CN103674117B - Measure entirely method and device with weak optical fiber Bragg grating temperature and strain based on Raman scattering simultaneously - Google Patents

Measure entirely method and device with weak optical fiber Bragg grating temperature and strain based on Raman scattering simultaneously Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103674117B
CN103674117B CN201310705977.9A CN201310705977A CN103674117B CN 103674117 B CN103674117 B CN 103674117B CN 201310705977 A CN201310705977 A CN 201310705977A CN 103674117 B CN103674117 B CN 103674117B
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optical fiber
temperature
demodulation module
fiber grating
strain
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CN103674117A (en
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唐健冠
陈宏利
邓艳芳
余海湖
杨明红
张翠
于翔
姜德生
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Wuhan Hua Yang Technology Co., Ltd.
Wuhan University of Technology WUT
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HUAZHIYANG PHOTOELECTRIC SYSTEM CO Ltd WUHAN
Wuhan University of Technology WUT
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Abstract

Measure complete in the apparatus and method of weak optical fiber Bragg grating temperature and strain based on Raman scattering: the complete same weak optical fiber Bragg grating that the present invention utilizes wire drawing tower technology dynamically to inscribe ultralow reflectivity continuously using single pulse energy is as sensing probe simultaneously; After pulse signal modulation, its Bragg reflection signal and Raman Back Scattering signal send into high-speed CCD Wavelength demodulation module and La Man temperature demodulation module respectively; Obtain the temperature distribution T at each fiber grating place respectivelyiWith the reflection kernel wavelength X of fiber gratingi; The temperature compensation data of temperature survey as strain-gauging of graceful temperature demodulation module will be drawn, using the correction of the take off data of high-speed CCD Wavelength demodulation module as temperature survey. The present invention can overcome draw that graceful sensing technology precision is low, speed slow, can not the feature such as monitor strain, also simplify complicacy and the operability that Large Copacity low light level grid array fibre becomes cable simultaneously, overcome the cross-sensitivity of grating temperature and strain.

Description

Measure entirely method and device with weak optical fiber Bragg grating temperature and strain based on Raman scattering simultaneously
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of quasi-distributed complete same weak optical fiber Bragg grating sensing and separate conditioning technology, specifically refer to a kind of measure entirely method and device with weak optical fiber Bragg grating temperature and strain based on Raman scattering simultaneously.
Background technology
Temperature and strain are two crucial test parameters that large scale system structural health checks. The stressed condition of structure partial key position is directly connected to the safe service state of structure, and temperature is then relatively big on the impact of the such as massive structure such as concrete dam, Ji Keng, and temperature and stress often cause inside configuration tiny crack equivalent damage occur. Due to the sensitivity of intersecting of temperature with strain, the temperature simultaneously accurately measuring large scale structure is a difficult problem with strain in engineering always.
Distributed Raman fiber sensing by the detection back of the body to stokes and anti-Stokes light realize distributed measurement, although distance sensing is long, but only can measuring tempeature. Quasi-distributed fiber grating sensing system can measuring tempeature and strain, there is the advantage that accurate positioning, measuring accuracy height, demodulation speed are fast, can range of application very wide. But traditional fiber grating sensing system uses high-reflectivity grating to be connected in series by optical fiber splicer, generally carry out demodulation by wavelength-division multiplex, sensing cell capability is little, and the insertion loss that grating and optical fiber fusion welding point position are introduced is big, and its resistance to mechanical intensity can not engineering demands. On the other hand, temperature and strain two physical quantitys are also intersected sensitivity by fiber-optic grating sensor, therefore are difficult to separate in actual applications, bring a lot of inconvenience to measuring. Solve at present temperature and strain to intersect sensitivity problem and typically use reference optical fiber, namely in same environment, by making this reference optical fiber not affect by temperature or strain, then measure this reference optical fiber temperature or strain after, by reference to its temperature or strain, measure strain or the temperature of other optical fiber. But, which brings inconvenience to project installation, and the measuring precision can be brought bigger impact by the measuring accuracy of reference optical fiber.
Summary of the invention
Technical problem to be solved by this invention is just to provide a kind of measures entirely method and device with weak optical fiber Bragg grating temperature and strain based on Raman scattering simultaneously, the deficiency of the above-mentioned quasi-distributed sensing of existing fiber grating can be overcome, its capacity is big, identical with optical fiber without solder joint, fiber grating intensity, and temperature and the strain of sensitive zones can be detected, accuracy of detection height simultaneously.
For solving the problems of the technologies described above, provided by the invention a kind of measure based on Raman scattering complete in the method for weak optical fiber Bragg grating temperature and strain simultaneously, comprise the steps:
1) utilize wire drawing tower technology dynamically to inscribe N number of reflectivity continuously at the complete same weak optical fiber Bragg grating of 0.01%��1% in single-mode fiber wire drawing process, obtain high-capacity optical fiber grating array fibre, as sensing probe;
2) laser by wideband light source and superpower laser accesses a SOA photoswitch after coupling mechanism, the pulse signal being modulated into periodically High Extinction Ratio through surge generator, the pulsewidth �� of pulse signal is corresponding to complete in the interval between weak optical fiber Bragg grating in high-capacity optical fiber grating array fibre; Pulse signal enters high-capacity optical fiber grating array fibre through Coarse Wave Division Multiplexer;
3) wideband light source produces through high-capacity optical fiber grating array fibre reflected signal and superpower laser send into high-speed CCD Wavelength demodulation module and La Man temperature demodulation module respectively through the Raman Back Scattering signal that high-capacity optical fiber grating array fibre produces;
4) based on OTDR(optical time domain reflectometer) technology, by drawing graceful temperature demodulation module distribution formula to obtain the temperature distribution T at each fiber grating placei(i=1,2 ... N);
5), after reflected signal being sent into the 2nd SOA photoswitch amplification, the reflection kernel wavelength X of each fiber grating is obtained through high-speed CCD Wavelength demodulation modulei(i=1,2 ... N), this central wavelength lambdaiAll relevant with temperature with strain; The temperature compensation data of temperature survey as strain-gauging of graceful temperature demodulation module will be drawn, using the correction of the take off data of high-speed CCD Wavelength demodulation module as temperature survey, accurately obtain temperature field information and strain information simultaneously.
In the described step 1) of technique scheme, employing excimer laser during drawing optical fibers, is dynamically inscribed grating continuously with single-pulse laser simultaneously, is then carried out second coat and ultraviolet light polymerization in wire drawing tower system; The interval of described fiber grating is controlled by the pulse-repetition of drawing speed and excimer laser. Sensing probe intensity after dynamically inscribing continuously is the same with ordinary optic fibre intensity.
The described step 2 of technique scheme) in, the operation wavelength of setting superpower laser differs 6��10nm with the centre wavelength of fiber grating in high-capacity optical fiber grating array fibre, for avoiding Raman scattering signal and grating Bragg reflection signal to influence each other.
The described step 5) of technique scheme also comprises the determination operation of fiber grating numbering: the time difference t of the incident light pulse that high-speed CCD Wavelength demodulation module obtains according to two SOA photoswitches and reflection light pulsedCalculate the numbering R:R=c t of each fiber grating in high-capacity optical fiber grating array fibred/ 2n, wherein c is the light velocity, and n is the fiber core refractive index of high-capacity optical fiber grating array fibre.
Provided by the invention a kind of measure based on Raman scattering complete in the device of weak optical fiber Bragg grating temperature and strain simultaneously, comprise wideband light source, superpower laser, surge generator, two SOA photoswitches, three ports annular device, Coarse Wave Division Multiplexer, high-capacity optical fiber grating array fibres, draw graceful temperature demodulation module, high-speed CCD Wavelength demodulation module and computer control unit, described wideband light source and superpower laser are connected with a SOA photoswitch by coupling mechanism, described computer control unit, surge generator and a SOA switch connect successively, for the modulation of pulse signal, three ports of described three port annular devices are connected with a SOA photoswitch, Coarse Wave Division Multiplexer and the 2nd SOA photoswitch respectively, described high-capacity optical fiber grating array fibre be utilize wire drawing tower technology dynamically continuously inscribe on single-mode fiber have multiple reflectivity 0.01%��1% the optical fiber of complete same weak optical fiber Bragg grating, high-capacity optical fiber grating array fibre is connected with Coarse Wave Division Multiplexer, as sensing probe, described the signal input terminus of graceful temperature demodulation module is drawn to be connected with Coarse Wave Division Multiplexer, for receiving the Raman Back Scattering signal of high-capacity optical fiber grating array fibre, the signal input terminus of described high-speed CCD Wavelength demodulation module is connected with the 2nd SOA photoswitch, the reflected signal of high-capacity optical fiber grating array fibre is successively through Coarse Wave Division Multiplexer, three port annular devices and the 2nd SOA photoswitch input high-speed CCD Wavelength demodulation module, the signal input terminus of graceful temperature demodulation module and high-speed CCD Wavelength demodulation module is drawn to be connected with computer control unit respectively, for the process of temperature and strain-gauging signal.
Compared with prior art, the useful effect of the present invention is: 1, have employed high-capacity optical fiber grating array fibre, its utilize in single-mode fiber wire drawing process wire drawing tower technology dynamically inscribe continuously multiple reflectivity 0.01%��1% complete same weak optical fiber Bragg grating, the resistance to mechanical intensity of grating itself is identical with optical fiber, without solder joint, large sstrain can be provided, high-precision sensing, and owing to employing the low light level grid of ultralow reflectivity, the quantity of sensing unit can reach thousands of, thus it is few to overcome the sensing unit that traditional high light grid serial connection technology causes, resistance to mechanical intensity is low, the problem of large sstrain sensing change can not be adapted to, execute-in-place aspect, the laying of high-capacity optical fiber grating array fibre is convenient, it is not necessary to fused fiber splice, reduces the insertion loss of system, 2, can when without the need to reference optical fiber, measuring tempeature and strain, reduce laying and the installation cost of sensor fibre simultaneously.
Accompanying drawing explanation
To be the present invention based on Raman scattering measure Fig. 1 simultaneously entirely illustrates and principle of work figure with the structure of weak optical fiber Bragg grating temperature with the device of strain;
In figure: 1 wideband light source, 2 superpower lasers, 3 coupling mechanisms, 4 the one SOA photoswitches, 5 surge generators, 6 three port annular devices, 7 Coarse Wave Division Multiplexers, 8 high-capacity optical fiber grating array fibres, 9 the 2nd SOA photoswitches, 10 high-speed CCD Wavelength demodulation modules, 11 draw graceful temperature demodulation module, 12 computer control units.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing, specific embodiments of the invention are described in further detail:
As shown in Figure 1, the a kind of of the present invention measures entirely with the device of weak optical fiber Bragg grating temperature and strain based on Raman scattering simultaneously, comprises wideband light source 1, superpower laser 2, surge generator 5, two SOA photoswitch 4,9, three ports annular device 6, Coarse Wave Division Multiplexer 7, high-capacity optical fiber grating array fibres 8, draws graceful temperature demodulation module 11, high-speed CCD Wavelength demodulation module 10 and computer control unit 12. Wideband light source 1 and superpower laser 2 are connected with a SOA photoswitch 4 by coupling mechanism 3. Computer control unit 12, surge generator 5 and a SOA switch 4 connect successively, for the modulation of pulse signal. Three ports of three port annular devices 6 are connected with a SOA photoswitch 4, Coarse Wave Division Multiplexer 7 and the 2nd SOA photoswitch 9 respectively. High-capacity optical fiber grating array fibre 8 for utilize wire drawing tower technology dynamically continuously to inscribe on single-mode fiber to have multiple reflectivity 0.01%��1% the optical fiber of complete same weak optical fiber Bragg grating, it is connected with Coarse Wave Division Multiplexer 7, as sensing probe. The signal input terminus of graceful temperature demodulation module 11 is drawn to be connected with Coarse Wave Division Multiplexer 7, for receiving the Raman Back Scattering signal of high-capacity optical fiber grating array fibre 8. The signal input terminus of high-speed CCD Wavelength demodulation module 10 is connected with the 2nd SOA photoswitch 9, and the reflected signal of high-capacity optical fiber grating array fibre 8 inputs high-speed CCD Wavelength demodulation module 10 through Coarse Wave Division Multiplexer 7, three port annular device 6 and the 2nd SOA photoswitch 9 successively. The signal input terminus of graceful temperature demodulation module 11 and high-speed CCD Wavelength demodulation module 10 is drawn to be connected with computer control unit 12 respectively, for the process of temperature and strain-gauging signal.
In conjunction with said apparatus, the present invention measures entirely being specifically operating as with weak optical fiber Bragg grating temperature and strain based on Raman scattering simultaneously:
1) excimer laser adopting 248nm or 193nm in single-mode fiber wire drawing process simultaneously with single-pulse laser inscribe N number of reflectivity 0.01%��1% complete same weak optical fiber Bragg grating, then second coat and ultraviolet light polymerization is carried out, obtain high-capacity optical fiber grating array fibre 8, as sensing probe, the insertion loss of optical fiber is at 0.2��0.4dB/km, the model of preform is depended in its decay, relevant to the size requirements of fiber grating reflectivity. This operation makes the resistance to mechanical intensity of grating identical with optical fiber, it is not necessary to fused fiber splice, and insertion loss is little, and consistent wavelength is good, and sensing element number is big, measuring accuracy height. The interval of fiber grating is controlled by the frequency of drawing speed and excimer laser;
2) laser by wideband light source 1 and superpower laser 2 accesses a SOA photoswitch 4 after coupling mechanism 3, the pulse signal of periodically High Extinction Ratio (extinction ratio > 40dB) it is modulated into through surge generator 5, the pulsewidth �� of pulse signal is corresponding to complete in the interval delta R between weak optical fiber Bragg grating in high-capacity optical fiber grating array fibre 8, �� R=c ��/2n, wherein c is the light velocity, n is the fiber core refractive index of high-capacity optical fiber grating array fibre 8, namely arranges the whole spatial resolution drawing graceful sensor-based system identical with the grating interval of high-capacity optical fiber grating array fibre 8. In the present embodiment, the operation wavelength of wideband light source 1 is at 1554��1560nm, and the centre wavelength of superpower laser 2 is near 1548nm, and its Rayleigh scattering signal, Stokes signal and anti-Stokes signal are all not overlapping with the reflected signal of low light level grid with complete. Pulse signal after modulation enters high-capacity optical fiber grating array fibre 8 through three port annular devices 6, Coarse Wave Division Multiplexer 7;
3) wideband light source 1 produces through high-capacity optical fiber grating array fibre 8 reflected signal and the Raman Back Scattering signal (Stokes signal and anti-Stokes signal) that superpower laser 2 produces through high-capacity optical fiber grating array fibre 8 send into high-speed CCD Wavelength demodulation module 10 and La Man temperature demodulation module 11 respectively through Coarse Wave Division Multiplexer 7;
4) based on OTDR technique, by drawing the distributed temperature distribution T obtaining each fiber grating place of graceful temperature demodulation module 11i(i=1,2 ... N), i is corresponding to the position of spatial resolution every in high-capacity optical fiber grating array fibre 8;
5) by reflected signal successively through sending into after the 2nd SOA photoswitch 9 amplifies through Coarse Wave Division Multiplexer 7, three port annular device 6, the reflection kernel wavelength X of each fiber grating is obtained through high-speed CCD Wavelength demodulation module 10i(i=1,2 ... N). Owing to the centre wavelength of weak optical fiber Bragg grating is intersected sensitivity by temperature and strain, and bragg reflection wavelength with temperature with straining linear change, strain drawing graceful temperature sensing then not produce any impact, according to fiber grating reflected wavelength lambdai=��i0+CT��Ti+C������i, wherein ��i0For the reflection wavelength of initial i-th grating, CT��C��It is respectively temperature and the gauge factor (two coefficients are demarcated before measuring) of fiber grating. Assume that optical fiber is temperature-resistant in the scope of the same space resolving power, according to the temperature distribution T drawing graceful temperature demodulation module 11 to obtaini, the reflected wavelength lambda of each fiber grating can be obtained by high-speed CCD Wavelength demodulation module 10i, thus obtain the STRESS VARIATION situation �� �� of each point on high-capacity optical fiber grating array fibre 8. The time difference t of the incident light pulse that high-speed CCD Wavelength demodulation module 10 obtains according to two SOA photoswitches 4,9 and reflection light pulsedCalculate the numbering R:R=c t of each fiber grating in high-capacity optical fiber grating array fibre 8d/2n��
The core of the present invention is the setting of high-capacity optical fiber grating array fibre 8 on the one hand so that the resistance to mechanical intensity of grating itself is identical with optical fiber, without solder joint, it may be possible to provide large sstrain, high-precision sensing, and the quantity of sensing unit can reach thousands of; It is high-speed CCD Wavelength demodulation module 10 and the configuration of La Man temperature demodulation module 11 on the other hand, the temperature compensation data of temperature survey as strain-gauging of graceful temperature demodulation module 11 can be drawn, using the correction of the take off data of high-speed CCD Wavelength demodulation module 10 as temperature survey, accurately obtain temperature field information and strain information simultaneously. So, its protection domain is not limited to above-described embodiment. Obviously, the present invention can be carried out various change and distortion and not depart from the scope of the present invention and spirit by the technician of this area, such as: in high-capacity optical fiber grating array fibre 8, the parameter such as the spatial resolution of fiber grating, quantity depends on customer need, control by the frequency of drawing speed and excimer laser, the concrete numerical value being not limited in embodiment; The operation wavelength of wideband light source 1 and superpower laser 2 is also not limited to above-mentioned concrete numerical value, as long as avoiding scattered signal and reflected signal eclipse effect to measure and can wait. If these are changed and are out of shape in the scope belonging to the claims in the present invention and equivalent technologies thereof, then the present invention also is intended to comprise these changes and distortion.

Claims (5)

1. measure complete in the method for weak optical fiber Bragg grating temperature and strain based on Raman scattering for one kind simultaneously, it is characterised in that, comprise the steps:
1) utilize wire drawing tower technology dynamically to inscribe N number of reflectivity continuously at the complete same weak optical fiber Bragg grating of 0.01%��1% in single-mode fiber wire drawing process, obtain high-capacity optical fiber grating array fibre (8), as sensing probe;
2) laser by wideband light source (1) and superpower laser (2) accesses a SOA photoswitch (4) after coupling mechanism (3), the pulse signal being modulated into periodically High Extinction Ratio through surge generator (5), the pulsewidth �� of pulse signal is corresponding to complete in the interval between weak optical fiber Bragg grating in high-capacity optical fiber grating array fibre (8); Pulse signal enters high-capacity optical fiber grating array fibre (8) through Coarse Wave Division Multiplexer (7);
3) wideband light source (1) produces through high-capacity optical fiber grating array fibre (8) reflected signal and superpower laser (2) are sent into high-speed CCD Wavelength demodulation module (10) respectively through the Raman Back Scattering signal that high-capacity optical fiber grating array fibre (8) produces and draw graceful temperature demodulation module (11);
4) based on OTDR technique, by drawing the distributed temperature distribution T obtaining each fiber grating place of graceful temperature demodulation module (11)i, i=1,2 ... N;
5), after reflected signal being sent into the 2nd SOA photoswitch (9) amplification, the reflection kernel wavelength X of each fiber grating is obtained through high-speed CCD Wavelength demodulation module (10)i, i=1,2 ... N, this central wavelength lambdaiAll relevant with temperature with strain; The temperature compensation data of temperature survey as strain-gauging of graceful temperature demodulation module (11) will be drawn, using the correction of the take off data of high-speed CCD Wavelength demodulation module (10) as temperature survey, accurately obtain temperature field information and strain information simultaneously.
2. according to claim 1 measure based on Raman scattering simultaneously complete in the method for weak optical fiber Bragg grating temperature and strain, it is characterized in that: described step 1) in, adopt excimer laser in wire drawing tower system during drawing optical fibers, dynamically inscribe grating continuously with single-pulse laser simultaneously, then carry out second coat and ultraviolet light polymerization; The interval of described fiber grating is controlled by the pulse-repetition of drawing speed and excimer laser.
3. according to claim 1 measure based on Raman scattering simultaneously complete in the method for weak optical fiber Bragg grating temperature and strain, it is characterized in that: described step 2) in, the operation wavelength of setting superpower laser (2) differs 6��10nm with the centre wavelength of fiber grating in high-capacity optical fiber grating array fibre (8), for avoiding Raman scattering signal and grating Bragg reflection signal to influence each other.
4. according to measuring entirely with the method for weak optical fiber Bragg grating temperature and strain based on Raman scattering described in any claim in claims 1 to 3 simultaneously, it is characterized in that, described step 5) also comprise the determination operation of fiber grating numbering: the time difference t of the incident light pulse that high-speed CCD Wavelength demodulation module (10) obtains according to two SOA photoswitches (4,9) and reflection light pulsedCalculate the numbering R:R=c t of each fiber grating in high-capacity optical fiber grating array fibre (8)d/ 2n, wherein c is the light velocity, and n is the fiber core refractive index of high-capacity optical fiber grating array fibre (8).
5. measure complete in the device of weak optical fiber Bragg grating temperature and strain based on Raman scattering for one kind simultaneously, it is characterised in that: comprise wideband light source (1), superpower laser (2), surge generator (5), two SOA photoswitches (4,9), the annular device (6) of three ports, Coarse Wave Division Multiplexer (7), high-capacity optical fiber grating array fibres (8), draw graceful temperature demodulation module (11), high-speed CCD Wavelength demodulation module (10) and computer control unit (12), described wideband light source (1) and superpower laser (2) are connected with a SOA photoswitch (4) by coupling mechanism (3), described computer control unit (12), surge generator (5) and a SOA switch (4) connect successively, for the modulation of pulse signal, three ports of described three ports annular device (6) are connected with a SOA photoswitch (4), Coarse Wave Division Multiplexer (7) and the 2nd SOA photoswitch (9) respectively, described high-capacity optical fiber grating array fibre (8) for utilize wire drawing tower technology dynamically continuously to inscribe on single-mode fiber to have multiple reflectivity 0.01%��1% the optical fiber of complete same weak optical fiber Bragg grating, high-capacity optical fiber grating array fibre (8) is connected with Coarse Wave Division Multiplexer (7), as sensing probe, described the signal input terminus of graceful temperature demodulation module (11) is drawn to be connected with Coarse Wave Division Multiplexer (7), for receiving the Raman Back Scattering signal of high-capacity optical fiber grating array fibre (8), the signal input terminus of described high-speed CCD Wavelength demodulation module (10) is connected with the 2nd SOA photoswitch (9), the reflected signal of high-capacity optical fiber grating array fibre (8) is successively through Coarse Wave Division Multiplexer (7), three ports annular device (6) and the 2nd SOA photoswitch (9) input high-speed CCD Wavelength demodulation module (10), the signal output terminal of graceful temperature demodulation module (11) and high-speed CCD Wavelength demodulation module (10) is drawn to be connected with computer control unit (12) respectively, for the process of temperature and strain-gauging signal.
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Co-patentee after: Wuhan Hua Yang Technology Co., Ltd.

Patentee after: Wuhan University of Technology

Address before: 430070 Hubei Province, Wuhan city Hongshan District Luoshi Road No. 122

Co-patentee before: Huazhiyang Photoelectric System Co., Ltd., Wuhan

Patentee before: Wuhan University of Technology