CN102721484B - Distributed optical fiber sensing device based on brillouin scattering - Google Patents

Distributed optical fiber sensing device based on brillouin scattering Download PDF

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CN102721484B
CN102721484B CN201210194790.2A CN201210194790A CN102721484B CN 102721484 B CN102721484 B CN 102721484B CN 201210194790 A CN201210194790 A CN 201210194790A CN 102721484 B CN102721484 B CN 102721484B
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light source
module
pump light
source
optical fiber
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CN102721484A (en
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刘航杰
涂勤昌
李浩泉
侯光恩
戴世勋
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Zhejiang Zhongxin Power Measurement And Control Technology Co ltd
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ZHEJIANG ZHONGXIN POWER MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL TECHNOLOGY Co Ltd
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Abstract

The invention discloses a distributed optical fiber sensing device based on brillouin scattering. The distributed optical fiber sensing device comprises a first detection light source, a second detection light source, a first pump light source, a second pump light source, a first light switch module, a second light switch module, a first coupler, a second coupler, a frequency measurement module, a detection light output and signal processing module, a pump light output module and a sensing optical fiber module. The first detection light source and the first pump light source or the second detection light source and the second pump light source are selected as light sources of a brillouin optical time domain analyzer through the first light switch module and the second light switch module, so that a device for simultaneously measuring the strain and the temperature of a single type of sensing optical fibers can be implemented, and the problem of temperature and strain cross sensitive effect during brillouin distributed optical fiber sensing is solved; and the device is simple in structure, low in cost and wide in application range, has no special requirement on the specification of a sensing optical fiber and is particularly suitable for distributed on-line monitoring application of built engineering.

Description

A kind of distribution type optical fiber sensing equipment based on Brillouin scattering
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of distribution type optical fiber sensing equipment based on Brillouin scattering, especially relate to a kind of distribution type optical fiber sensing equipment of simultaneously measuring temperature and strain.
Background technology
Distributed fiberoptic sensor has important application in the safety monitoring of the important infrastructures such as electric power, bridge, dam, petrochemical industry.Compared with distributed fiberoptic sensor based on Raman scattering, the measuring distance of the distributed fiberoptic sensor based on Brillouin scattering is longer, measuring accuracy is higher, and realizes temperature and stress measurement, and therefore this product has enjoyed people to pay close attention to since coming out.
Distributed fiberoptic sensor based on Brillouin scattering has two types: Brillouin light time domain reflection technology (Brillouin Opitcal Time Domain Reflection, and Brillouin optical time domain analysis technology (Brillouin Optical Time Domain Analysis, BOTDA) BOTDR).Wherein BOTDR is single-ended measurement, simple in structure, but its detection is faint spontaneous brillouin scattering light, is difficult to realize long distance, high-acruracy survey; BOTDA is double-end measurement, detection be stronger stimulated Brillouin scattering light, its measuring distance and precision are better than BOTDR, are the current Fibre Optical Sensors of tool application prospect.The system architecture of typical BOTDA as shown in Figure 1, comprises probe source, pump light source, coupling mechanism 1, coupling mechanism 2, coupling mechanism 3, external modulator, scrambler, circulator, frequency measurement module, acquisition of signal module, sensor fibre.Wherein the wavelength of probe source and pump light source is very approaching, its typical difference on the frequency is about 9 ~ 16GHz, probe source and pump light source enter coupling mechanism 3 through coupling mechanism 1, coupling mechanism 2 respectively after separating part light, and realized the measurement of the difference on the frequency of probe source and pump light source by frequency measurement module, external modulator generally adopts electrooptic modulator, for generation of pulsed optical signals, scrambler is for eliminating the impact of polarization, pulsed light is relative to pump light being incident to sensor fibre, and brillouin scattering signal is measured by acquisition of signal module after circulator.
Distributed fiberoptic sensor based on Brillouin scattering utilizes the development of optical fiber Brillouin backscattering effect.Brillouin scattering effect in optical fiber is to inject a kind of nonlinear light scatter phenomenon that intercouples and act on and produce between the elasticity acoustic wavefield of light wave fields and optical fiber, wherein Brillouin shift v bwith wavelength X, velocity of sound v awith refractive index n and relational expression be:
v B = 2 n v A λ - - - ( 1 )
In the time of variation of ambient temperature or optical fiber generation deformation, velocity of sound v in optical fiber aall can change with the refractive index n of light thereupon, thereby make Brillouin shift v bchange.Brillouin shift variable quantity and environment temperature, fibre strain are linear:
Δv B=C εΔε+C TΔT (2)
Δ v in formula bfor Brillouin shift variable quantity, Δ ε is optical fiber axial strain, and Δ T is fiber optic temperature, C εand C tbe respectively strain and the temperature coefficient of Brillouin frequency shifts.The strain of Brillouin frequency shifts and temperature coefficient C εand C texcept relevant with optical fiber structure, also relevant with optical maser wavelength, and optical maser wavelength difference is larger, and the strain of Brillouin frequency shifts and temperature coefficient difference are larger.
Because Brillouin shift is simultaneously responsive to temperature and strain, in the actual application such as health status monitoring, need to solve this cross-sensitivity, these people are proposed to many solutions.As, the people such as Bao X adopt polarization maintaining optical fibre, photonic crystal fiber, the special fibers such as large effective area fiber are as measuring optical fiber, utilize multiple Brillouin shifts peak to come separation temperature and strain value (" Simultaneous strain and temperature measurements with polarization-maintaining fibers and their error analysis by use of a distributed Brillouin loss system, " Optics letters, 29 (12): 1342-1344, 2004), but because special fiber is mostly expensive, availability is poor, long range measurements high cost.And for example, application number is that 201010229960.7 patent of invention discloses at least two measuring optical fiber that Brillouin shift temperature coefficient is different with stress coefficient that a kind of utilization is set up in parallel, and realize the measurement of the Brillouin shift variable quantity of two optical fiber by photoswitch switching mode, solve the cross-sensitivity of Brillouin shift to temperature and strain by Simultaneous Equations, but need to lay in advance the single-mode fiber of two types.
For monitoring and measuring applications such as long distance high-voltage power cable, sea floor optoelectronic composite cables, especially built Larger Engineering Projects, generally only lay a kind of single-mode fiber (for example G652), how utilizing the single-mode fiber of single kind to realize separating of temperature and strain, is the key that large-scale application is promoted the distributed fiberoptic sensor based on Brillouin scattering.
Summary of the invention
Technical matters to be solved by this invention is to provide a kind of single-mode fiber that utilizes single kind and realizes temperature and the simultaneously-measured distribution type optical fiber sensing equipment of strain.
The present invention solves the problems of the technologies described above adopted technical scheme: a kind of distribution type optical fiber sensing equipment based on Brillouin scattering, comprise the first probe source, the first pump light source, the first coupling mechanism, the second coupling mechanism, frequency measurement module, survey light output and signal processing module, pump light output module, sensor fibre module, also comprise the second probe source, the second pump light source, the first optical switch module and the second optical switch module, the first described probe source is connected with two light signal input ends of the first optical switch module respectively with the second probe source, the first described pump light source is connected with two light signal input ends of the second optical switch module respectively with the second pump light source, the light signal output end of the first described optical switch module is connected with the input end of the first coupling mechanism, the light signal output end of the second described optical switch module is connected with the input end of the second coupling mechanism, described frequency measurement module is connected with an output terminal of the first coupling mechanism and the second coupling mechanism respectively, the first described coupling mechanism and another output terminal of the second coupling mechanism are connected with described detection light output and the input end of signal processing module and pump light output module respectively, the output terminal of described detection light output and signal processing module and pump light output module is connected with the two ends of sensor fibre module respectively.
The first described probe source and the first pump light source have different wavelength coverages from the second probe source and the second pump light source, and wavelength interval is not less than 190nm.Further, if the first probe source and the first pump light source are selected the LASER Light Source of (1550 ± 30) nm scope, the second probe source and the second pump light source need to select the LASER Light Source of (1310 ± 20) nm scope or the LASER Light Source of (1064 ± 20) nm scope.
The first described optical switch module and the second optical switch module can be selected the first probe source and the first pump light source or the second probe source and the second pump light source light source as Brillouin optical time domain analysis instrument.
Brillouin optical time domain analysis instrument needs probe source and pump light source to incide in opposite directions on sensor fibre, in the technical program, utilize the first probe source and the first pump light source Brillouin optical time domain analysis instrument light source that partners, utilize the second probe source and the second pump light source to form another to Brillouin's time-domain analysis instrument light source, other device is as frequency measurement module, survey light output and signal processing module, pump light output module, the core optical-electric modules such as coupling mechanism share, by the switching of the first photoswitch and the second optical switch module, realize the different Brillouin optical time domain analysis instrument of two cover optical maser wavelength with lower cost, now can obtain the Brillouin shift variable quantity distribution Δ v of two groups of sensor fibres b1and Δ v (z) b2(z).Because the optical maser wavelength of the first probe source and the first pump light source and the second probe source and the second pump light source has larger difference, the coefficient of strain C of their Brillouin frequency shifts ε 1, C ε 2with temperature coefficient C t1, C t2difference, now Simultaneous Equations can obtain sensor fibre strain value Δ ε (z) and temperature value Δ T (z) everywhere along the line:
Δϵ ( z ) = C T 2 Δ v B 1 ( z ) - C T 1 Δ v B 2 ( z ) C ϵ 1 C T 2 - C ϵ 2 C T 1 - - - ( 3 )
ΔT ( z ) = C ϵ 2 Δ v B 1 ( z ) - C ϵ 1 Δ v B 2 ( z ) C ϵ 2 C T 1 - C ϵ 1 C T 2 - - - ( 4 )
Beneficial effect of the present invention: (1) provides a kind of device that utilizes the sensor fibre of single kind to realize strain and temperature simultaneously measuring, has solved the problem of temperature and strain cross-sensitivity in brillouin distributed optical fiber sensing; (2) this device has shared the core optical-electric modules such as frequency measurement module, detection light output and signal processing module, pump light output module, coupling mechanism, has only increased a pair of light source, and simple in structure, cost is low; (3) this device does not have particular/special requirement to the specification of sensor fibre, applied widely, is especially applicable to the distributed on line monitoring application of built engineering.
Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is the structural representation of typical Brillouin optical time domain analysis instrument;
Fig. 2 is the structural representation of a kind of distribution type optical fiber sensing equipment based on Brillouin scattering of the present invention;
Fig. 3 is the structural representation that the embodiment of the present invention 1 is surveyed light output and signal processing module;
The relation of Brillouin shift and fibre strain and temperature when Fig. 4 is the embodiment of the present invention 1 optical maser wavelength 1550nm;
The relation of Brillouin shift and fibre strain and temperature when Fig. 5 is the embodiment of the present invention 1 optical maser wavelength 1310nm.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing, embodiment is described in further detail the present invention.
Embodiment 1:
As shown in Figures 2 and 3, a kind of distribution type optical fiber sensing equipment based on Brillouin scattering, comprises the first probe source 1, the second probe source 2, the first pump light source 3, the second pump light source 4, the first optical switch modules 5, the second optical switch module 6, the first coupling mechanism 7, the second coupling mechanisms 8, frequency measurement module 9, survey light output and signal processing module 10, pump light output module 11 and sensor fibre module 12.The first probe source 1, the second probe source 2, the first pump light source 3 and the second pump light source 4 are narrow-linewidth laser light source, and its typical live width is less than 1MHz, wherein the first probe source 1 and the first pump light source 3 Brillouin optical time domain analysis instrument light source that partners, select the upper the most frequently used optical maser wavelength of communication, wavelength Application Range is (1550 ± 30) nm, particularly, in the present embodiment, the first probe source 1 is selected the narrow linewidth laser of 1550.12nm, the first pump light source 3 is selected the narrow linewidth laser of 1550.04nm, by temperature or piezoelectric ceramics PZT is tuning or frequency displacement device makes the difference on the frequency of the first probe source 1 and the first pump light source 3 cover Brillouin's frequency spectrum (approximately 9 ~ 13GHz 1550nm) of optical fiber, and the second probe source 2 and the second pump light source 4 form another to Brillouin optical time domain analysis instrument light source, its wavelength coverage and first pair of Brillouin optical time domain analysis instrument optical source wavelength have certain distance, the present embodiment medium wavelength Application Range is (1310 ± 20) nm, particularly, the second probe source 2 is selected the Nd:YLF laser instrument of 1310.07nm, the second pump light source 4 is selected the Nd:YLF laser instrument of 1310.00nm, by temperature or piezoelectric ceramics PZT is tuning or frequency displacement device makes the difference on the frequency of the second probe source 2 and the second pump light source 4 cover Brillouin's frequency spectrum (approximately 11 ~ 15GHz 1310nm) of optical fiber.The first optical switch module 5 and the second optical switch module 6 are 2 × 1 photoswitches, the first probe source 1 is connected with the light signal input end 51,52 of the first optical switch module 5 respectively with the second probe source 2, the first pump light source 3 is connected with the light signal input end 61,62 of the second optical switch module 6 respectively with the second pump light source 4, can select the first probe source 1 and the first pump light source 3 or the second probe source 2 and the second pump light source 4 light source as Brillouin optical time domain analysis instrument by circuit control; The light signal output end 53 of the first optical switch module 5 is connected with the input end of the first coupling mechanism 7, and the light signal output end 63 of the second optical switch module 6 is connected with the input end of the second coupling mechanism 8; Frequency measurement module 9 is connected with an output terminal of the first coupling mechanism 7 and the second coupling mechanism 8 respectively, for measuring the difference on the frequency of probe source and pump light source; Another output terminal of the first coupling mechanism 7 and the second coupling mechanism 8 is connected with the input end of surveying light output and signal processing module 10 and pump light output module 11 respectively, wherein surveying light output and signal processing module 10 receives for generation of pulse signal and backscatter signals, in this enforcement, survey light output and signal processing module 10 and comprise pulse-modulator 101, circulator 102 and high speed signal detector 103, as shown in Figure 3.If measuring distance is long, survey in light output and signal processing module 10 and can also increase image intensifer or scrambler, survey optical output power and increase polarization homogeneity to improve.Pump light output module 11 is mainly that pump light is processed and exported, and generally includes the device such as scrambler, optical attenuator.The output terminal of surveying light output and signal processing module 10 and pump light output module 11 is connected with the two ends of sensor fibre module 12 respectively, and in this enforcement, sensor fibre module 12 is the single mode 28e+ optical fiber of Coring company.
Form with the second pump light source 4 the Brillouin optical time domain analysis instrument that two cover optical maser wavelengths are different with the first pump light source 3 and the second probe source 2 by the first probe source 1, same sensor fibre module 12 is tested, can obtain the Brillouin shift variable quantity distribution Δ v of two groups of sensor fibres b1and Δ v (z) b2(z).According to test, the Brillouin optical time domain analysis instrument being formed by the first probe source 1 and the first pump light source 3, optical source wavelength scope is 1550nm, now the coefficient of strain of Brillouin shift and temperature coefficient are respectively C ε 1=467MHz/%, C t1=0.98MHz/ DEG C, as shown in Figure 4; Another Brillouin optical time domain analysis instrument being formed by the second probe source 2 and the second pump light source 4, optical source wavelength scope is 1310nm, now the coefficient of strain of Brillouin shift and temperature coefficient are respectively C ε 2=500MHz/%, C t2=1.16MHz/ DEG C, as shown in Figure 5; The coefficient of strain C of the Brillouin shift of the Brillouin optical time domain analysis instrument that two optical maser wavelength is different ε 1, C ε 2with temperature coefficient C t1, C t2there is larger difference, can obtain sensor fibre strain value Δ ε (z) and temperature value Δ T (z) everywhere along the line by Simultaneous Equations, realize strain and the temperature simultaneously measuring of the sensor fibre to single kind, solved the problem of temperature and strain cross-sensitivity in brillouin distributed optical fiber sensing.
Embodiment 2:
The device of the present embodiment is similar to Example 1, the wavelength coverage of different is in the present embodiment the second probe source 2 and the second pump light source 4 is (1064 ± 20) nm, particularly, the second probe source 2 is selected the Nd:YAG laser instrument of 1064.26nm, the second pump light source 4 is selected the Nd:YAG laser instrument of 1064.21nm, by temperature or piezoelectric ceramics PZT is tuning or frequency displacement device makes the difference on the frequency of the second probe source 2 and the second pump light source 4 cover Brillouin's frequency spectrum (approximately 13 ~ 17GHz 1064nm) of optical fiber.
The foregoing is only preferred embodiment of the present invention, should not be construed as limiting the scope of the invention.Within the spirit and principles in the present invention all, any type of distortion done, be equal within replacement, improvement etc. all should be included in protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (4)

1. the distribution type optical fiber sensing equipment based on Brillouin scattering, comprise the first probe source, the first pump light source, the first coupling mechanism, the second coupling mechanism, frequency measurement module, survey light output and signal processing module, pump light output module, sensor fibre module, characterized by further comprising the second probe source, the second pump light source, the first optical switch module and the second optical switch module, the first described probe source is connected with two light signal input ends of the first optical switch module respectively with the second probe source, the first described pump light source is connected with two light signal input ends of the second optical switch module respectively with the second pump light source, the light signal output end of the first described optical switch module is connected with the input end of the first coupling mechanism, the light signal output end of the second described optical switch module is connected with the input end of the second coupling mechanism, described frequency measurement module is connected with an output terminal of the first coupling mechanism and the second coupling mechanism respectively, the first described coupling mechanism and another output terminal of the second coupling mechanism are connected with described detection light output and the input end of signal processing module and pump light output module respectively, the output terminal of described detection light output and signal processing module and pump light output module is connected with the two ends of sensor fibre module respectively.
2. a kind of distribution type optical fiber sensing equipment based on Brillouin scattering as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that described the first probe source and the first pump light source have different wavelength coverages from the second probe source and the second pump light source, and wavelength interval is not less than 190nm.
3. a kind of distribution type optical fiber sensing equipment based on Brillouin scattering as claimed in claim 1, is characterized in that the first described optical switch module and the second optical switch module select the first probe source and the first pump light source or the second probe source and the second pump light source light source as Brillouin optical time domain analysis instrument.
4. a kind of distribution type optical fiber sensing equipment based on Brillouin scattering as claimed in claim 3, is characterized in that described the first optical switch module and the second optical switch module are 2 × 1 photoswitches, are provided with two light signal input ends and a light signal output end.
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