CN101189118A - 制造用于形成航空器用部件的增强壳体的方法以及用于航空器用部件的壳体 - Google Patents

制造用于形成航空器用部件的增强壳体的方法以及用于航空器用部件的壳体 Download PDF

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CN101189118A
CN101189118A CNA2006800198105A CN200680019810A CN101189118A CN 101189118 A CN101189118 A CN 101189118A CN A2006800198105 A CNA2006800198105 A CN A2006800198105A CN 200680019810 A CN200680019810 A CN 200680019810A CN 101189118 A CN101189118 A CN 101189118A
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贝恩德·雷克尔斯
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Airbus Operations GmbH
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    • B29C70/00Shaping composites, i.e. plastics material comprising reinforcements, fillers or preformed parts, e.g. inserts
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    • B29C70/845Shaping composites, i.e. plastics material comprising reinforcements, fillers or preformed parts, e.g. inserts by incorporating or moulding on preformed parts, e.g. inserts or layers, e.g. foam blocks by moulding material on preformed parts to be joined by moulding material on a relative small portion of the preformed parts
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    • B29C70/42Shaping or impregnating by compression not applied for producing articles of definite length, i.e. discrete articles
    • B29C70/44Shaping or impregnating by compression not applied for producing articles of definite length, i.e. discrete articles using isostatic pressure, e.g. pressure difference-moulding, vacuum bag-moulding, autoclave-moulding or expanding rubber-moulding
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    • B29C70/28Shaping operations therefor
    • B29C70/54Component parts, details or accessories; Auxiliary operations, e.g. feeding or storage of prepregs or SMC after impregnation or during ageing
    • B29C70/543Fixing the position or configuration of fibrous reinforcements before or during moulding
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    • B64AIRCRAFT; AVIATION; COSMONAUTICS
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Abstract

本发明涉及一种制造壳体的方法,特别是机身壳体、机翼壳体、水平稳定器壳体或垂直稳定器壳体的方法,所述壳体由多个补强元件加强,用于形成具有高尺寸稳定性的航空器用部件,其中,所述补强元件和壳体表皮由环氧树脂制成,所述环氧树脂来自至少部分固化的碳纤维加强的半成件,所述方法包括下列步骤:在壳体表皮上安置补强元件;使连接元件与壳体表皮和补强元件邻接;和固化连接元件以形成壳体。本发明还涉及一种根据本发明方法制造的壳体,特别是机身壳体、机翼壳体、水平稳定器壳体或垂直稳定器壳体。

Description

制造用于形成航空器用部件的增强壳体的方法以及用于航空器用部件的壳体
技术领域
本发明涉及一种制造壳体的方法,特别是机身壳体、机翼壳体、水平稳定器壳体或垂直稳定器壳体的方法,所述壳体由多个补强元件加强,用于形成具有高尺寸稳定性的航空器用部件,其中,所述补强元件和壳体表皮由环氧树脂制成,所述环氧树脂来自至少部分固化的碳纤维加强的半成件(semi-finished part)。
背景技术
此外,本发明涉及一种根据本发明方法制造的壳体,特别是机身壳体、机翼壳体、水平稳定器壳体或垂直稳定器壳体,所述壳体包括应用至壳体表皮的多个补强元件,用于形成具有高尺寸稳定性的航空器用部件,其中,所述补强元件和壳体表皮由环氧树脂制成,所述环氧树脂来自至少部分固化的碳纤维加强的半成品部件。
碳纤维加强的环氧树脂由于它们的低重量和它们的高机械强度而渐增地用于制造用于航空器用承载部件的壳体,例如机身壳体、机翼、水平稳定器壳体和垂直稳定器壳体。航空器的这些部件通常由接合在一起的至少两个壳体制成。例如,垂直稳定器是由在它们各自的纵向边缘处接合在一起的镜向对称的壳体(半壳体)制成。
壳体可以通过几种不同的方法、使用所谓的“预浸体(prepregs)”制造。术语“预浸体”是指由可固化的和碳纤维增强的环氧树脂制成的半成件。例如,这样的预浸体通常为板形或条形,但是它们还可以是具有L形截面的型材(section)或异型材(profile)。
在固化之前,预浸体是挠性的,因此可以实际上被制成任意需要的形状。仅在固化完成以后,用这些预浸体制造的用于形成航空器用部件的壳体才获得它们的特征机械性质,例如与非常低的重量相结合的它们的极高机械强度。由这些预浸体制成的用于形成部件的壳体的固化通常在高压釜中、在120℃-180℃之间的温度以及在最高10巴的压力下进行的。预浸体的存放时间由于连续发生交联过程而受到限制,并且在室温下通常仅为10和30天之间。在本说明书的其余部分中,使用术语“半成件”代替术语“预浸体”。
壳体主要由壳体表皮和多个补强元件、以及布置在其上的加强用连接角件(connecting angle piece)形成。典型地,布置在一个补强元件的整个长度之上延伸的两个连接角件,用于连接在每一个补强元件两侧的壳体表皮。所述壳体表皮、连接角件以及补强元件都由半成件制成。
用于从半成件制造这些壳体的制造处理的数目由以下技术现状是已知的:
在所谓的“共固化”处理中,用单一真空袋包围整个壳体,所述的整个壳体具体包括壳体表皮、补强元件和连接角件。然后将此真空袋放置在高压釜中,从而进行整个壳体的固化。因而,在“共固化”处理中,固化过程在单一处理步骤中发生。
此处理的主要不利之处在于,例如,它在固化处理过程中需要非常精细的装置以相对壳体表皮安置和固定补强元件,这导致了不相称的高成本,在用于形成复杂部件的大尺寸壳体如机翼的情况下特别如此。
在所谓的“共粘合”处理中,首先,在第一步骤中固化补强元件。随后,将尚未固化的壳体表皮放置在该补强元件上。在壳体表皮的最终固化处理过程中,同时将补强元件与壳体表皮接合。同样,在“共粘合”处理的变化中,相反的途径也是可以的,即,首先固化壳体表皮,然后固化与壳体表皮一起的尚未固化的补强元件,从而接合它们。总之,固化是在放置于高压釜中的真空袋中进行的。根据这些两种处理方法,以两个步骤进行壳体的固化处理。
此方法变体的主要不利之处在于,各自尚未固化的组件,即,补强元件或壳体表皮,例如遭受质量波动的问题,这是不能忽视的。这些质量波动可能具体导致树脂基体中的不利纤维分布、导致翘曲,以及导致孔和截留的空气,其主要是由在固化处理过程中的固化组件的定位运动引起的。
根据所谓的“二次粘合”技术,预先将壳体表皮以及补强元件在两个分开的步骤中固化,然后通过胶粘接合在一起。
此方法的不利之处特别是包括更大数目的必需处理步骤,以及补强元件、连接角件和壳体表皮的必需的装配精密度,这在更大尺寸的壳体的情况下通常不能保证。
发明内容
因此,本发明的一个目的是避免如上所述的已知处理的不利之处,以及使得能够用壳体表皮和补强元件简便地制造壳体。
此目的由具有权利要求1的特征的方法所解决。
根据本发明的一个方面,制造壳体的方法,特别是机身壳体、机翼壳体、水平稳定器壳体或垂直稳定器壳体的方法包括下列步骤,所述壳体由多个补强元件加强,用于形成具有高尺寸稳定性的航空器用部件,其中,所述补强元件和壳体表皮用环氧树脂从至少部分固化的碳纤维加强的半成件形成,所述方法包括下述步骤:
-在壳体表皮上安置补强元件,
-使连接元件与壳体表皮和补强元件邻接,和
-固化连接元件以形成壳体。
根据此方法的一个优选实施方案,在固化之前,将粘合剂涂覆至连接元件上。这导致在壳体表皮和补强元件之间更好的公差补偿(tolerancecompensation)。此外,实现了补强元件和壳体表皮以及连接元件之间机械上更牢固的连接。与本发明方法相结合的向连接元件之上涂覆粘合剂是任选的。典型地,通过连接元件可以实现补强元件至壳体表皮的充分牢固的连接,所述连接元件是部分固化的,因此是可适用的,并且能够粘合。
本发明的目的还由根据权利要求8的壳体所解决。
由于补强元件由后来固化的连接元件连接至壳体表皮的事实,因此可以容易地制造本发明的壳体。因为补强元件以及壳体表皮是至少部分固化的,并且仅需要完全固化连接元件,所以用于在壳体表皮上安置连接元件的设备(means)可以简单。由于至少部分固化的壳体表皮和至少部分固化的补强元件的高度内在稳定性,因此可以将必需的安置设备或安置装置布置在真空袋以外。与已经被固化了的壳体表面和安置元件无关,可以依靠尚未固化的连接元件来使得公差补偿成为可能。此外,采用本发明的壳体,仍为挠性的连接元件允许了将补强元件放置在包含增厚部分的壳体表皮的区域中。在此情况下,补强元件应提供有凹部。
在从属专利权利要求中规定了本发明方法和本发明壳体的优选实施方案。
附图说明
图1显示根据本发明方法的第一实施方案,已经连接有补强元件的壳体的部分透视图,
图2显示根据补强元件的第一实施方案,壳体的部分截面图,和
图3显示根据补强元件的第二实施方案,壳体的部分截面图。
具体实施方式
参考图1至3,以下为发明方法和本发明壳体的解释。
图1显示根据本发明方法的第一实施方案,已经连接有补强元件的壳体的部分透视图。
壳体1包括壳体表皮2、补强元件3,以及连接元件4和5。如表1中所示,补强元件3具有基本上矩形的截面。然而,补强元件3还可以具有其它的截面形状。连接元件4和5是具有基本上L形截面的连接角件。壳体表皮2、补强元件3和连接元件4和5由多个可固化预浸体形式的半成件制成。预浸体是用可固化环氧树脂浸泡或浸渍的碳纤维增强的板状构件。在它们的非固化状态中,实际上可以赋予预浸体任意的几何形状。因而,使用预浸体作为半成件,例如可以形成在两个空间方向上固化的具有L形截面的壳体表皮或补强元件。
为了制造根据本发明方法的壳体1,在第一步骤中,优选完全固化壳体表皮2和补强元件3。备选地,还可以仅部分地固化壳体表皮和补强元件3,从而使得更大程度的公差补偿成为可能。此外,可以使用预制的,即,已经固化了的壳体表皮2和预制和预切的补强元件3。在此情况下,所述第一步骤可以不经代替地取消。
在第二步骤中,将补强元件3放置在壳体表皮2上,于是在第三步骤中,优选使根据本发明仅部分固化的连接元件4和5与补强元件3的两侧邻接。由于连接元件4和5根据本发明是至少没有完全固化的,因此可以进行壳体表皮2和补强元件3之间的公差补偿。如果必要,可以通过辅助装置将补强元件3在放置于真空袋之内以前固定,所述辅助设备在图中未示出。此后,将整个布置(arrangement)放置在真空袋中,将所述真空袋安置在高压釜中进行固化。
根据此处理的一个变化,不必将整个布置放置在真空袋中。相反地,可以为每一补强元件3提供更小容积的单独的真空袋,从而减少了泄漏的风险,并且使缺陷产品的综合险最小化。此外,可以不使用高压釜来进行所述布置的固化,这使得可以降低制造成本。例如,固化可以在放置于普通炉中的真空袋中发生。此外,还可以通过外部加热到60℃和180℃之间的温度来实现固化。
在本发明方法的第四步骤中,在高压釜中完全固化连接元件4和5。在高压釜中完全固化连接元件4和5以后,根据本发明方法完成了壳体1。这里,真空袋完全包围壳体表皮2、补强元件3和连接元件4和5。由于真空袋中的负压,通过环境气压或高压釜中的高正压,将连接元件4和5牢固地压制到补强元件3和壳体表皮2上。高压釜中的固化是在120℃和180℃之间的温度和最大10巴的压力下进行的。与连接元件4和5的固化同时地,进行未解决的(unresolvable)连接,即,补强元件3、连接元件4和5以及壳体表皮2之间的交联。在固化处理过程中,应当通过在图示中未示出的保持装置或夹持装置将壳体表皮2和补强元件3相对彼此保持在预定位置。
典型地,为了将补强元件3安置和固定在壳体表皮2上,图示中未示出的保持装置或夹持装置是必须的。与本领域中已知的制造方法相比,所述保持装置在结构上可以较不精细并且重量更轻,因为壳体表皮2和补强元件3已被固化,从而仅需将它们保持在它们的相对位置,而不必在固化处理过程中保持这些组件的预定几何形状。此外,因为在固化处理开始时还没有完全固化的连接元件由已经固化的补强元件3所支撑,从而在包围壳体表皮2和补强元件3的真空袋之中,保持装置不是必需的。由于根据本发明方法所典型必需的保持装置的轻重量,因此减少了将在高压釜中加热的质量,这导致了时间和能量的额外节省。
然而,归因于所述尚未完全固化的连接元件4和5,因此本发明方法允许补强元件3和壳体表皮2之间的充分公差补偿,从而形成了具有高尺寸稳定性的壳体1,这不能通过固化的补强元件3对壳体表皮2仅仅胶粘(“二次粘合”)而获得。由于保持装置在真空袋之外的布置,所述处理变得更简单和更短,这对于预浸体和半成件的有限存放时间是有利的,在大的壳体如机翼壳体等的情况尤其如此。
保持装置可以例如是棒状元件,所述棒状元件设置有凹部,以容纳由真空袋包围的补强元件3。通过将保持元件放置到具有补强元件3的真空袋中的壳体2上,在连接元件4和5在高压釜中的固化处理过程中,避免了补强元件3相对于壳体表皮2的倾斜。这里,连接元件4和5由真空袋压制到补强元件3和壳体表皮2上,从而使得牢固的交联和连接成为可能。由于壳体表皮2已经固化,仅需要提供轻的支撑装置来支撑壳体表皮2。此支撑装置优选适于壳体表皮2的几何形状,因此可以在最多两个空间方向上被弯曲。保持装置和/或支撑装置的备选实施方案也是可能的,并且由本发明的基本原理所包含。
由于补强元件3优选已经完全固化的事实,因此典型充分的是,仅在补强元件3的开始区域和结束区域中提供保持装置。然后,为了固化,用夹持元件如螺丝夹将用于补强元件3的保持装置夹至用于壳体表皮2的支撑装置上。由于可以将保持装置或支撑装置放置在真空袋之外的事实,因此可以更简单的方式来设计真空袋,这降低了泄漏的可能性。
如果壳体表皮2包括更大数量的补强元件3,则应当在保持装置的棒形元件中提供相应数量的凹部,以接受以彼此适宜的间距放置的补强元件。此外,必要的是,例如,使棒状元件在棒状元件落在壳体表皮2上的情况下的轮廓与可以在两个空间方向上弯曲的壳体表皮2的表面几何形状相适应。此外,可以在凹部的两侧提供邻接角件(abutting angle piece),以增大相对于补强元件的邻接区域。此外,保持装置可以例如通过撑条(stays)或腹板(webs)等彼此连接。
与图1中所示的平面构造不同,壳体表皮2还可以在至少一个或两个空间方向上是部分弯曲的。此外,在壳体表皮2上实际上可以以任意的几何布置和/或以不同的长度来布置多个补强元件3。
为了在补强元件3和连接元件4与5之间,或在连接元件4与5和壳体表皮2之间获得更牢固的交联,并且因而获得机械上更强的接合,可能必须至少在邻接区域6和7或连接元件4和5的至少两个部分上额外地涂覆粘合剂。作为用于此情形的粘合剂,优选使用与用于浸泡或浸渍半成件或预浸体的环氧树脂相同类型的可固化环氧树脂。然而,通常,由于半成件或预浸体的浸泡而总是存在于上面之上的过量环氧树脂足以在补强元件3和壳体表皮2之间制造在机械上充分强的接合处。
图2显示了具有根据第一实施方案补强元件的壳体的部分截面。
壳体8由壳体表皮9、补强元件10和连接元件11和12制成。补强元件10具有基本上矩形的截面。补强元件10还可以具有不同的截面形状。连接元件11和12具有基本上L形的截面,连接元件11和12的支脚(leg)具有基本上相同的长度。连接元件11和12由碳纤维13和14增强。碳纤维13和14基本上平行于补强元件10的表面或壳体表皮9的表面。为了防止连接元件4和5在结束区域15至18中剥离,在结束区域15至18中,碳纤维13,14不平行于补强元件10的表面或壳体表皮9的表面,而是相对于这些表面呈5°至90°的角度终止。显示在图示中的碳纤维13,14仅是许多碳纤维的代表,它们近似地与纸平面平行,并且与其它的没有与纸平面平行延碳纤维相一起构成增强用于形成连接元件11,12的半成件或预浸体的碳纤维。
在连接元件11和12的扭结区域(kink area)19、20中提供有角撑板(gusset)21和22。在角撑板21,22的区域中,连接元件11,12和壳体表皮9或补强元件10之间没有连接。为了避免角撑板21和22中的腐蚀作用和/或压缩作用,在完成本发明方法以后,用适宜的合成原料填充该角撑板,所述合成原料可以额外地提供有纤维。此合成材料不必具有任何特定的机械性质,因为角撑板21和22典型地不履行传送力的功能。
备选地,角撑板可以由可固化合成材料形成,并且特别是由环氧树脂、聚酯树脂等形成,在所述可固化合成材料中包埋有额外的补强(armature)用加强纤维(“粗纱”),使得角撑板21和22至少在某种程度上可以接受机械力。
在一些区域中,壳体表皮9还可以提供有用于加强的加厚部分。在此情况下,补强元件10应当在相应的位置提供有凹部,使得补强元件10连续地并且以它的全部表面落在壳体表皮9的上面上。关于连接元件11和12,在加厚的部分区域中应用补强元件的过程中需要采用特别的措施,原因在于连接元件11和12在处理过程中之前仍具有充分的挠性,这确保了在加厚的部分区域中与壳体表皮9的上面连续地和基本上全表面接触。
图3显示了根据第二实施方案,其上放置有补强元件的壳体的部分截面图。
壳体23提供有壳体表皮24,向所述壳体表皮24上,根据本发明方法连接有的至少一个补强元件25,其中连接元件26和27布置在任一侧。与补强元件10相比,补强元件25不具有矩形的截面。在下部区域28中,补强元件25具有矩形形状,然而在上部区域29中,它提供有加宽部分30。该加宽部分30赋予补强元件25以更高的抗挠刚度。由于布置在上部区域29中的加宽部分30,可能必须使连接元件26,29的支脚31,32短于支脚33,34。图3的其它细节相应于图2中所示的细节,所以省略了对它们的进一步描述。
根据本发明方法的一个方面,通过以下方法形成了用于形成航空器用部件的壳体:将已经固化了的补强元件放置、安置和固定在也固化了的壳体上;依靠连接元件的最终固化将补强元件与至少尚未完全固化的连接元件连接至壳体表皮上。
与本领域中已知的制造方法比较,本发明方法允许了以显著降低的成本制造非常大的尺寸的壳体。
附图标记清单
1壳体
2壳体表皮
3补强元件
4连接元件
5连接元件
6邻接表面
7邻接表面
8壳体
9壳体表皮
10补强元件
11连接元件
12连接元件
13碳纤维
14碳纤维
15结束区域
16结束区域
17结束区域
18结束区域
19扭结区域
20扭结区域
21角撑板
22角撑板
23壳体
24壳体表皮
25补强元件
26连接元件
27连接元件
28下部区域
29上部区域
30加宽部分
31支脚
32支脚
33支脚
34支脚

Claims (12)

1.一种制造壳体(1,8,23)的方法,所述壳体特别是机身壳体,机翼壳体,水平稳定器壳体或垂直稳定器壳体,所述壳体由多个补强元件(3,10,25)加强,用于形成具有高尺寸稳定性的航空器用部件,其中,所述补强元件(3,10,25)和壳体表皮(2,9,24)用环氧树脂从至少部分固化的碳纤维加强的半成件制成,所述方法包括下列步骤:
-在所述壳体表皮(2,9,24)上安置所述补强元件(3,10,25);
-使连接元件(4,5,11,12,26,27)相对所述壳体表皮(2,9,24)和所述补强元件(3,10,25)邻接;和
-固化所述连接元件(4,5,11,12,26,27)以形成所述壳体(1,8,23)。
2.按照权利要求1所述的方法,其特征在于,在它的所述固化之前,将粘合剂涂覆至所述连接元件(4,5,11,12,26,27)。
3.按照权利要求1或2所述的方法,其特征在于,在高压釜中,所述连接元件(4,5,11,12,26,27)优选在真空袋中与所述壳体表皮(2,9,24)和所述补强元件(3,10,25)一起固化,其中特别是,所述补强元件(3,10,25)通过优选位于所述真空袋之外的保持装置相对所述壳体表皮(2,9,24)安置和固定。
4.按照权利要求1至3中任一项所述的方法,其特征在于,在固化过程中,所述壳体表皮(2,9,24)由支撑装置支撑。
5.按照权利要求1至4中任一项所述的方法,其特征在于,所述连接元件(4,5,11,12,26,27)是角型材,特别是具有L形截面的角型材。
6.按照权利要求1至5中任一项所述的方法,其特征在于,所述一个连接元件(4,5,11,12,26,27)或多个连接元件(4,5,11,12,26,27)由半成件制成。
7.按照权利要求1至6中任一项所述的方法,其特征在于,所述半成件由纤维增强的和可固化的合成材料制成,特别是由碳纤维增强的环氧树脂制成。
8.一种根据权利要求1至7中任一项制造的壳体(1,8,23),特别是机身壳体,机翼壳体,水平稳定器壳体或垂直稳定器壳体,用于形成具有高尺寸稳定性的航空器用部件,所述壳体包括多个应用至壳体表皮(2,9,24)的补强元件(3,10,25),其中,所述补强元件(3,10,25)和所述壳体表皮(2,9,24)由环氧树脂从至少部分固化的碳纤维加强的半成件制成,其特征在于,所述补强元件(3,10,25)通过后来固化的连接元件(4,5,11,12,26,27)连接至所述壳体表皮(2,9,24)。
9.按照权利要求8所述的壳体(1,8,23),其特征在于,将粘合剂涂覆到所述连接元件的至少部分区域。
10.按照权利要求8或9所述的壳体(1,8,23),其特征在于,所述连接元件(4,5,11,12,26,27)是角型材,特别是具有L形截面的角型材。
11.按照权利要求8至10中任一项所述的壳体(1,8,23),其特征在于,所述连接元件(4,5,11,12,26,27)由半成件制成。
12.按照权利要求8至11中任一项所述的壳体(1,8,23),其特征在于,所述半成件由纤维增强的和可固化的合成材料制成,特别是由碳纤维增强的环氧树脂制成。
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WO2006131532A1 (en) 2006-12-14
BRPI0611247A2 (pt) 2010-08-24
EP1888323A1 (en) 2008-02-20
DE102005026010B4 (de) 2010-12-30
EP1888323B1 (en) 2011-01-12
CN101189118B (zh) 2012-08-15
US7897095B2 (en) 2011-03-01
DE102005026010A1 (de) 2006-12-28
RU2007144050A (ru) 2009-07-20
JP2008542119A (ja) 2008-11-27
CA2607041A1 (en) 2006-12-14
RU2408462C2 (ru) 2011-01-10
DE602006019579D1 (de) 2011-02-24

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