CN101363725A - Detection device for roughness of surface - Google Patents

Detection device for roughness of surface Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101363725A
CN101363725A CNA2008102236545A CN200810223654A CN101363725A CN 101363725 A CN101363725 A CN 101363725A CN A2008102236545 A CNA2008102236545 A CN A2008102236545A CN 200810223654 A CN200810223654 A CN 200810223654A CN 101363725 A CN101363725 A CN 101363725A
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China
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measured
photodetector
angle
optical axis
convergent lens
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CN101363725B (en
Inventor
李粉兰
段海峰
郝建国
许祖茂
李俊国
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Beijing times peak Technology Co., Ltd.
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BEIJING TIME HIGH-TECHNOLOGY Ltd
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Abstract

The invention provides a detection device for surface roughness, which comprises a light source unit and a photoelectric detector. Light which is emitted by the light source unit is radiated on the measured surface; the photoelectric detector detects a detection signal which is obtained by the light which is reflected by the measured surface; the measured surface, a light shaft of the detection device and the photoelectric detector are positioned in a same plane; the measured surface is arranged by forming a first angle with the light shaft; and the photoelectric detector is arranged by forming a second angle with the light shaft, thereby preventing the light from being reflected back to the measured surface from the photoelectric detector. The detection device of surface roughness can not only avoid the impacts of the reflected light on the measurement result, but can also reduce an absorption device and further reduce the costs.

Description

Detection device for roughness of surface
Technical field
The present invention relates to fields of measurement, relate in particular to detection device for roughness of surface based on optical scattering.
Background technology
Surfaceness is to be used to describe the most frequently used parameter of surface microscopic topographic, and it has reflected the microcosmos geometric shape error of surface of the work.In Precision Machining and manufacturing, along with the requirement to quality of work piece surface is more and more higher, the accurate measurement of Part Surface Roughness seems and is even more important.
The measuring method of machinery contact pin type is more than one microns wide diamond stylus vertically to be placed on measured surface and to do horizontal moving.Contact pilotage converts this micro-displacement to electric signal and is also handled along with the contour shape on surface is done vertical undulatory motion, obtains surface roughness value thus.The accuracy of measurement of this method is relatively poor, and very responsive to vibration, also inevitably can scratch surface in the measuring process, and in addition, measuring speed is also slower, can't realize online, measurement of full field.
What interferometric method adopted is twin-beam Michelson-interferometric principle, roughly can be divided into brightness interference and spectrum and interfere two kinds.It is quasi-monochromatic light that the brightness interference requires light source, and the optical path difference of interferometer two arms must be less than coherent length.If it is not clearly that surfaceness changes, then visibility of interference fringes does not have very big variation yet.It is the measurement that realizes surfaceness in frequency domain by the variation of observing stacked spectral region spectral modulation that spectrum is interfered.It is quasi-monochromatic light that the light source that requires need not, and optical path difference can be far longer than coherent length, but when surface roughness value and optical wavelength during at the same order of magnitude, measurement effect is understood relatively poor.Interferometric method can only be measured the plane, and measuring speed is slower, and also responsive to vibration, the cost of instrument is higher, and only just can use under the experiment condition that temperature, cleanliness factor are had relatively high expectations, and is unfavorable for commercialization.
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and technique of scan tunnel microscope (STM) are the high-end technologies of surface finish measurement.It with a small probe (about 10nm) near measured surface during to the nanoscale distance range, according to quantum-mechanical theory, in this minim gap owing to produce atomic force between most advanced and sophisticated atom of needle point and surface atom.Atomic constant by control this when scanning, needle point moves in the direction fluctuation perpendicular to the surface under atomic effect.Certain processing is carried out in this undulatory motion, just can be obtained surfaceness information.AFM requires measuring workpieces to need not conduction, and STM requires the workpiece conduction, and its measurement range vertical and horizontal direction is little.Though the resolving power of AFM and STM short transverse and horizontal direction can reach nanoscale, they are relatively more responsive to vibration and environment, can only be applied in the laboratory, and instrument cost are also relatively more expensive.
Angular resolution scattering method and full integral scattering method are that a branch of relevant or incoherent laser is incided measured surface, according to the angle of scattered light intensity distribute or all the integration of scattered light intensities come surfaceness is evaluated.Usually they are to place one or more independently detectors to come the scattering light field is taken a sample in different scattering angle position, and whole backscatter mode is supposed with this, and these hypothesis are normally insufficient, inaccurate, and this will directly have influence on the accuracy of measurement of roughness.In addition, a kind of laser surface Talysurf is disclosed, as shown in Figure 1 in the Chinese patent 92216674.It with semiconductor laser as light source, receive reflection and scattering luminous energy after laser incides measured surface by photodiode array, because photodiode array is to be placed on the position perpendicular with reflected light, the reflected light that is absorbed by photodiode will not incide measured surface again and take place repeatedly to reflect, and this can bring error to measurement undoubtedly.For fear of repeatedly reflection takes place, need in sniffer, add black, precision usually and the superimposed and absorption plant of light of costliness, this has increased the cost of manufacture of instrument undoubtedly again.
Summary of the invention
The object of the present invention is to provide a kind of detection device for roughness of surface, this measurement device accuracy height, fast, the repeatability height of speed can carry out online, non-cpntact measurement to plane, cylinder, the inner hole surface roughness of different processing methods, different materials.
The invention provides a kind of pick-up unit of surfaceness, comprise light source cell and photodetector, light source cell sends the rayed measured surface, the light that photodetector is surveyed by the measured surface reflection obtains detection signal, the optical axis of measured surface and pick-up unit and photodetector are positioned at same plane, measured surface is placed to become first angle with described optical axis, and photodetector is placed to become second angle with described optical axis, with against sunshine from photodetector reflected back measured surface.
Described first angle is 10 °-20 °.
Described second angle is 5 °-10 °.
Described light source cell comprises laser instrument, aperture diaphragm, collimation lens and convergent lens, and the light that laser instrument sends is through aperture diaphragm, and collimation lens incides measured surface behind the convergent lens.
Described laser instrument adopts low powder pulsed modulation system visible laser diode.
The pick-up unit of described surfaceness also comprises DSP, and laser instrument is controlled subtracting background noise from measuring-signal.
The photodetection cell array that described photodetector is made up of a plurality of probe units.
The focus of described convergent lens is positioned on i the probe unit of described photodetector,
I=((f Poly--00 Poly-) * sin2 α-TP * sin β)/(d * sin β)
F wherein Poly-Be the focal length of convergent lens, 00 Poly-Arrive the distance of the intersection point of optical axis and measured surface for the center of convergent lens, d is the width of probe unit, α be measured surface with and described optical axis between first angle, β be photodetector with and described optical axis between second angle, the P point is the intersection point of detector extended line and surperficial extended line, the T point is the detector front end end points, and TP is the distance that the T point of detector is ordered to P.
Described photodetector comprises 35 probe units.
Described convergent lens focus drops between the 9th probe unit of 1-of described detector.
The invention has the beneficial effects as follows thus: both avoided the influence of reflected light, reduced absorption plant again and reduce cost measurement result.In addition, detection device for roughness of surface of the present invention also has the following advantages and characteristics:
1,, can realize the multizone measurement, to cover bigger measured zone by mobile measured surface;
2, apparatus structure is simple, and the instrument volume is little, in light weight, be easy to carry, and cost of manufacture is low;
3, in case set up the calibration model of certain job operation, just need not to remake correction, just can carry out the measurement of roughness to the surface of adopting the various materials that this job operation processes;
4, measuring speed is fast, only needs 0.5 second just can finish measurement, is highly suitable for the on-line measurement of processing site;
5, belong to non-cpntact measurement, can the damage measurement surface;
6, the shape to measured surface does not have special requirement, can measure plane, cylinder, inner hole surface etc.;
7, to vibration, variation of ambient temperature is insensitive, has higher repeatability.
Description of drawings
Accompanying drawing described herein is used to provide further understanding of the present invention, constitutes the application's a part, does not constitute limitation of the invention.In the accompanying drawings:
Fig. 1 is the prior art constructions synoptic diagram;
Fig. 2 is the structural representation of the detection device for roughness of surface of one embodiment of the invention;
Fig. 3 is the synoptic diagram that shows the translation measured surface front and back specular reflection point change in location of one embodiment of the invention;
Fig. 4 is the synoptic diagram that shows the correct calibrating position of detection device for roughness of surface of one embodiment of the invention;
Fig. 5 is the calculation flow chart of Ra eigenwert according to an embodiment of the invention;
Fig. 6 shows the synoptic diagram of setting up correction equation according to an embodiment of the invention.
Embodiment
For the purpose, technical scheme and the advantage that make the embodiment of the invention is clearer,, the embodiment of the invention is described in further details below in conjunction with embodiment and accompanying drawing.At this, illustrative examples of the present invention and explanation thereof are used to explain the present invention, but not as a limitation of the invention.
To Fig. 4, the detection device for roughness of surface based on optical scattering according to the embodiment of the invention is described with reference to Fig. 2.This detection device for roughness of surface comprises light source cell and photodetector 6.Measured surface 5 is to place with 8 one-tenth α angles of optical axis of pick-up unit, and photodetector 6 is placed to become the β angle with described optical axis.Measured surface 5, detector 6 and optical axis 8 are in the same horizontal plane.Detector 6 is the photodetection cell array of being made up of 35 probe units.Light source cell comprises laser instrument 1, and the light that laser instrument 1 sends is through aperture diaphragm 2, and collimation lens 3 incides behind the convergent lens 4 on the measured surface 5, through measured surface 5 reflections, focuses at last on the A point of detector 6, and the A point promptly is the focus of convergent lens 4.Because of the existence of surfaceness, direct reflection takes place in, also in all directions generation scattering, the scattered light intensity signal of detector 6 record direct reflection light intensity signals and all angles.By current/voltage-converted with current signal convert to voltage signal, through signal amplify, the data processing of A/D conversion and digital signal processor (DSPDigital signal processor), finally obtain the average roughness Ra value of the spot area that incident light forms on described surface and shown.Ra is one of roughness parameter of evaluation surface quality.
Ra is the arithmetic mean of profile offset distance absolute value in the sample length, can be similar to be formulated as: R a = 1 n Σ i = 1 n | y i | , Wherein n is used to discrete the counting of calculating in the sample length, and yi is the surface profile offset distance of each discrete point based on center line.Correlation theory shows: the surface profile offset distance is big more, scattered light intensity is also just strong more, scattered light intensity and profile offset distance square proportional, thereby this device calculates the parameter that is used to explain surfaceness with the subduplicate arithmetic mean of the scattered light intensity of described detector record: the Ra eigenwert.For the known same piece of same job operation, roughness value, by to their true Ra value and the regretional analysis between the Ra eigenwert calculated according to the method described above respectively, set up the correction equation of the fine statement both sides relation of energy, adopt the quadratic polynomial correction equation usually.In carrying out the Ra measuring process,,, determine its Ra value according to its Ra eigenwert and calibration curve that measures for the sample piece of roughness value the unknown.
Increase the measurement range that incident angle helps to improve device, the α value is got 10 °-20 ° in the pick-up unit.In addition, incide described surface once more and take place repeatedly to reflect for fear of failing to be detected reflected light that device 6 absorbs, the β value is got 5 °-10 ° in the pick-up unit.As shown in fig. 1, reflex time takes place in detector 6 not absorbent reflected light once more, and folded light beam 7 can not repeatedly reflection take place on described surface, so just need not to add in pick-up unit the superimposed and absorption plant of light inlet.
For subtracting background signal and noise from measuring-signal, laser instrument adopts low powder pulsed modulation system visible laser diode, and is realized the control of light source by digital signal processor (DSP Digital signal processor).
Scattered light intensity and distribution thereof in the solid angle scope of 0.5 °-5 ° in direct reflection direction, for roughness concentration provides very important information, therefore, the scattered light intensity signal that detector 6 is write down to the focal position of assembling lens 4+26 scopes in focal position+2 of convergent lens 4 is used for the calculating of Ra value.Simultaneously, at the direct reflection light intensity signal of the focal position of convergent lens 4 record the scattered light intensity signal that all participate in calculating is carried out normalization with detector 6 in order to reduce the influence of light source fluctuation, surfacing reflectivity difference to measurement result.
Because of detector 6 are the probe unit arrays with 35 probe units.The focus of supposing convergent lens 4 is positioned at the 9th probe unit place, and according to noted earlier, the scattered light intensity signal that the 11-35 probe unit is write down is used for the calculating of Ra value.In case focal position that can convergent lens 4 is greater than 9, the probe unit that requires participation to calculate will exceed the limit of described detector, for this reason must be by moving the translation stage at fine setting measured surface 5 places, make described convergent lens focus drop between the 9th probe unit of 1-of described detector, only in this way could guarantee to measure effectively.As shown in Figure 3, when measured surface 5 was at 01, the focus of convergent lens 4 was positioned at the A ' point of detector 6, and when measured surface 5 was moved at 02, the c focus of convergent lens 4 will move to A " point.
Referring to Fig. 2, though in the present embodiment, detector is set at has 35 probe units.But can change the quantity of probe unit according to actual needs, and the position of convergent lens focus can be determined according to following content.
The center of supposing convergent lens is 0 Poly-, focal length is f Poly-, the width of probe unit is d.Optical axis 8 is 0 with the intersection point of measured surface 5, with the intersection point of the extended line of detector 6 be P, an end of detector 6 is T.Meeting focus point A is the H point to the height of optical axis 8.
Because the A point is the focus of convergent lens 4, then OA=f Poly--00 Poly-, in △ AOH, AH=OA * sin2 α=(f poly--00 is poly-) * sin2 α.
If the A point is positioned on i the probe unit.In △ AHP, AP=AT+TP=i * d+TP, AH=AP * sin β=(i * d+TP) * sin β.
Therefore, (f Poly--00 Poly-) * sin2 α=(i * d+TP) * sin β, then
I=((f Poly--00 Poly-) * sin2 α-TP * sin β)/(d * sin β)
Wherein: the P point is the intersection point of detector extended line and surperficial extended line, and the T point is the detector front end end points, and TP is the distance that the T point of detector is ordered to P, is given value.00 Poly-Constantly change along with continuous fine setting measured surface 5 place translation stages, in case but A point position definite after, then 00 Poly-Be a given value.
In order to record the scattered light intensity on the backscatter mode dominant direction, need calibrate before measuring, correct calibrating position is as shown in Figure 4.Optical axis 8 all should be vertical with roughness (or texture) direction 9 or the main distribution arrangement of measured surface in the projection of measured surface 5 with detector 6.
With reference to Fig. 5, the computing method of Ra eigenwert are described.Before beginning to measure, at first measured surface 5 is placed on the position of correct calibration.At first DSP sends " 1 " to control circuit for light source, opens laser instrument, and described probe unit An arrayed recording all angles scattered light intensity and direct reflection light intensity signal through processing such as conversion, amplifications, obtain measuring-signal M.DSP sends " 0 " to control circuit for light source then, closes laser instrument, and pick-up unit is measured background signal B, finally obtains required actual signal T (T=M-B).Scan the actual signal of each unit of described detector, determine the position k of described convergent lens focus in described probe unit array.Whether judge k greater than 9, if then the translation measured surface changes the position of described convergent lens focus in described detector, until 1<k ≦ 9.Calculate scattering angle (θ i) and the scattering width (wi) thereof of all probe units, and with cos (θ i), wi revises to the actual signal Ti of corresponding probe unit, and then obtain corrected signal Ci with respect to described surface normal.Calculate normalized factor f=Ck+1+Ck+Ck-1 with corrected signal, Ci is carried out normalization, the normalized signal Ni of acquisition adjacent to described convergent lens focal position.The normalized signal that k+2-k+26 is amounted to 25 probe units is used for the calculating of Ra eigenwert:
Below with reference to Fig. 6, the process of setting up correction equation is described.The true Ra value of various criterion sample piece and the Ra eigenwert that measures have respectively been listed in the tabulation in left side, and what drew on the right side is calibration curve, and the bottom of figure is the parameter of correction equation.If true roughness value wider range of being included in the trimming process can consider that segmentation proofreaies and correct.Suppose that correction equation is: Ra=a * (Ra eigenwert) 2+ b * (Ra eigenwert)+c, wherein: a is the correction coefficient of correction equation quadratic term, and b is the once correction coefficient of item of correction equation, and c is the constant term of correction equation.The value of a, b, c can by Fig. 6 set up the correction equation program interface, true Ra value and Ra eigenwert according to the standard sample of input obtain by curve fitting, fill out respectively in the edit box bottom the program interface.For the sample piece of roughness value the unknown, if to record its Ra eigenwert be R, the Ra value=a * R of this sample piece then 2+ b * R+c.
Above-described specific embodiment; purpose of the present invention, technical scheme and beneficial effect are further described; institute is understood that; the above only is specific embodiments of the invention; and be not intended to limit the scope of the invention; within the spirit and principles in the present invention all, any modification of being made, be equal to replacement, improvement etc., all should be included within protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (10)

1. the pick-up unit of a surfaceness comprises light source cell and photodetector, and light source cell sends the rayed measured surface, and the light that photodetector is surveyed by the measured surface reflection obtains detection signal, it is characterized in that:
Measured surface is positioned at same plane with the optical axis and the photodetector that detect pick-up unit, measured surface is placed to become first angle with described optical axis, photodetector is placed to become second angle with described optical axis, with against sunshine from photodetector reflected back measured surface.
2. device according to claim 1 is characterized in that: described first angle is 10 °-20 °.
3. device according to claim 1 is characterized in that: described second angle is 5 °-10 °.
4. device according to claim 1 is characterized in that: described light source cell comprises laser instrument, aperture diaphragm, collimation lens and convergent lens, and the light that laser instrument sends is through aperture diaphragm, and collimation lens incides measured surface behind the convergent lens.
5. device according to claim 4 is characterized in that: described laser instrument adopts low powder pulsed modulation system visible laser diode.
6. device according to claim 5 is characterized in that, also comprises digital signal processor, and laser instrument is controlled subtracting background noise from measuring-signal.
7. device according to claim 1 is characterized in that: the photodetection cell array that described photodetector is made up of a plurality of probe units.
8, device according to claim 7 is characterized in that: the focus of described convergent lens is positioned on i the probe unit of described photodetector,
I=((f Poly--OO Poly-) * sin2 α-TP * sin β)/(d * sin β)
F wherein Poly-Be the focal length of convergent lens, OO Poly-Arrive the distance of the intersection point of optical axis and measured surface for the center of convergent lens, d is the width of probe unit, α be measured surface with and described optical axis between first angle, β be photodetector with and described optical axis between second angle, the P point is the intersection point of detector extended line and surperficial extended line, the T point is the detector front end end points, and TP is the distance that the T point of detector is ordered to P.
9, device according to claim 7 is characterized in that: described photodetector comprises 35 probe units.
10, device according to claim 9 is characterized in that: described convergent lens focus drops between the 9th probe unit of 1-of described photo detecting unit.
CN2008102236545A 2008-09-28 2008-09-28 Detection device for roughness of surface Expired - Fee Related CN101363725B (en)

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Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101561262B (en) * 2009-05-31 2010-09-01 东南大学 Surface roughness on line measurement method under uncertain condition
CN102519405A (en) * 2011-12-20 2012-06-27 昆明理工大学 Detector for flatness of reflecting surface of plane mirror and service method of detector
CN103394972A (en) * 2013-08-05 2013-11-20 上海理工大学 Milling surface roughness online prediction method based on acoustic emission signals
CN103471505A (en) * 2013-09-16 2013-12-25 京东方科技集团股份有限公司 Detection method and device for through hole
CN106164739A (en) * 2013-06-19 2016-11-23 优化扫描有限公司 Optical scanner and scanned optics of lens probe
CN106290387A (en) * 2015-06-08 2017-01-04 杭州中自华内光电科技有限公司 The method of a kind of reflection method detection photovoltaic panel cleannes and detector
CN106468667A (en) * 2015-08-17 2017-03-01 财团法人工业技术研究院 High reflecting surface condensation measuring system and method
CN108838514A (en) * 2018-06-28 2018-11-20 江苏大学 A kind of device and method on laser cavitation polishing material surface

Cited By (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101561262B (en) * 2009-05-31 2010-09-01 东南大学 Surface roughness on line measurement method under uncertain condition
CN102519405A (en) * 2011-12-20 2012-06-27 昆明理工大学 Detector for flatness of reflecting surface of plane mirror and service method of detector
CN106164739A (en) * 2013-06-19 2016-11-23 优化扫描有限公司 Optical scanner and scanned optics of lens probe
CN103394972A (en) * 2013-08-05 2013-11-20 上海理工大学 Milling surface roughness online prediction method based on acoustic emission signals
CN103394972B (en) * 2013-08-05 2016-06-08 上海理工大学 Milling Process surface roughness on-line prediction method based on acoustic emission signal
CN103471505A (en) * 2013-09-16 2013-12-25 京东方科技集团股份有限公司 Detection method and device for through hole
CN103471505B (en) * 2013-09-16 2016-04-13 京东方科技集团股份有限公司 The detection method of via hole and pick-up unit
CN106290387A (en) * 2015-06-08 2017-01-04 杭州中自华内光电科技有限公司 The method of a kind of reflection method detection photovoltaic panel cleannes and detector
CN106468667A (en) * 2015-08-17 2017-03-01 财团法人工业技术研究院 High reflecting surface condensation measuring system and method
CN108838514A (en) * 2018-06-28 2018-11-20 江苏大学 A kind of device and method on laser cavitation polishing material surface

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