CN101158592A - Optical fiber distributed temperature and stress sensing device - Google Patents

Optical fiber distributed temperature and stress sensing device Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101158592A
CN101158592A CNA2007101758685A CN200710175868A CN101158592A CN 101158592 A CN101158592 A CN 101158592A CN A2007101758685 A CNA2007101758685 A CN A2007101758685A CN 200710175868 A CN200710175868 A CN 200710175868A CN 101158592 A CN101158592 A CN 101158592A
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optical fiber
coupling
fiber
detector
frequency
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CNA2007101758685A
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CN100489461C (en
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杨远洪
夏海云
牟宏谦
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北京航空航天大学
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Abstract

The invention discloses a sensing device of optical fiber distribution type temperature and stress and mainly comprises a light source module (1), a frequency discriminator module (2), and a thermo tank module (3), which are all connected with one another by polarization-preserving fiber. The invention is a direct detection method which is based on optical fiber Raman scattering used as a carrier wave of temperature information, brillouin scattering used as a carrier wave of stress, rayleigh scattering used for measuring relative frequency of a outgoing laser beam to a frequency discriminator and Fabry-Perot etalon used for discriminating frequency and distributing sensing temperature and stress. The invention has the advantages of simple structure, fine stability, avoidance of outgoing power of the light source during coherent detection, outgoing frequency of the light source. Instability of acoustic modulation or electro-optic modulation frequency is directly referred to measure errors and the direct detection technology of the frequency discrimination is not sensitive to frequency drift of the light source and fluctuation of signal intensity.

Description

Optical fiber distributed temperature and stress sensing device

Technical field

The present invention relates to a kind of sensing technology, more particularly say, be meant a kind of temperature of full optical fiber connection and sensing device of stress of adopting.

Background technology

Distributed fiberoptic sensor can be imbedded in the material structure, form intellectual material structure (Smart Structure) implementation structure itself in real time from detection and self diagnosis, can be applicable to: disastrous online, detection of dynamic such as (1) skyscraper, intelligent building, bridge, highway, protection and warning; (2) nerve network system of online, the detection of dynamic of Aeronautics and Astronautics aircraft and robot; (3) temperature distributing measuring of various large and medium-sized transformers, genset, heat protection and fault diagnosis, the detection of the pipe arrangement temperature of underground and aerial high-voltage power cable, heat power station, the pipeline of heating system (warm water, heating installation); (4) in the petroleum industry of colliery, be used for the diaster prevention and control and the warning thereof in colliery, tunnel; The freight house fire monitoring and the forecast of oil depot, oil tank, dangerous goods store, bulk storage plant and large ship; The abnormality detection of oil pipeline and fault diagnosis etc.; Online, the detection of dynamic that can be used for the industrial chemicals production run in addition, the ICU of hospital, the temperature monitoring of CCU care unit and fire monitoring etc.

Distributed fiberoptic sensor generally adopts the coherent detection mode at present, mainly includes light source, detection optical fiber, coupling mechanism, amplifier, pulse-modulator, microwave sound photomodulator, coherent detection device, electrical filter.

Summary of the invention

The purpose of this invention is to provide a kind of optical fiber distributed temperature and stress sensing device, mainly include light source 1, frequency discriminator 2, constant temperature incubator 3 these three modules.This device (A) utilizes in the optical fiber back scattering Raman scattering as the temperature information carrier wave; (B) utilize Brillouin scattering as the stress information carrier wave; (C) utilize Rayleigh scattering to determine the frequency offset of the relative frequency discriminator of laser emitting light; Utilize the Fabry-Perot etalon to carry out frequency discrimination then.Optical fiber distributed temperature of the present invention is compared existing Coherent Detection means with stress sensing device, solved the cross sensitivity problem between a plurality of measured parameter effectively; Carry out difference measurement and frequency offset by binary channels Fabry-Perot etalon, solved 0~400 ℃ of measurement range problem of big temperature.Because without frequency sweeping, temporal resolution can be brought up to 1/10th seconds by original tens of minutes.

Description of drawings

Fig. 1 is the structured flowchart of sensor device of the present invention.

Fig. 2 is the change curve of detected object Brillouin spectrum with temperature and stress.

Fig. 3 is the transmittance curve figure of binary channels Fabry-Perot etalon.

Fig. 4 is near the transmittance curve of binary channels Fabry-Perot etalon Brillouin looses frequency displacement.

Fig. 5 is the response curve of Brillouin's passage counter stress.

Fig. 6 is the schematic diagram that big temperature dynamic scope is measured.

Among the figure: 1. light source 11. optical fiber lasers 12. first erbium-doped fiber amplifiers 13. pulse-modulators 14. second erbium-doped fiber amplifiers 2. frequency discriminators 21. Fa-Pi etalon 22. first collimators 23. second collimaters 24. the 4th coupler 25. the 5th coupler 3. constant temperature incubators 31. Polarization Controllers 32. reference optical fibers 33. detection optical fibers 34. isolators 311. first circulators 312. second circulators 313. the 3rd circulator 321. first fiber gratings 322. second fiber gratings 323. the 3rd fiber grating 324. the 4th fiber grating 331. first couplers 332. second couplers 333. the 3rd coupler 4. polarization maintaining optical fibres 51. first detectors 52. second detectors 53. the 3rd detector 54. the 4th detector 55. the 5th detector

Embodiment

The present invention is described in further detail below in conjunction with drawings and Examples.

See also shown in Figure 1, the present invention is a kind of optical fiber distributed temperature and stress sensing device, be based on fiber raman scattering as temperature information carrier wave, Brillouin scattering as the stress information carrier wave, utilize Rayleigh scattering measure the relative frequency discriminator frequency of shoot laser go forward side by side the line frequency biasing, utilize the Fabry-Perot etalon carry out frequency discrimination, the direct detection method of distributed sensing temperature and stress simultaneously.Mainly include light source 1, frequency discriminator 2, constant temperature incubator 3 these three modules, device annexation in each module is: fiber laser 11 is exported the fine welding of going into of the tail optical fibers and first Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) 12, the tail optical fiber of first Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) 12 and pulse-modulator 13 go into fine welding, the tail optical fiber of pulse-modulator 13 and second Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) 14 go into fine welding; The A end welding of the tail optical fiber of second Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) 14 and first circulator 311, the C end and 321 weldings of first fiber grating of first circulator 311, the A end welding of first circulator, the 311 equal B ends and first coupling mechanism 331; The B end of first coupling mechanism 331 is held welding with the A of second circulator 312, the B end of second circulator 312 and the fine welding of going into of Polarization Controller 31, the tail optical fiber welding of Polarization Controller 31 has one section polarization maintaining optical fibre 4 of using as detector, preceding 20 meters of described polarization maintaining optical fibre 4 are called reference optical fiber 32, and back ten thousand metres are called detection optical fiber 33; The C end of first coupling mechanism 331 is held welding with the C of second coupling mechanism 332, and the D end of second coupling mechanism 332 is connected with the optical fiber FC dop of second detector 52; The C end of second circulator 312 is held welding with the A of wavelength division multiplexer 38, the C end of wavelength division multiplexer 38 and the fine welding of going into of the 4th fiber grating 324, the outgoing tail optical fiber of the 4th fiber grating 324 is connected with the optical fiber FC dop of first detector 51, and the B end of wavelength division multiplexer 38 is held welding with the B of the 3rd circulator 313; The C end of the 3rd circulator 313 is held welding with the B of second coupling mechanism 332; The A end of second coupling mechanism 332 and the tail optical fiber welding of first collimating apparatus 22, the emergent light of first collimating apparatus 22 is incident to the A end of Fa-Pi (Fabry-Perot) etalon 21, be incident to the 4th coupling mechanism 24 from the emergent light of the B of Fa-Pi (Fabry-Perot) etalon 21 end, the tail optical fiber of the 4th coupling mechanism 24 is connected with the optical fiber FC dop of the 3rd detector 53; The A end of the 3rd circulator 313 and the fine welding of going into of the 3rd grating 323, the tail optical fiber of the 3rd grating 323 and isolator 34 go into fine welding, the tail optical fiber of isolator 34 and second grating 322 go into fine welding, the B end welding of the tail optical fiber of second grating 322 and the 3rd coupling mechanism 333, the C end of the 3rd coupling mechanism 333 is connected with the optical fiber FC dop of the 4th detector 54, the A end of the 3rd coupling mechanism 333 and the tail optical fiber welding of second collimating apparatus 23, the emergent light of second collimating apparatus 23 is incident to the C end of Fa-Pi (Fabry-Perot) etalon 21, be incident to the 5th coupling mechanism 25 from the D end emergent light of Fa-Pi (Fabry-Perot) etalon 21, the tail optical fiber of the 5th coupling mechanism 25 is connected with the optical fiber FC dop of the 5th detector 55.

In the present invention, described fiber laser adopts distributed semi conductor laser (model DFB-LD JDSUCQF938), and operation wavelength 1550nm, live width have the optical fiber coupling way of output less than 1MHz.

In the present invention, laser instrument 11, first Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) 12, pulse-modulator 13 and second Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) 14 constitute light source 1.Light source 1 output is the pulsed light after two-stage amplification and pulsed modulation only, and its power is 0.8~1.2W.

In the present invention, polarization maintaining optical fibre 4 adopts PMF-1550-8/125-0.4-L panda type polarization-maintaining single-mode fiber, numerical aperture NA=0.11, core diameter 8.7 μ m.

In the present invention, first fiber grating 321, second fiber grating 322 and the 3rd fiber grating 323 centre wavelength 1550.92nm, filtering bandwidth 0.12nm, reflectivity 98%; The central task wavelength 1550nm of the 4th fiber grating 324, filtering bandwidth 0.12nm, reflectivity 99.4%.

In the present invention, the isolation of isolator 34 is>60dB@1550.92 ± 80nm.

In the present invention, first coupling mechanism 331, second coupling mechanism 332 and the 3rd coupling mechanism 333 are the fiber fuse coupling mechanism of 1 * 2 type, and its beam splitting ratio is 30/70; The 4th coupling mechanism 24 adopts and carries the tail fiber type fibre-coupled mirrors, and focal length is that 21.7mm, outgoing beam diameter are that 4.8mm, the angle of divergence are 0.42mrad; The 5th coupling mechanism 25 adopts and carries the tail fiber type fibre-coupled mirrors, and focal length is that 16.8mm, outgoing beam diameter are that 3.38mm, the angle of divergence are 0.34mrad.

In the present invention, first collimating apparatus 22 adopts and carries tail fiber type fiber optic collimator mirror, and focal length is that 12.4mm, outgoing beam diameter are that 2.75mm, the angle of divergence are 0.31mrad; Second collimating apparatus 23 adopts and carries tail fiber type fiber optic collimator mirror, and focal length is that 15.3mm, outgoing beam diameter are that 3.8mm, the angle of divergence are 0.24mrad.

In the present invention, first detector 51, second detector 52, the 3rd detector 53, the 4th detector 54 and the 5th detector 55 adopt the InGaAs detector assembly of high-frequency response.

In the present invention, it is 55 ℃ working temperature that constant temperature incubator 3 can provide temperature, and temperature accuracy is 0.01 ℃ a constant temperature working environment.

In the present invention, frequency discriminator 2 is made of Fa-Pi etalon 21, first collimating apparatus 22, second collimating apparatus 23, first coupling mechanism 24 and second coupling mechanism 25; The emergent light of first collimating apparatus 22 incides the A end (being Rayleigh feeder connection end) of Fa-Pi etalon 21, and shine first coupling mechanism 24 from the B of Fa-Pi etalon 21 end (being the Rayleigh channel outlet), after 24 couplings of first coupling mechanism, enter in the 3rd detector 53; The emergent light of second collimating apparatus 23 incides the C end (being Brillouin's feeder connection end) of Fa-Pi etalon 21, and shine second coupling mechanism 25 from the D of Fa-Pi etalon 21 end (being Brillouin's channel outlet), after 25 couplings of second coupling mechanism, enter in the 5th detector 55.

The A end of Fa-Pi etalon 21 forms the Rayleigh passage with the B end, and the C end forms Brillouin's passage with the D end; Making has the binary channels etalon on same substrate, makes twin-channel chamber length and reflectivity not wait, and can form to have fixed frequency frequency discriminator at interval.Wherein, Brillouin's passage is transformed into the transmitance of Brillouin's signal on Fa-Pi etalon 21 with stress information to be measured and changes as high resolving power frequency discrimination passage, thereby realizes quick, the directly detection of stress.The Rayleigh passage is used for the shoot laser of Laser Measurement device 11 with respect to the frequency of frequency discriminator 2; Directly the device of sensing temperature and stress is when realizing 0~400 ℃ of range detection of big temperature simultaneously for optical fiber distributed type of the present invention, and the Rayleigh passage also is used for the frequency offset Δ υ of the shoot laser of default laser instrument 11 with respect to frequency discriminator 2 Offset(T).

In the present invention, the bore of Fa-Pi Fabry-Perot etalon 21 is 50mm, and single channel incides the beam diameter of etalon less than 5mm, thereby about 20 tunnel Fibre Optical Sensor light path can be installed on same etalon.Sensing when being convenient to realize the temperature of multi-channel optical fibre network (two dimension or three bit spaces) and stress.

The present invention then, under the known temperature condition, uses Brillouin spectrum and surveys stress information by using Raman scattering spectrum detected temperatures earlier.

In the present invention, the Rayleigh passage is made of second coupling mechanism 332, first collimating apparatus 22, Fa-Pi (Fabry-Perot) etalon 21 and the 4th coupling mechanism 24 in turn; This passage is used to measure the frequency of the laser pulse of second Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA), 14 outputs with respect to frequency discriminator 2; And long by the chamber of regulating Fa-Pi (Fabry-Perot) etalon 21 in the frequency discriminator 2 when in realizing 0~400 ℃ of scope of temperature, measuring, can preset the frequency offset of laser instrument 11 emergent lights with respect to frequency discriminator 2.

In the present invention, Brillouin's passage is made of the 3rd circulator 313, the 3rd fiber grating 323, isolator 34, second fiber grating 322, the 3rd coupling mechanism 333, second collimating apparatus 23, Fa-Pi (Fabry-Perot) etalon 21, the 5th coupling mechanism 25, the 4th detector 54 and the 5th detector 55 in turn; This passage is transformed into the transmitance of Brillouin's signal on Fa-Pi (Fabry-Perot) etalon 21 with stress information to be measured and changes, thereby realizes quick, the directly detection of stress.

In the present invention, the Raman passage is made of wavelength division multiplexer 38, the 4th fiber grating 324 and first detector 51 in turn; By measuring the Raman scattering of pulse signal in optical fiber 4, can measure the axial distribution of temperature with variation of temperature with optical fiber 4 according to the intensity of this Raman scattering.

First detector 51 is used to detect the Raman signal light intensity f of Raman passage 1

Second detector 52 is used to detect Rayleigh signal I RLight intensity f before being incident to frequency discriminator 2 2, in the present invention, be abbreviated as Rayleigh light intensity f 2

The 3rd detector 53 is used to detect Rayleigh signal I RThrough the light intensity f behind the Rayleigh passage in the frequency discriminator 2 3, in the present invention, be abbreviated as the Rayleigh signal and see through light intensity f 3

The 4th detector 54 is used to detect Brillouin's signal I BLight intensity f before being incident to frequency discriminator 2 4, in the present invention, be abbreviated as Brillouin's light intensity f 4

The 5th detector 55 is used to detect Brillouin's signal I BThrough the light intensity f behind the Brillouin's passage in the frequency discriminator 2 5, in the present invention, be abbreviated as Brillouin's signal and see through light intensity f 5

Referring to shown in Figure 2, in the present invention, it is the stress detected object that stress is surveyed with the Brillouin spectrum, among the figure, the A line is meant 25 ℃ of reference temperatures, Brillouin spectrum, B line during stress 0 μ ε are meant 25 ℃ of reference temperatures, Brillouin spectrum, C line during stress 2000 μ ε are meant 400 ℃ of reference temperatures, Brillouin spectrum, D line during stress 0 μ ε are meant 400 ℃ of reference temperatures, Brillouin spectrum during stress 2000 μ ε, as figure shows, temperature and stress all will cause the broadening of Brillouin spectrum and moving to high frequency direction.Temperature causes that the frequency displacement speed of Brillouin spectrum is 1.37MHz/ ℃, and temperature causes that the broadening speed of Brillouin spectrum is 0.15MHz/ ℃. The broadening speed that stress causes is 0.058MHz/ μ ε, and the frequency displacement speed that stress causes is 0.077MHz/ μ ε.

Referring to shown in Figure 3, in the present invention, adopt actual measurement Rayleigh signal transmitance T R=f 3/ f 2The Rayleigh passage transmittance curve of having demarcated can obtain the frequency υ of the emergent light of laser instrument 11 with respect to frequency discriminator 2 0Adopt Brillouin's signal transmitance T B=f 5/ f 4Brillouin's passage transmittance curve of having demarcated can obtain stress information ε to be measured in the optical fiber.Among the figure, the A line is meant the Rayleigh passage transmittance curve of demarcation, and the B line is meant Brillouin's passage transmittance curve.The A line exceeds 200MHz than the centre frequency of B line, so when setting shoot laser with respect to the frequency offset of etalon, shoot laser is on the brink of A line all the time.

Referring to shown in Figure 4, among the figure, the A line is meant that Rayleigh passage transmittance curve, the B line of demarcation are meant that Brillouin's passage transmittance curve, C line are meant 25 ℃ of reference temperatures, Brillouin spectrum, D line during stress 0 μ ε are meant 25 ℃ of reference temperatures, Brillouin spectrum during stress 2000 μ ε, as seen from the figure, under the known temperature condition, stress will make Brillouin spectrum move to high frequency direction, and continuous broadening.But when using Raman signal to record temperature, transmittance function Res (ε) monotone variation of brillouin scattering signal on Brillouin's passage, as shown in Figure 5.Record the transmitance T of brillouin scattering signal on Brillouin's passage B=f 5/ f 4, then can the inverting stress information.

Referring to shown in Figure 5, in Brillouin's optical time domain reflection technology (BOTDR), think that employing " panda type " polarization maintaining optical fibre as sensing element, can reach than high measurement sensitivity.Response function Res (ε) in the stress detection method that the present invention proposes is relevant with the consequent scattering spectra characteristic of the Brillouin who selects optical fiber for use, and the present invention proposes to adopt " panda type " polarization maintaining optical fibre as sensing element.Because the consequent scattering spectra of Brillouin of " panda type " polarization maintaining optical fibre broadens with the increase of stress, make the slope of response function Res (ε) become big, system's detection sensitivity increases.Among the figure, when the optical fiber axial stress changed in 2000 μ ε, the response function variation range of corresponding " knot type " polarization maintaining optical fibre was 26~45%; And the response function variation range of corresponding " panda type " polarization maintaining optical fibre is 12~48%.The detection sensitivity of " thereby panda type " polarization maintaining optical fibre is higher.

Referring to shown in Figure 6, with respect to the characteristic that requires frequency progressively to scan in the coherence detection, in order to keep the sensor measurement precision, scanning step must very little 5MHz; In order to keep measuring dynamic range, sweep limit must very big 1GHz.Therefore, this Coherent Detection single measurement 8~20min that is about consuming time.In real work, the more application occasion requires to measure transient temperature and stress information, in order to solve above long contradiction of time consuming time, the present invention proposes stress information ε is transformed into the transmitance value Res (ε) of Brillouin's signal on frequency discriminator 2, thereby realized direct detection, need not frequency sweeping, weak point consuming time, single measurement only needs 0.1~10s (the concrete single measurement time is depended on the requirement of measuring accuracy).The present invention compares with coherence detection, many potential noise sources are (during Coherent Detection in the time of can avoiding Coherent Detection, the light source emergent power rises and falls, and light source outgoing frequency drift, the frequency instability of acousto-optic modulator and electrooptic modulator all will directly be introduced measuring error); Temperature provided by the invention and stress detection method avoid using acousto-optic modulator and electrooptic modulator, and insensitive to the intensity fluctuation of the frequency drift of light source and light source self.Among the figure, the A line is meant that Rayleigh passage transmittance curve, the B line of demarcation are meant that Brillouin's passage transmittance curve, E line are meant that optical fiber is 25 ℃ of reference temperatures, Brillouin spectrum when unstressed, F line are meant that optical fiber is 250 ℃ of reference temperatures, Brillouin spectrum when unstressed, G line are meant that optical fiber is in 400 ℃ of reference temperatures, the Brillouin spectrum when unstressed.This shows, realize, the measurement range of 2000 μ ε, as long as the frequency offset of shoot laser with respect to frequency discriminator 2 is set, in the time of can guaranteeing that high temperature (smaller or equal to 400 ℃) is surveyed, Brillouin spectrum is on the brink of A curve all the time, to reach the purpose of high resolution (1MHz).

During actual detection, the transmittance curve of frequency discriminator is narrow more, and it is high more then to measure sensitivity, but it is just more little to measure dynamic range.In order to solve this contradiction, the present invention proposes frequency prebias method, has solved the high precision stress measurement problem in big temperature (0~400 ℃) scope, and the stress measurement scope is 0~2000 μ ε.Be provided with Rayleigh passage and high-precision Brillouin's passage of low precision among the present invention.Wherein, high precision Brillouin passage is used to measure stress information ε and keeps high measurement sensitivity; The Rayleigh passage of low precision is used for the frequency offset Δ υ of the default relative frequency discriminator of shoot laser OffsetFrequency offset Δ υ under the different temperatures OffsetRealize by the chamber length that changes Fa-Pi etalon 21.Frequency prebias method can guarantee that Brillouin's back scattering spectrum of detection optical fiber 4 is on the brink of transmittance curve of Brillouin's passage of Fa-Pi etalon 21 (the A line as shown in Figure 3) all the time, reaches the detected with high accuracy purpose.

The characteristic of concrete detection of a target spectrum according to the present invention (Brillouin spectrum is responsive simultaneously to temperature and stress) has designed frequency discriminator 2 structures.One of feature of the present invention is to be provided with the Rayleigh passage in the frequency discriminator, by transmittance function h (υ) on the Rayleigh passage of shoot laser in frequency discriminator of demarcating and the transmitance value T on the Rayleigh passage of the actual shoot laser that records in frequency discriminator R=f 3/ f 2Can measure the frequency offset υ of shoot laser with respect to frequency discriminator 2 Rayleigh passages 0(reference value is 234MHz).

During conventional design, adopt independently circular channel structure; The long variation in chamber of each single channel etalon can cause the drift of etalon centre frequency during actual the use, so the meeting of the frequency interval between a plurality of etalon random drift will cause serious measuring error.The invention discloses the technology of the same substrate of etalon of one kind of multiple purposes.It is core devices that one of frequency discriminator feature among the present invention is to adopt binary channels Fabry-Perot etalon, and it is made up of two circular reflecting plates that be arranged in parallel.When glasses lens plated, about the reflectivity of two semi-circular channel do not wait, form Brillouin's passage and Rayleigh passage.To form highly be the 27.9nm step to plated film on the inboard semicircle of the front mirror of Brillouin's passage, make the chamber length of Brillouin's passage long more smaller, make the high 200MHz of frequency (as shown in Figure 3) of the frequency ratio Rayleigh passage transmitance peak value correspondence of Brillouin's passage transmitance peak value correspondence than the chamber of Rayleigh passage.In the use, adopt channel structure disclosed by the invention, the frequency interval that the chamber journey by raft down the Yangtze River moves 200MHz will can not exert an influence.So record the frequency offset υ of shoot laser with respect to Rayleigh passage in the frequency discriminator 2 0Just can calculate the frequency offset υ of shoot laser with respect to frequency discriminator 2 Brillouin's passages 1(reference value is 34MHz).

In Brillouin's optical time domain reflection technology (BOTDR), can't solve the problem of Brillouin's back scattering spectrum at present to temperature and stress cross sensitivity.The present invention proposes a kind of Raman spectrum and Brillouin's spectrum detects array mode simultaneously, has solved the problem of temperature and stress cross sensitivity.The changing value Δ I of the relative Rayleigh backscatter intensity of Raman backscatter intensity at the corresponding fiber lengths L place that records among the present invention R(L) (i.e. first detector, 51 output power f 1With second detector, 52 output power f 2The changing value of ratio).Temperature-responsive coefficient C according to optical fiber 4 R TAnd temperature response characteristics ( Δ T R ( L ) = Δ I R ( L ) C R T ) Can measure the temperature change value of the relative reference value at length L place on optical fiber 4.

Among the present invention optical fiber 4 suffered axial stresses are converted into the Brillouin's back scattering transmitance information on Brillouin's passage in frequency discriminator 2 under the detecting temperature, by measuring the transmitance T of Brillouin's signal B=f 5/ f 4Demarcate the response curve (referring to Fig. 5) of Brillouin's passage counter stress, can measure stress information ε.

Designed the self calibration assembly among the present invention, promptly the preceding 20m of optical fiber 4 is as reference optical fiber 32, and reference optical fiber 32 places in the constant temperature incubator 3; The back 10km of optical fiber 4 is as detection optical fiber 33, and detection optical fiber 33 places outside the constant temperature incubator 3.When actual measurement, the preset temperature of constant temperature incubator 3 is 25 ± 0.1 ℃, the fiber optic temperature that records by relatively preset temperature and reference optical fiber 32 (in normal working conditions, fiber optic temperature should equal preset temperature), therefore can adopt fiber optic temperature to carry out the measurement result of real time calibration apparatus of the present invention.

The present invention places constant temperature incubator 3 with four fiber gratings (first fiber grating 321, second fiber grating 322, the 3rd fiber grating 323 and the 4th fiber grating 324), three circulators (first circulator 311, second circulator 312 and the 3rd circulator 313), three fiber couplers (first fiber coupler 331, second fiber coupler 332 and the 3rd fiber coupler 333), wavelength division multiplexer 38 and isolator 34, has eliminated the influence of environment temperature to apparatus of the present invention stability effectively.

The principle that optical fiber distributed temperature of the present invention and stress sensing device are used is described in detail as follows:

One, the Raman scattering spectrum is measured temperature

Raman scattering power is only to responsive to temperature, and counter stress is response not, and sensitivity nearly 3 times greater than Brillouin spectrum, thereby, during direct detection, at first utilize the backward scattered power ratio of the relative Rayleigh of Raman back scattering to come detected temperatures with variation of temperature.Note detection optical fiber 33 in the temperature variation of 25 ℃ of fiber lengths L place relative reference temperature is Δ T R ( L ) = Δ I R ( L ) C R T Δ T R ( L ) , In the formula, Δ I R(L) be the backward scattered power ratio variation of the relative Rayleigh of Raman back scattering (variations of first detector, 51 output powers and second detector, 52 output power ratios) at fiber lengths L place, C R TBe the temperature-responsive coefficient,, when instrument calibration, can measure by detection optical fiber 33 decisions.

Two, the measurement of stress

In the Coherent Detection, must be by frequency sweeping, detect any two in three physical quantitys of power, spectrum width, frequency displacement of Brillouin scattering simultaneously, can distinguish inverting temperature and stress information then.Because Brillouin's back scattering power is disturbed by multiple factor, uses " panda type " polarization maintaining optical fibre is thought in research, detects the frequency displacement of Brillouin spectrum and the full accuracy that the spectrum width variation can reach the BOTDR technology simultaneously.

The present invention is converted to the monotone variation of the transmitance of Brillouin's signal on the high resolving power frequency discriminator with the variation of the Brillouin scattering spectral property (frequency displacement, spectrum width, power) that temperature and stress cause, thus sensing when realizing temperature and pressure.

Because finally detect the transmitance of Brillouin's signal, the absolute strength of signal is the signal to noise ratio (S/N ratio) of influence measurement just.The frequency displacement of Brillouin spectrum is the function of 33 bearing temperature T of detection optical fiber and axial stress ε, is designated as υ B(T, ε), and υ B ( T , ϵ ) = υ B ( T 0 , ϵ 0 ) + C υ T × ( T - T 0 ) + C υ ϵ × ϵ , In the formula, υ B(T 0, ε 0)=11.2GHz is reference temperature T 0=25 ℃ and unstress state ε 0=0 records the frequency shift amount of Brillouin spectrum, C υ TBe the temperature-responsive coefficient of the Brillouin shift of detection optical fiber 33, and C υ εBe the stress response coefficient of the Brillouin shift of detection optical fiber 33, and C υ ϵ = 0.077 MHz / μϵ .

The Brillouin scattering spectrum width is the function of 33 bearing temperature T of detection optical fiber and axial stress ε, is designated as Δ υ B(T, ε), and Δ υ B ( T , ϵ ) = Δ υ B ( T 0 , ϵ 0 ) + C b T × ( T - T 0 ) + C b ϵ × ϵ , In the formula, Δ υ B(T 0, ε 0)=71MHz is reference temperature T 0=25 ℃ and unstress state ε 0=0 records the spectrum width of Brillouin spectrum, C b TBe the temperature-responsive coefficient of the Brillouin spectrum spectrum width of detection optical fiber 33, and C b εBe the stress response coefficient of the Brillouin spectrum spectrum width of detection optical fiber 33, and C b ϵ = 0.058 MHz / μϵ .

In the present invention, owing to adopt the difference measurement technology, the frequency displacement of the Brillouin spectrum that the stress of temperature is caused and spectrum widening change brillouin scattering signal on frequency discriminator 2, reach the inverting stress information by measuring this transmitance.The intensity of this refutation process and brillouin scattering signal is irrelevant, so with the peak value normalization of Brillouin spectrum.Brillouin's back scattering spectral function after the normalization is designated as S B(υ, T, ε), and S B(υ, T, ε)=Δ υ B(T, ε) 2/ { 4[υ-υ B(T, ε)] 2+ Δ υ B(T, ε) 2, in the formula, υ is the incident light frequency.Normalization Brillouin scattering spectral curve under different temperatures and the stress condition is referring to shown in Figure 2.

In the present invention, the Fabry-Perot etalon is a core devices in the frequency discriminator 2, and its Brillouin's passage is used to detect stress information; Its Rayleigh passage is used to detect the frequency of the relative frequency discriminator 2 of shoot laser, when realizing that great dynamic range is measured (0~400 ℃ of wide temperature range, the range of stress 0~2000 μ ε), by measuring the transmitance of outgoing laser frequency on the Rayleigh passage, and the chamber of adjustment criteria tool 21 is long, thereby can preset the frequency offset of the relative frequency discriminator 2 of shoot laser.The frequency spectrum function note h (υ) of Fabry-Perot etalon, and h ( υ ) = 2 θ max 2 ∫ 0 θ max ( 1 - a R ) 2 sin θ / { 1 + 4 F E 2 sin 2 [ πυ cos θ / υ FSR ] / π 2 } dθ , In the formula, θ be the Fabry-Perot etalon beam incident angle (during test, light beam normal incidence θ=0, incident beam be not fully the collimation, the maximum angle of divergence is θ Max=0.31mrad); A ≈ 0.2% is the absorption loss of etalon reflecting surface; R is the reflectivity of etalon; F EBe effective fineness; υ is the incident light frequency; υ FSRFor freely composing spacing; D θ represents incident angle θ at maximum angle of divergence θ MaxInterior integration.

Design binary channels Fabry-Perot etalon curve as shown in Figure 3.(spacing υ is freely composed in its decision to the long l=27mm in Fabry-Perot etalon chamber FSR=c/2nl, c are the light velocity in the vacuum, and n is the strong interior medium refraction index of etalon).The Fabry-Perot etalon is made up of two catoptrons in front and back, and wherein the right semi-circle of front mirror exceeds 28nm than left semicircle, clear aperture 50mm.This paper claims that left passage is Brillouin's passage (B line), and right passage is Rayleigh passage (an A line).The reflectivity R of left and right sides passage is respectively 59.6% and 95.4%, its decision reflection fineness ( F R = π R - 1 / 2 1 - R ) . According to present manufacturing technology level, twin-channel defective fineness (F D) be 200, thus effective fineness ( F E = ( F R - 2 + F D - 2 ) - 1 / 2 ) Be respectively 6 and 63.

In the present invention, when recording temperature T by the Rayleigh signal DAfter, define this and record temperature T DUnder the stress response function be Res TD(ε), and Res T D ( ϵ ) ∫ - ∞ ∞ S B ( υ , T D , ϵ ) h H ( υ ) dυ / ∫ - ∞ ∞ S B ( υ , T D , ϵ ) dυ , In the formula, h HBe the frequency spectrum function (shown in B line among Fig. 3) of Brillouin's passage (υ), d υ represents the integration to Brillouin's back scattering frequency υ.The transmittance curve of binary channels Fabry-Perot etalon in the local repressentation of Brillouin scattering spectral frequency center referring to shown in Figure 4.

When Fig. 5 is 25 ℃, the stress response curve Res of " panda type " polarization maintaining optical fibre and " knot type " polarization maintaining optical fibre TD(ε).Measure the transmitance T of brillouin scattering signal on Brillouin's passage (A line) B=f 5/ f 4, separate nonlinear equation T B = Res T D ( ϵ ) Then can measure stress distribution.

Three, the realization of big temperature dynamic scope

In direct detection technique, high resolving power and great dynamic range are conspicuous contradictions, and when the resolution of frequency discrimination device is high more, its transmittance curve slope is big more, but halfwidth is just more little, and corresponding measurement range is more little.The present invention discloses a kind of solution.As shown in Figure 6, the change amount of 400 ℃ of corresponding Brillouin spectrum frequency displacements of temperature range is near 900MHz; Design stress measurement range 2000 μ ε, the change amount of its corresponding Brillouin spectrum frequency displacement is 46MHz.So plated film forms another reference channel (Rayleigh passage) on the same substrate that forms high resolving power frequency discrimination passage.The halfwidth of Rayleigh passage is 1GHz.Because two passages are produced on the same substrate, two passages do not have relative error of the frequency.For the Brillouin spectrum under the different temperatures is on the brink of frequency discrimination passage (A line), can regulate reference channel (B line) frequency interval of shoot laser relatively.Because twin-channel chamber is long consistent, and increase chamber length can be so that the etalon centre frequency moves down, frequency shift amount Δ υ OffsetWith the pass of the long increment Delta l in chamber be Δ υ offset Δl = - υ l , In the formula, "-" number expression is when requiring the frequency upper shift of etalon 21 relative shoot lasers, and chamber length needs to shorten.

In the present invention, when the stress distribution of 33 a certain sections of detection optical fibers, can at first record temperature T by the Raman scattering spectrum DThen by the frequency displacement of Brillouin spectrum υ B ( T , ϵ ) = υ B ( T 0 , ϵ 0 ) + C υ T × ( T - T 0 ) + C υ ϵ × ϵ The Brillouin shift amount υ that causes of unstress state as can be known under this temperature, B(T D, 0), and the frequency upper shift value Δ υ of hence one can see that the relative shoot laser of etalon Offset(T)=υ B(T D, 0)-υ B(T 0, 0).

In the present invention, can be by frequency shift amount Δ υ OffsetRelation with the long increment Delta l in chamber Δ υ offset Δl = - υ l , And the frequency upper shift value Δ υ of the relative shoot laser of etalon Offset(T)=υ B(T D, 0)-υ B(T 0, 0) and the long increment in the chamber of temperature value correspondence as can be known.Magnitude of voltage by piezoelectric ceramic actuator in the modulation Fabry-Perot etalon can be accurate to 0.1nm with chamber length, respective frequencies error 0.71MHz (the about 31 μ ε of corresponding stress determination error).But, in the actual measurement, by measuring the transmitance value of emergent light on the reference channel frequency at shoot laser relative standard tool center as can be known, thereby eliminate this error.

The characteristics of optical fiber distributed temperature of the present invention and stress sensing device:

1. apparatus of the present invention are compared with existing distributed fiber-optic sensor related detection system, and it is simple in structure, stability Good, and many potential noise sources in the time of can avoiding relevant the detection (during relevant the detection, the light source emergent power, light source goes out The radio frequency rate, the unstability of acousto-optic modulation or Electro-optical Modulation frequency all will directly be introduced measure error); It is poor to adopt Divide the Direct Inspection Technology frequency discrimination, to the frequency drift of light source, the fluctuating of signal strength signal intensity is insensitive.

2. need not frequency sweeping, temporal resolution height (10Hz) is suitable for the transition environment measuring.

3. measure dynamic range big (400 ℃ temperature range, stress measurement scope 2000 μ ε).

4. late time data is handled simply, need not large amount of complex and calculates.

5.Fabry-Perot the bore 50mm of etalon, and single channel incides the beam diameter of etalon less than 5mm, thus about 20 tunnel Fibre Optical Sensor light path can be installed on same etalon.Be convenient to realize multi-channel optical fibre network sensing temperature and stress simultaneously.

Claims (10)

1. optical fiber distributed temperature and stress sensing device, it is characterized in that: fiber laser (11) is exported the fine welding of going into of tail optical fiber and first Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) (12), the tail optical fiber of first Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) (12) and pulse-modulator (13) go into fine welding, the tail optical fiber of pulse-modulator (13) and second Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) (14) go into fine welding;
The A end welding of the tail optical fiber of second Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) (14) and first circulator (311), the C end and first fiber grating (321) welding of first circulator (311), the A end welding of the B end of first circulator (311) and first coupling mechanism (331); The B end of first coupling mechanism (331) is held welding with the A of second circulator (312), the B end of second circulator (312) and the fine welding of going into of Polarization Controller (31), and the tail optical fiber welding of Polarization Controller (31) has one section polarization maintaining optical fibre of using as detector (4);
The C end of first coupling mechanism (331) is held welding with the C of second coupling mechanism (332), and the D end of second coupling mechanism (332) is connected with the optical fiber FC dop of second detector (52);
The C end of second circulator (312) is held welding with the A of wavelength division multiplexer (38), the C end of wavelength division multiplexer (38) and the fine welding of going into of the 4th fiber grating (324), the outgoing tail optical fiber of the 4th fiber grating (324) is connected with the optical fiber FC dop of first detector (51), and the B end of wavelength division multiplexer (38) is held welding with the B of the 3rd circulator (313);
The C end of the 3rd circulator (313) is held welding with the B of second coupling mechanism (332); The A end of second coupling mechanism (332) and the tail optical fiber welding of first collimating apparatus (22), the emergent light of first collimating apparatus (22) is incident to the A end of Fa-Pi etalon (21), be incident to the 4th coupling mechanism (24) from the emergent light of the B of Fa-Pi etalon (21) end, the tail optical fiber of the 4th coupling mechanism (24) is connected with the optical fiber FC dop of the 3rd detector (53);
The A end of the 3rd circulator (313) and the fine welding of going into of the 3rd grating (323), the tail optical fiber of the 3rd grating (323) and isolator (34) go into fine welding, the tail optical fiber of isolator (34) and second grating (322) go into fine welding, the B end welding of the tail optical fiber of second grating (322) and the 3rd coupling mechanism (333), the C end of the 3rd coupling mechanism (333) is connected with the optical fiber FC dop of the 4th detector (54);
The A end of the 3rd coupling mechanism (333) and the tail optical fiber welding of second collimating apparatus (23), the emergent light of second collimating apparatus (23) is incident to the C end of Fa-Pi etalon (21), be incident to the 5th coupling mechanism (25) from the D end emergent light of Fa-Pi etalon (21), the tail optical fiber of the 5th coupling mechanism (25) is connected with the optical fiber FC dop of the 5th detector (55).
2. optical fiber distributed temperature according to claim 1 and stress sensing device is characterized in that: laser instrument (11), first Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) (12), pulse-modulator (13) and second Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) (14) constitute light source (1); Light source (1) output is the pulsed light after two-stage amplification and pulsed modulation only, and its power is 0.8~1.2W.
3. optical fiber distributed temperature according to claim 1 and stress sensing device is characterized in that: Fa-Pi etalon (21), first collimating apparatus (22), second collimating apparatus (23), first coupling mechanism (24) and second coupling mechanism (25) constitute frequency discriminator (2); The emergent light of first collimating apparatus (22) incides the A end of Fa-Pi etalon (21), and brings out from the B of Fa-Pi etalon (21) and to be mapped to first coupling mechanism (24), enters in the 3rd detector (53) after first coupling mechanism (24) coupling; The emergent light of second collimating apparatus (23) incides the C end of Fa-Pi etalon (21), and brings out from the D of Fa-Pi etalon (21) and to be mapped to second coupling mechanism (25), enters in the 5th detector (55) after second coupling mechanism (25) coupling.
4. optical fiber distributed temperature according to claim 1 and stress sensing device is characterized in that: constitute Brillouin's passage by the 3rd circulator (313), the 3rd fiber grating (323), isolator (34), second fiber grating (322), the 3rd coupling mechanism (333), second collimating apparatus (23), Fa-Pi etalon (21), the 5th coupling mechanism (25), the 4th detector (54) and the 5th detector (55).
5. optical fiber distributed temperature according to claim 1 and stress sensing device is characterized in that: constitute the Rayleigh passage by second coupling mechanism (332), first collimating apparatus (22), Fa-Pi etalon (21) and the 4th coupling mechanism (24).
6. optical fiber distributed temperature according to claim 1 and stress sensing device is characterized in that: constitute the Raman passage by wavelength division multiplexer (38), the 4th fiber grating (324) and first detector (51).
7. optical fiber distributed temperature according to claim 1 and stress sensing device is characterized in that: preceding 20 meters of described polarization maintaining optical fibre (4) are called reference optical fiber (32), and back ten thousand metres are called detection optical fiber (33).
8. optical fiber distributed temperature according to claim 1 and stress sensing device, it is characterized in that: first fiber grating (321), second fiber grating (322) and the 3rd fiber grating (323) centre wavelength 1550.92nm, filtering bandwidth 0.12nm, reflectivity 98%; The central task wavelength 1550nm of the 4th fiber grating (324), filtering bandwidth 0.12nm, reflectivity 99.4%.
9. optical fiber distributed temperature according to claim 1 and stress sensing device is characterized in that: first coupling mechanism (331), second coupling mechanism (332) and the 3rd coupling mechanism (333) are the fiber fuse coupling mechanism of 1 * 2 type, and its beam splitting ratio is 30/70; The 4th coupling mechanism (24) adopts and carries the tail fiber type fibre-coupled mirrors, and focal length is that 21.7mm, outgoing beam diameter are that 4.8mm, the angle of divergence are 0.42mrad; The 5th coupling mechanism (25) adopts and carries the tail fiber type fibre-coupled mirrors, and focal length is that 16.8mm, outgoing beam diameter are that 3.38mm, the angle of divergence are 0.34mrad.
10. optical fiber distributed temperature according to claim 1 and stress sensing device is characterized in that: first detector (51) is used to detect the Raman signal light intensity f of Raman passage 1
Second detector (52) is used to detect Rayleigh signal I RBe incident to the preceding Rayleigh light intensity f of frequency discriminator (2) 2
The 3rd detector (53) is used to detect Rayleigh signal I RSee through light intensity f through the Rayleigh signal behind the Rayleigh passage in the frequency discriminator (2) 3
The 4th detector (54) is used to detect Brillouin's signal I BBe incident to the preceding Brillouin's light intensity f of frequency discriminator (2) 4
The 5th detector (55) is used to detect Brillouin's signal I BThrough the light intensity f behind the Brillouin's passage in the frequency discriminator (2) 5
CNB2007101758685A 2007-10-15 2007-10-15 Optical fiber distributed temperature and stress sensing device CN100489461C (en)

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