CN100343770C - Intelligent control system for digital control machine tool and control method thereof - Google Patents

Intelligent control system for digital control machine tool and control method thereof Download PDF

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CN100343770C
CN100343770C CN 200510044600 CN200510044600A CN100343770C CN 100343770 C CN100343770 C CN 100343770C CN 200510044600 CN200510044600 CN 200510044600 CN 200510044600 A CN200510044600 A CN 200510044600A CN 100343770 C CN100343770 C CN 100343770C
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workpiece
machine
position
host computer
tool
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CN1740932A (en
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张承瑞
徐晓东
邵峰
王金江
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山东大学
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Abstract

本发明公开了一种数控车床的智能控制系统及其控制方法。 The present invention discloses an intelligent control system and control method for numerically controlled lathe. 它解决了现有数控机床为接触式测量装置,只能静态测量工件,无法与数控系统结合提供在线测量,加工与工艺相分离,由不同的工作人员分别完成,导致工艺设计周期延长的问题,具有配置合理,自动化程度高,成本较低,易于同现有车床结合,能有效缩短工艺设计周期等优点。 It solves the CNC machine-contact measuring apparatus, the workpiece measuring only static, can not be combined with the numerical control system to provide on-line measurement, processing and technology phase separation by different staff were completed, resulting in a prolonged cycle process design problems, with reasonable configuration, high degree of automation, low cost, easily integrated with existing lathes, advantage of the process can shorten the design cycle and the like. 其技术方案为:它由数控车床、上位机、下位机组成,上位机与下位机组成开放式的控制系统,上位机和下位机间通过USB串行通信联系;在数控车床上还有光电检测装置,该光电检测装置与下位机连接,并能在不接触回转体工件条件下对工件进行定位和尺寸测量,然后将测量信息反馈回上位机,实现在线检测。 Technical scheme: It consists of CNC lathes, PC, lower machine composed of PC and lower machine consisting of an open control system, between the upper and lower machine Information USB serial communication; NC lathe there photodetector means connected to the photodetector means and the next machine, and to the size and positioning of the workpiece measured at the workpiece does not contact the rotors conditions, then the measurement information back to the host computer, on line.

Description

一种数控车床的智能控制系统及其控制方法 CNC Machine intelligent control system and control method

技术领域 FIELD

本发明涉及一种数控车床,尤其涉及一种数控车床的智能控制系统及其控制方法。 The present invention relates to a lathe, particularly to a numerically controlled lathe intelligent control system and control method.

背景技术 Background technique

数控系统从50年代发明以来,经历了由硬接线数控装置NC向基于计算机的CNC发展的过程,基于计算机的开放式体系结构使数控系统有更好的通用性、柔性、适应性、扩展性,并向智能化、网络化方向发展。 From the numerical control system since the 1950s to the invention, subjected to a process by the hard-wired to a numerical control device NC CNC computer-based development of the numerical control system has better versatility, flexibility, adaptability and scalability based on open architecture of the computer, and intelligent, network-oriented development. 高端的数控机床具有集加工与测量于一体的功能,目前主要有用于镗铣床接触式探针测头或昂贵的非接触式激光测量系统,在车磨回转类加工机床中采用的测量传感系统大多为接触式测量装置。 High-end CNC machine tools has a function of processing and set in one measurement, there are mainly, sensing system for measuring boring machine touch probe or probe expensive non-contact laser measuring system employed in the vehicle for rotational processing machine grinding most of the contact measurement apparatus. 且这些测量装置通常仅用于工件或刀具的定位,尺寸测量等固定功能,没有实现和数控系统的有机结合完成加工过程的智能化。 And these devices are generally used only for measuring the workpiece or the tool is positioned, fixed size measurement function, and an organic binder is not achieved complete process intelligent CNC system. 同时目前普及型以下的数控机床通常都没有测量装置。 While the current universal CNC machine tools are often not the measurement device.

发明内容 SUMMARY

本发明的目的就是为了解决现有数控机床为接触式测量装置,只能静态地测量工件,无法与数控系统结合提供在线测量,加工与工艺相分离,由不同的工作人员分别完成,导致工艺设计周期延长的问题,提供一种具有配置合理,自动化程度高,成本较低,易于同现有车床结合,能有效缩短工艺设计周期等优点的数控车床智能控制系统及其控制方法。 Object of the present invention is to solve the conventional NC machine tool is a contact type measuring apparatus can measure the workpiece statically, in conjunction with the numerical control system can not provide on-line measurement, processing and technology phase separation by different staff were completed, resulting in process design problems extended period, to provide a reasonable configuration, a high degree of automation, low cost, easily integrated with existing lathes, can shorten the design cycle process advantages such as CNC lathe intelligent control system and control method.

为实现上述目的,本发明采用了如下技术方案:一种数控车床的智能控制系统,它由数控车床、上位机、下位机组成,它采用上位机与下位机组成开放式的控制系统,即由上位机完成CAD图形信息提取、刀具路径智能规划、工艺参数数据库优化、数控代码自动生成、加工仿真的任务;下位机安装在数控车床上,进行在线测量,电机控制,直线、圆弧插补运算,完成工件的加工;上位机和下位机间通过USB串行通信联系;在数控车床上还有光电检测装置,该光电检测装置与下位机连接,并能在不接触回转体工件条件下对工件进行定位和尺寸测量,然后将测量信息反馈回上位机,实现在线检测。 To achieve the above object, the present invention adopts the following technical solution: A CNC lathe intelligent control system, which consists of CNC lathes, the host computer, the next crew composition, which uses the host computer and the next machine composed of an open control system, i.e. the PC complete CAD graphic information extraction tool path intelligent planning, optimization of process parameters database, NC code generation, simulation processing tasks; lower installed in NC lathe, on-line measurement, motor control, linear and circular interpolation operation completed workpieces; a communication link between the upper and lower machine USB serial; connected to the lower machine CNC lathe also photo-detection device, the photo-detection device, and can not contact with the rotary body work conditions workpiece positioning and measurement, and the measurement information back to the host computer, on line.

所述上位机为PC计算机,所述下位机为型号为TMS320LF2407A的DSP芯片,所述USB串行通信为带有并行总线和局部DMA传输能力的高速USB芯片,其型号为PDIUSBD12。 The PC is a PC, the machine is a model for the lower TMS320LF2407A DSP chip, said USB serial communication with the high-speed USB chip parallel bus and the local DMA-capable, the model for PDIUSBD12.

所述光电检测装置为它包括安装在数控车床的车床刀架上的刀柄,以及与刀柄连接的刀头,在刀头两相对端内侧有至少一对相配合的光电检测器,光电检测器与下位机连接。 Said handle means is a photodetector comprising a lathe tool holder mounted on a CNC lathe, and the cutting head and shank connected at opposite ends of the inner side of the tip has at least one pair of cooperating photodetector, the photodetector connected with lower computer.

所述刀头为U型,光电检测器为一对激光二极管和光敏二极管,分别安装在刀头的两相对平行端内侧的相应位置。 The U-shaped head, the photodetector is a photodiode and the laser diode, respectively mounted on respective opposite parallel end position of the inside tip.

一种数控车床的智能控制方法,它的步骤为:a上位机提取CAD图形信息;b下位机将数控车床初始化等待上位机的命令;c上位机通过USB串行通信向下位机发出测量命令,并获取反馈的测量信息;下位机启动测量功能获得加工件的初始尺寸和定位信息,并反馈回上位机;d上位机基于所得测量信息对刀具路径进行智能规划、基于智能工艺数据库选择加工工艺参数、自动生成数控代码、加工仿真和数控代码检查、将检查过的数控代码传送给下位机并控制监控下位机工作状态;e下位机接收数控代码,控制电机按数控指令运行,完成数控加工同时将加工中的状态信息反馈给上位机;f加工完成后,上位机再次启动测量功能,对工件尺寸和形状进行自动检测,实现加工质量的主动控制;g下位机接受上位机命令后再次启动测量功能对工件的关键尺寸和形状等质量状 Intelligent control method of a numerically controlled lathe, it steps of: a host computer extracts CAD graphics information; lower machine B will wait for the initialization NC lathe PC commands; C measurement command issued by host computer through a USB serial communication down-bit machine, and obtain measurement information feedback; lower machine to start measurement functions obtained original size and location information of the workpiece, and fed back to the host computer; D PC based on the obtained measurement information for intelligent planning tool path select process parameters based on intelligent process database automatically generating NC code, process simulation and NC code inspection, the inspected NC code is transmitted to the lower computer and controls to monitor the lower machine operating state; E lower machine receiving NC code, the control motor runs numerical control commands, complete CNC machining while status information processing feedback to the host computer; F processing is completed, the host computer starts again the measurement function on the workpiece size and shape to automatically detect the active control processing quality; G lower machine after receiving the host computer a command to start measurement function again of critical dimensions and shape of a workpiece shaped like mass 态进行在线检测,并反馈上位机。 State line detection, and feedback PC.

在所述步骤a中上位机读取CAD绘图中的图形交换文件DXF,读取时判断是否为实体段,即构成轮廓的各个实体的坐标,若为实体段,则判断实体类型为直线、圆还是圆弧;若为直线,则要提取直线的起始点与终点坐标;若为圆弧,则要提取圆心的坐标与半径和起、终点的弧度值;由于实体信息的顺序在DXF文件中是按照画图时的顺序排列,因此需进行排序,重新组成零件的轮廓;在所述步骤d中对刀具路径智能规划,即建立待加工零件的外轮廓描述链;然后逐段偏移求交,进行拓扑检查以消除偏移轮廓的自交;最后采用平行合并和等距线裁剪优化方法得最终的加工轨迹,生成刀位文件;基于智能工艺数据库选择加工工艺参数,它根据加工条件参数与工艺数据库中的数据对比后,合理选择切削加工工艺参数及相应的刀具参数;数控代码自动生成,上位机逐 a PC read in step Drawing Interchange File DXF CAD drawing, it is determined whether the entity section, constitute the coordinates of the contour of the entities read, if the segment is an entity, the entity type is determined as a straight line, circle or arc; if it is a straight line, they have to extract the starting point of the line end coordinates; if an arc, will have to extract coordinates of the center and from the radius, the value of the end point of the arc; because of the entity is information in the DXF file when the arrangement order of drawing, and therefore need be sorted, reconstituted outlines of the parts; intelligent planning tool path, i.e., to establish the outer contour of the chain to be machined is described in the step d; and piecewise offset intersection, for check topology to eliminate self-offset profile; Finally parallel and equidistant lines were combined to yield a final crop optimization processing path to generate cutter location; selection of process parameters based on intelligent process database, according to which the database processing conditions and process parameters after the comparison of the data, a reasonable choice of parameters and the corresponding cutting tool parameters; NC code is generated automatically, by the host computer 读入刀位文件,判断是工艺参数,还是加工实体,若为工艺参数则记录下其数值,若为加工实体则记录其类型,起点和终点等参数,按照所用的数控系统的格式要求,写入数控代码文件中;加工仿真和数控代码检查,它对整个数控程序正确性进行检验,是生成加工指令的逆过程,即将数控程序转化为图形文件,并将其表现出来。 Reading cutter location file, determining a process parameter, or the processing entity, at when to process parameters of the recorded value, if it is processing an entity of type, start and end parameters are recorded according to the format required numerical control system used is, write the CNC code file; machining simulation and NC code checking, tested the correctness of the entire NC program is generated processing instruction of the reverse process, ie NC program into a graphic file and show it out.

在所述步骤c中,下位机控制光电检测装置进行测量工作过程为,首先,数控机床启动后刀架先回机床零点,并通过换刀命令使测量装置处于工作位置,即测量装置面向待加工件,此时即建立了测量装置在机床坐标系中的位置;对于工件回转类加工机床工件坐标系的X向原点通常与机床坐标系原点即回转中心重合;其次,确定工件坐标系原点在机床坐标系中的位置,它包括工件坐标系X向坐标原点在机床坐标系位置的确定,测量装置随刀架沿Z向运行至最靠近主轴卡盘位置处,此位置控制系统可以设置,Z向停止运动,然后刀架沿X向向工件靠近,此过程中,由于工件的遮挡,光接收装置处必然会发生光信号由有到无,再从无到有的过程,进而转化为电压的由低到高,再由高到低的过程,即电压变化存在一个上跳沿和一个下降沿,这一变化可以引发下位机 In said step (c), the position control means photodetector measuring the work process, first, the CNC machine tool rest to return to start the machine zero, and the measuring apparatus by the tool change command in the operating position, i.e. facing the measuring apparatus to be processed member, i.e., this time to establish a position-measuring device in the machine coordinate system; the origin for X Rotational workpiece processing machine the workpiece coordinate system is generally coincident with the origin of the machine coordinate system, i.e., the rotational center; secondly, to determine the origin of the workpiece coordinate system in the machine position coordinate system, which includes a workpiece coordinate system X in position on the machine coordinate system to determine the origin of coordinates, with the measuring device to run the tool carrier in the Z direction at the position closest to the spindle chuck, this position control system may be provided, to Z stop motion, and the tool holder in the X direction closer to the workpiece, during which, due to occlusion of the workpiece, light receiving means at the optical signal by the process to have no, then the scratch is bound to happen, and then converted to a voltage by low to high, from high to low and then present process, i.e., a voltage change on a positive edge and a falling edge, this change can trigger the next crew 捕获中断,通过这种方式,系统可以探测电平跳变处的位置,而电平跳变处的位置正是工件的轮廓位置处,两次电平的跳变,可以使系统记录工件两个轮廓在机床坐标系X向上的两个坐标值X1和X2,则工件坐标系原点X0=(X1+X2)/2,工件的直径D=(X2-X1)/2;工件坐标系Z向坐标原点在机床坐标系位置的确定,在上一步骤中,由于已经确定了X0,则刀架沿X向将激光发射装置调整到X0位置处,此时X向停止,然后刀架沿Z向向其正方向移动,当测量位置处于工件的端面时,光接收装置处的光信号由无到有,电信号由高到低变化时,系统探测到电平的跳变处的Z向位置,其即为工件坐标系Z向坐标原点在机床坐标系位置;再次,工件尺寸的测定,工件尺寸的测定过程,雷同工件坐标系的建立过程,可以确定任何位置处工件的轮廓尺寸信息;最后,测量结束后,刀架返 Capture interrupt, in this way, the system can detect the position of the transition on the flat, and at a position at the level of transition on the contour position is a workpiece, the two transition levels, the system can record two workpieces two contour coordinate values ​​X1 and X2 direction X machine coordinate system, the origin of the workpiece coordinate system X0 = (X1 + X2) / 2, the workpiece diameter D = (X2-X1) / 2; Z-coordinate of the workpiece coordinate system determining the position of the origin of the machine coordinate system, in the previous step, since X0 has been determined, the adjustment holder in the X direction to the laser emitting apparatus X0 at a position in which the X-direction is stopped, and the Z-direction to the tool holder its positive direction, when measured at the position of the end face of the workpiece, light receiving means at a signal that there is no, an electrical signal changes from high to low, the system detects the transition at the Z level to the position, which Z is the workpiece coordinate system to the machine coordinate system the position of the origin of coordinates; again, measured size of the workpiece, the workpiece size determination process, the process of establishing similar workpiece coordinate system can be determined at any position of the size information of the contour of the workpiece; Finally, the measurement When finished, return the tool holder 换刀点,通过换刀命令使刀架转位,使下一工序使用的刀具处在工作位置处,然后进行正常切削加工即可。 Tool change, tool change command by indexing the tool post, the tool used in the next step at the operating position, and then cutting to normal.

在所述步骤e中,下位机预处理完毕计算出其必要参数,然后按照上位机优化路径进行插补计算,实时计算出插补数据,并送入输出模块,以驱动电机运行。 In step e, the lower machine finished pre-calculate its necessary parameters, and then an interpolation calculation according to the PC optimal path, in real time to calculate the interpolation data, and sent to the output module, to drive the motor.

所述插补计算采用数据采样插补法,包括直线插补法和圆弧插补法。 The interpolation calculation using interpolation data sampling, including linear interpolation and circular interpolation methods.

本发明采用上位机+下位机(PC+NC)构成开放式体系结构,选用高速DSP作为CPU来完成实时性的下位机内核任务,实现电机实时控制以及在线检测,而由上位机来完成非实时性的任务,诸如编程模块中的图形信息提取,通过USB串行通信实现上、下位机信息的交互。 The present invention is the use of PC + lower machine (PC + NC) constituting an open architecture, the choice of high-speed DSP as the CPU to complete the real-time under the crew kernel task, implement a motor real-time control and on-line detection, and accomplished by the host computer non-real time of tasks such as the graphical information extraction program module, via the USB serial communication interact bit information at the machine. 系统创造性的设计一种非接触式光电测量装置,实现了工件坐标系的自动建立;并通过对加工过程中对工件的工序尺寸进行在线检测,实现刀具尺寸自动补偿;以及在加工结束后对工件尺寸和形状的自动检测,实现加工质量的主动控制;采用基于图形的自动编程系统,充分利用提取的AUTOCAD图形的几何信息,并结合通过测量获取的实际轮廓信息,自动规划车削加工路径,实现自动编程功能。 System creative design a non-contact optoelectronic measurement device, to achieve the automatic establishment of the workpiece coordinate system; and through the processing of the step size of the workpiece is detected online, the size of the tool to achieve automatic compensation; and after the machining of the workpiece automatically detecting the size and shape to achieve machining quality active control; geometric information pattern of the automatic programming system based on full use of AUTOCAD pattern extracted, and the actual contour information acquired by the measurement, automatic programming turning path, automatic programming. 通过引入测量系统,提高了数控车床的精度、生产效率和自动化程度,同时基于测量的加工路径规划功能使得数控车床的加工操作更加简便,使数控车床具有了智能性。 By introducing the measuring system to improve the accuracy, efficiency and automation CNC lathes, machining path based on the measured while planning function such CNC lathe machining operations easier, so that the CNC lathe having intelligence. 通过本发明的实施,可提高数控车床的生产效率,提升智能化和自动化的水平,降低对操作人员的要求,有利于实现智能化控制。 By the embodiment of the present invention, productivity can be improved CNC lathe, enhance the level of intelligence and automation, reduce the requirement for the operator, it is conducive to intelligent control. 本发明的优点还有,非接触式快速在线测量装置,具有安装方便,使用灵活,制作容易,成本低廉;测量信息直接反馈到上位机,由其实现刀具加工路径的智能规划,可以减少工人对数控加工过程的干预;将工艺与加工结合起来,通过交互式的工艺参数选择或工艺数据库的智能学习功能,可以方便地将工艺设计加入数控加工过程中,极大地缩短了工艺设计周期;的CAD图形信息提取功能及自动编程功能,免除了传统的G代码编程,可以减少数控车床操作人员的劳动量,使数控车削加工更加简便。 There are advantages of the present invention, the non-contact measuring device fast online, with easy installation, flexible, easy to manufacture, low cost; direct feedback measurement information to the host computer, intelligent planning tool by the machining path can be reduced workers intervention NC machining process; and processing the combined process together, select or intelligent learning process by the interactive database process parameters, process design can easily be added to the NC machining process, greatly shortening the design cycle process; of CAD graphics information extract function and automatic programming function, eliminating the traditional G-code programming, can reduce the amount of labor CNC lathe operator to make turning easier NC.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

图1为本发明的系统框图;图2为本发明的光电检测装置结构示意图;图3为本发明的控制流程图;图4为本发明光电检测装置确定坐标系的Z轴零点结构示意图;图5为本发明光电检测装置确定坐标系的X轴零点结构示意图。 Figure 1 is a block diagram of the system of the invention; photodetecting means schematic structural diagram 2 of the present invention; FIG. 3 is a control flowchart of the invention; zero schematic structure of the Z-axis photodetector means 4 determines the coordinate system of the present invention; FIG. 5 a schematic view of photodetector means zero configuration system to determine the X-axis coordinate of the present invention.

具体实施方式 Detailed ways

下面结合附图与实施例对本发明作进一步说明。 The present invention is further described below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings and embodiments.

图1给出了本发明控制系统的组成。 Figure 1 shows the composition of a control system of the present invention. 它有上位机1,上位机1是计算机;下位机2为数控车床上的控制装置,它为型号是TMS320LF2407A的DSP芯片;上位机1和下位机2间通过USB串行通信3联系它是采用了带有并行总线和局部DMA传输能力的高速USB,其型号为PDIUSBD12。 It has a host computer 1, host computer 1 is a computer; lower machine 2 to the control apparatus NC lathe, which is a model is TMS320LF2407A DSP chip; host computer 1 and the lower machine room 2 through the USB serial communications 3 Information It is the use of with the parallel bus and a local high-speed DMA transfer capability of USB, which model PDIUSBD12. 上位机1通过相应软件可进行CAD图形信息的提取、刀具路径的智能规划、工艺参数数据库优化、数控代码的生成以及加工仿真。 PC 1 may be extracted by appropriate software CAD graphics information, intelligent planning, process parameters optimized tool path databases, and generates the NC machining simulation code. 下位机2通过光电检测装置3实现在线测量、并控制电机的运行、直线圆弧插补法对刀具的加工量进行补偿。 Lower machine 2, the linear interpolation arc machining tool is compensated by an amount of operation of the photodetector means 3 for online measurement and control of the motor. 整个系统以上位机1和下位机2构成开放式系统,光电检测装置3可将检测的信息在线反馈到上位机1,由上位机1对刀具加工路径进行智能规划。 Over the entire system 1 and the lower bit unit 2 constituting an open system, the photodetector means 3 may be detected information Feedback to the host computer 1, the tool 1 intelligent machining path planning by the host computer.

图2,光电检测装置3有一刀柄4,它可安装在数控车床的车床刀架上,刀柄4上有刀头5,刀头5的两平行端内侧为一对激光二极管和光敏二极管组成的光电检测器6。 2, the photodetector means 3 has a handle 4, which can be mounted on a CNC lathe lathe tool holder, the tool holder 4 has a tip 5, the inner ends of two parallel tip 5 of the laser diode and a photodiode consisting of photodetector 6. 该光电检测装置可随车床刀架一起运动,完成对坏转工件的测量。 The photodetector means may be moved together with the lathe tool holder, completion of the measurement of the workpiece transfer bad. 测量结果可通过相应的电路处理后直接反馈给上位机1。 After the measurement results may be fed back via a respective circuit for processing directly to a host computer.

图3为给出了本发明的控制流程图。 Figure 3 shows a control flowchart for the present invention. 其工作过程为:a上位机1提取CAD图形信息,每个CAD系统都有自己的数据文件,数据文件分图形数据文件、几何模型文件和产品模型文件几种,DXF为AutoCAD系统的图形数据文件,具有专门格式的ASCII码文本文件,它易于被其它程序处理,主要用于实现高级语言编写的程序与AutoCAD系统的连接,或其它CAD系统与AutoCAD系统交换图形文件,DXF文件本质上是由成对的代码和与代码关联的值组成的。 The working process is: a PC CAD 1 extract graphical information, each system has its own CAD data files, data files divided graphic data files, geometric model files and model files of several products, DXF AutoCAD graphic data file system , ASCII text file with a special code format that is easy to deal with other programs, mainly for achieving high-level language programs written in connection with the AutoCAD system, or other CAD system and AutoCAD drawing file system swap, the DXF file is essentially made to values ​​associated with the code and the code thereof. 这些代码(即组码)不仅指出了其后关联的数(组值)的类型,而且与此组值配对,通过使用这些配对的组码和组值,DXF文件被组织成区域,在DXF文件中,每个组码和每个组值都各占一行,组码是一个非零的正整数,相当于数据类型代码,每个组码的含义是由AutoCAD系统约定好的,组的第二行为组值,相当于数据的值,采用的格式取决于组码指定的组的类型,组码和组值合起来表示一个数据的含义和它的值,每个区域都是以一个其后跟随着字符串SECTION的组码0开始,接着是组码2和表示区域名称的字符串,每个区域都是由定义它的元素的组码和组值组成,其后跟着字符串ENDSEC的组码0表示该区域结束。 Code (i.e. code group) not only indicates the type of number (set value) of the subsequent associated, this group and paired with values, by using the group code and group values ​​of these pairs, a DXF file is organized into regions, the DXF file each of the groups and the code values ​​for each separate line group, the group code is a nonzero positive integer, corresponds to the data type code, the meaning of each code group are well agreed upon by AutoCAD system, a second group group behavior values, values ​​corresponding to the data format used depends on the type of group code specified group, the group code and group together represent the meanings of a value of data and its value, in each region is followed by a a group code string SECTION 0 starts, then a group of 2 code string representing the name of the region, each region is defined by its elements and the set of values ​​comprising code group, followed thereafter group code string ENDSEC 0 indicates the end of the region. 分析车削加工零件的几何信息,即从CAD软件中得到的图形,可以认为从DXF读得的零件的几何信息主要由直线和圆弧组成,对于由其它曲线组成的表面轮廓段,根据加工精度的要求,可以采用插值算法将其换算为直线或圆弧,描述直线、圆弧和螺纹的方法很多,根据DXF文件的数据描述,直线用起点坐标和终点坐标描述,圆弧则采用圆心坐标、半径、圆弧起始角度、圆弧终止角度加以描述,对于车削加工零件的自动编程,最关键的部分就是构成轮廓的各个实体的坐标在DXF文件中,一切实体都在“ENTITIES”区域中说明,按照“ENTITIES″中LINE,ARC等实体的说明格式,可以读取其构成要素,如:起点、终点、圆心、起始角度、终止角度、半径等,按加工方向排列构成轮廓的实体,如直线、圆弧、螺纹、辅助结构,提取图形信息时,打开dxf文件,读入一行记录 Analysis turning parts of the geometric information, that is obtained from the CAD graphics software, it can be read that information from the DXF geometrical part mainly composed of straight lines and arcs, the surface profile curve composed of other segments, according to the machining precision claim interpolation algorithm may be employed which is converted into a line or arc, the method described in many lines, arcs and threaded DXF file from the data description, is described by a straight line starting point and end point, is used an arc center coordinates, radius , the initial angle of the circular arc, the arc end angle be described, programmed for automatically turning parts, the most critical part of the contour is composed coordinates the various entities in the DXF file, all entities in "eNTITIES" area description, follow the instructions format "eNTITIES" in LINE, ARC and other entities, which can be read components, such as: start, end, center, start angle, end angle, radius, arranged according to the processing entities constituting the contour direction, such as linear , arcuate, threaded, secondary structure, when extracting graphic information, open dxf file, reads a row 判断是否为实体段,若为实体段,则判断实体类型为直线、圆还是圆弧,若为直线,则要提取直线的起始点与终点坐标,若为圆,则要提取圆心的坐标与半径,若为圆弧,还需提取起始、终点的弧度值,由于实体信息的顺序在dxf文件中是按照画图时的顺序排列,因此需进行排序,重新组成零件的轮廓;b下位机2将数控车床初始化等待上位机1的命令;c上位机1通过USB串行通信3向下位机2发出测量命令,下位机2通过光电检测装置对工件进行检测后获取初始尺寸和定位信息,并由USB串行通信送入上位机1,首先,数控机床启动后刀架先回机床零点,并通过换刀命令使测量装置处于工作位置,即测量装置面向待加工件;其次,确定工件坐标系原点在机床坐标系中的位置,它包括工件坐标系X向坐标原点在机床坐标系位置的确定,测量装置随刀架沿Z向运行至最 Determining whether the entity section, an entity if the segment, the entity type is determined as a straight line, a circle or arc, if a straight line, the starting point and the end point coordinates have to extract the line, if a circle, coordinates of the center will have a radius extract If the circular arc, the need to detect the start, end radian value, since the information of the entity in the dxf file is arranged in the order of drawing, and therefore need be sorted, reconstituted contour part; b. the lower machine 2 CNC lathe initialization command wait for the host computer 1; host computer C 1 issues a measurement command through the USB serial communication unit 2 3 down position, the original size and position acquisition unit 2 after the positioning information is detected by the photodetector means of the workpiece, by USB into the serial communication host computer 1, first, the CNC machine tool rest to start the machine back to zero, and the measuring apparatus by the tool change command in the operating position, i.e., means for measuring the workpiece to be; secondly, to determine the origin of the workpiece coordinate system position of the machine coordinate system, comprising a workpiece coordinate system in the X position of the machine coordinate system to determine the origin of the coordinate measuring device with the running tool carrier in the Z direction to the most 近主轴卡盘位置处,此位置控制系统可以设置,Z向停止运动,然后刀架沿X向向工件靠近,此过程中,由于工件的遮挡,光接收装置处必然会发生光信号由有到无,再从无到有的过程,进而转化为电压的由低到高,再由高到低的过程,即电压变化存在一个上跳沿和一个下降沿,这一变化可以引发下位机(2)的捕获中断,通过这种方式,系统可以探测电平跳变处的位置,而电平跳变处的位置正是工件的轮廓位置处,两次电平的跳变,可以使系统记录工件两个轮廓在机床坐标系X向上的两个坐标值X1和X2,则工件坐标系原点X0=(X1+X2)/2;工件坐标系Z向坐标原点在机床坐标系位置的确定,在上一步骤中,由于已经确定了X0,则刀架沿X向将激光发射装置调整到X0位置处,此时X向停止,然后刀架沿Z向向其正方向移动,当测量位置处于工件的端面时,光接收装置处 Near the spindle chuck position, this position control system may be provided, Z to stop moving, and the tool holder in the X direction closer to the workpiece, during which, due to occlusion of the workpiece, light receiving means of the light signal generated by the bound there to no, then the process from scratch, is further converted to a voltage from low to high, from high to low and then present process, i.e., a voltage change on a positive edge and a falling edge, this change can trigger lower machine (2 ) the capture interrupt, in this way, the system can detect the position of the transition on the flat, the position at the level of transition on the contour is at a position of the workpiece, the two-level transition, the system can record a workpiece two profile in the machine direction of the two coordinate system X coordinate values ​​X1 and X2, the workpiece coordinate system origin X0 = (X1 + X2) / 2; Z workpiece coordinate system to determine the position of a coordinate origin of the machine coordinate system, on a step, since X0 has been determined, the holder along the X direction the laser emitting device is adjusted to the position X0, this time to stop the X, Z direction and then moves the knife holder to its forward direction, when the measured position is a workpiece when the end face of the light receiving means at a 的光信号由无到有,电信号由高到低变化时,系统探测到电平的跳变处的Z向位置,其即为工件坐标系Z向坐标原点在机床坐标系位置;再次,工件尺寸的测定,工件尺寸的测定过程,雷同工件坐标系的建立过程,可以确定任何位置处工件的轮廓尺寸信息;最后,测量结束后,刀架返回换刀点,通过换刀命令使刀架转位,使下一工序使用的刀具处在工作位置处,然后进行正常切削加工即可; Optical signal from the absent to have, an electrical signal changes from high to low, the system detects the transition at the Z level to the position, which is the workpiece coordinate system to the origin of the position Z in the machine coordinate system; again, a workpiece Determination of dimensions, size of the workpiece during the measurement, the process of establishing similar workpiece coordinate system, the profile may be determined at any position of the workpiece size information; and finally, after the measurement points holder tool change, the tool post by rotation tool change command position, the tool used in the next step at the operating position, and then cutting to normal;

d上位机1根据所得信息对刀具路径智能规划、基于智能工艺数据库选择加工工艺参数、数控代码自动生成、加工仿真和数控代码检查、将检查过的数控代码传送给下位机2并控制监控下位机2工作状态;在编制数控加工程序时,要确定主轴转速和进给速度等工艺参数,而主轴转速由切削速度、刀具半径所确定,切削速度又由刀具耐用度、工件材料、刀具类型和材料以及切削深度、切削宽度、刀齿数等因素确定,这些参数彼此间有相互影响,关系十分复杂,在程序绘制时,为了确定这些参数,编程人员需要查阅大量复杂的表格,并进行复杂的计算,不仅费时费力,而且容易出错,因此建立了一个方便实用的工艺数据库,它积累和存储了大量金属切削的生产和实验数据,能根据用户提出的要求按理论和经验模式处理,快速计算出所需的且经过优化的切削用 d host device 1 toolpath intelligent planning, selection of process parameters based on intelligent process database according to the obtained information, NC code generated automatically, machining simulation and NC code inspection, the inspected NC code is transmitted to the lower unit 2, and controls to monitor the next crew 2 operating state; in the preparation of the NC machining program, to determine the process parameters spindle speed and feed rate, the spindle rotation speed is determined by cutting, tool radius, and the cutting tool life, workpiece material, tool type and material and cutting depth, cutting width, blade teeth and other factors to determine these parameters interact with each other, the relationship is very complex, when the program is drawn, in order to determine these parameters, the programmer need access to large amounts of complex form and complex calculations, not only time consuming, and error-prone, and therefore established a convenient and practical process database, it accumulates and stores the experimental data and production of a large number of metal cutting, according to theory and experience can handle the user request mode according to quickly calculate the required and optimized cutting 量,对每次成功的加工实例进行存储,当新工件加工条件与数据库存储的成功的加工实例类似时,就可以调用原有的相类似的加工参数,适当修改就可以作为新工件的加工参数,如果切削效果不错又可以存储起来,从而丰富切削数据库。 Amount, for example each successful processing of storing, processing similar to examples of successful when a new workpiece machining conditions stored in the database, can be similar to the original call processing parameters, appropriate modifications can be used as a new workpiece machining parameters If cutting good results and can be stored, thereby cutting rich database. 刀具参数数据库包括刀具名、刀具号、刀具补偿号、刀柄长度、刀柄宽度、刀角长度、刀尖半径、刀具前角、刀具后角、刀具副偏角、车刀类型、偏置方向等。 Tool parameter database comprises a tool name, tool number, tool compensation numbers, shank length, shank width, length knife angle, tool nose radius, rake angle, the angle of the tool, the tool edge angle, type of tools, the biasing direction Wait. 切削参数包括刀具的选择、主轴转速、切削深度和宽度等。 The cutting tool comprises selecting parameters, spindle speed, cutting depth and width. 首先把加工条件参数通过接口从自动编程系统的窗口传到金属切削数据库的数据输入表中,当得到合理优化的切削参数后,传回到自动编程系统中,实现了基于智能工艺数据库选择加工工艺参数;结合数控车削加工的特点,建立待加工零件的外轮廓描述链;逐段偏移求交,进行拓扑检查以消除偏移轮廓的自交;采用平行合并和等距线裁剪优化方法得最终的加工轨迹,完成对刀具智能规划,生成刀位文件;它将表面轮廓离散为一系列的直线和圆弧,建立起对零件表面轮廓的统一表达方式,通过对这些直线和圆弧进行逐段偏移求交而得到偏移后的等距轮廓,将零件的轮廓表面采用边界点描述后,就得到了整个轮廓边界链,它经过离散处理后便可形成一条只由直线和圆弧构成的偏移边界链,零件轮廓的偏移和裁剪都是相对它来进行操作的;在该过程中采 First, the processing conditions through the interface from the passed parameter window automatic programming system for data entry in the database table in metal cutting, after cutting reasonably optimized parameters passed back to the automatic programming system, implemented based on intelligent process database selection process parameter; CNC turning binding characteristics to establish the outer contour of the chain to be machined is described; piecewise offset intersection, a check is made to cancel the offset contour of the topology of selfing; using combined parallel and equidistant lines cut optimization method to yield a final the processing track to complete the intelligent planning tool to generate cutter location file; it will surface profile as a series of discrete lines and arcs, to establish a unified expression of the surface profile of the part, through paragraph by paragraph on these lines and arcs after the offset equidistant intersection contour obtained after the offset, the surface profile of the part using the boundary points described, get the entire profile of the boundary chain, it can be formed after a discrete processing pass only straight lines and circular arcs offset boundary chain, and cutting the part profile offset is relative to its operating; mining in the process 了轮廓偏移算法,它分为三步,(1)逐段偏移,为了处理方便,我们规定了一个偏移方向,各轮廓段均需朝外即朝右方向偏移,这个方向是各轮廓段的统一偏移方向,对圆弧来说,考虑其方向性,有顺圆和逆圆之分,逆圆的向外偏移呈一种扩长的趋势顺圆的向外偏移呈一种收缩的趋势;(2)逐段求交,边界链中的各段轮廓经逐段偏移后,可以得到一条新的边界链,遍历这条边界链,将链中的每一段轮廓与前一段相邻轮廓求交点,把各轮廓段的起点和终点值依次修改为所求到的交点值,便得到一条初步的偏移轮廓。 The profile migration algorithms, it is divided into three steps, (1) offset in sections, in order to facilitate handling, we specify an offset direction, i.e., outwardly of each contour segment required to shift rightward direction, the direction of each uniform contour segment offset direction, pair of arc, consider directionality, there are points along the circle and inverse circular, inverse circular outwardly offset was a tendency to spread along the long offset outwardly rounded shape one kind of tendency to shrink; (2) segment by segment intersection, after each segment boundary contour by offset chain piecewise, may get a new border chain, this boundary traversal chain, each segment of the contour chain before seeking some adjacent contour intersection, the starting point and end point of each contour segment values ​​in order to modify the values ​​of the intersection of demand, it will have a preliminary outline of offset. 对于一些有尖点的轮廓,在轮廓偏移后与相邻轮廓间没有交点,则需在这之间插入一过渡圆弧;(3)逐段检查,对于一些凹陷轮廓,如其自身尺寸较小,在不断的偏移中,会逐步收缩,到最终将形成轮廓的自交,所以要检查,发现这种变化要将对应的轮廓段从边界链中删除,然后用下段轮廓和前一段轮廓重新求交点。 For some of the profile has a sharp point, after the profile has no intersection between the offset contour, which need to insert a transition between the adjacent arc; (3) piecewise inspection, for some recessed profile, such as its small size itself in the constant offset, it will gradually shrink, eventually forming the self-profile, so check, to find this change is deleted from the corresponding contour segment boundary chain, followed by the lower contour and re-contour the preceding paragraph find the intersections.

刀位文件中的每一行代表了一段实体,因此,在处理时只需逐行读入刀位文件,根据标志符判断是工艺参数,还是加工实体,若为工艺参数则记录下其数值,若为加工实体则记录其类型,起点和终点等参数,按照所用的数控系统的格式要求,写入到数控代码文件中;仿真过程实际上是生成加工指令的逆过程,即将数控程序转化为图形文件,并将其表现出来,检验过的代码送入下位机2;在数控加工中,数控系统通过读取数控加工程序,将其转换成控制脉冲,控制数控机床主轴旋转及各个方向的进给运动,来进行工件的加工,数控程序的正确与否,决定了加工刀具能否安全有效的加工出合格的零件,因此,对自动编程来说,在将数控程序传送到数控系统进行加工之前,检验程序的正确性是极其重要的一环;随着计算机技术、计算机图形学及CAD技术等方 Each cutter position file represents some entities, thus, only when the processing tool bit file line by line reading, is determined according to the identifier of process parameters, or physical processing, when the process parameters are recorded for the value, if for the processing entity the type of the recording start and end parameters, required format used by the numerical control system, the NC code is written to the file; simulation processing instruction is actually generated inverse process, i.e. converted NC program as graphic files and its performance out inspected code into lower machine 2; NC machining, the numerical control system by reading the NC program, converts it into a control pulse, the control CNC machine tool spindle the feed movement and each direction of rotation before machining the workpiece is correct or not, the NC program, the machining tool can determine a safe and effective processing of qualified parts, therefore, the automatic program, the machining program to the NC NC transferring system, test program correctness is extremely important part; with computer technology, computer graphics and CAD technology peer 面的发展,目前已有许多方法可用于加工程序的计算机验证,常用的方法是采用线框模块法进行程序验证,可用于在荧光屏上显示刀具轨迹,实际验证时,刀具轨迹可以用显示刀位点间的矢量来模拟,对于二维轮廓加工来说,在进行加工仿真时只需验证刀具轨迹,而不考虑刀具过切现象,整个仿真过程实际上是生成加工指令的逆过程,即将数控程序转化为图形文件,并将其表现出来;数控代码文件的正确读取与识别是进行加工仿真的前提和基础,这一过程与上节所述刀位文件处理过程几乎相反,其具体步骤如下:1)、设置各续效指令初值;2)、读入一行数控代码文件,由于每一行NC文件代表一加工步骤,即代表一加工实体,分析G代码,可得出实体类型;除第一次出现的X、Y、Z指令值表示实体起点坐标外,其后的此类指令值均表示其终点坐标,在此, Development of the surface, there are many methods available for verification processing computer program, commonly used method is using module frame program verification method can be used to display the tool path on the screen, the actual verification, the tool path may be displayed tool position simulation vector between the points for the two-dimensional contour machining, the tool path verification only during machining simulation, regardless of the tool through cutting phenomenon, the whole process is actually generated simulation processing instructions reverse process, ie NC program is converted to a graphics file, and it showed it; NC correctly read the identification code file is the foundation for the machining simulation, the process of the section knife position document processing almost reverse to the specific steps are as follows: 1), the initial value is provided for each instruction continued efficiency; 2), reads NC code file line, since each line represents one NC file processing step, which represents a processing entity, G code analysis can be drawn entity type; a first inter X, Y, Z value represents a command occurrences starting coordinates extrachromosomal entity, such instructions subsequent values ​​were expressed their end point coordinates, in this case, 续效指令处理方法与刀位文件处理过程的续效指令处理方法相同,在处理过程中,如果在程序编制时采用的是绝对坐标编程,获得的是编程轨迹的绝对坐标,若在输出时数控代码采用相对坐标表示,则必须进行坐标变换,从第二点开始,每一点以前一点为基点进行换算,得到其绝对坐标,这样所得的图形即为刀心轨迹;e下位机2接收数控代码,通过程序控制电机按数控指令运行,完成数控加工同时将加工中的状态信息反馈给上位机1;下位机2采用逐点比较插补法,控制步进电机的运转,使步进电机具有整步距工作方式、半步距工作方式和四分之一步距工作方式,完成对工件的加工。 Continued efficient instruction processing method and continued efficient instruction processing method cutter bit file processing procedure of the same, in the process, if employed in the programming are programmed in absolute coordinates to obtain the absolute coordinates of the programmed path, if the NC when the output Code relative coordinate using said coordinate conversion must be performed, starting from the second point, each point before one o'clock in terms of a start point, to obtain the absolute coordinates so the resulting graph is the trajectory of the tool center; lower machine 2 receives E NC code, run through numerical control commands programmed by the motor, while the complete NC machining status information back to the host computer 1; lower machine 2 interpolation point by point comparison, controls the operation of the stepping motor, the stepping motor having a full step from work, half and quarter-step away from the work mode of operation, complete the processing of the workpiece.

其中对于步进电机,下位机2控制CPLD输出脉冲方波,输入到步进电机驱动器,对于伺服电机,以脉冲形式进行控制时与步进电机相同;以模拟量形式进行控制时采用PCM56U芯片;下位机2还移植了uc/os--II操作系统;采用数据采样插补法直线插补和圆弧插补方式,驱动电机运行;f加工完成后,上位机1再次启动测量功能,对工件尺寸和形状进行自动检测,实现加工质量的主动控制;g下位机2接受上位机1命令后再次启动测量功能对工件的关键尺寸和形状等质量状态进行在线检测,并反馈上位机1,上位机1进行优化后,发回下位机2对刀具长度和半径作出相应补偿,以提高加工精度。 Wherein for the stepping motor, the control unit 2 CPLD lower output square wave pulse input to the stepping motor driver, a servo motor for, when controlling a stepping motor in the same pulse form; PCM56U employed when controlling the chip in analog form; lower machine 2 also transplanted uc / os - II operating system; data sampling interpolation using linear interpolation and circular interpolation, to drive the motor; f after processing is completed, the host device 1 re-start the measurement function on the workpiece the size and shape to automatically detect the active control processing quality; G lower machine 2 after receiving the host computer a command to start was measured again, the function of critical dimensions and shape of a workpiece, such as quality state line detection, and feedback PC 1, PC after an optimization, back to the lower unit 2 to compensate for the corresponding tool length and radius, in order to improve the machining accuracy.

Claims (9)

1.一种数控车床的智能控制系统,它由数控车床、上位机(1)、下位机(2)组成,其特征是:它采用上位机(1)与下位机(2)组成开放式的控制系统,即由上位机(1)完成CAD图形信息提取、刀具路径智能规划、工艺参数数据库优化、数控代码自动生成、加工仿真的任务;下位机(2)安装在数控车床上,进行在线测量,电机控制,直线、圆弧插补运算,完成工件的加工;上位机(1)和下位机(2)间通过USB串行通信(3)联系;在数控车床上还有光电检测装置,该光电检测装置与下位机(2)连接,并能在不接触回转体工件条件下对工件进行定位和尺寸测量,然后将测量信息反馈回上位机,实现在线检测。 A CNC lathe intelligent control system, which consists of CNC lathes, the host computer (1), lower machine (2) composition, characterized in that: it uses the host computer (1) and the lower machine (2) consisting of an open control system, i.e., from the host computer (1) complete CAD graphics information extraction tool path intelligent planning, process parameters database optimization, NC code is generated automatically, machining simulation tasks; lower machine (2) is mounted in the NC lathe, on-line measurement , motor control, linear and circular interpolation operation is completed workpiece; between the host computer (1) and slave (2) (3) USB serial communication link; NC lathe there photodetector means, which photodetector means connected to the lower machine (2), and to the size and positioning of the workpiece measured at the workpiece does not contact the rotors conditions, then the measurement information back to the host computer, on line.
2.根据权利要求1所述的数控车床的智能控制系统,其特征是:所述上位机(1)为计算机,所述下位机(2)为型号为TMS320LF2407A的DSP芯片,所述USB串行通信为带有并行总线和局部DMA传输能力的高速USB,其型号为PDIUSBD12。 The intelligent control system according to claim 1 CNC lathe, characterized in that: said host computer (1) is a computer, said lower unit (2) is a model TMS320LF2407A DSP chip, said USB serial USB communication with the high-speed parallel bus and the local DMA-capable, the model for PDIUSBD12.
3.根据权利要求1所述的数控车床的智能控制系统,其特征是:所述光电检测装置包括安装在数控车床的车床刀架上的刀柄(4),以及与刀柄(4)连接的刀头(5),在刀头(5)两相对端内侧有至少一对相配合的光电检测器(6),光电检测器(6)与下位机(2)连接。 The intelligent control system of the CNC lathe of claim 1, wherein: said photodetecting means comprises a handle mounted on a CNC lathe lathe tool holder (4), and a handle (4) is connected the head (5), the head (5) has two opposite ends of the inner side of at least one pair of cooperating photodetectors (6), a photodetector (6) and the lower machine (2) is connected.
4.根据权利要求3所述的数控车床的智能控制系统,其特征是:所述刀头(5)为U型,光电检测器(6)为一对激光二极管和光敏二极管,分别安装在刀头(5)的两相对平行端内侧的相应位置。 4. The intelligent control system according to claim 3 CNC lathe, characterized in that: said head (5) is U-shaped, the photodetector (6) is a laser diode and a photodiode are mounted on the knife the respective position of the two opposite parallel ends (5) of the inner side.
5.一种数控车床的智能控制方法,其特征是:它有如下步骤a上位机(1)提取CAD图形信息;b下位机(2)将数控车床初始化等待上位机的命令;c上位机(1)通过USB串行通信(3)向下位机(2)发出测量命令,并获取反馈的测量信息;下位机(2)启动测量功能获得加工件的初始尺寸和定位信息,并反馈回上位机(1);d上位机(1)基于所得测量信息对刀具路径进行智能规划、基于智能工艺数据库选择加工工艺参数、自动生成数控代码、加工仿真和数控代码检查、将检查过的数控代码传送给下位机(2)并控制监控下位机(2)工作状态;e下位机(2)接收数控代码,控制电机按数控指令运行,完成数控加工同时将加工中的状态信息反馈给上位机;f加工完成后,上位机(1)再次启动测量功能,对工件尺寸和形状进行自动检测,实现加工质量的主动控制;g下位机(2)接受上位机(1)命令后再次启 A method for controlling intelligent CNC lathe, characterized in that: it has the steps of a host computer (1) to extract CAD graphic information; B lower machine (2) wait for the command to initialize the NC lathe host computer; C PC ( 1) issuing USB serial communication (3) down-bit machine (2) by measurement command and obtaining measured information feedback; lower machine (2) to start measurement functions obtained original size and location information of the workpiece, and fed back to the host computer (1); D host computer (1) based on the obtained measurement information toolpath intelligent plan selection process parameters based on intelligent process database, automatically generating NC code, process simulation and NC code checks, transfer checked NC code to lower machine (2) and controls to monitor the lower unit (2) operating state; E lower machine (2) receives the NC code, motor controlled by the NC instruction execution complete CNC machining while the state information processing feedback to the host computer; F processing after completion, the host computer (1) measurement function is started again, the size and shape of the workpiece to automatically detect the active control processing quality; G lower machine (2) to accept the host computer (1) on again after the command 测量功能对工件的关键尺寸和形状等质量状态进行在线检测,并反馈上位机(1)。 Measurements of critical dimensions and shape of a workpiece, such as quality-line state detection, and feedback PC (1).
6.根据权利要求5所述的数控车床的智能控制方法,其特征是:在所述步骤a中上位机(1)读取CAD绘图中的图形交换文件DXF,读取时判断是否为实体段,即构成轮廓的各个实体的坐标,若为实体段,则判断实体类型为直线、圆还是圆弧;若为直线,则要提取直线的起始点与终点坐标;若为圆,则要提取圆心的坐标与半径;若为圆弧,还需提取起始、终点的弧度值;由于实体信息的顺序在DXF文件中是按照画图时的顺序排列,因此需进行排序,重新组成零件的轮廓;在所述步骤d中对刀具路径智能规划,即建立待加工零件的外轮廓描述链;然后逐段偏移求交,进行拓扑检查以消除偏移轮廓的自交;最后采用平行合并和等距线裁剪优化方法得最终的加工轨迹,生成刀位文件;基于智能工艺数据库选择加工工艺参数,它根据加工条件参数与工艺数据库中的数据对 6. The method of intelligent control of the numerically controlled lathe according to claim 5, characterized in that: reading Drawing Interchange File DXF CAD drawing in said step a host computer (1), it is determined whether the reading section is a solid , i.e., coordinates of the respective entities constituting the contour segment if the entity, the entity type is determined as a straight line, an arc or a circle; if it is a straight line, they have to extract the starting point of the line end coordinates; if a circle, the center will have extraction coordinates and radius; if a circular arc, the need to detect the start, end radian value; because of the entity information is arranged in order at the time of drawing in the DXF file, so the need for sorting and re-contour of the component parts; in said step d intelligent planning tool path, i.e., to establish the outer contour of the chain to be machined is described; then piecewise offset intersection, topology check is made to cancel the offset contour selfing; Finally combined parallel and equidistant lines crop yield a final optimization of the processing path, to generate cutter location; selection of process parameters based on intelligent process database, the data processing conditions of the process parameters in the database 后,合理选择切削加工工艺参数及相应的刀具参数;数控代码自动生成,上位机(1)逐行读入刀位文件,判断是工艺参数,还是加工实体,若为工艺参数则记录下其数值,若为加工实体则记录其类型,起点和终点等参数,按照所用的数控系统的格式要求,写入数控代码文件中;加工仿真和数控代码检查,它对整个数控程序正确性进行检验,是生成加工指令的逆过程,即将数控程序转化为图形文件,并将其表现出来。 After a reasonable choice of parameters and the corresponding cutting tool parameters; NC code is generated automatically, the host computer (1) reads the cutter location file line by line, the process parameters are determined, or physical processing, when the process parameters are recorded for the value If it is recorded for the processing entity type, parameters such as start and end, the format requirements of the numerical control system, and writes the NC code file; NC machining simulation and checking codes, tests the entire NC program correctness, is generation and processing instructions of the reverse process, ie NC program into a graphic file and show it out.
7.根据权利要求5所述的数控车床的智能控制方法,其特征是:在所述步骤c中,下位机(2)控制光电检测装置进行测量工作过程为,首先,数控机床启动后刀架先回机床零点,并通过换刀命令使测量装置处于工作位置,即测量装置面向待加工件,此时即建立了测量装置在机床坐标系中的位置;对于工件回转类加工机床,工件坐标系的X向原点通常与机床坐标系原点即回转中心重合;其次,确定工件坐标系原点在机床坐标系中的位置,它包括工件坐标系X向坐标原点在机床坐标系位置的确定,测量装置随刀架沿Z向运行至最靠近主轴卡盘位置处,此位置控制系统可以设置,Z向停止运动,然后刀架沿X向向工件靠近,此过程中,由于工件的遮挡,光接收装置处必然会发生光信号由有到无,再从无到有的过程,进而转化为电压的由低到高,再由高到低的过程,即 7. The method of intelligent control of the numerically controlled lathe according to claim 5, characterized in that: after said step (c), the lower unit (2) controlling the photodetecting means is measured during operation, first, the CNC machine start holder back to the machine zero, and the measuring apparatus by the tool change command in the operating position, i.e. facing the piece to be machined measuring apparatus, i.e., this time to establish a position-measuring device in the machine coordinate system; workpiece rotation type machine tool, the workpiece coordinate system X-original point generally coincides with the machine coordinate system origin that is the center of rotation; secondly, determining the position of the workpiece coordinate system origin in the machine coordinate system, which includes a workpiece coordinate system X to the origin of coordinates determined based position of the machine coordinate measuring device with holder to the Z-direction running closest to the spindle chuck position, this position control system may be provided, to stop the movement of Z, then the tool holder in the X direction closer to the workpiece, during which, due to occlusion of the workpiece, light receiving means at a optical signal by the process is bound to happen to have no, then the scratch, and then converted to a voltage from low to high and then high to process, i.e., 压变化存在一个上跳沿和一个下降沿,这一变化可以引发下位机(2)的捕获中断,通过这种方式,系统可以探测电平跳变处的位置,而电平跳变处的位置正是工件的轮廓位置处,两次电平的跳变,可以使系统记录工件两个轮廓在机床坐标系X向上的两个坐标值X1和X2,则工件坐标系原点X0=(X1+X2)/2,工件的直径D=(X2-X1)/2;工件坐标系Z向坐标原点在机床坐标系位置的确定,在上一步骤中,由于已经确定了X0,则刀架沿X向将激光发射装置调整到X0位置处,此时X向停止,然后刀架沿Z向向其正方向移动,当测量位置处于工件的端面时,光接收装置处的光信号由无到有,电信号由高到低变化时,系统探测到电平的跳变处的Z向位置,其即为工件坐标系Z向坐标原点在机床坐标系位置;再次,工件尺寸的测定,工件尺寸的测定过程,雷同工件坐标系的建立过程,可 Presence of a pressure change on a positive edge and falling edge, this change can trigger lower machine (2) capture interrupt, in this way, the system can detect the position of the transition on the flat, the position at the level transition on it is at a position of the workpiece contour, two level transitions, the system can record two workpiece contour in the machine direction of the two coordinate system X coordinate values ​​X1 and X2, the workpiece coordinate system origin X0 = (X1 + X2 ) / 2, the workpiece diameter D = (X2-X1) / 2; Z workpiece coordinate system in the machine-based coordinate position of the origin of coordinates determined in the previous step, has been determined since X0, the knife holder in the X direction the laser emitting device is adjusted to the position X0, X at this time to stop, and then moved to its holder in the Z-positive direction, when measured at the position of the end face of the workpiece, light receiving means at a signal that there is no electrical when the signal changes from high to low, the system detects the level Z to a position at the transition, which is the workpiece coordinate system to the origin of the position Z in the machine coordinate system; again, measured size of the workpiece, the workpiece size measuring process , establishment procedure similar workpiece coordinate system, may be 确定任何位置处工件的轮廓尺寸信息;最后,测量结束后,刀架返回换刀点,通过换刀命令使刀架转位,使下一工序使用的刀具处在工作位置处,然后进行正常切削加工即可。 Size information to determine the contour of a workpiece in any position; and finally, after the measurement points holder tool change, tool change command by indexing the tool post, the tool used in the next step at the operating position, and normal cutting processing can be.
8.根据权利要求5所述的数控车床的智能控制方法,其特征是:在所述步骤e中,下位机(2)预处理完毕计算出其必要参数,然后按照上位机(1)优化路径进行插补计算,实时计算出插补数据,并送入输出模块,以驱动电机运行。 The intelligent control method according to claim CNC lathe, characterized in that: in said step e, the lower unit (2) which is pre-calculated necessary completion parameters, and in accordance with the host computer (1) optimization path interpolation calculation, interpolation data is calculated in real time and sent to the output module, to drive the motor.
9.根据权利要求8所述的数控车床的智能控制方法,其特征是:所述插补计算采用数据采样插补法,包括直线插补法和圆弧插补法。 9. The method of claim 8 intelligent control CNC lathe according to claim, characterized in that: said interpolation calculation using interpolation data sampling, including linear interpolation and circular interpolation methods.
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