 3) 50% form, perhaps be in SODIUMNITRATE, the saltpetre any one;
Described catalysis burning-rate accelerator is any one of sodium-chlor (NaCl), Repone K (KCl), is its mixture perhaps, and blending ratio is not limit;
Described fusing assistant is fluorite (CaF 2) 50%, yttrium oxide (Y 2O 3) 50% composition;
Described nucleus reinforcer is cerium dioxide (CeO 2), nitric acid (NaNO 3) any one; Be its mixture perhaps, blending ratio is not limit;
Described radical initiator is any one of alkoxylamine or aryl carbon metal-salt; Perhaps radical initiator is its mixture, and blending ratio is not limit;
Described pore former is any one of polyvinyl chloride, vermiculite, perlite, lime carbonate, is its mixture perhaps, and blending ratio is not limit.
Described reductive agent be fixed carbon greater than 65wt%, ash content is less than 15wt%, volatilization is divided into any one in the low ash content bituminous coal of hard coal, low-sulfur, coking coal, coke powder of 20~30wt%, or the mixture more than two kinds;
Described flux is any one in lime, slaked lime, rhombspar, the Wingdale.
Described caking agent is any one in wilkinite, water glass, clay, bentonite, the spent pulping liquor; Perhaps be the mixture more than two kinds, blending ratio is not limit.
Described ferronickel metallized pellet material component proportioning (weight %) is: nickeliferous iron powder body 70-90%, reductive agent 3-10%, flux 3-10%, binding agent 1-10%, catalytic additive 0.1-5% form, the grain graininess of pelletizing powder is 5um-75um, wherein the granularity of 10-35um accounts for 85% of the used material total amount of pelletizing, reduction reaction temperature is 500 ℃-1100 ℃, and the reduction reaction time is 15-190 minute.
Described magnetic separation process is: earlier with the coal ash, additive and the part gangue that enter after the fragmentation of ferronickel metallized pellet in the low intensity magnetic separation machine separating metal pellet, to carry out wet ball grinding behind-200 orders through the powder after the magnetic separation then, adopt shaking table to carry out gravity treatment, the ferronickel fine ore that obtains after the gravity treatment adopts 2800-5500 Gauss's magnetic separator to carry out magnetic separation, obtain high-grade ferronickel powder of ni content 3~10%, the nickel yield is 90~95%, and the ferronickel powder of gained is carried out making Rhometal or nichrome behind the briquetting.
Described fuel is coal gas or for bituminous coal or for hard coal.
Adopt prepared ferronickel metallized pellet of the present invention, equipment used only is not limited to still can adopt tunnel furnace, rotary kiln, converter, tube furnace, shaft furnace, down-draft furnace with the vertical reduction furnace production of inside and outside heating of the present invention.
Beneficial effect, owing to adopted such scheme, adopt superfine powder reduced nickel ferrous metal pellet in the present invention, because the distortion dislocation takes place in ultrafine powder in thinning process, produce certain lattice distortion energy, after grain-size is less than 100nm, produce a large amount of dislocations, thereby form many active centers, have higher activity, size is more little, specific surface area is big more, activity is high more, can significantly reduce reaction activity, can reduce under the temperature more much lower than common iron powder, and ferric oxide powder is thin more, reduction temperature is low more, and speed of reaction is fast more, and reduction ratio is high more.Modern materials science studies have shown that: under hydrogen atmosphere, be that the brown iron oxide of 0.35um can reach 51.3% at 280 ℃ reduction ratio when mean particle size, at 400 ℃, reduction ratio can reach 97.1% under 20 minutes conditions, almost completely reduction.Both shorten the reaction times so adopt superfine iron powder to reduce, reduced reduction temperature again, greatly reduced energy consumption, material consumption in the reaction process, saved human and material resources and reduction cost.Because the nano powder preparation cost is higher, production efficiency is low, considers nano powder preparation technology, production efficiency and preparation cost, realizes producing in enormous quantities the reality that still acquires a certain degree of difficulty under present state of the art.The present invention is limited to powder granularity in the 10um-75um scope, wherein the 10um-35um granularity accounts for 90%, the powder of this granularity both can make full use of existing powder preparing technology and realize extensive superfine powder production, realized low cost, high efficiency production high-quality ferronickel metallized pellet.
Modern materials science studies have shown that crystal grain nanometer degree is high more, and the speed of response of brown iron oxide is fast more, but the preparation cost costliness of nano-powder, production efficiency is low, and the present invention is applied to preparation technology of the present invention with catalyst technology, under the effect of catalyzer, improved reacting dynamics condition greatly, can reduce activation energy by a larger margin, reduce reduction reaction temperature, improve reduction reaction speed, realize the low temperature rapid reaction, enhance productivity.
Adopt the vertical reduction furnace of inside and outside heating, owing to adopt the two-way heating technique of outer heating of jar and jar interior center heating, overcome the deficiency of Classical Shaft Furnace, made furnace charge in stove, be subjected to inside and outside heating, and reactant gases secondary combustion in stove helps the thermal center energy, the thermo-efficiency height, energy consumption is low, and flame breakthrough power is strong, uniformity of temperature profile, controlled, device structure is simple and reliable, can the same passage of a stove porous, improve thermo-efficiency, easy to operate, improve reduction rate, realized fast restore, the output height, steady quality, the production of can maximizing.
Adopted shaft furnace process to prepare the top-down connection operation scheme of material of ferronickel metallized pellet, but the heating and the reduction mode that are different from shaft furnace, adopted the muffle type of heating of tunnel furnace method, but the monomer indirect heating mode and the tank body that are different from retort in the tunnel furnace heat repeatedly, the refrigerative operation scheme.The present invention gets its chief, keeps away its shortage, adopts jar interior and jar outer novel shaft furnace structure of heating simultaneously, pelletizing adopts upper of furnace body continuously from last adding, ferronickel metallized pellet after the reduction flows out from furnace bottom, can make retort be in the working temperature state all the time, needn't heat cooling repeatedly.It is long to have solved the tunnel kiln reduction method recovery time, reduction jar needs heating and cooling repeatedly and a large amount of energy dissipations of causing during reduction, the refractory materials waste is big, the energy consumption height, the drawback that level of automation is low, simplify production process, improved production efficiency, reduced energy consumption, there is not refractory consumption rate in the production process, realized that mechanize takes on material, improved work situation, reduced labour intensity, there is not bonding, hanging, dross, the bulk fault, equipment is reliable, compares with tunnel furnace and cuts down the consumption of energy about 40%, has realized high mechanization production high quality ferronickel metallized pellet.
Adopt one group or several groups of relatively independent retort productions, for many group reactions jar, each retort can be according to reducing operating mode independent control charge composition at any time, reduction parameter such as cooling time, realize the many variety production of a stove, can make stable and reliable product quality, the fuel wide accommodation can be suitable for coal gas, Sweet natural gas, also can use the coal direct heating.
Adopt coal base reduction technology; adopt bituminous coal, hard coal as direct reductive agent in the reduction; do not use coke; eliminated the environmental pollution that the coke production process is caused; owing to adopt low temperature fast restore technology, and also adopting the waste heat recovery secondary to use in the original production, thereby reduced the consumption of coal; reduce smoke discharge amount, helped environment protection.
Adopt the abundant relatively low-grade nickel oxide ore of resource, the nickel oxide chrome ore is as the raw material of ferronickel, its raw material sources are extensive relatively, composition to raw material does not require, can use the nickeliferous of various compositions or Ni and Cr contained raw material, adopt that of the present invention external heating type is shaft kiln directly reduced in novel obtains high-grade reduced nickel iron alloy, the raw material suitability is strong, fuel source is extensive, the rate of recovery height of nickel and nickel chromium triangle, production cost is low, because reduction reaction temperature is at the following solid state reduction of the reflowing temperature of gangue, do not produce the fusing reaction in the reduction process, harmful element P in the reducing material, S etc. mainly be retained in slag mutually in, thereby make the P of the reduced nickel iron alloy of being produced, S content is low, quality is good.Simultaneously, because reduction temperature is low, make obnoxious flavour amounts such as CO2, SO, NO descend environmental friendliness significantly.This preparation technology and equipment can replace hot stove in traditional ore deposit and blast furnace smelting method, compare production cost with other technology and reduce by 50%, prepared reduction ferronickel can be directly used in smelting stainless steel, for stainless smelting production provides Rhometal or nichrome cheaply, when having reduced Rhometal and having produced to the dependence of a large amount of electric energy and lump ore resource, can substitute waste stainless steel fully, become stainless main raw material, thereby reduce stainless production cost.
Adopt the Iron And Steel Industry waste as containing ferronickel or nickel chromium iron raw material production high-quality Rhometal or nichrome, promptly reduced environmental pollution, increased the resource of ferronickel raw material again, saved ore resource consumption, reduced raw materials cost.
The present invention produces the technology of Rhometal and the degree of metalization that equipment has improved product, reduced the fusing point of product, improved the bed permeability energy, has catalytic combustion-supporting, suppress the bad crystal conversion in the sintering process, acceleration of sintering process SFEA forms and suppresses low temperature reduction degradation, and intensified-sintered technological process has reduced the fusing point and the reduction temperature of product, accelerated reduction rate, shorten the recovery time, weakened the secondary oxidation in the high temperature reduction process, can reduce fuel consumption and power consumption more than 10%, improved the metallurgical performance of Rhometal, improved the degree of metalization of product, reduced discharge of harmful gases in the waste gas, alleviated pollution environment.
Reducing process of the present invention and equipment make that the production reduction temperature of ferronickel metallized pellet is low, reduction rate is fast, energy consumption is few, production efficiency is high, production cost is low, mechanization degree is high, reach purpose of the present invention.
The present invention has following advantage: 1, reduction temperature is low, energy consumption is low.2, speed of response is fast, the production efficiency height.3, Xian Jin inside and outside heating installation has improved heating efficiency, has guaranteed the homogeneity of sponge iron quality.4, technical process is short, operating procedure is simple, and facility investment is few, the mechanization degree height, and output is big.5, reduce fuel consumption, reduce environmental pollution.6, the raw material suitability is strong, fuel source is extensive, the rate of recovery height of nickel and nickel chromium triangle, and production cost is low.7, resource consumption has been saved in waste resource recycle.
Thereby, the present invention is for handling various dissimilar nickel oxide ores and containing the metallurgy of nickel waste as main nickeliferous iron material, production high-quality Rhometal provides a kind of new technology and equipment, can effectively alleviate the predicament of China's stainless steel industry nickel resources critical shortage, economic benefit and social benefit, obvious environment benefit have good application and promotion prospect.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the process flow sheet of first embodiment of the invention
Fig. 2 is the equipment structure chart of second embodiment of the invention
Fig. 3 is the equipment structure chart of third embodiment of the invention
Fig. 4 is the layout of equipment of fourth embodiment of the invention
Fig. 5 is the layout of equipment of fifth embodiment of the invention
Fig. 6 is the layout of equipment of sixth embodiment of the invention
Fig. 7 is the layout of equipment of seventh embodiment of the invention
Embodiment
Embodiment 1: the equipment scheme that the present invention solves its technical problem is:
This reduction apparatus includes furnace base 12, upper furnace body, lower furnace body, goes up bonnet, oven dry pool furnace grate 25, sealing blanking device 1, refining plant and and the waste heat circulation device, above furnace base, be connected with upper furnace body, below furnace base, be connected with lower furnace body, upper end at upper furnace body is connected with bonnet, oven dry pool furnace grate is positioned at the upper furnace body upper end, refining plant is connected with lower furnace body with upper furnace body by pipeline, and the waste heat circulation device is connected with lower furnace body.
Described upper furnace body comprises internal heating jar 2, reducing gas outlet 3, add thermal reduction jar 4, heating air inlet hole 5, gas pipe 6, refractory brick 7, gas jet 8, refractory fibre 9, reduction furnace shell 10, inside and outside heating tank air inlet port 11, internal heating gas pipe 20, internal heating gas jet 21, heating chamber 39, roasting reduction district 43, the reduction furnace shell, fire brick layer, add thermal reduction jar and internal heating jar suit successively, the reduction furnace shell is positioned at outermost layer, the internal heating jar is positioned at innermost layer, at internal heating jar center the internal heating gas pipe is arranged, the end of internal heating gas pipe is asked and is connected with the internal heating gas jet, between reduction furnace shell and fire brick layer, refractory fibre is arranged, it in fire brick layer heating chamber, there is gas pipe to pass the reduction furnace shell, refractory fibre and fire brick layer, the gas pipe end is connected with gas jet, gas jet is positioned at heating chamber, internal heating jar and add between the thermal reduction jar and to be the roasting reduction district, epimere on the internal heating jar has the reducing gas outlet, at hypomere inside and outside heating tank air inlet port is arranged, adding outside has the heating air inlet hole on the thermal reduction jar; The part that upper furnace body stretches into protective guard is the V-shape structure; the middle part that adds thermal reduction jar and internal heating tank body is to having many oblique gas channels; the oblique gas channel of two tank bodies is V-shape to be arranged, upwards all has a plurality of and tank body parallel gas flow hole at two tank body middle parts.
Described upper furnace body is single hole one a passage furnace binding, add thermal reduction jar and internal heating jar and in upper furnace body, be distributed with 1, the middle and lower part that adds the tank body of thermal reduction jar and internal heating jar outside has 10 and is oblique air inlet/outlet with the tank body vertical line, have the air inlet/outlet that is arranged in parallel with tank body in the middle and upper part of tank body, its air inlet/outlet uniform distribution on tank body; Add the circle that is shaped as of thermal reduction jar; Adding the thermal reduction jar uses material to make as the SiC material.
Described lower furnace body comprises that cooled transition section 13, spiral discharging machine 18, discharge port 29, body of heater support 31, inside and outside heating tank support 32, the cooled transition section is positioned at the internal heating jar and adds the bottom of thermal reduction jar, in the cooled transition section is the fired coal combustion chamber, the fired coal combustion chamber is connected with the roasting reduction district of upper furnace body, body of heater supports and is positioned at the outside, inside and outside heating tank supports and is positioned at the center, is connected with spiral discharging machine in the bottom of cooled transition section, at an end of spiral discharging machine discharge port is arranged.
The described bonnet of going up comprises bonnet 27, chimney 28, fly-ash separator 44, and chimney is positioned at the upper end of bonnet, and fly-ash separator is connected on the chimney.
Described refining plant comprises waste heat transfer lime 19, middle waste heat recovery pipe 22, last waste heat recovery pipe 26, aerofoil fan 30, right cooling duct 36, right cooling blower 41, the waste heat recovery pipe is connected with last bonnet on passing through in the upper end of refining plant, in the middle part of refining plant by middle waste heat recovery pipe coupling in the upper furnace body upper end, last waste heat recovery pipe 26 and middle waste heat recovery pipe all feed to the roasting reduction district, bottom at refining plant feeds to the fired coal combustion of lower furnace body indoor by the waste heat transfer lime, on the waste heat transfer lime, be connected with aerofoil fan, on the waste heat transfer lime below the aerofoil fan, be connected with right cooling duct, on right cooling duct, be connected with right cooling blower.
Described waste heat circulation device comprises left waste heat transfer lime 14, water outlet 15, cooling cylinder 16, water-in 17, left cooling duct 35, left cooling blower 42, cooling cylinder is arranged outside lower furnace body, water-in and water outlet are arranged on cooling cylinder, left side waste heat transfer lime feeds to the fired coal combustion of lower furnace body indoor, on left waste heat transfer lime, be connected with left aerofoil fan, on the left waste heat transfer lime below the left aerofoil fan, be connected with left cooling duct 35, be connected with left cooling blower 42 on the left cooling duct.
This equipment adopts the shaft furnace body of heater to smelt, this body of heater is installed on the furnace base, in shaft furnace, add the thermal reduction reaction jar, the internal heating jar, be provided with bonnet on the top of internal heating jar, in last bonnet, be provided with pelletizing drying system fire grate, this fire grate is located at the top that adds the thermal reduction jar inside and outside the shaft furnace, side at bonnet is respectively equipped with sealing blanking device and chimney, top at chimney is provided with fly-ash separator, the outside that adds the thermal reduction jar outside is provided with combustion gas or coal-fired heating system facility, be provided with the internal heating facility in the inside of internal heating tank body, be provided with body of heater support and inside and outside heating tank supports in the bottom of reduction reaction can, below reduction reaction can, be connected with cooled transition section and cooling cylinder, be connected with spiral discharging machine in the bottom of cooling cylinder; Residual neat recovering system is made up of waste heat recovery pipeline, cleaner and aerofoil fan, the waste heat recovery pipeline be connected on respectively the top of protective guard and upper furnace body below, and be connected with aerofoil fan with refining plant, waste heat recovery pipe outlet and cooling duct are connected on the slow cooling section with after blower fan links to each other; The waste heat recycle system is formed in bottom in the cooled transition section.
Bottom at cooling cylinder is connected with water inlet pipe, top is connected with rising pipe, the middle part that adds thermal reduction jar and internal heating tank body is to having many oblique air-flow tunnels, and the oblique air-flow of two tank bodies is V-shape to be arranged, two tank body middle parts upwards all have a plurality of and tank body parallel gas flow hole.
The part that upper furnace body stretches into protective guard is the V-shape structure, to play the guide functions of pelletizing.
When adopting the combustion gas heating, adopt gas jet to heat, when adopting coal-fired heating, in the combustion chamber that is symmetrically set with two fire coals of reduction shaft furnace pot bottom along the body of heater vertical line.The quirk of this combustion chamber is connected the outside that adds the thermal reduction jar and the center of internal heating pot bottom.
The process program that solves its technical problem is:
Nickeliferous iron material is mixed with reductive agent, flux, catalytic additive, after mixing, be crushed to below 200 orders, make compound; Then compound is joined and carry out ball milling in the ball mill, be prepared into ultrafine powder, ultrafine powder is carried out passivation; In catalytic additive, add water-solubleization, obtain the aqueous solution,, cause the pelletizing material after mixing ultrafine powder, the aqueous solution and binding agent mixed together; Light the fuel in the inside and outside well heater in the vertical reduction furnace, the pelletizing material that is made is sent in the reduction furnace through helical screw feeder, evenly loosely is arranged to and is dried on the pool furnace grate, the pelletizing material is dried, the pelletizing material is through the laggard capable roasting of super-dry, in roast area with combustion gas in CO, H 2With the hydrocarbon reaction in the volatile matter, the pelletizing material after 90 minutes reduction reaction, obtains the ferronickel metallized pellet that degree of metalization reaches 90-95% under 1100 ℃ the reduction temperature and under the acting in conjunction of catalyzer, and pelletizing enters the cooled transition section; Waste-heat recovery device will react the hot gas that rises the back as combustion air with together pelletizing is cooled off after cooling air mixes, the cooling air that is blown into absorbs the heat of pelletizing, when arriving roast area, form oxygen containing high-temperature gas, carry out combustion-supporting to the combustion gas in the reduction furnace, circulation so successively, remaining waste gas enters atmosphere by chimney after dedusting, cooled iron nickel metallized pellet or nickel chromium iron metallized pellet are discharged cooling cylinder by spiral discharging machine, through fragmentation, carry out magnetic separation behind the vibrosieve, with residual coal with carry out briquetting after gangue separates, obtain high-grade Rhometal or nichrome.
Described ferronickel raw material: be any one or two or more nickeliferous iron material that will be wherein in the iron phosphorus of nickel oxide ore, nickel oxide chrome ore or nickeliferous iron phosphorus, Ni and Cr contained, flue dust, the layer mud mixture after according to certain ratio proportioning;
Described ultrafine powder is that granularity is 75um-5um, and wherein granularity is that the powder of 10um-35um accounts for more than 85%.
Described catalytic additive is made up of fusing agent 50%, oxygenant 10%, catalysis burning-rate accelerator 10%, pore former 5%, nucleus reinforcer 5%, fusing assistant 15%, radical initiator 5%; Wherein, related ratio all is weight percentage.
Described fusing agent is by boron-containing iron concentrate powder 70%, sodium tetraborate (NaB 4O 710H 2O) 10%, bentonite 20% forms, it act as: the boron-containing iron concentrate powder is a kind of byproduct of paigeite development and use, adds it to can utilize in the sponge iron in boron-containing iron concentrate and the sodium tetraborate B as the fusing agent 2O 3Can make the sponge iron grain refining, reduce agglomerate bonding phase fusing point and sintering temperature, reduce sintering time and sintering fuel consumption, improve sinter strength and yield rate, and can make full use of resource;
Described oxygenant is by SODIUMNITRATE (NaNO 3) 50%, saltpetre (KNO 3) 50% composition; It act as, and making heats up in the compound reaches to begin to decompose behind the certain value and discharge oxygen, regulates the combustion conditions of compound thus, promote combustionvelocity and " grilling thoroughly " effect of pelletizing, increase the oxygen level in the pellet group, coal fully burns, discharge more heat, avoid chemical incomplete combustion;
Described catalysis burning-rate accelerator be sodium-chlor (NaCl), Repone K (KCl) mixture, blending ratio is not limit; It act as the burning of catalytic activation fuel, the process of vaporized carbon;
Described fusing assistant is fluorite (CaF 2) 50%, yttrium oxide (Y 2O 3) 50% composition; Its role is to reduce the sintering temperature that mixed liquor generates temperature and sponge iron mutually;
Described nucleus reinforcer is cerium dioxide (CeO 2), nitric acid (NaNO 3) mixture, blending ratio is not limit; It act as the good specificity of catalyst that ion had that utilizes rare earth, make it in sintering process, promote combination and crystallization between solid-liquid mutually, suppress nuclei growth, improve the barrate strength of agglomerate, the adding of rare earth simultaneously can change coal-fired combustion reactions course, reduces combustion reactions activation energy greatly, accelerated reaction speed, improve level of response, reach and improve combustionproperty, improve efficiency of combustion and reduce the effect of polluting;
Described radical initiator is the mixture of alkoxylamine or aryl carbon metal-salt, and blending ratio is not limit; Its effect is: add radical initiator and can make the mixture moisture and the common solution of organic matter at high temperature resolve into the more freedom base in catalytic additive, and quicken the transmission speed of electronics and photon in these free radical chain combustion reactionss, improve bed permeability, improve sintering velocity;
Described pore former is the mixture of polyvinyl chloride, vermiculite, perlite, lime carbonate, and blending ratio is not limit; It act as the ventilation property that increases pelletizing, and the active carrier that serves as oxygen increases the transmission speed of reducing gas in pelletizing, promotes the velocity of diffusion of oxygen, improves reduction rate.
Catalytic additive among the present invention has improved the degree of metalization of product, reduced the fusing point of product, improved the bed permeability energy, has catalytic combustion-supporting, suppress the bad crystal conversion in the sintering process, acceleration of sintering process SFEA forms and suppresses low temperature reduction degradation, and intensified-sintered technological process has reduced the fusing point and the reduction temperature of product, accelerated reduction rate, shorten the recovery time, weakened the secondary oxidation in the high temperature reduction process, can reduce fuel consumption and power consumption more than 10%, improved the metallurgical performance of sponge iron, improved the degree of metalization of product, can reduce discharge of harmful gases in the waste gas, alleviated pollution environment.
Described reductive agent be fixed carbon greater than 65wt%, ash content is less than 15wt%, volatilization is divided into any one in the low ash content bituminous coal of hard coal, low-sulfur, coking coal, coke powder of 20~30wt%, or the mixture more than two kinds;
Described flux is lime; Described caking agent is a wilkinite.
Described pelletizing material component proportioning (weight %) is: nickeliferous iron powder body 75%, reductive agent 20%, flux 3%, binding agent 1%, catalytic additive 1%; The grain graininess of pelletizing powder is 5um-75um, and wherein the granularity of 10-35um accounts for 90% of the used material total amount of pelletizing, and reduction reaction temperature is 1100 ℃, and the reduction reaction time is 90 minutes.
Described magnetic separation process is: earlier with the coal ash, additive and the part gangue that enter after the fragmentation of ferronickel metallized pellet in the low intensity magnetic separation machine separating metal pellet, to carry out wet ball grinding behind-200 orders through the powder after the magnetic separation then, adopt shaking table to carry out gravity treatment, the ferronickel fine ore that obtains after the gravity treatment adopts 2800-5500 Gauss's magnetic separator to carry out magnetic separation, obtain high-grade ferronickel powder of ni content 3~10%, the nickel yield is 90~95%, and the ferronickel powder of gained is carried out making Rhometal or nichrome behind the briquetting;
Described fuel is coal gas.
At Fig. 1, among Fig. 2, specific embodiment: at first with nickel oxide ore, nickel oxide chrome ore or nickeliferous, the iron phosphorus of Ni and Cr contained, flue dust, in the layer mud any one, with reductive agent, flux and water-fast catalytic additive ferro-boron fine ore mix, after mixing, be crushed to below 200 orders, join and carry out ball milling in the ball mill being crushed to compound below 200 orders, be prepared into the ultrafine powder of the 75um-5um with high-activity function, wherein granularity is that the powder of 10um-35um accounts for more than 85%, the ultrafine powder of the above-mentioned granularity for preparing is carried out passivation, water-soluble reduction reaction is combustion-supporting, catalysis, enhancer additives adds an amount of water according to required dosage and melts, and the aqueous solution after institute melt and the binding agent of required dosage add jointly in the ultrafine powder after the passivation and mix manufacturing ferronickel pelletizing afterwards; Light outer heating and internal heating burner noz(zle) 8 and 21 of vertical reduction furnace, body of heater is heated.The ferronickel pelletizing 40 that is made is sent in the vertical reduction furnace bonnet 27 of inside and outside heating of sealing with even velocity under sealed state through spiral blanking device 1, evenly loose arranging to is positioned on the oven dry pool furnace grate 25 of vertical reduction upper of furnace body, the hot gas of heating chamber 39 by the gas channel 3 offered on the tank body that adds thermal reduction jar 4 and internal heating jar 2 and 5 from below rise on the oven dry pool furnace grate 25 pelletizing 40 dried, ferronickel pelletizing 40 motion from top to down and hot gas flow generation heat exchange of rising and enter CO in roast area 43 and the coal gas after super-dry, H 2With the hydrocarbon reaction in the volatile matter, the further heat nickel iron ball of burning heat release group 40, make ferronickel pelletizing 40 that the oxygen loss reduction reaction take place, ferronickel pelletizing 40 is under the acting in conjunction of 1100 ℃ reduction temperature and catalyzer, after 90 minutes reduction reaction, obtain the ferronickel metallized pellet 37 that degree of metalization reaches 90%-95%, ferronickel metallized pellet 37 continues to descend, enter cooled transition section 13, ferronickel metallized pellet 37 continues to finish last a small amount of reaction, progressively descend and enter into cooled transition section 13 belows, waste heat recovery pipe 22,26 will react the waste hot gas that rises the back is drawn in the refining plant 24, after purifying treatment, pass through aerofoil fan 30 sucking-offs as combustion air, with the bottom that together enters cooled transition section 13 after cooling air that cooling blower 42 is blown into mixes ferronickel metallized pellet 37 is cooled off, cooling air progressively rises and absorbs the heat of ferronickel metallized pellet 37, forms oxygen containing high-temperature gas when arriving roast area 43, carries out combustion-supporting to the combustion gas in the reduction furnace 10.Circulation so successively, remaining waste gas enters atmosphere by chimney 28 after fly-ash separator 44 dedustings, cooled ferronickel metallized pellet 37 enters below cooled transition section 13 and is cooled fast to below 100 ℃ in the cooling cylinder 16, and by spiral discharging machine 18 discharge cooling cylinders 16, by controlling the residence time and the turnout of ferronickel metallized pellet 40 in retort 4, by regulating the quality that water coolant intensity and cooling section amount of cooling water are regulated the ferronickel metallized pellet 37 of coming out of the stove with hour discharge velocity.
The ferronickel metallized pellet 37 of discharging cooling cylinder 16 carries out magnetic separation behind fragmentation, vibrosieve, with residual coal with carry out briquetting after gangue separates, be prepared into high-grade Rhometal or nichrome, the ferronickel metallized pellet 37 that maybe will discharge cooling cylinder 16 directly imports in the smelting furnace and melts smelting.
Know-why of the present invention: modern materials science studies have shown that, after particle reaches nano level or micron order, owing to lack adjacent atom around the surface atom, many dangling bondss are arranged, has nonsaturation, being easy to other atom combines and settles out, show very high chemically reactive, and after material reaches super-refinement, its surface atom or molecular arrangement and electron distributions structure and crystalline structure all change, and have produced the not available peculiar surface effects of piece (grain) shape material, small-size effect, quantum effect and macro quanta tunnel effect.On the other hand, when the powder volume was reduced to nano level, variation had also taken place in the character of material itself, because nanoparticle is by a unlimited atom or molecular composition, had changed numerous atom of former cause or molecular matrix attribute.When the de broglie wavelength of the size of nano material and conduction electron quite or more hour, periodic final condition is destroyed, magnetic, interior pressure, photoabsorption, thermal resistance, chemically reactive, catalytic and fusing point etc. are compared with common crystal grain, have physics, chemistry and surface and the interfacial property of a series of excellences.Thereby superfine iron powder has very big specific surface area, surface property and high surfactivity, exist surface effects and volume effect, to give and the diverse characteristic of bulk metal, it is fast to have a chemical reaction velocity, and dissolving and melting speed are fast, fusing point is low, reduction temperature is low, reduction ratio height, characteristic such as sintering characteristic is strong.Because reduction reaction temperature is at the following solid state reduction of the reflowing temperature of gangue, do not produce the fusing reaction in the reduction process, harmful element P, the S etc. in the reducing material mainly be retained in slag mutually in, thereby make the reduced iron of being produced P, S content is low, quality good.Simultaneously, because reduction temperature is low, make CO 2, obnoxious flavour amounts such as SO, NO descend significantly, thereby reduced environmental pollution, help environment protection.
Embodiment 2: the equipment scheme that the present invention solves its technical problem is:
In Fig. 3, described upper furnace body comprises internal heating jar 2, reducing gas outlet 3, add thermal reduction jar 4, heating air inlet hole 5, refractory brick 7, refractory fibre 9, reduction furnace shell 10, inside and outside heating tank air inlet port 11, fired coal combustion chamber 33, slag removing chamber 34, internal heating quirk 38, heating chamber 39, roasting reduction district 43, the reduction furnace shell, fire brick layer, add thermal reduction jar and internal heating jar suit successively, the reduction furnace shell is positioned at outermost layer, the internal heating jar is positioned at innermost layer, fired coal combustion chamber 33, slag removing chamber 34 is positioned at the lower end of upper furnace body, internal heating quirk 38 is positioned at internal heating jar 2 and adds the lower end of thermal reduction jar 4, between reduction furnace shell and fire brick layer, refractory fibre is arranged, it in fire brick layer heating chamber, internal heating jar and add between the thermal reduction jar and to be the roasting reduction district, epimere on the internal heating jar has the reducing gas outlet, at hypomere inside and outside heating tank air inlet port is arranged, adding outside has the heating air inlet hole on the thermal reduction jar; The part that upper furnace body stretches into protective guard is the V-shape structure, the middle part that adds thermal reduction jar and internal heating tank body is to having many oblique gas channels, the oblique gas channel of two tank bodies is V-shape to be arranged, upwards all has a plurality of and tank body parallel gas flow hole at two tank body middle parts;
In Fig. 4, described upper furnace body is porous one a passage furnace binding, and the arrangement form of body of heater is a single passage; Add thermal reduction jar and internal heating jar and in upper furnace body, be distributed with 4, the middle and lower part that adds the tank body of thermal reduction jar and internal heating jar outside has 20 and is oblique air inlet/outlet with the tank body vertical line, have the air inlet/outlet that is arranged in parallel with tank body in the middle and upper part of tank body, its air inlet/outlet uniform distribution on tank body; Add the circle that is shaped as of thermal reduction jar; Adding the thermal reduction jar uses material to make as the refractory brick material.
Add the thermal reduction jar inside and outside this equipment for circular, be the single vertical arranged of body of heater, among the figure 1-1 be well heater, 1-2 be add the thermal reduction jar inside and outside external furnace body, 1-3 are, 1-4 is a heating chamber, each body of heater is common to use same heat tunnel.During production, at each internal heating jar with add in the thermal reduction jar common implementing or implement separately.
Adopt coal-fired heating, add the bottom of thermal reduction jar outside, along the combustion chamber that is symmetrically set with two fire coals of body of heater vertical line, the quirk of this combustion chamber is connected the outside that adds the thermal reduction jar and the center of internal heating pot bottom.
Equipment described in the other parts of equipment and the embodiment 1 omits together.
The process program that solves its technical problem is: described nickeliferous iron material; Be any one the nickeliferous iron material in nickel oxide ore, the nickel oxide chrome ore.
Described catalytic additive is made up of fusing agent 15%, oxygenant 10%, catalysis burning-rate accelerator 30%, pore former 5%, nucleus reinforcer 5%, fusing assistant 30%, radical initiator 5%; Wherein, related and ratio all is weight percentage.
Described fusing agent is by boron-containing iron concentrate powder 55%, sodium tetraborate (NaB 4O 710H 2O) 30%, bentonite 15% is formed; Described oxygenant is a SODIUMNITRATE; Described catalysis burning-rate accelerator is sodium-chlor (NaCl); Described fusing assistant is fluorite (CaF 2) 50%, yttrium oxide (Y 2O 3) 50% composition; Described nucleus reinforcer is cerium dioxide (CeO 2); Described radical initiator is an alkoxylamine; Described pore former is a polyvinyl chloride.
Described reductive agent is the low ash content bituminous coal of low-sulfur; Described flux is slaked lime; Described caking agent is a water glass.
Described ferronickel pelletizing material component proportioning (weight %) is: nickeliferous iron powder body 60%, reductive agent 20%, flux 5%, binding agent 10%, catalytic additive 5%; The grain graininess of pelletizing powder is 5um-75um, and wherein the granularity of 10-35um accounts for 90% of the used material total amount of pelletizing, and reduction reaction temperature is 900 ℃, and the reduction reaction time is 30 minutes.
Described fuel is bituminous coal or is hard coal.
Technological process among the other parts of technology and the embodiment 1 is omited together.
Embodiment 3: the equipment scheme that the present invention solves its technical problem is:
In Fig. 4, described upper furnace body is porous one a passage furnace binding, and the arrangement form of body of heater is a single passage, among the figure 1-1 be well heater, 1-2 be add the thermal reduction jar inside and outside external furnace body, 1-3 are, 1-4 is a heating chamber, each body of heater is common to use same heat tunnel; Add thermal reduction jar and internal heating jar and in upper furnace body, be distributed with 4, the middle and lower part that adds the tank body of thermal reduction jar and internal heating jar outside has 18 and is oblique air inlet/outlet with the tank body vertical line, have the air inlet/outlet that is arranged in parallel with tank body in the middle and upper part of tank body, its air inlet/outlet uniform distribution on tank body; Add the rectangle that is shaped as of thermal reduction jar; Adding the thermal reduction jar uses material to make as the SiC material.
Equipment described in the other parts of equipment and the embodiment 1 omits together.
The process program that solves its technical problem is: described nickeliferous iron material: be a kind of nickeliferous iron material in the iron phosphorus of nickeliferous iron phosphorus, Ni and Cr contained.
Described catalytic additive is made up of fusing agent 10%, oxygenant 25%, catalysis burning-rate accelerator 25%, pore former 15%, nucleus reinforcer 10%, fusing assistant 10%, radical initiator 5%; Wherein, related and ratio all is weight percentage.
Described fusing agent is by boron-containing iron concentrate powder 70%, sodium tetraborate (NaB 4O 710H 2O) 15%, bentonite 15% is formed; Described oxygenant is by saltpetre; Described catalysis burning-rate accelerator is Repone K (KCl); Described fusing assistant is fluorite (CaF 2) 50%, yttrium oxide (Y 2O 3) 50% composition; Described nucleus reinforcer is nitric acid (NaNO 3); Described radical initiator is an aryl carbon metal-salt; Described pore former is a vermiculite.
Described reductive agent is a coking coal; Described flux is rhombspar; Described caking agent is a clay.
Described ferronickel pelletizing material component proportioning (weight %) is: nickeliferous iron powder body 65%, reductive agent 25%, flux 3%, binding agent 5%, catalytic additive 2%; The grain graininess of pelletizing powder is 5um-75um, and wherein the granularity of 10-35um accounts for 90% of the used material total amount of pelletizing, and reduction reaction temperature is 500 ℃, and the reduction reaction time is 180 minutes.
The coal gas that will burn changes into and adopts the coal direct heating, and with the gas pipe among the embodiment 15, burner noz(zle) 8 and internal heating gas pipe 20, internal heating burner noz(zle) 21 remove, and changes into fired coal combustion kiln 33, the kiln 34 of slagging tap, internal heating quirk 38.
Technology among the other parts of technology and the embodiment 1 is omited together.
Embodiment 4: the equipment scheme that the present invention solves its technical problem is:
In Fig. 5, described upper furnace body is porous one a passage furnace binding, the arrangement form of body of heater is that two rows, one passage is vertically arranged, inside and outside add the thermal reduction jar for circular, among the figure 1-1 be well heater, 1-2 be add the thermal reduction jar inside and outside external furnace body, 1-3 are, 1-4 is a heating chamber, each body of heater is common to use same heat tunnel; Add thermal reduction jar and internal heating jar and in upper furnace body, be distributed with 8, the middle and lower part that adds the tank body of thermal reduction jar and internal heating jar outside has 20 and is oblique air inlet/outlet with the tank body vertical line, have the air inlet/outlet that is arranged in parallel with tank body in the middle and upper part of tank body, its air inlet/outlet uniform distribution on tank body; Add the circle that is shaped as of thermal reduction jar; Adding the thermal reduction jar uses material to be SiC and two kinds of mixing material manufacturings of refractory brick material.
Equipment described in the other parts of equipment and the embodiment 1 omits together.
The process program that solves its technical problem is: described nickeliferous iron material: be a kind of in the mud of nickeliferous flue dust, layer.
Described catalytic additive is made up of fusing agent 20%, oxygenant 10%, catalysis burning-rate accelerator 20%, pore former 5%, nucleus reinforcer 20%, fusing assistant 15%, radical initiator 10%; Wherein, related and ratio all is weight percentage.
Described fusing agent is by boron-containing iron concentrate powder 60%, sodium tetraborate (NaB 4O 710H2O) 30%, bentonite 10% is formed: described oxygenant is by SODIUMNITRATE (NaNO 3) 50%, saltpetre (KNO 3) 50% composition; Described catalysis burning-rate accelerator is the mixture of sodium-chlor (NaCl), Repone K (KCl), and blending ratio is not limit; Described fusing assistant is fluorite (CaF 2) 50%, yttrium oxide (Y2O3) 50% forms; Described nucleus reinforcer is cerium dioxide (CeO2); Described radical initiator is an alkoxylamine; Described pore former is a perlite.
Described reductive agent is a hard coal; Described flux is Wingdale; Described caking agent is a bentonite.
Described ferronickel pelletizing material component proportioning (weight %) is: nickeliferous iron powder body 70%, reductive agent 20%, flux 8.9%, binding agent 1%, catalytic additive 0.1%; The grain graininess of pelletizing powder is 5um-75um, and wherein the granularity of 10-35um accounts for 90% of the used material total amount of pelletizing, and reduction reaction temperature is 1000 ℃, and the reduction reaction time is 100 minutes.
When producing, adopt the technology of embodiment 1 can inside and outside each, add common implementing or enforcement separately among the thermal reduction jar 1-3.
Technology among the other parts of technology and the embodiment 1 is omited together.
Embodiment 5: the equipment scheme that the present invention solves its technical problem is:
In Fig. 5, described upper furnace body is for being porous one passage furnace binding, and the arrangement form of body of heater is a double passage; Add thermal reduction jar and internal heating jar and in upper furnace body, be distributed with 8, the middle and lower part that adds the tank body of thermal reduction jar and internal heating jar outside has 10-50 and is oblique air inlet/outlet with the tank body vertical line, have the air inlet/outlet that is arranged in parallel with tank body in the middle and upper part of tank body, its air inlet/outlet uniform distribution on tank body; Add the rectangle that is shaped as of thermal reduction jar; Adding the thermal reduction jar uses material to make as the refractory brick material.The same heat tunnel of the common use of each body of heater.
Equipment described in the other parts of equipment and the embodiment 1 omits together.
The process program that solves its technical problem is: described nickeliferous iron material: contain ferronickel phosphorus for what add 90%-10% in the nickel oxide ore of 10%-90%;
Described catalytic additive is made up of fusing agent 35%, oxygenant 10%, catalysis burning-rate accelerator 10%, pore former 5%, nucleus reinforcer 5%, fusing assistant 30%, radical initiator 5%; Wherein, related and ratio all is weight percentage.
Described fusing agent is by boron-containing iron concentrate powder 58%, sodium tetraborate (NaB 4O 710H 2O) 22%, bentonite 20% is formed; Described oxygenant is a SODIUMNITRATE; Described catalysis burning-rate accelerator is Repone K (KCl); Described fusing assistant is fluorite (CaF 2) 50%, yttrium oxide (Y 2O 3) 50% composition; Described nucleus reinforcer is nitric acid (NaNO 3); Described radical initiator is an aryl carbon metal-salt; Described pore former is a vermiculite.
Described reductive agent is a coke powder; Described flux is slaked lime; Described caking agent is a spent pulping liquor.
Described ferronickel pelletizing material component proportioning (weight %) is: nickeliferous iron powder body 60%, reductive agent 20%, flux 5%, binding agent 10%, catalytic additive 5%; The grain graininess of pelletizing powder is 5um-75um, and wherein the granularity of 10-35um accounts for 90% of the used material total amount of pelletizing, and reduction reaction temperature is 950 ℃, and the reduction reaction time is 85 minutes.
Be double vertical arranged with adding thermal reduction jar 3 inside and outside the circle, the same heat tunnel of the common use of each body of heater.
Technology among the other parts of technology and the embodiment 1 is omited together.
Embodiment 6: the equipment scheme that the present invention solves its technical problem is:
Described upper furnace body is porous one a passage furnace binding, and the arrangement form of body of heater is five rows, one passages; Add thermal reduction jar and internal heating jar and in upper furnace body, be distributed with 50, the middle and lower part that adds the tank body of thermal reduction jar and internal heating jar outside has 50 and is oblique air inlet/outlet with the tank body vertical line, have the air inlet/outlet that is arranged in parallel with tank body in the middle and upper part of tank body, its air inlet/outlet uniform distribution on tank body; Add the circle that is shaped as of thermal reduction jar; Adding the thermal reduction jar uses material to make as SiC and refractory brick material mixing material.
Equipment described in the other parts of equipment and the embodiment 1 omits together.
The process program that solves its technical problem is: described nickeliferous iron material: be the mixture ferronickel raw material after the nickeliferous flue dust that adds 90%-10% in the nickel oxide ore of 10%-90%, any one or the two kinds of proportionings in the layer mud;
Described catalytic additive is made up of fusing agent 10%, oxygenant 10%, catalysis burning-rate accelerator 15%, pore former 15%, nucleus reinforcer 25%, fusing assistant 15%, radical initiator 10%; Wherein, related and ratio all is weight percentage.
Described fusing agent is by boron-containing iron concentrate powder 65%, sodium tetraborate (NaB 4O 710H 2O) 25%, bentonite 10% is formed; Described oxygenant is by saltpetre; Described catalysis burning-rate accelerator is Repone K (KCl); Described fusing assistant is fluorite (CaF 2) 50%, yttrium oxide (Y 2O 3) 50% composition; Described nucleus reinforcer is cerium dioxide (CeO 2); Described radical initiator is the mixture of alkoxylamine or aryl carbon metal-salt, and blending ratio is not limit; Described pore former is polyvinyl chloride, vermiculite, perlitic, mixture, and blending ratio is not limit.
Described reductive agent is the low ash content bituminous coal of low-sulfur; Described flux is lime; Described caking agent is the mixture of wilkinite and water glass, and blending ratio is not limit.
Described pelletizing material component proportioning (weight %) is: nickeliferous iron powder body 61%, reductive agent 24%, flux 3%, binding agent 10%, catalytic additive 2%; The grain graininess of pelletizing powder is 5um-75um, and wherein the granularity of 10-35um accounts for 90% of the used material total amount of pelletizing, and reduction reaction temperature is 700 ℃, and the reduction reaction time is 130 minutes.
In Fig. 6, inside and outside to add the thermal reduction jar be rectangle, be single vertical arranged, among the figure 1-1 be well heater, 1-2 be external furnace body, 1-3 be add the thermal reduction jar inside and outside the rectangle, 1-4 is a heating chamber, each body of heater is common to use same heat tunnel.
Technology among the other parts of technology and the embodiment 1 is omited together.
Embodiment 7: the equipment scheme that the present invention solves its technical problem is:
Described upper furnace body is porous one a passage furnace binding, and the arrangement form of body of heater is four rows, one passages; Add thermal reduction jar and internal heating jar and in upper furnace body, be distributed with 20, the middle and lower part that adds the tank body of thermal reduction jar and internal heating jar outside has 40 and is oblique air inlet/outlet with the tank body vertical line, have the air inlet/outlet that is arranged in parallel with tank body in the middle and upper part of tank body, its air inlet/outlet uniform distribution on tank body; Add the rectangle that is shaped as of thermal reduction jar; Adding the thermal reduction jar uses material to make as the mixing material of SiC and refractory brick material.
Equipment described in the other parts of equipment and the embodiment 1 omits together.
The process program that solves its technical problem is: described nickeliferous iron material: be any one or two kinds of nickeliferous iron materials that will be wherein in the iron phosphorus of Ni and Cr contained, flue dust, the layer mud mixture after according to certain ratio proportioning, blending ratio is not limit;
Described catalytic additive is made up of fusing agent 20%, oxygenant 10%, catalysis burning-rate accelerator 20%, pore former 10%, nucleus reinforcer 13%, fusing assistant 20%, radical initiator 7%; Wherein, related and ratio all is weight percentage.
Described fusing agent is by boron-containing iron concentrate powder 55%, sodium tetraborate (NaB 4O 710H 2O) 25%, bentonite 20% is formed; Described oxygenant is by SODIUMNITRATE (NaNO 3) 50%, saltpetre (KNO 3) 50% composition; Described catalysis burning-rate accelerator is the mixture of sodium-chlor (NaCl), Repone K (KCl), and blending ratio is not limit; Described fusing assistant is fluorite (CaF 2) 50%, yttrium oxide (Y 2O 3) 50% composition; Described nucleus reinforcer is nitric acid (NaNO 3); Described radical initiator is an aryl carbon metal-salt; Described pore former is a polyvinyl chloride.
Described reductive agent is the low ash content bituminous coal of low-sulfur; Described flux is lime; Described caking agent is the mixture of clay, bentonite and spent pulping liquor, and blending ratio is not limit.
Described pelletizing material component proportioning (weight %) is: nickeliferous iron powder body 64%, reductive agent 21%, flux<9%, binding agent 1%, catalytic additive 5%; The grain graininess of pelletizing powder is 5um-75um, and wherein the granularity of 10-35um accounts for 90% of the used material total amount of pelletizing, and reduction reaction temperature is 800 ℃, and the reduction reaction time is 170 minutes.
In Fig. 7, inside and outside to add the thermal reduction jar be rectangle, be double vertical arranged, among the figure 1-1 be well heater, 1-2 be external furnace body, 1-3 be add the thermal reduction jar inside and outside the rectangle, 1-4 is a heating chamber, each body of heater is common to use same heat tunnel.
Technology among the other parts of technology and the embodiment 1 is omited together.
Embodiment 8: the equipment scheme that the present invention solves its technical problem is: adopt tunnel furnace.
The process program that solves its technical problem is: described nickeliferous iron material: be any one the nickeliferous iron material in nickel oxide ore, the nickel oxide chrome ore;
Described catalytic additive is made up of fusing agent 10%, oxygenant 30%, catalysis burning-rate accelerator 20%, pore former 15%, nucleus reinforcer 5%, fusing assistant 15%, radical initiator 5%; Wherein, related and ratio all is weight percentage.
Described fusing agent is the boron-containing iron concentrate powder; Described oxygenant is a SODIUMNITRATE; Described catalysis burning-rate accelerator is the mixture of sodium-chlor (NaCl), Repone K (KCl), and blending ratio is not limit; Described fusing assistant is fluorite (CaF 2) 50%, yttrium oxide (Y 2O 3) 50% composition; Described nucleus reinforcer is cerium dioxide (CeO 2); Described radical initiator is an alkoxylamine; Described pore former is the mixture of polyvinyl chloride, vermiculite, and blending ratio is not limit.
Described reductive agent is the low ash content bituminous coal of low-sulfur; Described flux is slaked lime; Described caking agent is the mixture of wilkinite, water glass, clay, bentonite and spent pulping liquor, and blending ratio is not limit.
Described ferronickel metallized pellet material component proportioning (weight %) is: nickeliferous iron powder body 61%, reductive agent 28%, flux 10%, catalytic additive 1%; The grain graininess of powder is 5um-75um, and wherein the granularity of 10-35um accounts for 90% of the used material total amount of pelletizing, will send into tunnel kiln reduction after its tinning, and reduction reaction temperature is 1050 ℃, and the reduction reaction time is 180 minutes.
Technology among the other parts of technology and the embodiment 1 is omited together.
Embodiment 9: the equipment scheme that the present invention solves its technical problem is: adopt rotary kiln.
The process program that solves its technical problem is: described nickeliferous iron material: be nickeliferous iron phosphorus ferronickel raw material.
Described catalytic additive is made up of fusing agent 35%, oxygenant 25%, catalysis burning-rate accelerator 10%, pore former 5%, nucleus reinforcer 5%, fusing assistant 15%, radical initiator 5%; Wherein, related and ratio all is weight percentage.
Described fusing agent is sodium tetraborate (NaB 4O 710H 2O); Described oxygenant is a saltpetre; Described catalysis burning-rate accelerator is sodium-chlor (NaCl); Described fusing assistant is fluorite (CaF 2) 50%, yttrium oxide (Y 2O 3) 50% composition; Described nucleus reinforcer is cerium dioxide (CeO 2), nitric acid (NaNO 3) mixture, blending ratio is not limit; Described radical initiator is an alkoxylamine; Described pore former is polyvinyl chloride, perlitic its mixture, and blending ratio is not limit.
Described reductive agent is a coking coal; Described flux is lime; Described caking agent is the mixture of wilkinite, clay and spent pulping liquor, and blending ratio is not limit.
Described pelletizing material component proportioning (weight %) is: nickeliferous iron powder body 74%, reductive agent 20%, flux 3%, binding agent 2.5%, catalytic additive 0.5%; The grain graininess of pelletizing powder is 5um-75um, and wherein the granularity of 10-35um accounts for 90% of the used material total amount of pelletizing, and reduction reaction temperature is 1150 ℃, and the reduction reaction time is 90 minutes.
Technology among the other parts of technology and the embodiment 1 is omited together.
Embodiment 10: the equipment scheme that the present invention solves its technical problem is: adopt converter.
The process program that solves its technical problem is: described nickeliferous iron material: for nickeliferous flue dust, layer in the mud any one or with the mixture of two kinds of nickeliferous iron materials after according to certain ratio proportioning, blending ratio is not limit.
Described catalytic additive is made up of fusing agent 10%, oxygenant 30%, catalysis burning-rate accelerator 10%, pore former 15%, nucleus reinforcer 10%, fusing assistant 15%, radical initiator 10%; Wherein, related and ratio all is weight percentage.
Described fusing agent is a bentonite; Described oxygenant is by in the saltpetre any one; Described catalysis burning-rate accelerator is sodium-chlor (NaCl); Described fusing assistant is fluorite (CaF 2) 50%, yttrium oxide (Y 2O 3) 50% composition; Described nucleus reinforcer is cerium dioxide (CeO 2), nitric acid (NaNO 3) mixture, blending ratio is not limit; Described radical initiator is the mixture of alkoxylamine or aryl carbon metal-salt, and blending ratio is not limit; Described pore former is a polyvinyl chloride.
Described reductive agent is a coke powder; Described flux is rhombspar; Described caking agent is the mixture of water glass, clay, bentonite and spent pulping liquor, and blending ratio is not limit.
Described pelletizing material component proportioning (weight %) is: nickeliferous iron powder body 70%, reductive agent 25%, flux 3%, binding agent 1.9%, catalytic additive 0.1%; The grain graininess of pelletizing powder is 5um-75um, and wherein the granularity of 10-35um accounts for 90% of the used material total amount of pelletizing, and reduction reaction temperature is 980 ℃, and the reduction reaction time is 130 minutes.
Technology among the other parts of technology and the embodiment 1 is omited together.
Embodiment 11: the equipment scheme that the present invention solves its technical problem is: adopt tube furnace.
The process program that solves its technical problem is: described nickeliferous iron material: the nickeliferous iron material that becomes preparation ferronickel sponge iron for the nickeliferous flue dust that adds 90%-10% in the nickel oxide ore of 10%-90%, any one or two kinds of proportionings in the layer mud.
The other parts of technology are identical with technological process and various catalytic additive among the embodiment 1, slightly.
Embodiment 12: the equipment scheme that the present invention solves its technical problem is: adopt shaft furnace.
The process program that solves its technical problem is: described nickeliferous iron material: be 90% to contain in ferronickel phosphorus, flue dust, the layer mud any one and become to prepare the iron-bearing material of ferronickel metallized pellet with 10% nickel oxide ore, any one proportioning in the nickel oxide chrome ore.
The other parts of technology are identical with technological process and various catalytic additive among the embodiment 1, slightly.

Claims (6)

1. a nickeliferous iron alloy preparation technology is characterized in that: nickeliferous iron material is mixed with reductive agent, flux, catalytic additive, be crushed to below 200 orders after mixing, make compound; Then compound is joined and carry out ball milling in the ball mill, be prepared into ultrafine powder, ultrafine powder is carried out passivation; In catalytic additive, add water-solubleization, obtain the aqueous solution,, cause the pelletizing material after mixing ultrafine powder, the aqueous solution and binding agent mixed together; Light the fuel in the inside and outside well heater in the vertical reduction furnace, the pelletizing material that is made is sent in the reduction furnace through helical screw feeder, evenly loosely is arranged to and is dried on the pool furnace grate, the pelletizing material is dried, the pelletizing material is through the laggard capable roasting of super-dry, in roast area with combustion gas in CO, H 2With the hydrocarbon reaction in the volatile matter, the pelletizing material is under 500 ℃-1100 ℃ the reduction temperature and under the acting in conjunction of catalyzer, after 15-180 minute reduction reaction, obtain the ferronickel metallized pellet that degree of metalization reaches 90-95%, the ferronickel metallized pellet enters the cooled transition section; Waste-heat recovery device will react the hot gas that rises the back as combustion air with together the ferronickel metallized pellet is cooled off after cooling air mixes, the cooling air that is blown into absorbs the heat of ferronickel metallized pellet, when arriving roast area, form oxygen containing high-temperature gas, carry out combustion-supporting to the combustion gas in the reduction furnace, circulation so successively, remaining waste gas enters atmosphere by chimney after dedusting, cooled ferronickel metallized pellet is discharged cooling cylinder by spiral discharging machine, through fragmentation, carry out magnetic separation behind the vibrosieve, with residual coal with carry out briquetting after gangue separates, obtain high-grade Rhometal;
The material proportion of described catalytic additive (weight percent) is made up of fusing agent 10-50%, oxygenant 10-30%, catalysis burning-rate accelerator 10-30%, pore former 5-15%, nucleus reinforcer 5-20%, fusing assistant 15-30%, radical initiator 5-10%; Wherein all be weight percentage:
Described fusing agent is by boron-containing iron concentrate powder 50-70%, sodium tetraborate (Na 2B 4O 710H 2O) 10-30%, bentonite 10-20% form, and perhaps are wherein any one;
Described oxygenant is by SODIUMNITRATE (NaNO 3) 50%, saltpetre (KNO 3) 50% form, perhaps be in SODIUMNITRATE, the saltpetre any one;
Described catalysis burning-rate accelerator is any one of sodium-chlor (NaCl), Repone K (KCl), is its mixture perhaps, and blending ratio is not limit;
Described fusing assistant is fluorite (CaF 2) 50%, yttrium oxide (Y 2O 3) 50% composition;
Described nucleus reinforcer is cerium dioxide (CeO 2), nitric acid receives (NaNO 3) any one; Be its mixture perhaps, blending ratio is not limit;
Described radical initiator is any one of alkoxylamine or aryl carbon metal-salt; Perhaps radical initiator is its mixture, and blending ratio is not limit;
Described pore former is any one of polyvinyl chloride, vermiculite, perlite, lime carbonate, is its mixture perhaps, and blending ratio is not limit:
Described reductive agent be fixed carbon greater than 65wt%, ash content is less than 15wt%, volatilization is divided into any one in the low ash content bituminous coal of hard coal, low-sulfur, coking coal, coke powder of 20~30wt%, or the mixture more than two kinds;
Described flux is any one in lime, slaked lime, rhombspar, the Wingdale;
Described binding agent is any one in wilkinite, water glass, clay, bentonite, the spent pulping liquor; Perhaps be the mixture more than two kinds, blending ratio is not limit;
Described ferronickel metallized pellet material component proportioning (weight %) is: nickel oxide ore, nickel oxide chrome ore or nickeliferous iron phosphorus, flue dust, the superfine powder mixture 70-90% of any one or the nickeliferous iron material two kind or more that will wherein of layer in the mud after according to certain ratio proportioning, reductive agent 3-10%, flux 3-10%, binding agent 1-10%, catalytic additive 0.1-5% forms, the pelletizing material is a superfine powder, the grain graininess of superfine powder is 5um-75um, wherein the granularity of 10-35um accounts for 85% of the used material total amount of pelletizing, and reduction reaction temperature is 500 ℃-1100 ℃;
Described fuel is coal gas, bituminous coal, hard coal;
Described magnetic separation process is: with coal ash, additive and the part gangue that enters after the metallized pellet fragmentation in the low intensity magnetic separation machine elder generation separation pelletizing, to carry out wet ball grinding behind-200 orders through the powder after the magnetic separation then, adopt shaking table to carry out gravity treatment, the nickel ore concentrate powder that obtains after the gravity treatment adopts 2800-5500 Gauss's magnetic separator to carry out magnetic separation, obtains high-grade nickel ore concentrate powder of ni content 3~10%.
2. nickeliferous iron alloy preparation technology according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: described nickeliferous iron material is: with any one or the nickeliferous iron material more than two kinds that will be wherein in nickel oxide ore, nickel oxide chrome ore or nickeliferous iron phosphorus, flue dust, the layer mud superfine powder mixture after according to certain ratio proportioning, blending ratio is not limit;
Described ultrafine powder is that granularity is 75um-5um, and wherein granularity is that the powder of 10um-35um accounts for more than 85%.
3. equipment of realizing nickeliferous iron alloy preparation technology, it is characterized in that: this reduction apparatus includes furnace base (12), upper furnace body, lower furnace body, goes up bonnet, dries pool furnace grate (25), seals blanking device (1), refining plant and waste heat circulation device, above furnace base, be connected with upper furnace body, below furnace base, be connected with lower furnace body, be connected with bonnet in the upper end of upper furnace body, oven dry pool furnace grate is positioned at the upper furnace body upper end, refining plant is connected with lower furnace body with upper furnace body by pipeline, and the waste heat circulation device is connected with lower furnace body;
Described upper furnace body comprises internal heating jar (2), reducing gas outlet (3), add thermal reduction jar (4), heating air inlet hole (5), gas pipe (6), refractory brick (7), gas jet (8), refractory fibre (9), reduction furnace shell (10), inside and outside heating tank air inlet port (11), internal heating gas pipe (20), internal heating gas jet (21), heating chamber (39), roasting reduction district (43), the reduction furnace shell, fire brick layer, add thermal reduction jar and internal heating jar suit successively, the reduction furnace shell is positioned at outermost layer, the internal heating jar is positioned at innermost layer, at internal heating jar center the internal heating gas pipe is arranged, the end of internal heating gas pipe is connected with the internal heating gas jet, between reduction furnace shell and fire brick layer, refractory fibre is arranged, it in fire brick layer heating chamber, there is gas pipe to pass the reduction furnace shell, refractory fibre and fire brick layer, the gas pipe end is connected with gas jet, gas jet is positioned at heating chamber, internal heating jar and add between the thermal reduction jar and to be the roasting reduction district, epimere on the internal heating jar has the reducing gas outlet, at hypomere inside and outside heating tank air inlet port is arranged, adding outside has the heating air inlet hole on the thermal reduction jar; The part that upper furnace body stretches into protective guard is the V-shape structure, the middle part that adds thermal reduction jar and internal heating tank body is to having many oblique gas channels, the oblique gas channel of two tank bodies is V-shape to be arranged, upwards all has a plurality of and tank body parallel gas flow hole at two tank body middle parts;
Perhaps described upper furnace body comprises internal heating jar (2), reducing gas outlet (3), add thermal reduction jar (4), heating air inlet hole (5), refractory brick (7), refractory fibre (9), reduction furnace shell (10), inside and outside heating tank air inlet port (11), fired coal combustion chamber (33), slag removing chamber (34), internal heating quirk (38), heating chamber (39), roasting reduction district (43), the reduction furnace shell, fire brick layer, add thermal reduction jar and internal heating jar suit successively, the reduction furnace shell is positioned at outermost layer, the internal heating jar is positioned at innermost layer, fired coal combustion chamber (33), slag removing chamber (34) is positioned at the lower end of upper furnace body, internal heating quirk (38) is positioned at internal heating jar (2) and adds the lower end of thermal reduction jar (4), between reduction furnace shell and fire brick layer, refractory fibre is arranged, in fire brick layer for adding heating kiln, internal heating jar and add between the thermal reduction jar and to be the roasting reduction district, epimere on the internal heating jar has the reducing gas outlet, at hypomere inside and outside heating tank air inlet port is arranged, adding outside has the heating air inlet hole on the thermal reduction jar; The part that upper furnace body stretches into protective guard is the V-shape structure, the middle part that adds thermal reduction jar and internal heating tank body is to having many oblique gas channels, the oblique gas channel of two tank bodies is V-shape to be arranged, upwards all has a plurality of and tank body parallel gas flow hole at two tank body middle parts;
Described upper furnace body is single hole one a passage furnace binding, and perhaps upper furnace body is porous one a passage furnace binding; The arrangement form of body of heater is a single passage, and perhaps the arrangement form of body of heater is many row's one passages; Add thermal reduction jar and internal heating jar and in upper furnace body, be distributed with 1-50, the middle and lower part that adds the tank body of thermal reduction jar and internal heating jar outside has 10-50 and is oblique air inlet/outlet with the tank body vertical line, have the air inlet/outlet that is arranged in parallel with tank body in the middle and upper part of tank body, its air inlet/outlet uniform distribution on tank body; Add being shaped as circle or being rectangle of thermal reduction jar; Add the thermal reduction jar and use material to make, perhaps adopt two kinds of material co-manufactured as SiC or refractory brick material;
Described lower furnace body comprises that cooled transition section (13), spiral discharging machine (18), discharge port (29), body of heater support (31), inside and outside heating tank supports (32), the cooled transition section is positioned at the internal heating jar and adds the bottom of thermal reduction jar, in the cooled transition section is the fired coal combustion chamber, the fired coal combustion chamber is connected with the roasting reduction district of upper furnace body, body of heater supports and is positioned at the outside, inside and outside heating tank supports and is positioned at the center, bottom in the cooled transition section is connected with spiral discharging machine, at an end of spiral discharging machine discharge port is arranged.
4. nickeliferous iron alloy preparation technology's according to claim 3 equipment is characterized in that: the described bonnet of going up comprises bonnet (27), chimney (28), fly-ash separator (44), and chimney is positioned at the upper end of bonnet, and fly-ash separator is connected on the chimney.
5. nickeliferous iron alloy preparation technology's according to claim 3 equipment, it is characterized in that: described refining plant comprises waste heat transfer lime (19), middle waste heat recovery pipe (22), last waste heat recovery pipe (26), aerofoil fan (30), right cooling duct (36), right cooling blower (41), the waste heat recovery pipe is connected with last bonnet on passing through in the upper end of refining plant, in the middle part of refining plant by middle waste heat recovery pipe coupling in the upper furnace body upper end, last waste heat recovery pipe (26) and middle waste heat recovery pipe all feed to the roasting reduction district, bottom at refining plant feeds to the fired coal combustion of lower furnace body indoor by the waste heat transfer lime, on the waste heat transfer lime, be connected with aerofoil fan, on the waste heat transfer lime below the aerofoil fan, be connected with right cooling duct, on right cooling duct, be connected with right cooling blower.
6. nickeliferous iron alloy preparation technology's according to claim 3 equipment is characterized in that; Described waste heat circulation device comprises left waste heat transfer lime (14), water outlet (15), cooling cylinder (16), water-in (17), left cooling duct (35), left cooling blower (42), cooling cylinder is arranged outside lower furnace body, water-in and water outlet are arranged on cooling cylinder, left side waste heat transfer lime feeds to the fired coal combustion of lower furnace body indoor, on left waste heat transfer lime, be connected with left aerofoil fan, on the left waste heat transfer lime below the left aerofoil fan, be connected with left cooling duct (35), be connected with left cooling blower (42) on the left cooling duct.
CN2009100282596A 2009-02-05 2009-02-05 Process and device for preparing iron alloy containing nickel and nickel-chromium CN101575654B (en)

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CN102530923B (en) * 2010-12-08 2013-08-14 沈阳铝镁设计研究院有限公司 High-temperature electric calcining system and method of carbon raw material
CN102242259B (en) * 2011-06-29 2013-01-09 中南大学 Preparation process of low-grade laterite nickel ore oxidized pellet
CN103555930B (en) * 2013-11-14 2016-05-25 平安鑫海资源开发有限公司 High magnesia poor nickel laterite reduction calcination method
CN104451148A (en) * 2014-12-01 2015-03-25 偏关县晋电化工有限责任公司 Production technology for smelting ferronickel from laterite-nickel ore
CN104561736A (en) * 2014-12-29 2015-04-29 芜湖国鼎机械制造有限公司 High-strength gray cast iron, casting and preparation method of high-strength gray cast iron
CN105525189A (en) * 2016-01-20 2016-04-27 广西丛欣实业有限公司 Preparation method of iron alloy
CN106088694B (en) * 2016-06-08 2018-05-08 中冶南方工程技术有限公司 Lateritic nickel ore raw material storage and lateritic nickel ore stock preparation system
CN107881349A (en) * 2017-11-30 2018-04-06 武汉科思瑞迪科技有限公司 A kind of based shaft kiln directly reduced technique of the coal of lateritic nickel ore

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