WO2016086751A1 - Device for collecting water from ambient air - Google Patents

Device for collecting water from ambient air Download PDF

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WO2016086751A1
WO2016086751A1 PCT/CN2015/093915 CN2015093915W WO2016086751A1 WO 2016086751 A1 WO2016086751 A1 WO 2016086751A1 CN 2015093915 W CN2015093915 W CN 2015093915W WO 2016086751 A1 WO2016086751 A1 WO 2016086751A1
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solar
container
heat
moisture
heater
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PCT/CN2015/093915
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French (fr)
Chinese (zh)
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黄海涛
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广东工业大学
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Priority to CN201410740158.2A priority patent/CN104452885B/en
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Publication of WO2016086751A1 publication Critical patent/WO2016086751A1/en

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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E03WATER SUPPLY; SEWERAGE
    • E03BINSTALLATIONS OR METHODS FOR OBTAINING, COLLECTING, OR DISTRIBUTING WATER
    • E03B3/00Methods or installations for obtaining or collecting drinking water or tap water
    • E03B3/28Methods or installations for obtaining or collecting drinking water or tap water from humid air

Abstract

A device for collecting water from ambient air comprises a moisture absorption unit, a heater (5), and a condenser (3). The moisture absorption unit is separately connected to the heater (5) and the condenser (3). Heating of the heater (5) enables air to flow circularly between the moisture absorption unit and a heating surface of the heater (5), a circulation air flow transmits heat provided by the heater (5) to the moisture absorption unit, to produce vapor, and the vapor is condensed into liquid water in the condenser (3).

Description

从环境空气中收集水的设备Equipment for collecting water from ambient air
技术领域 Technical field
本发明涉及空气取水技术领域,更具体地涉及使用固体吸湿剂的从环境空气中收集水的设备。 The present invention relates to the field of air abstraction technology, and more particularly to an apparatus for collecting water from ambient air using a solid moisture absorbent.
背景技术 Background technique
水资源短缺是许多地区面临的问题之一。因此,研究人员探索了各种取水技术,包括收集潮湿空气的水分(耿浩清等,空气取水技术的研究进展,化工进展, 2011 年,第 8 期;罗继杰等,野外作业用空气取水设备研究与应用,暖通空调, 2004 年,第 4 期)。这些课题已经取得了较多研究成果。例如, 2008 至 2013 年期间,属于 IPC 分类号 E03B 3/28 (取水技术-以潮湿空气为水源)的中国专利公开超过了 300 件。尤其是使用固体吸湿剂的空气取水技术受到了重视,该技术包括以下三个基本步骤: Water shortages are one of the problems in many regions. Therefore, the researchers explored various water extraction techniques, including the collection of moisture from humid air (耿浩清, etc., research progress in air abstraction technology, chemical progress, 2011, the first 8; Luo Jijie et al. Research and application of air intake equipment for field operations, HVAC, 2004, No. 4). These topics have achieved more research results. For example, 2008 to 2013 During the year, the number of Chinese patents belonging to IPC classification number E03B 3/28 (water intake technology - using humid air as water source) exceeded 300 Pieces. In particular, air extraction techniques using solid absorbents have received attention, and the technology consists of three basic steps:
步骤一:用吸湿剂吸附空气水分; Step 1: adsorbing air moisture with a moisture absorbent;
步骤二:加热吸湿剂使水分解吸; Step 2: heating the moisture absorbent to decompose and absorb water;
步骤三:收集解吸的水分。 Step 3: Collect desorbed water.
其中步骤二是该技术的关键。以下按步骤二的加热方式的不同,将现有技术分为四种类型进行讨论: Step 2 is the key to the technology. In the following, according to the heating method of step two, the prior art is divided into four types for discussion:
加热方式一:吸湿剂置于透明容器内,用太阳辐射加热吸湿剂。 Heating method 1: The moisture absorbent is placed in a transparent container, and the moisture absorbent is heated by solar radiation.
中国科学技术大学
Figure 4fb4
乔力等的专利 CN2218770Y '太阳能空气取水器'、上海交通大学王如竹等的专利 CN1131358C '太阳能吸附式空气取水装置'、上海理工大学赵惠忠等的专利申请公开 CN101906799A '一种太阳能吸附制水管'、日本株式会社康友的国际公布 WO2005/116349 ' Method for extracting water from air, and device therefore '、挪威研究人员 P.K. Krumsvik 的国际公布 WO96/09443 ' A method and a device for recovering water from a humid atmosphere '、 S.A. Petrov 等的俄罗斯专利 RU2230858 ' Method of preparation of water from atmospheric air in arid regions by use of solar energy '、 A. Beil 的德国专利 DE1010798 ' Verfahren und vorrichtung zur wassergewinnung '是代表性技术。太阳能是清洁能源,使用太阳能既不消耗矿物燃料,又不排放污染物。因此,本课题的现有技术大都采用了太阳能加热。但是,太阳辐射加热的方式存在以下问题:
University of Science and Technology of China
Figure 4fb4
Patent of CN2218770Y 'Solar Air Water Dispenser', Shanghai Jiaotong University Wang Ruzhu, etc. Patent CN1131358C 'Solar Adsorption Air Water Intake Device', Shanghai University of Technology, Zhao Huizhong, etc. Patent Application Open CN101906799A 'A Solar Adsorption Water Pipe', Japan International publication WO2005/116349 'Method for extracting water from air, and device therefore ', international publication of the Norwegian researcher PK Krumsvik WO96/09443 'A method and a device for recovering water from a humid atmosphere ', SA Petrov The Russian patent RU2230858 'Method of preparation of water from atmospheric air in arid regions by use of solar energy ', A. Beil's German patent DE 1010798 'Verfahren und vorrichtung zur wassergewinnung ' is a representative technique. Solar energy is a clean energy source that uses neither solar energy nor fossil fuels. Therefore, most of the prior art of this subject has adopted solar heating. However, the way solar radiation is heated has the following problems:
( 1 )加热不均匀:受到太阳光照的吸湿剂床表面能够得到较快的加热,未受到太阳光照的吸湿剂尤其是床层内部则升温缓慢,水分解吸较困难。 ( 1 Uneven heating: The surface of the absorbent bed that is exposed to the sun can be heated faster, and the moisture-absorbing agent that is not exposed to the sun, especially in the interior of the bed, is slowly heated, and water decomposition is difficult.
( 2 )加热温度低:透明容器的壁面没有保温层,对流传导热损失较大,吸湿剂在吸收太阳辐射能量的同时又不断地向外界散失热量,因此吸湿剂难以达到较高温度。 ( 2 The heating temperature is low: there is no insulation layer on the wall surface of the transparent container, and the convective conduction heat loss is large. The moisture absorption agent absorbs the solar radiation energy and continuously loses heat to the outside, so the moisture absorbent is difficult to reach a higher temperature.
( 3 )水蒸气降低透明容器的透明度:由于透明容器壁面与外界流动空气直接接触,壁面温度较低,吸湿剂解吸产生的水蒸气有时在透明容器内壁面冷凝,降低了透明容器的透明度。 (3 Water vapor reduces the transparency of the transparent container: since the wall surface of the transparent container is in direct contact with the outside flowing air, the wall surface temperature is low, and the water vapor generated by the desorption of the moisture absorbent sometimes condenses on the inner wall surface of the transparent container, thereby reducing the transparency of the transparent container.
( 4 )太阳辐射影响吸湿剂的结构和性能:在吸湿剂堆放在透明容器内,其内部空气不易流通的情况下,长时间接受太阳辐射可能使吸湿剂床表面局部过热,破坏其微孔结构,导致吸湿性能下降。尤其是经聚光罩聚焦的太阳辐射直接照射吸湿剂时容易导致吸湿剂过热损坏。 ( 4 The influence of solar radiation on the structure and performance of the moisture absorbent: in the case where the moisture absorbent is stacked in a transparent container and the internal air is not easily circulated, long-term exposure to solar radiation may locally overheat the surface of the absorbent bed and destroy its microporous structure, resulting in Hygroscopic properties are degraded. In particular, when the solar radiation focused by the concentrating lens directly illuminates the moisture absorbent, the moisture absorbent is easily damaged by overheating.
加热方式二:吸湿剂置于不透明容器内,太阳辐射加热容器壁或吸热板,然后传热给吸湿剂。 Heating method 2: The moisture absorbent is placed in an opaque container, and the solar radiation heats the container wall or the heat absorbing plate, and then transfers heat to the moisture absorbent.
代表性技术有加拿大研究人员 N. Arrison 的国际公布 WO03/025295 ' Method and apparatus for producing potable drinking water from air '(其中的图 5 实施方式)、上海交通大学白泽宇等的专利 CN102936912B '太阳能空气吸附式沙漠取水旅行包'、赵惠忠的专利申请公开 CN103469848A '一种太阳能空气取水系统'。由于不透明容器壁面暴露在周围空气中,即使有强烈太阳光的照射,不透明容器壁面一般只能达到 60 至 80 ℃的温度(不使用聚光罩时),低于吸湿剂显著解吸所需温度。同样存在加热温度低、温度分布不均匀等问题。白泽宇等的专利描述的吸湿剂床的其中一面与蓝钛太阳能吸收板直接接触,蓝钛太阳能吸收板被太阳辐射加热升温后再将热量传导给吸湿剂床。但是,吸湿材料的导热系数较小(例如,硅胶的导热系数仅为 0.14 W/m · K ),吸湿剂床内部传热性能差,吸湿剂升温和解吸较为缓慢。 Representative technology is the international publication of Canadian researcher N. Arrison WO03/025295 ' Method And apparatus for producing potable drinking water from air '(Figure 5 Implementation method), patent of Bai Zeyu, etc. of Shanghai Jiaotong University, CN102936912B Patent application for disclosure of 'solar air adsorption type desert water intake travel bag', Zhao Huizhong CN103469848A 'A solar air intake system'. Since the wall of the opaque container is exposed to the surrounding air, the opaque container wall can only reach 60 to 80 even with strong sunlight. The temperature of °C (when no concentrator is used) is lower than the temperature required for significant desorption of the hygroscopic agent. There are also problems such as low heating temperature and uneven temperature distribution. One side of the moisture absorbent bed described by Bai Zeyu et al. is in direct contact with the blue titanium solar absorption plate, and the blue titanium solar absorption plate is heated by the solar radiation to conduct heat to the absorbent bed. However, the thermal conductivity of the hygroscopic material is small (for example, the thermal conductivity of silica gel is only 0.14 W/m · K ), the heat transfer performance inside the moisture absorbent bed is poor, and the moisture absorption and desorption are slower.
加热方式三:太阳能热水器产生的热水通入埋设在吸湿剂床层内的换热盘管来加热吸湿剂。 Heating method 3: The hot water generated by the solar water heater is passed through a heat exchange coil embedded in the moisture absorbent bed to heat the moisture absorbent.
使用这种加热方式的有:以色列水技术 M • A • S •有限公司的国际公布 WO99/66136 ' Method and apparatus for extracting water from atmospheric air '、中国专利 CN2885942Y '利用自然能的空气取水装置'、 CN202214762U '一种交互吸附式太阳能风能空气取水器'、 CN203049680U '一种利用相变材料的吸附式空气取水装置'、 CN202945638U '缺水地区太阳能捕水系统'。太阳能热水器产生的热水温度一般低于 80 ℃,热水通入埋设在吸湿剂床层内的换热盘管后只能将吸湿剂加热至大约 50 至 70 ℃,此温度范围下,有些种类的吸湿剂可以少量地、缓慢地解吸。一般来说,通入热水的加热方式的效果较差,其产水率(单位重量的吸湿剂每天的产水量)较低。 The use of this heating method is: Israel Water Technology M • A • S • Limited International Publication WO99/66136 ' Method and apparatus for extracting water from atmospheric air ', Chinese patent CN2885942Y 'Using natural energy air intake device', CN202214762U 'an interactive adsorption type solar wind energy air water dispenser', CN203049680U 'Adsorption air intake device using phase change material', CN202945638U 'Solid water catching system in water shortage area'. The temperature of hot water produced by solar water heaters is generally lower than 80 °C, the hot water can only be heated to about 50 to 70 after the heat exchange coil embedded in the moisture absorbent bed °C, at this temperature range, some types of moisture absorbent can be desorbed in small amounts and slowly. In general, the heating method of introducing hot water is inferior, and the water production rate (the amount of water per unit weight of the moisture absorbent per day) is low.
加热方式四:电力为加热能源。 Heating method 4: Electric power is heating energy.
美国专利 US20140150651 ' System and procedure for extracting water from the environment '采用了旋转床吸湿器和磁控管加热器,设备较为复杂和昂贵。瑞典 Airwatergreen 公司的国际公布 WO2011/062554 ' Device and method for absorbing water from gas '、 N. Arrison 的国际公布 WO03/025295 的图 3 实施方式、以及哈尔滨工业大学李松晶等的专利申请公开 CN103225331A '微流控空气取水装置及采用该取水装置的取水方法'采用了电加热,吸湿剂与电加热器的发热面或埋设在吸湿剂床层内的传热肋片相接触而被加热。但是,吸湿剂本身是热的不良导体,而且耐热温度较低。那些与电加热器的发热面相接触的吸湿剂容易过热损坏,而那些不与发热面或传热肋片相接触的吸湿剂又难以得到加热,导致其解吸困难,取水效率较低。 US Patent US20140150651 'System and procedure for Extracting water from the environment 'The use of a rotating bed moisture absorber and a magnetron heater makes the equipment more complicated and expensive. Sweden International publication of Airwatergreen WO2011/062554 ' Device and method for absorbing water From gas ', N. Arrison's international publication, WO 03/025295, Figure 3, and the patent application of Harbin Institute of Technology, Li Songjing, etc. CN103225331A The 'microfluidic air intake device and the water intake method using the water intake device' employs electric heating, and the moisture absorbent is heated in contact with the heat generating surface of the electric heater or the heat transfer fins embedded in the moisture absorbent bed. However, the moisture absorbent itself is a poor conductor of heat and has a low heat resistant temperature. The moisture absorbents which are in contact with the heat generating surface of the electric heater are easily damaged by overheating, and the moisture absorbent which is not in contact with the heat generating surface or the heat transfer fins is difficult to be heated, which makes it difficult to desorb and has low water extraction efficiency.
如果现有的空气取水技术的取水效率能够得到提高,潮湿空气是有可能作为缺水地区的有用水源。但现有技术的产水率偏低,而且设备结构复杂、体积庞大、费用昂贵、耗电量大。虽然采用太阳能加热时无需用电,但各种辅助设备(如风机)的运行仍需用电。然而,缺乏淡水的场合(例如,沙漠、高原、海岛、海船、海上设施、陆地野外作业、驻防、未能建立供水系统的农村和边远地区、旱灾、其它自然或非自然灾害发生地等)通常也是缺乏电力供应的场合,需要用电的空气取水设备一般也无法运行。上述各种原因使得目前空气取水技术只在个别场合得到了应用。 If the water extraction efficiency of existing air abstraction technology can be improved, humid air is likely to be a source of water for water-deficient areas. However, the water production rate of the prior art is low, and the structure of the device is complicated, bulky, expensive, and consumes a large amount of electricity. Although there is no need to use electricity when heating with solar energy, the operation of various auxiliary equipment (such as fans) still requires electricity. However, where there is a lack of fresh water (eg deserts, plateaus, islands, seagoing vessels, offshore installations, field operations in the field, garrisons, rural and remote areas where water supply systems have not been established, droughts, other natural or unnatural disasters, etc.) Usually, in the absence of electricity supply, the air intake equipment that requires electricity is generally not operational. The above various reasons make the current air intake technology only applied in individual occasions.
发明内容 Summary of the invention
本发明的目的是提供一种有较高产水率的从环境空气中收集水的设备。在此基础上,本发明的进一步的目的是提供一种结构简单和成本低廉的从环境空气中收集水的设备。本发明的更进一步的目的是提供一种在没有电力供应的情况下也可以运行的从环境空气中收集水的设备。在上述的基础上,本发明的再进一步的目的是提供一种方便携带的从环境空气中收集水的设备。 It is an object of the present invention to provide an apparatus for collecting water from ambient air having a relatively high water production rate. On the basis of this, it is a further object of the present invention to provide an apparatus which is simple in structure and low in cost and which collects water from ambient air. It is a still further object of the present invention to provide an apparatus for collecting water from ambient air that can also operate without power supply. On the basis of the above, it is still a further object of the present invention to provide an easily portable device for collecting water from ambient air.
本发明认为现有技术产水率较低的根本原因在于加热器热量传递给吸湿剂床是主要依靠热传导机理。例如,前述的加热方式二的 CN102936912B 中,吸湿剂床的一面与蓝钛太阳能吸收板直接接触,蓝钛太阳能吸收板将太阳辐射能量转化为热能后传导给吸湿剂床;加热方式三的 WO99/66136 中,热水通入埋设在吸湿剂床层内的换热盘管,这些换热盘管的表面与吸湿剂直接接触将热量传导给吸湿剂床;加热方式四的 WO03/025295 的图 3 实施方式中,吸湿剂与电热器的发热面直接接触,热量从发热面传导给吸湿剂床。 The present invention contemplates that the underlying cause of the lower water production rate of the prior art is that the heat transfer from the heater to the absorbent bed is primarily dependent on the heat transfer mechanism. For example, the aforementioned heating method two CN102936912B Wherein, one side of the moisture absorbent bed is in direct contact with the blue titanium solar absorption plate, and the blue titanium solar absorption plate converts the solar radiation energy into heat energy and is then transmitted to the moisture absorbent bed; the heating method three WO99/66136 The hot water is passed into a heat exchange coil embedded in the moisture absorbent bed, and the surface of the heat exchange coil is in direct contact with the moisture absorbent to conduct heat to the moisture absorbent bed; FIG. 3 of the heating method of WO03/025295 In an embodiment, the moisture absorbent is in direct contact with the heat generating surface of the electric heater, and heat is transferred from the heat generating surface to the moisture absorbent bed.
考虑到吸湿剂的导热系数较小、耐热温度较低、解吸速度较慢(吸湿剂颗粒内部的微孔扩散为速率控制步骤)、水分从吸附态转化为气态时吸热量较大等因素,本发明的构思是:将设备布置为吸湿剂不与加热器的发热面直接接触,使气体在吸湿剂与加热器之间循环流动,利用循环气体的对流换热将加热器提供的热量传递给吸湿剂床,而且在循环流动过程中绝大部分的循环气体不流经其它设备(如冷凝器)。本发明构思中加热器热量传递给吸湿剂床是主要依靠气体的对流传热机理。气体在吸湿剂与加热器之间循环流动可以是局限于装载吸湿剂的容器的内部,为内循环方式;亦可以流经装载吸湿剂的容器的外部,为外循环方式。气体在吸湿剂与加热器之间循环流动的推动力可以是加热器对气体加热的温度差引起的密度差导致的自然对流,为自然对流方式;亦可以由风机驱动,为强制对流方式。加热器可以是任何形式的加热设备或外界热源。因此,本发明包含了许多的有实用价值的技术方案。 Considering that the thermal conductivity of the moisture absorbent is small, the heat resistance temperature is low, the desorption rate is slow (the microporous diffusion inside the moisture absorbent particles is the rate control step), and the heat absorption is large when the moisture is converted from the adsorption state to the gaseous state. The idea of the present invention is to arrange the device such that the moisture absorbent does not directly contact the heating surface of the heater, so that the gas circulates between the moisture absorbent and the heater, and the heat provided by the heater is transferred by convective heat transfer of the circulating gas. The moisture absorbent bed is supplied, and most of the circulating gas does not flow through other equipment (such as a condenser) during the circulating flow. In the concept of the present invention, the heat transfer of the heater to the moisture absorbent bed is a convective heat transfer mechanism mainly relying on gas. The circulation of the gas between the moisture absorbent and the heater may be limited to the inside of the container in which the moisture absorbent is loaded, and may be in an internal circulation manner; or may flow through the outside of the container in which the moisture absorbent is loaded, in an external circulation manner. The driving force of the gas circulating between the moisture absorbent and the heater may be natural convection caused by the difference in density caused by the temperature difference of the heater heating the gas, which is a natural convection mode; or may be driven by a fan as a forced convection mode. The heater can be any form of heating device or an external heat source. Accordingly, the present invention encompasses a number of technical solutions of practical utility.
一种从环境空气中收集水的设备,包括吸湿单元、加热器、冷凝器,所述冷凝器设有冷凝水排放口,所述吸湿单元分别接通所述加热器和所述冷凝器,并且布置为所述加热器的发热能促使所述吸湿单元与所述加热器的发热面之间的气体在所述吸湿单元与所述加热器的发热面之间循环流动,以使所述加热器能通过循环气流向所述吸湿单元供热。 An apparatus for collecting water from ambient air, comprising a moisture absorption unit, a heater, a condenser, the condenser being provided with a condensed water discharge port, the moisture absorption unit respectively turning on the heater and the condenser, and Arranging heat generated by the heater to cause a gas between the moisture absorbing unit and a heat generating surface of the heater to circulate between the moisture absorbing unit and a heat generating surface of the heater to cause the heater It is possible to supply heat to the moisture absorption unit by means of a circulating gas stream.
进一步地,所述加热器为太阳能集热器。 Further, the heater is a solar collector.
进一步地,所述吸湿单元包括容器和置于所述容器内的吸湿剂,所述容器分别接通所述太阳能集热器和所述冷凝器。 Further, the moisture absorbing unit comprises a container and a moisture absorbent disposed in the container, the container respectively turning on the solar heat collector and the condenser.
进一步地,还包括透气盒,所述吸湿剂置于所述透气盒内,所述透气盒置于所述容器内。 Further, a venting box is further included, the moisture absorbing agent being placed in the venting box, and the venting box being placed in the container.
可选地,所述太阳能集热器为若干个真空太阳集热管(本专利中,真空太阳集热管简称为真空管),所述容器连接所述若干个真空太阳集热管。 Optionally, the solar collector is a plurality of vacuum solar collector tubes (in this patent, a vacuum solar collector tube is simply referred to as a vacuum tube), and the container connects the plurality of vacuum solar collector tubes.
可选地,所述太阳能集热器为真空太阳集热管,所述容器为所述真空太阳集热管的内管,所述透气盒为圆柱状,所述透气盒置于所述真空太阳集热管的内管的内部,所述透气盒与所述真空太阳集热管的内管的内壁面之间有空隙。本实施方案中,真空太阳集热管的内管的壁面为发热面,真空太阳集热管同时是装载吸湿剂的容器,气体在吸湿剂和真空太阳集热管的内管的内壁面之间循环流动,为自然对流内循环加热方式。 Optionally, the solar collector is a vacuum solar heat collecting tube, the container is an inner tube of the vacuum solar heat collecting tube, the gas permeable box is cylindrical, and the gas permeable box is placed in the vacuum solar heat collecting tube. The inside of the inner tube has a gap between the gas permeable box and the inner wall surface of the inner tube of the vacuum solar heat collecting tube. In this embodiment, the wall surface of the inner tube of the vacuum solar heat collecting tube is a heat generating surface, and the vacuum solar heat collecting tube is simultaneously a container for loading the moisture absorbent, and the gas circulates between the moisture absorbent and the inner wall surface of the inner tube of the vacuum solar heat collecting tube. It is a natural convection internal circulation heating method.
可选地,所述容器的上端和下端分别与所述太阳能集热器的上端和下端连通。本实施方案中,太阳能集热器的太阳能吸收板为发热面,气体在装载吸湿剂的容器和太阳能集热器的太阳能吸收板之间循环流动,为自然对流外循环加热方式。 Optionally, the upper and lower ends of the container are in communication with the upper and lower ends of the solar collector, respectively. In this embodiment, the solar energy absorbing plate of the solar heat collector is a heat generating surface, and the gas circulates between the container carrying the moisture absorbent and the solar energy absorbing plate of the solar heat collector, and is a natural convection outer circulation heating mode.
进一步地,从所述容器的上端至所述太阳能集热器的上端的连接管道上依次设置有进气口、阀门、排气口,从所述容器的下端至所述太阳能集热器的下端的连接管道上依次设置有进气口、阀门,所述进气口和所述排气口上还设置有阀门。 Further, an air inlet, a valve, and an exhaust port are sequentially disposed from the upper end of the container to the connecting pipe of the upper end of the solar heat collector, from the lower end of the container to the lower end of the solar heat collector The connecting pipe is sequentially provided with an air inlet and a valve, and the air inlet and the exhaust port are further provided with a valve.
进一步地,所述太阳能集热器为若干个真空太阳集热管或若干个平板式太阳集热器,所述若干个真空太阳集热管相互并联接通,所述若干个平板式太阳集热器相互并联接通。 Further, the solar collector is a plurality of vacuum solar collectors or a plurality of flat solar collectors, and the plurality of vacuum solar collectors are connected in parallel with each other, and the plurality of flat solar collectors are mutually connected Connected in parallel.
可选地,所述太阳能集热器为平板式太阳集热器或者温室,所述容器为所述平板式太阳集热器或者温室,所述平板式太阳集热器或者温室具有透明盖板和太阳能吸收板,所述吸湿剂放置在所述平板式太阳集热器或者温室的内部,所述吸湿剂与所述太阳能吸收板之间有空隙。本实施方案中,太阳能吸收板为发热面,平板式太阳集热器或温室同时是装载吸湿剂的容器,气体在吸湿剂与太阳能吸收板之间循环流动,为自然对流内循环加热方式。需要说明的是,本专利中用于装载吸湿剂的容器的定义延伸至包括构筑物。 Optionally, the solar collector is a flat solar collector or a greenhouse, the container is the flat solar collector or the greenhouse, and the flat solar collector or greenhouse has a transparent cover plate and A solar absorption plate, the moisture absorbent is placed inside the flat solar collector or the greenhouse, and a gap is formed between the moisture absorbent and the solar absorption plate. In the embodiment, the solar absorption plate is a heat generating surface, and the flat type solar heat collector or the greenhouse is simultaneously a container for storing the moisture absorbent, and the gas circulates between the moisture absorbent and the solar absorption plate, and is a natural convection inner circulation heating mode. It should be noted that the definition of a container for loading a moisture absorbent in this patent extends to include a structure.
进一步地,还包括隔热板,所述隔热板位于所述吸湿剂与所述太阳能吸收板之间,所述隔热板与所述太阳能吸收板之间有空隙,所述隔热板的上端和下端与所述平板式太阳集热器或者温室的内壁面之间也有空隙。 Further, a heat insulating plate is disposed between the moisture absorbent and the solar energy absorbing plate, and a gap exists between the heat insulating plate and the solar energy absorbing plate, and the heat insulating plate There is also a gap between the upper end and the lower end and the inner wall surface of the flat solar collector or the greenhouse.
上述从环境空气中收集水的设备的吸湿剂的加热解吸是利用太阳能,气体的循环流动为自然对流,没有涉及任何需用电力的零部件,适合于没有电力供应的场合。 The above-mentioned heating and desorption of the moisture absorbent of the equipment for collecting water from the ambient air utilizes solar energy, and the circulating flow of the gas is natural convection, and does not involve any component requiring electric power, and is suitable for the occasion where there is no power supply.
本发明还提供一种强迫对流加热方式的从环境空气中收集水的设备,包括吸湿单元、加热器、风机、冷凝器,所述冷凝器设有冷凝水排放口,所述吸湿单元分别接通所述加热器和所述冷凝器,所述风机分别接通所述吸湿单元和所述加热器并能促使气体在所述吸湿单元与所述加热器的发热面之间循环流动,以使所述加热器能通过循环气流向所述吸湿单元供热。所述风机可以是电动机驱动的(电力来源于电网供电、或者常规燃料发电机供电、或者新能源和可再生能源如太阳能、风能、海洋能发电设备供电等);所述风机亦可以是自然能驱动的(例如,风能驱动风车,风车通过传动机构带动风机)。 The invention also provides an apparatus for collecting water from ambient air by forced convection heating, comprising a moisture absorption unit, a heater, a fan and a condenser, wherein the condenser is provided with a condensed water discharge port, and the moisture absorption unit is respectively connected The heater and the condenser, the fan respectively turning on the moisture absorption unit and the heater and urging gas to circulate between the moisture absorption unit and the heat generating surface of the heater to make The heater can supply heat to the moisture absorbing unit through a circulating gas stream. The fan may be motor driven (electric power from grid power supply, or conventional fuel generator power supply, or new energy and renewable energy sources such as solar energy, wind energy, marine energy power generation equipment, etc.); the fan may also be natural energy Driven (for example, wind power drives the windmill, and the windmill drives the fan through the transmission).
进一步地,所述加热器为太阳能集热器或太阳能集热器阵列。 Further, the heater is a solar collector or a solar collector array.
进一步地,所述吸湿单元包括容器和置于所述容器内的吸湿剂,所述容器分别接通所述太阳能集热器和所述冷凝器。 Further, the moisture absorbing unit comprises a container and a moisture absorbent disposed in the container, the container respectively turning on the solar heat collector and the condenser.
进一步地,所述风机的排气口通过管道连接所述太阳能集热器或太阳能集热器阵列的进气端,所述太阳能集热器或太阳能集热器阵列的排气端通过管道连接所述容器的进风端,所述容器的排风端通过管道连接所述风机的进气口。 Further, the exhaust port of the fan is connected to the intake end of the solar collector or the solar collector array through a pipeline, and the exhaust end of the solar collector or the solar collector array is connected through a pipeline. At the inlet end of the container, the exhaust end of the container is connected to the inlet of the fan through a pipe.
进一步地,所述冷凝器通过管道并联接通在所述吸湿单元与所述风机之间的管道上以构成冷凝支路,所述冷凝支路上设有阀门以限制从所述吸湿单元进入所述冷凝器的气体流量。 Further, the condenser is connected in parallel to the pipeline between the moisture absorption unit and the fan through a pipe to form a condensation branch, and the condensation branch is provided with a valve to restrict entry into the The gas flow rate of the condenser.
以上实施方案是加热器部分与吸湿剂及其它部分装配在一起所构成的成套设备。本发明还提供如下的一种从环境空气中收集水的设备,不包括加热器部分,可按照实际条件,使用不同的加热器或外界热源来加热解吸吸湿剂: The above embodiment is a kit of parts in which the heater portion is assembled with the moisture absorbent and other parts. The invention also provides an apparatus for collecting water from ambient air, which does not include a heater portion, and can use different heaters or external heat sources to heat the desorbing moisture absorbent according to actual conditions:
一种从环境空气中收集水的设备,其特征在于,包括吸湿剂、容器、冷凝器,所述冷凝器设有冷凝水排放口,所述吸湿剂置于所述容器内,所述容器接通所述冷凝器,所述容器通过吸收外界热量能促使容器内的气体在容器受热面与所述吸湿剂之间形成循环气流,以使外界热量由循环气流传递给所述吸湿剂。 An apparatus for collecting water from ambient air, comprising: a moisture absorbent, a container, a condenser, the condenser is provided with a condensed water discharge port, the moisture absorbent is placed in the container, and the container is connected Through the condenser, the container can promote the circulation of gas between the heated surface of the container and the moisture absorbent by absorbing external heat, so that external heat is transferred from the circulating airflow to the moisture absorbent.
进一步地,还包括透气盒,所述吸湿剂置于所述透气盒内,所述透气盒置于所述容器内。 Further, a venting box is further included, the moisture absorbing agent being placed in the venting box, and the venting box being placed in the container.
进一步地,还包括太阳灶,所述太阳灶用于加热所述容器。 Further, a solar cooker is further included, which is used to heat the container.
进一步地,所述容器的受热面具有凹口。 Further, the heated surface of the container has a recess.
进一步地,所述容器的受热面的凹口的开口处有平板,所述平板有孔,所述孔的直径相当于所述太阳灶的聚光罩将太阳辐射聚焦至所述容器的底部的光斑直径。 Further, the opening of the recess of the heating surface of the container has a flat plate, and the flat plate has a hole having a diameter corresponding to a concentrating cover of the solar cooker to focus solar radiation to the bottom of the container. Spot diameter.
进一步地,所述容器的受热面的凹口的开口处有透明板,所述透明板有泄气孔。 Further, a transparent plate is provided at the opening of the recess of the heating surface of the container, and the transparent plate has a vent hole.
进一步地,还包括与所述容器的外形相配合的透明外套。 Further, a transparent outer casing that cooperates with the outer shape of the container is also included.
上述的实施方案都具有共同的特点,就是吸湿剂避开加热器发热面,并使气体在吸湿剂与加热器发热面之间循环流动,利用气体的对流换热将加热器提供的热量传递给吸湿剂床。此种设备布置方式的有益效果是:( 1 )吸湿剂床可得到均匀的加热:常见吸湿剂的平均粒径约为 5mm ,吸湿剂床层空隙率约为 0.4 ,加热器将气体加热,然后热气体由吸湿剂颗粒空隙流入吸湿剂床层的内部,可以使吸湿剂床的各个部分都得到均匀的加热。( 2 )加热器发热面的表面温度可以远高于吸湿剂的耐热温度:由于设备布置为吸湿剂不与加热器发热面直接接触,所以加热器发热面的表面温度可以远高于吸湿剂的耐热温度而不会出现吸湿剂局部过热损坏的现象。( 3 )吸湿剂床可得到快速的升温:由于加热器发热面可采用较高的温度,传热温差较大,可迅速将冷气体加热为热气体,热气体流入吸湿剂床层来加热吸湿剂后降温为冷气体,冷气体循环进入加热器,又被加热为热气体,再次流入吸湿剂床层来加热吸湿剂,如此循环往复,可以将大量的热量传递至吸湿剂床内部,使整个吸湿剂床得到快速的升温,所吸附的水分被迅速地、充分地解吸,解吸产生的水蒸气被冷凝为液体水,可取得较高的产水率。本发明的各种具体实施方案的其它的有益效果将在以下的实施例中予以详细说明。 All of the above embodiments have the common feature that the moisture absorbent avoids the heating surface of the heater and circulates the gas between the moisture absorbent and the heating surface of the heater, and uses the convective heat transfer of the gas to transfer the heat provided by the heater to A moisture absorbent bed. The beneficial effects of this type of equipment arrangement are: ( 1) The hygroscopic agent bed can obtain uniform heating: the average hygroscopic agent has an average particle size of about 5 mm, and the moisture absorbent bed has a void ratio of about 0.4. The heater heats the gas, and then the hot gas flows from the voids of the moisture absorbent particles into the interior of the moisture absorbent bed, so that the various portions of the absorbent bed can be uniformly heated. ( 2 The surface temperature of the heating surface of the heater can be much higher than the heat-resistant temperature of the moisture absorbent: since the device is arranged such that the moisture absorbent does not directly contact the heating surface of the heater, the surface temperature of the heating surface of the heater can be much higher than that of the moisture absorbent. The hot temperature does not cause local overheating damage of the moisture absorbent. ( 3 The moisture absorbent bed can obtain rapid temperature rise: since the heater heating surface can adopt a higher temperature and the heat transfer temperature difference is large, the cold gas can be quickly heated into a hot gas, and the hot gas flows into the moisture absorbent bed to heat the moisture absorbent. The cooling is cold gas, the cold gas circulates into the heater, is heated into hot gas, and flows into the moisture absorbent bed again to heat the moisture absorbent. In this way, a large amount of heat can be transferred to the inside of the absorbent bed, so that the entire absorbent bed is When the temperature is raised rapidly, the adsorbed moisture is rapidly and fully desorbed, and the water vapor generated by the desorption is condensed into liquid water, and a high water yield can be obtained. Other benefits of various embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail in the examples which follow.
附图说明 DRAWINGS
图 1 是实施例 1 采用全玻璃真空太阳集热管的从环境空气中收集水的设备的示意图。 Figure 1 is a schematic illustration of an apparatus for collecting water from ambient air using an all-glass vacuum solar collector.
图 2 是图 1 的 A-A 剖视图。 Figure 2 is a cross-sectional view taken along line A-A of Figure 1.
图 3 是实施例 2 采用玻璃 - 金属封接式真空太阳集热管的从环境空气中收集水的设备的示意图。 Figure 3 is a schematic illustration of an apparatus for collecting water from ambient air using a glass-to-metal sealed vacuum solar collector.
图 4 是图 3 的 A-A 剖视图。 Figure 4 is a cross-sectional view taken along line A-A of Figure 3.
图 5 是实施例 3 采用直流式真空太阳集热管的从环境空气中收集水的设备的示意图。 Figure 5 is a schematic illustration of an apparatus for collecting water from ambient air using a direct current vacuum solar collector.
图 6 是实施例 4 采用平板太阳集热器的从环境空气中收集水的设备的示意图。 Figure 6 is a schematic illustration of an apparatus for collecting water from ambient air using a flat solar collector.
图 7 是图 6 的 A-A 剖视图。 Figure 7 is a cross-sectional view taken along line A-A of Figure 6.
图 8 是实施例 5 采用温室的从环境空气中收集水的设备的示意图。 Figure 8 is a schematic illustration of an apparatus for collecting water from ambient air using a greenhouse.
图 9 是实施例 6 采用太阳集热器阵列的从环境空气中收集水的设备的示意图。 Figure 9 is a schematic illustration of an apparatus for collecting water from ambient air using a solar collector array.
图 10 是实施例 7 采用太阳灶的从环境空气中收集水的设备的示意图。 Figure 10 is a schematic illustration of an apparatus for collecting water from ambient air using a solar cooktop.
符号说明: Symbol Description:
1 吸湿剂 1 moisture absorbent
101 吸湿剂的透气盒或孔板 101 Breathable box or orifice for moisture absorbent
102 吸湿剂的透气盒的支脚 102 the moisture-absorbing box of the moisture absorber
103 吸湿剂的透气盒的支梁 103 moisture absorbing material of the breathable box
2 容器或构筑物 2 container or structure
201 容器或构筑物的盖子或通气孔盖 201 Cover or vent cover for containers or structures
202 容器的受热面的凹口 202 Notch of the heated surface of the container
3 冷凝盘管或冷凝器 3 condensing coil or condenser
301 冷凝盘管或冷凝器的冷凝水排放口 Condensate drain for 301 condensing coil or condenser
4 水箱 4 water tank
401 水箱的排水阀 401 water tank drain valve
402 水箱的排气阀 402 water tank exhaust valve
403 水箱的水位表 403 water tank water level gauge
5 真空太阳集热管 5 vacuum solar collector tube
501 真空太阳集热管的内管 501 vacuum solar collector tube inner tube
502 真空太阳集热管的外管 502 vacuum solar collector tube outer tube
503 真空太阳集热管的太阳光反射器 503 solar solar collector solar reflector
504 真空太阳集热管的支架 504 vacuum solar collector bracket
505 真空太阳集热管的上联管 505 vacuum solar collector tube upper tube
506 真空太阳集热管的下联管 506 vacuum solar collector tube lower tube
6 平板太阳集热器或温室 6 flat solar collectors or greenhouses
601 平板太阳集热器或温室的透明盖板 Transparent cover for 601 flat solar collector or greenhouse
602 平板太阳集热器或温室的透明玻璃棉 602 flat solar collector or transparent glass wool in greenhouse
603 平板太阳集热器或温室的太阳能吸收板 603 flat solar collector or greenhouse solar absorption panel
604 平板太阳集热器或温室的太阳能吸收板的散热肋片 604 flat solar collector or heat sink fins for solar panels
605 平板太阳集热器或温室的前隔热板 605 flat solar collector or greenhouse front insulation panel
606 平板太阳集热器或温室的后隔热板 606 flat solar collector or rear insulation panel for greenhouse
607 平板太阳集热器或温室的壁面 607 flat solar collector or wall of greenhouse
701 太阳灶的聚光罩 701 solar cooker concentrator
702 太阳灶的锅圈 702 solar cooker
8 太阳辐射 8 solar radiation
9 风机 9 fan
10 辅助加热器 10 auxiliary heater
11 、 11A 、 11B 过滤器 11, 11A, 11B filters
12 、 12A 、 12B 进风口 12, 12A, 12B air inlet
13 排风口 13 exhaust vents
14~27 、 28A 、 28B 阀门 14~27, 28A, 28B valves
具体实施方式 detailed description
下面结合具体实施方式对本发明作进一步的说明。其中,附图仅用于示例性说明,表示的仅是示意图,而非实物图,不能理解为对本专利的限制;为了更好地说明本发明的实施例,附图某些部件会有省略、放大或缩小,并不代表实际产品的尺寸;对本领域技术人员来说,附图中某些公知结构及其说明可能省略是可以理解的。 The invention will now be further described in conjunction with specific embodiments. The drawings are for illustrative purposes only, and are merely illustrative, rather than actual, and are not to be construed as limiting the scope of the invention; Zooming in or out does not represent the size of the actual product; it will be understood by those skilled in the art that certain known structures and their description may be omitted.
本发明实施例的附图中相同或相似的标号对应相同或相似的部件;在本发明的描述中,需要理解的是,若有术语'上'、'下'、'左'、'右'、'竖直'、'水平'等指示的方位或位置关系为基于附图所示的方位或位置关系,仅是为了便于描述本发明和简化描述,而不是指示或暗示所指的装置或元件必须具有特定的方位、以特定的方位构造和操作,因此附图中描述位置关系的用语仅用于示例性说明,不能理解为对本专利的限制。 The same or similar reference numerals in the drawings of the embodiments of the present invention correspond to the same or similar components; in the description of the present invention, it is to be understood that the terms 'up', 'down', 'left', 'right' are used. The orientation or positional relationship of the 'vertical', 'horizontal' and the like is based on the orientation or positional relationship shown in the drawings, and is merely for the convenience of describing the present invention and simplifying the description, and does not indicate or imply the indicated device or component. It is necessary to have a specific orientation and construction and operation in a specific orientation, and therefore the terms used in the drawings are for illustrative purposes only and are not to be construed as limiting.
本发明实施例中列举的数据仅仅是为了更好地说明本发明的实施例而给出的示例性数据,除非另有说明,不构成对本发明权利要求的任何限制。 The data recited in the embodiments of the present invention are merely exemplary data given to better illustrate the embodiments of the present invention, and are not intended to limit the scope of the present invention.
此外,若有'第一'、'第二'等术语,仅用于描述目的,而不能理解为指示或者暗示相对重要性,对于本领域的普通技术人员而言,可以根据具体情况理解上述术语的具体含义。 In addition, the terms 'first', 'second' and the like are used for descriptive purposes only, and are not to be construed as indicating or implying relative importance. For those skilled in the art, the above terms may be understood on a case-by-case basis. The specific meaning.
实施例 1 Example 1
如图 1 所示,为本发明中一种采用全玻璃真空太阳集热管的从环境空气中收集水的设备的示意图。参见图 1 ,在本实施例中,吸湿单元包括容器 2 和置于所述容器 2 内的吸湿剂 1 ,而加热器为太阳能集热器,具体地,为全玻璃的真空太阳集热管 5 。吸湿剂 1 放置在透气盒 101 内,吸湿剂 1 为颗粒状硅胶,粒径为 5~8mm ,吸湿剂装载量为 1kg ,空隙率约为 0.4 。透气盒 101 用不锈钢丝网或其它透气材料制作,外形可为圆柱形、方形或其它形状,不锈钢丝网孔小于吸湿剂粒径。透气盒 101 还有支脚 102 ,使透气盒 101 的底部也能透气。透气盒 101 放置在与透气盒 101 的外形相配合的容器 2 内,容器 2 上部有开口,用于放入和取出已装载有吸湿剂 1 的透气盒 101 。容器 2 的开口与盖子 201 相配合,并且具有螺纹和 O 形密封圈密封。盖子 201 上的出气口通过管道与冷凝盘管 3 连接。容器 2 的各壁面都有保温层,盖子 201 也有保温层,连接盖子 201 的出气口和冷凝盘管 3 的管道的气流流向为大致向上和水平的部分具有保温层,以防止吸湿剂解吸产生的水蒸气在这些部位冷凝为水并倒流入容器 2 。 As shown in FIG. 1, a schematic diagram of an apparatus for collecting water from ambient air using an all-glass vacuum solar collector tube is shown in FIG. See Figure 1 In the present embodiment, the moisture absorbing unit comprises a container 2 and a moisture absorbent 1 placed in the container 2, and the heater is a solar heat collector, specifically, an all-glass vacuum solar heat collecting tube 5. Moisture absorber 1 Placed in the ventilated box 101, the moisture absorbent 1 is a granular silica gel having a particle size of 5 to 8 mm, a moisture absorbent loading of 1 kg, and a void ratio of about 0.4. Breathable box 101 Made of stainless steel wire mesh or other gas permeable material, the shape can be cylindrical, square or other shape, and the stainless steel wire mesh hole is smaller than the moisture absorbent particle size. Breathable box 101 also has legs 102 for venting boxes 101 The bottom is also breathable. The venting box 101 is placed in a container 2 that matches the outer shape of the venting box 101, and the upper portion of the container 2 has an opening for inserting and removing a ventilated box loaded with the moisture absorbent 1 . The opening of the container 2 cooperates with the lid 201 and has a threaded and O-ring seal. The air outlet on the cover 201 is connected to the condensing coil 3 through a pipe. Container 2 Each wall has an insulating layer, and the cover 201 also has an insulating layer, and the air outlet and the condensing coil of the cover 201 are connected. The air flow direction of the duct has a thermal insulation layer in a substantially upward and horizontal portion to prevent water vapor generated by desorption of the moisture absorbent from condensing into water at these portions and flowing back into the container 2 .
容器 2 的底部串接真空太阳集热管 5 ,连接处具有气密密封如 O 型密封圈。真空太阳集热管 5 的性能符合国家标准 《全玻璃真空太阳集热管》( GB/T 17049-2005 ),包括玻璃内管 501 (内径Φ 47mm ,厚度 1.6mm )和玻璃外管 502 (外径Φ 58mm ,厚度 1.6mm ),长度为 1.5m 。内管 501 和外管 502 之间为真空,内管 501 上有选择性吸收太阳辐射的膜层。太阳光反射器 503 为圆柱抛物面反射器,能将入射的太阳光聚焦至内管 501 上(如图 2 所示)。内管 501 的朝向太阳光入射方向的一边受到太阳光直接照射,背向太阳光入射方向的一边受到太阳光反射器 503 聚焦的太阳光的照射。 The bottom of the container 2 is connected in series with the vacuum solar heat collecting tube 5, and the joint has a hermetic seal such as an O-ring. Vacuum solar collector tube 5 The performance meets the national standard "all-glass vacuum solar collector tube" (GB/T 17049-2005), including glass inner tube 501 (inner diameter Φ 47mm, thickness 1.6mm) and glass outer tube 502 (outer diameter Φ 58mm, thickness 1.6mm), length 1.5m. The inner tube 501 and the outer tube 502 are vacuumed, and the inner tube 501 A layer of selective absorption of solar radiation. The solar reflector 503 is a cylindrical parabolic reflector that focuses incident sunlight onto the inner tube 501 (as shown in Figure 2). Inner tube 501 The side facing the incident direction of the sunlight is directly irradiated with sunlight, and the side facing away from the incident direction of the sunlight is irradiated with the sunlight focused by the solar reflector 503.
该设备的操作过程如下:将装载有已吸附空气水分接近饱和的吸湿剂 1 的透气盒 101 放入容器 2 内,盖上并旋紧盖子 201 。使该设备的容器 2 这一端在上,另一端在下,真空管 5 的中轴线大致垂直于太阳光入射方向,调整太阳光反射器 503 ,使太阳光聚焦至内管 501 上,内管 501 吸收太阳辐射能量。由于内管 501 与外管 502 之间为真空,内管 501 向外界的对流传导热损失极小,内管 501 所吸收的太阳辐射能量的绝大部分用于加热内管 501 内部的空气,使得内管 501 内部的空气逐渐升温。当空气升温时,其体积膨胀,压力增大,从而迫使与真空管 5 相通的容器 2 内的较冷的空气通过盖子 201 的出气口和冷凝盘管 3 的冷凝水排放口 301 排放到大气,此时,冷凝器 3 的冷凝水排放口 301 也用作排气口。同时,真空管 5 内部的热空气流入吸湿剂 1 的颗粒间隙。由于空气是在内管 501 的壁面处被加热,热的空气会向上流动,冷的空气向下流动,内管 501 和容器 2 内部的空气出现自然对流,其效果是将内管 501 吸收的太阳辐射热量传递给吸湿剂 1 。当吸湿剂 1 升温至约 60 ℃时,所吸附水分开始少量解吸;当升温达到约 100 ℃时,吸附水分明显地解吸,产生大量水蒸气。吸附态的水分转化为水蒸气时,水的体积显著增加,使得容器 2 内压力增大,驱使水蒸气通过盖子 201 的出气口进入冷凝盘管 3 并且被冷凝为液体水。然后在重力的作用下,液体水从冷凝水排放口 301 排出,可用另外的容器收集从冷凝水排放口 301 排出的冷凝水。继续上述操作直至无冷凝水排出,解吸过程即告结束。可以打开盖子 201 ,取出装载有已解吸的吸湿剂 1 的透气盒 101 ,将其放置在空气流通的地方来再次吸附空气的水分。吸湿剂 1 吸附空气的水分接近饱和后,再次放入容器 2 内进行上述的解吸操作。 The operation of the apparatus is as follows: a ventilated box 101 loaded with a moisture absorbent 1 having an adsorbed air moisture close to saturation is placed in a container 2 Inside, cover and tighten the cover 201. The container 2 of the apparatus is placed at the upper end and the other end is below. The central axis of the vacuum tube 5 is substantially perpendicular to the incident direction of the sunlight, and the solar reflector 503 is adjusted. , the sunlight is focused on the inner tube 501, and the inner tube 501 absorbs solar radiation energy. Since the inner tube 501 and the outer tube 502 are vacuumed, the inner tube 501 has a very small heat loss to the outside convection, and the inner tube 501 The vast majority of the absorbed solar radiation energy is used to heat the air inside the inner tube 501, so that the inner tube 501 The internal air gradually warms up. As the air warms up, its volume expands and the pressure increases, thereby forcing the cooler air in the container 2 communicating with the vacuum tube 5 through the gas outlet of the lid 201 and the condensing coil 3 The condensate drain port 301 is discharged to the atmosphere, and at this time, the condensate drain port 301 of the condenser 3 is also used as an exhaust port. At the same time, the hot air inside the vacuum tube 5 flows into the moisture absorbent 1 Particle gap. Since the air is heated at the wall surface of the inner tube 501, the hot air flows upward, the cold air flows downward, and the inner tube 501 and the air inside the container 2 show natural convection, and the effect is that the inner tube 501 The absorbed solar radiation heat is transferred to the moisture absorbent 1 . When the moisture absorbent 1 is heated to about 60 °C, the adsorbed moisture begins to desorb a little; when the temperature rises to about 100 At °C, the adsorbed water is significantly desorbed, producing a large amount of water vapor. When the adsorbed water is converted into water vapor, the volume of water is significantly increased, so that the pressure in the vessel 2 is increased to drive the water vapor through the cover 201. The gas outlet enters the condensing coil 3 and is condensed into liquid water. Then, under the action of gravity, the liquid water is discharged from the condensate discharge port 301, and can be collected from the condensate discharge port 301 by another container. Condensed water discharged. The above operation is continued until no condensed water is discharged, and the desorption process is ended. The lid 201 can be opened to remove the venting box 101 loaded with the desorbed moisture absorbent 1 Place it in a place where air circulates to absorb the moisture of the air again. Moisture Absorber 1 After the moisture of the adsorbed air is nearly saturated, it is placed in the container 2 again to perform the above desorption operation.
一般来说,天气潮湿时将硅胶吸湿剂放在室外,只需 3 至 5 小时就可吸附水分达到饱和。但在天气干燥或者硅胶吸湿剂放在室内通风不良处的情况下,则需要数十小时至数天才能饱和。因此,每套本实施例所描述的从环境空气中收集水的设备应该配备若干个透气盒 101 ,每个内装硅胶吸湿剂 1kg ,放在通风处,直至吸附饱和(可以用称重法来确定是否饱和,硅胶的饱和吸湿量可达硅胶自身重量的 40% ,或者在硅胶吸湿剂的上表层放少量变色硅胶来指示含水量),然后按照以上操作方法轮流进行解吸操作。所述设备的吸附 - 解吸操作周期可以按照实际需要来灵活调整。 Generally, when the weather is wet, put the silicone moisture absorber outside, just 3 to 5 It can absorb water to reach saturation in an hour. However, in the case where the weather is dry or the silica gel absorbent is placed in a poorly ventilated room, it takes tens of hours to several days to saturate. Therefore, each set of equipment for collecting water from ambient air described in this embodiment should be equipped with several venting boxes. 101, each containing 1kg of silicone moisture absorbent, placed in a ventilated place until the adsorption is saturated (we can use the weighing method to determine whether it is saturated, the saturated moisture absorption of the silica gel can reach 40% of the weight of the silica gel itself. Or, put a small amount of color-changing silica gel on the upper surface of the silica gel absorbent to indicate the water content), and then perform the desorption operation in turn according to the above operation method. Adsorption of the device - The desorption operation cycle can be flexibly adjusted according to actual needs.
本实施例中,在吸附阶段,由于采用了多个透气盒长时间地吸附空气水分的方式,吸湿剂能够充分地、足够长时间地与空气接触直至吸附水分达到饱和。吸湿剂能够从环境空气中吸附达自身重量的 40% 的水分是因为:第一,吸湿剂是微孔类材料,具有巨大的内表面积;第二,这些内表面上有许多的不饱和键(即活性位);第三,这些活性位的性质是选择性地吸附水分子,而极少吸附氧气和氮气分子。在解吸阶段,首先,由于真空管 5 的玻璃内管 501 上具有选择性吸收太阳辐射的膜层,因此能够高效地吸收太阳辐射能量,而且真空管 5 的内管 501 和外管 502 之间的真空及其容器 2 具有的保温层能够确保该设备向外界的对流传导热损失极小,所吸收的太阳辐射能量接近全部用于加热该设备内部的空气;然后,热空气是通过自然对流的方式渗透进入吸湿剂 1 ,使得吸湿剂 1 能够均匀地、充分地加热和解吸;最后,由于容器 2 内具有较高温度和压力,解吸产生的水蒸气的绝大部分进入冷凝盘管 3 冷凝来产出液体水。 In the present embodiment, in the adsorption stage, since a plurality of gas permeable boxes are used to adsorb air moisture for a long period of time, the moisture absorbent can be sufficiently and sufficiently contacted with air until the adsorbed moisture reaches saturation. Moisture absorbent can absorb its own weight from ambient air 40% Moisture is because: first, the moisture absorbent is a microporous material with a large internal surface area; second, there are many unsaturated bonds on the inner surface (ie, active sites); third, the nature of these active sites is Selectively adsorbs water molecules with minimal adsorption of oxygen and nitrogen molecules. In the desorption stage, first of all, due to the vacuum tube The glass inner tube 501 of 5 has a film layer that selectively absorbs solar radiation, so that solar radiation energy can be efficiently absorbed, and the vacuum between the inner tube 501 and the outer tube 502 of the vacuum tube 5 and its container 2 The insulation layer can ensure that the convective heat loss of the device to the outside is minimal, and the absorbed solar radiation energy is close to all the air used to heat the inside of the device; then, the hot air is infiltrated into the moisture absorbent by natural convection. So that the moisture absorbent 1 can be uniformly and sufficiently heated and desorbed; finally, due to the higher temperature and pressure in the container 2, most of the water vapor generated by the desorption enters the condensing coil 3 Condensate to produce liquid water.
本实施例中,虽然描述的是硅胶吸湿剂,也可以选用其它种类的吸湿剂如活性氧化铝、沸石分子筛、氯化钙、氯化钾、氯化锂等、或者两种或两种以上的吸湿剂的混合物;虽然容器 2 与盖子 201 之间的配合采用螺纹和 O 形密封圈密封,其它形式的密封如螺栓和密封垫片等也适用;虽然选用的是全玻璃真空太阳集热管,其它种类的太阳集热器如热管式真空太阳集热器、同芯套管式真空太阳集热管等也适用(需要说明的是,虽然本发明的每个实施例只采用某种形式的加热器或太阳能集热器,其它形式的加热器或太阳能集热器也同样适用);虽然太阳光反射器 503 采用了圆柱抛物面反射器,其它类型的反射器如圆柱镜面反射器、复合镜聚光反射器等也适用;虽然采用了冷凝盘管 3 ,其它形式的冷凝器如列管式冷凝器、平板肋片式冷凝器等也可以选用。上述说明适用于本发明的所有具体实施方式。 In this embodiment, although a silica gel moisture absorbent is described, other types of moisture absorbent such as activated alumina, zeolite molecular sieve, calcium chloride, potassium chloride, lithium chloride, or the like, or two or more kinds may be used. a mixture of hygroscopic agents; although a container 2 The fit between the cover 201 and the cover 201 is threaded and O Sealed seals, other types of seals such as bolts and gaskets are also suitable; although all-glass vacuum solar collectors are used, other types of solar collectors such as heat pipe vacuum solar collectors, concentric casings A vacuum solar collector tube or the like is also applicable (it is to be noted that although each embodiment of the present invention uses only some form of heater or solar collector, other forms of heaters or solar collectors are also applicable) ; although the sun reflector The 503 uses a cylindrical parabolic reflector. Other types of reflectors such as cylindrical specular reflectors, composite mirror concentrating reflectors, etc. are also suitable; although condensing coils are used 3 Other forms of condensers such as tube condensers, plate finned condensers, and the like are also available. The above description is applicable to all embodiments of the invention.
本实施例没有使用风机、阀门、仪表等,无需用电。所涉及的真空太阳集热管可选用市售真空太阳集热管成品。目前真空太阳集热管已普遍应用于各种太阳能装置如太阳能热水器,真空管价格较便宜。硅胶吸湿剂(硅胶干燥剂)是常见的化工产品。市售全玻璃真空太阳集热管一般用高硼硅玻璃制造,具有较高的机械强度。本实施例还可以在全玻璃真空太阳集热管外增设透明塑料保护套来提高本设备在携带和操作过程中的安全性。 This embodiment does not use a fan, a valve, a meter, etc., and does not require electricity. The vacuum solar collector tube involved may be a commercially available vacuum solar collector tube. At present, vacuum solar collector tubes have been widely used in various solar devices such as solar water heaters, and vacuum tubes are relatively inexpensive. Silica gel absorbent (silica gel desiccant) is a common chemical product. Commercially available all-glass vacuum solar collector tubes are generally made of high borosilicate glass and have high mechanical strength. In this embodiment, a transparent plastic protective cover can be added outside the all-glass vacuum solar heat collecting tube to improve the safety of the device during carrying and operation.
综上所述,本实施例的优点是产水率较高、结构简单、成本低廉、无需用电、吸附 - 解吸操作周期有很大的灵活性。 In summary, the advantages of the embodiment are high water production rate, simple structure, low cost, no need for electricity, adsorption - The desorption operation cycle has great flexibility.
实施例 2 Example 2
本实施例与实施例 1 类似,其不同之处在于,吸湿剂 1 置于真空太阳集热管的内部并对外接通所述冷凝器。如图 3 和 4 所示,为本发明中一种采用玻璃 - 金属封接式真空太阳集热管的从环境空气中收集水的设备的示意图。符合国标《真空管型太阳能集热器技术条件》( GB/T 17581-2006 )的玻璃 - 金属封接式真空太阳集热管 5 包括金属内管 501 (内径Φ 78mm )和玻璃外管 502 (外径Φ 90mm ,厚度 1.6mm ),长度 1.5m 。吸湿剂 1 放置在透气盒 101 内,吸湿剂 1 为颗粒状硅胶,平均粒径 5mm ,装载量 3kg 。透气盒 101 外形为圆柱形(外径Φ 60mm ,长度 1.48m ),并具有若干个支脚 102 ,用于使透气盒 101 保持与内管 501 的内壁面之间有空隙。盖子 201 上有两个出气管,分别与透气盒 101 内的下部出气口和上部出气口相连通,并通过管道与冷凝盘管 3 连接,冷凝盘管 3 连接有水箱 4 ,水箱 4 设置有排气阀 401 、排水阀 402 、水位计 403 。 This embodiment is similar to the embodiment 1, except that the moisture absorbent 1 It is placed inside the vacuum solar heat collecting tube and externally connected to the condenser. As shown in Figures 3 and 4, a glass is used in the present invention - Schematic diagram of a device for collecting water from ambient air in a metal-sealed vacuum solar collector. Glass in line with the national standard "Technical Conditions for Vacuum Tube Solar Collectors" (GB/T 17581-2006) - Metal-sealed vacuum solar collector tube 5 includes metal inner tube 501 (inner diameter Φ 78mm) and glass outer tube 502 (outer diameter Φ 90mm, thickness 1.6mm), length 1.5m . The moisture absorbent 1 is placed in the ventilated box 101, and the moisture absorbent 1 is granular silica gel having an average particle diameter of 5 mm and a loading capacity of 3 kg. Breathable box 101 is cylindrical (OD Φ 60mm, length) 1.48m) and having a plurality of legs 102 for maintaining a gap between the venting box 101 and the inner wall surface of the inner tube 501. The cover 201 has two air outlet pipes, respectively, and a venting box 101 The lower air outlet is connected to the upper air outlet and connected to the condensing coil 3 through a pipe. The condensing coil 3 is connected with a water tank 4, and the water tank 4 is provided with an exhaust valve 401, a drain valve 402, and a water level gauge. 403.
该设备的吸湿剂解吸操作有以下三种方法: There are three methods for the moisture desorption operation of this device:
( 1 )全开放模式: (1) Full open mode:
在解吸阶段,排气阀 401 一直打开。太阳能加热真空管 5 开始升温时,打开阀门 14 ,在气体升温升压作用下,排出位于真空管 5 下端的吸湿剂 1 内的较冷空气(真空管 5 下端的吸湿剂 1 内是该设备内部的最低温度点,设备升温时排出此处的较冷空气而不是排出真空管 5 上端的较热空气可减少热损失,加快升温速度)。当吸湿剂 1 加热解吸时,由于水蒸气比空气轻,在真空管 5 上部的水蒸气浓度较高。关闭阀门 14 ,打开阀门 15 ,让水蒸气进入冷凝盘管 3 ,冷凝水流入水箱 4 。继续加热使吸湿剂 1 充分解吸,观察水位计 403 ,水位不再升高时,解吸结束,停止加热(解吸完成后的吸湿剂若继续加热容易过热损坏)。 During the desorption phase, the exhaust valve 401 is always open. Solar heating vacuum tube 5 When the temperature starts to rise, open the valve 14 The cold air in the moisture absorbent 1 located at the lower end of the vacuum tube 5 is discharged under the action of the gas temperature rising pressure (the moisture absorbent at the lower end of the vacuum tube 5) The inside is the lowest temperature point inside the equipment. When the equipment warms up, the cooler air is discharged here instead of discharging the hot air at the upper end of the vacuum tube 5 to reduce heat loss and accelerate the heating rate). When the moisture absorbent 1 When desorbed by heating, since the water vapor is lighter than air, the water vapor concentration in the upper portion of the vacuum tube 5 is high. Close the valve 14 , open the valve 15 , let the water vapor enter the condensing coil 3 , and the condensed water flows into the water tank 4 . Continue heating to fully desorb the moisture absorbent 1 and observe the water level gauge 403. When the water level is no longer raised, the desorption ends and the heating is stopped (the moisture absorbent after desorption is heated and easily overheated and damaged).
在该模式下,由于设备始终直通大气,设备内部压力为常压或略高于常压,非承压设备(如实施例 1 的全玻璃真空管)比较适合该操作方法。该方法的缺点是有时出现水蒸气排放损失。例如,环境空气温度为 35 ℃时,从真空管 5 排到冷凝盘管 3 的水蒸气与空气混合物在冷凝盘管 3 大致被冷却到约 45 ℃,此时部分水蒸气会经排气阀 401 排放到大气而浪费掉。另外,设备升温升压后,经排气阀 401 会不断排出少量水蒸气与空气混合物,导致设备内空气越来越少,解吸产生的水蒸气越来越多,不利于吸湿剂的彻底解吸。 In this mode, since the equipment is always open to the atmosphere, the internal pressure of the equipment is normal pressure or slightly higher than normal pressure, such as non-pressure equipment (such as embodiment 1 The all-glass vacuum tube) is more suitable for this method of operation. A disadvantage of this method is that water vapor emissions losses sometimes occur. For example, when the ambient air temperature is 35 °C, drain from the vacuum tube 5 to the condensing coil 3 The mixture of water vapor and air is substantially cooled to about 45 °C in the condensing coil 3, at which point some of the water vapor is vented to the atmosphere via the exhaust valve 401 and wasted. In addition, after the device is warmed up and boosted, the exhaust valve 401 A small amount of water vapor and air mixture will be continuously discharged, resulting in less and less air in the equipment, and more and more water vapor generated by desorption, which is not conducive to the complete desorption of the moisture absorbent.
( 2 )全封闭模式: (2) Fully closed mode:
在解吸阶段,排气阀 401 一直关闭。太阳能加热使真空管 5 升温升压,打开阀门 14 ,冷气体进入冷凝盘管 3 和水箱 4 ,使冷凝盘管 3 和水箱 4 也升压。当吸湿剂 1 解吸时,关闭阀门 14 ,打开阀门 15 ,吸湿剂 1 解吸产生的水蒸气进入冷凝盘管 3 ,冷凝水流入水箱 4 。继续加热,水箱 4 的水位不再升高时,解吸结束。 During the desorption phase, the exhaust valve 401 is always closed. Solar heating causes the vacuum tube 5 to warm up and open, opening the valve 14 The cold gas enters the condensing coil 3 and the water tank 4, and the condensing coil 3 and the water tank 4 are also boosted. When the moisture absorbent 1 is desorbed, the valve 14 is closed, the valve 15 is opened, and the moisture absorbent 1 The water vapor generated by the desorption enters the condensing coil 3, and the condensed water flows into the water tank 4 . Heating continues and desorption ends when the water level in tank 4 no longer rises.
在该模式下,设备内压力较高,承压设备(如本实施例的玻璃 - 金属封接式真空管)可采用该操作方法。该方法的优点是完全没有水蒸气排放损失,吸湿剂可彻底解吸。 In this mode, the pressure inside the equipment is higher, and the pressure equipment (such as the glass of this embodiment) This method of operation can be employed for metal-sealed vacuum tubes. The advantage of this method is that there is no loss of water vapor emissions at all, and the moisture absorbent can be completely desorbed.
( 2 )开放 - 封闭模式: (2) Open - closed mode:
开始解吸时,打开排气阀 401 和阀门 14 ,太阳能加热使真空管 5 升温升压,部分冷空气排到大气。当吸湿剂 1 解吸时,关闭排气阀 401 和阀门 14 ,打开阀门 15 ,吸湿剂 1 解吸产生的水蒸气进入冷凝盘管 3 ,冷凝水流入水箱 4 。继续加热,水箱 4 的水位不再升高时,解吸结束。该方法的优点是水蒸气损失较少,有利于吸湿剂的彻底解吸。 When the desorption is started, the exhaust valve 401 and the valve 14 are opened, and the solar heating is performed to make the vacuum tube 5 The temperature rises and the part of the cold air is discharged to the atmosphere. When the moisture absorbent 1 is desorbed, the exhaust valve 401 and the valve 14 are closed, the valve 15 is opened, and the water vapor generated by the desorbent 1 desorbs into the condensing coil 3 Condensed water flows into the water tank 4 . Heating continues and desorption ends when the water level in tank 4 no longer rises. The advantage of this method is that the water vapor loss is less, which is beneficial to the complete desorption of the moisture absorbent.
可以根据实际情况(尤其是设备是否承压)选用全开放、全封闭或开放 - 封闭式操作方法。上述关于操作方法的说明适用于本发明的所有具体实施方式。 It can be fully open, fully enclosed or open according to the actual situation (especially whether the equipment is under pressure) - Closed operation method. The above description of the method of operation is applicable to all embodiments of the invention.
本实施例中设备的布置方式使得吸湿剂 1 是依靠内管 501 内部空气的自然对流得到加热,而并非是依靠吸湿剂 1 与内管 501 的壁面直接接触的热传导来加热,以下说明本发明的这种设备布置方式的有益效果。 The arrangement of the apparatus in this embodiment is such that the moisture absorbent 1 is dependent on the inner tube 501. The natural convection of the internal air is heated, rather than relying on the heat conduction of the moisture absorbent 1 in direct contact with the wall surface of the inner tube 501, and the advantageous effects of the arrangement of the apparatus of the present invention are explained below.
真空太阳集热管的热性能常用空晒性能参数来衡量: Y = (Ts - Ta) / H ≥ 0.195 m2 ·℃ /W, 其中, Y 为空晒性能参数, m2 ·℃ /W ; Ts 为空晒温度,℃; Ta 为环境温度,℃; H 为太阳辐照度, W/m2 。假定在晴天时平均太阳辐照度 H = 950 W/m2 ,环境温度 Ta = 30 ℃。根据上式,真空管的空晒温度 Ts ≥ 215 ℃。真空管能够达到 215 ℃以上温度是因为真空管上的膜层能高效吸收太阳辐射能量,并且其真空夹层的对流传导热损失极小。参见图 3 ,如果不是采用透气盒 101 与内管 501 之间有间隙让空气自然对流的方式,而是采用 3kg 的吸湿剂 1 散放在内管 501 内部的方式时,内管 501 的大部分内壁面将被吸湿剂 1 所覆盖,此时,内管 501 向外为真空夹层不能散热,向内为吸湿剂 1 (吸湿剂 1 的导热系数仅为 0.14 W/m · K )也难以散热,内管 501 将过热,导致选择性吸收太阳辐射的膜层损坏、脱落,真空管 5 失效。另一方面,与内管 501 直接接触的那些吸湿剂颗粒的温度将达到 215 ℃以上,接近或超过硅胶吸湿剂的耐热温度,这部分过热的吸湿剂将损坏。同时,位于内管 501 内部中间位置的那些不与内管 501 壁面接触的吸湿剂颗粒仅依靠吸湿剂床热传导却只能得到缓慢的加热。The thermal performance of the vacuum solar collector is usually measured by the air drying performance parameter: Y = (T s - T a ) / H ≥ 0.195 m 2 · °C /W, where Y is the air drying performance parameter, m 2 · °C / W T s is the air drying temperature, ° C; T a is the ambient temperature, ° C; H is the solar irradiance, W / m 2 . It is assumed that the average solar irradiance H = 950 W/m 2 on a sunny day and the ambient temperature T a = 30 °C. According to the above formula, the drying temperature of the vacuum tube is T s ≥ 215 °C. The vacuum tube can reach temperatures above 215 °C because the film on the vacuum tube can absorb solar radiation energy efficiently, and the convective conduction heat loss of the vacuum interlayer is extremely small. Referring to Fig. 3, if a gap between the ventilating box 101 and the inner tube 501 is used to naturally convect the air, but a mode in which 3 kg of the moisture absorbent 1 is dispersed inside the inner tube 501, most of the inner tube 501 is used. The inner wall surface will be covered by the moisture absorbent 1. At this time, the inner tube 501 is outwardly provided with a vacuum interlayer and cannot dissipate heat, and the inward is the moisture absorbent 1 (the thermal conductivity of the moisture absorbent 1 is only 0.14 W/m · K), and it is difficult to dissipate heat. The inner tube 501 will overheat, causing the membrane that selectively absorbs solar radiation to be damaged and detached, and the vacuum tube 5 will fail. On the other hand, the temperature of the moisture absorbent particles which are in direct contact with the inner tube 501 will reach 215 ° C or higher, which is close to or exceeds the heat resistant temperature of the silicone moisture absorbent, and this partially overheated moisture absorbent will be damaged. At the same time, those moisture-repellent particles which are not in contact with the wall surface of the inner tube 501 at the intermediate position inside the inner tube 501 rely on the heat transfer of the moisture absorbent bed but can only be heated slowly.
考虑到上述问题,本实施例的设备布置方式是吸湿剂 1 与内管 501 之间有空隙,内管 501 加热空气,热空气进入透气盒 101 加热吸湿剂 1 变成冷空气,冷空气又被内管 501 加热。该布置方式使得全部吸湿剂床内各部分都能够得到均匀和快速的加热。 In view of the above problems, the apparatus arrangement of the present embodiment is such that there is a gap between the moisture absorbent 1 and the inner tube 501, and the inner tube 501 Heating the air, hot air enters the ventilating box 101 Heating the moisture absorbent 1 becomes cold air, and the cold air is again taken by the inner tube 501 Heat up. This arrangement enables uniform and rapid heating of all parts of the entire absorbent bed.
需要说明的是,本发明的所有实施例都具有上述吸湿剂布置方式的实质性特点,其原理和效果相同,以下实施例中将不再赘述。 It should be noted that all the embodiments of the present invention have the substantial features of the above-mentioned moisture absorbent arrangement, and the principles and effects thereof are the same, and will not be further described in the following embodiments.
上述说明适用于本发明的采用其它形式的加热器或外界热源的所有具体实施方式。 The above description applies to all embodiments of the present invention employing other forms of heaters or external heat sources.
本实施例未提及的部分与实施例 1 类似,此处不再赘述。 The parts not mentioned in this embodiment are similar to the embodiment 1, and are not described herein again.
实施例 3 Example 3
本实施例与实施 1 例类似,其不同之处在于,真空太阳集热管为直流式真空太阳集热管,所述容器 2 与八个真空太阳集热管并联接通并且通过管道与冷凝器串接。如图 5 所示,为本发明的一种采用直流式真空太阳集热管的从环境空气中收集水的设备示意图。吸湿剂 1 (约 10kg )散放在容器 2 内,四个直流式真空太阳集热管并排排列在容器 2 的一侧,另外四个真空管排列在另一侧。各个真空管的内管 501 及其容器 2 的上端与上联管 505 连接,下端与下联管 506 连接。太阳光反射器 503 安装在真空管的后面。容器 2 上端的连接管道上设置有进气口 12A 、内有滤膜的进气过滤器 11A 及阀门 28A (安装方向是从纸面向后下方),下端的连接管道上设置有进气口 12B 、内有细孔钢丝网的进气过滤器 11B 及阀门 28B (安装方向是从纸面向后下方)。排气口 13 及阀门 18 设置在上联管 505 上。冷凝器和水箱(图 5 中未画出)安装在容器 2 的后下方,容器 2 下部的虚线圆圈是通向冷凝器的管道出口位置。 This embodiment is similar to the embodiment 1 except that the vacuum solar heat collecting tube is a direct current vacuum solar heat collecting tube, and the container 2 It is connected in parallel with eight vacuum solar collector tubes and is connected in series with the condenser through a pipe. As shown in FIG. 5, it is a schematic diagram of an apparatus for collecting water from ambient air using a direct current vacuum solar heat collecting tube. Moisture absorber 1 (about 10 kg) is placed in the container 2, four DC vacuum solar collector tubes are arranged side by side on one side of the container 2, and the other four vacuum tubes are arranged on the other side. Inner tube 501 of each vacuum tube and its container 2 The upper end is connected to the upper header 505 and the lower end is connected to the lower header 506. The solar reflector 503 is mounted behind the vacuum tube. The connecting pipe at the upper end of the container 2 is provided with an air inlet 12A Inlet filter 11A and valve 28A (with mounting direction from the paper facing rear), and the inlet pipe on the lower end is provided with an inlet port 12B and an air inlet filter with a fine mesh wire mesh. And valve 28B (installation direction is from the paper to the back and bottom). The exhaust port 13 and the valve 18 are disposed on the upper pipe 505. The condenser and water tank (not shown in Figure 5) are installed in the container 2 At the lower rear, the dotted circle at the bottom of the container 2 is the pipe exit position to the condenser.
潮湿天气情况下设备的操作过程如下:夜间吸附水分时打开阀门 17 、 18 、 28B ,关闭其它阀门。外界空气从进气口 12B 进入,水分被吸湿剂 1 吸附,干燥空气经排气口 13 排出。夜间吸附水分时空气流动的推动力是吸附热使空气升温所带来的烟囱效应。早上日出时打开阀门 16 、 17 ,关闭其它阀门。太阳光照加热真空管内空气,真空管内的热空气向上流动进入上联管 505 后流入容器 2 ,容器 2 内的较冷空气向下流动进入下联管 506 后流入真空管,形成空气的自然对流,将真空管吸收的太阳辐射能量传递给吸湿剂 1 ,使吸湿剂 1 加热解吸。解吸完成后,如果仍然有太阳光照,进行白天吸附水分操作,打开阀门 16 、 18 、 28A ,关闭其它阀门。内管 501 内空气被太阳光照加热升温所产生的烟囱效应使得从进气口 12A 进入的外界空气流经容器 2 、下联管 506 、内管 501 、上联管 505 后从排气口 13 排出,外界空气水分被吸湿剂 1 吸附。傍晚日落后开始夜间吸附水分操作,打开阀门 17 、 18 、 28B ,关闭其它阀门,整个夜晚持续吸附水分。第二天早上日出时又开始上述解吸操作。吸附 - 解吸操作周期为 24 小时。 The operation of the equipment in wet weather is as follows: open the valve at night when adsorbing moisture 17 , 18 , 28B , close other valves. The outside air enters from the intake port 12B, and the moisture is adsorbed by the moisture absorbent 1, and the dry air passes through the exhaust port. Discharge. The driving force of air flow when adsorbing moisture at night is the chimney effect caused by the heat of adsorption to warm the air. Open the valve at sunrise in the morning 16 , 17 , close other valves. The sunlight heats the air in the vacuum tube, and the hot air in the vacuum tube flows upward into the upper tube 505 and flows into the container 2, and the cooler air in the container 2 flows downward into the lower tube 506. After flowing into the vacuum tube, the natural convection of the air is formed, and the solar radiation energy absorbed by the vacuum tube is transmitted to the moisture absorbent 1 to make the moisture absorbent 1 Desorb by heating. After the desorption is completed, if there is still sunlight, perform the moisture adsorption during the day, open the valves 16, 18, 28A and close the other valves. Inner tube 501 The chimney effect caused by the heating of the inner air by the sunlight is such that the outside air entering from the air inlet 12A flows through the container 2, the lower pipe 506, the inner pipe 501, the upper pipe 505, and the exhaust port 13 Exhausted, the outside air moisture is adsorbed by the moisture absorbent 1 . After the sunset in the evening, start the nighttime adsorption operation and open the valve 17 , 18 , 28B Close other valves and continue to absorb moisture throughout the night. The above desorption operation was started again at sunrise the next morning. The adsorption-desorption cycle is 24 hours.
干燥天气情况下设备的操作过程如下:夜间吸附水分时打开阀门 17 、 18 、 28B ,关闭其它阀门。外界空气从进气口 12B 进入,水分被吸湿剂 1 吸附,干燥空气经排气口 13 排出。由于空气含湿量较低,吸附热产生的烟囱效应较弱,因此吸湿剂 1 难以达到吸附饱和。早上日出时开始白天吸附水分操作,打开阀门 16 、 18 、 28A ,关闭其它阀门。内管 501 内空气被太阳光照加热升温所产生的烟囱效应使得从进气口 12A 进入的外界空气流经容器 2 、下联管 506 、内管 501 、上联管 505 后从排气口 13 排出,外界空气水分被吸湿剂 1 吸附,继续上述白天吸附水分操作直至饱和。然后打开阀门 16 、 17 ,关闭其它阀门,利用太阳光照加热真空管内空气,形成空气的自然对流,使吸湿剂 1 解吸。吸附 - 解吸操作周期可以根据实际需要调整。例如,连续吸附两个夜晚和一个白天,再用一个白天来解吸(其中,夜晚吸附是利用吸附热产生的烟囱效应,白天吸附是利用太阳能加热空气产生的烟囱效应,白天解吸是利用太阳能加热气体产生的自然对流循环)。 The operation of the equipment in dry weather conditions is as follows: open the valve at night when adsorbing moisture 17 , 18 , 28B , close other valves. The outside air enters from the intake port 12B, the moisture is adsorbed by the moisture absorbent 1, and the dry air is discharged through the exhaust port 13. Due to the low moisture content of the air, the chimney effect caused by the adsorption heat is weak, so the moisture absorbent 1 It is difficult to achieve adsorption saturation. In the morning sunrise, start the moisture absorption operation during the day, open the valves 16, 18, 28A and close the other valves. Inner tube 501 The chimney effect caused by the heating of the inner air by the sunlight is such that the outside air entering from the air inlet 12A flows through the container 2, the lower pipe 506, the inner pipe 501, the upper pipe 505, and the exhaust port 13 Exhausted, the outside air moisture is adsorbed by the moisture absorbent 1 and continues to absorb moisture during the day until saturation. Then open the valve 16 , 17 The other valves are closed, and the air in the vacuum tube is heated by the sunlight to form a natural convection of the air to desorb the moisture absorbent 1. Adsorption - The desorption operation cycle can be adjusted according to actual needs. For example, continuous adsorption for two nights and one day, and then a day to desorb (where night adsorption is the chimney effect generated by the adsorption heat, daytime adsorption is the chimney effect generated by the use of solar heating air, daytime desorption is the use of solar heating gas The resulting natural convection cycle).
上述操作中,吸湿剂 1 的吸水量一般用湿度表或内有变色硅胶的含水量显示仪来指示。这些不用电的常规仪表并没有在图 5 (及其它附图)中画出,可以按照实际需要来配置。 In the above operation, the moisture absorbent 1 The amount of water absorption is generally indicated by a hygrometer or a water content indicator with a color changing silica gel. These conventional meters that are not used are not drawn in Figure 5 (and other figures) and can be configured as needed.
本实施例中,加热器(真空太阳集热管)是位于装载吸湿剂的容器的外部,热空气是从加热器流到容器,再从容器流到加热器,属于外循环流动方式。前述的实施例 2 中,加热器是位于装载吸湿剂的容器内部,空气是在容器内部循环流动,属于内循环流动方式。 In the present embodiment, the heater (vacuum solar heat collecting tube) is located outside the container for carrying the moisture absorbent, and the hot air flows from the heater to the container and then from the container to the heater, and belongs to the external circulation flow mode. The foregoing embodiment 2 The heater is located inside the container for storing the moisture absorbent, and the air circulates inside the container, which belongs to the inner circulation flow mode.
本实施例也可以类似于实施例 1 和 2 那样将吸湿剂装载在透气盒内再放进容器 2 ,解吸后再取出来放在通风处吸附水分。取出吸湿剂吸附水分的方式的优点是可以配用多个透气盒,在吸附 - 解吸操作周期方面有很大的灵活性。如图 5 所示的本实施例的设置进排气口吸附水分的方式的优点则是人工成本略低。本发明的所有具体实施方式都可以采用取出吸湿剂吸附水分的方式或者设置进排气口吸附水分的方式。 This embodiment can also be used to load the moisture absorbent into the gas permeable box and then into the container 2 as in the first and second embodiments. After desorption, take it out and put it in a ventilated place to absorb moisture. The advantage of removing moisture from the moisture absorber is that it can be used with multiple venting boxes, providing great flexibility in the adsorption-desorption cycle. Figure 5 The advantage of the manner in which the intake and exhaust ports of the present embodiment are shown to adsorb moisture is that the labor cost is slightly lower. All the embodiments of the present invention may adopt a method of taking out the moisture adsorbing agent to adsorb moisture or setting a manner of adsorbing moisture into the exhaust port.
本实施例采用多个真空太阳集热管并排排列的目的的是增加采光面积。本发明的其它实施例也可以采用多个真空太阳集热管并排排列来增加采光面积。例如,实施例 1 的容器 2 可为长方形,透气盒 101 为与容器 2 相配合的长方形,若干个全玻璃真空太阳集热管 5 并排排列,其上端接入容器 2 。长方形容器 2 的两个相对的端面可以打开,用于吸湿剂吸附水分时通入环境空气。 In this embodiment, a plurality of vacuum solar heat collecting tubes are arranged side by side for the purpose of increasing the lighting area. Other embodiments of the invention may also employ multiple vacuum solar collector tubes arranged side by side to increase the daylighting area. For example, the container of embodiment 1 2 can be rectangular, the ventilated box 101 is a rectangle matching the container 2, and several all-glass vacuum solar heat collecting tubes 5 are arranged side by side, and the upper end is connected to the container 2 . Rectangular container 2 The two opposite end faces can be opened for the passage of ambient air when the moisture absorbent adsorbs moisture.
本实施例也可以采用其它形式的太阳集热器。例如,图 5 的四个直流式真空太阳集热管可被一个平板太阳集热器所替代,该平板太阳集热器上端有一个排气口与上联管接通,下端有一个进气口与下联管接通。 Other forms of solar collectors can also be used in this embodiment. For example, Figure 5 The four DC vacuum solar collector tubes can be replaced by a flat solar collector having an exhaust port connected to the upper tube and a lower port connected to the lower tube. .
本实施例未提及的部分与以上实施例类似,此处不再赘述。 The parts not mentioned in this embodiment are similar to the above embodiments, and are not described herein again.
实施例 4 Example 4
本实施例与以上实施例类似,其不同之处在于,太阳能集热器由平板式太阳集热组件构成,所述吸湿单元设置在所述平板式集热器内部并密封从而利用太阳能加热来形成自然对流内循环系统,所述平板集热器与上述实施例的容器的作用相同。如图 6 和 7 所示,为本发明的一种采用平板太阳集热器的从环境空气中收集水的设备示意图。平板集热器 6 前部依次设置有透明盖板 601 、透明玻璃棉 602 、太阳能吸收板 603 及散热肋片 604 、以及前隔热板 605 ,前隔热板 605 的上端和下端与平板集热器的壁面 607 之间有空隙让气体可以流通。透明玻璃棉 602 可减少平板集热器 6 前部的散热损失。太阳能吸收板 603 上有高选择性吸收太阳辐射的膜层,太阳能吸收板 603 与平板集热器壁面 607 之间有气密密封,以防止水蒸气进入太阳能吸收板 603 与透明盖板 601 之间的空间而降低透明盖板 601 的透明度。太阳能吸收板 603 与前隔热板 605 构成气体向上流动的气流通道,前隔热板 605 与后隔热板 606 构成气体向下流动的气流通道。吸湿剂 1 放置在若干个透气盒 101 内,透气盒 101 分层放置在平板集热器 6 后部的支梁 103 上。平板集热器壁面 607 上设置若干个通气孔盖 201 (图 6 只画出其中一个)。平板式冷凝器 3 的下部兼做水箱,后隔热板 606 中部上有一个小孔让水蒸气可以进入冷凝器 3 。该设备进行解吸操作时,太阳光透过透明盖板 601 、透明玻璃棉 602 照射加热太阳能吸收板 603 ,太阳能吸收板 603 及散热肋片 604 加热空气,太阳能吸收板 603 与前隔热板 605 之间的热空气向上流动,前隔热板 605 与后隔热板 606 之间的较冷空气向下流动,形成空气的自然对流。前隔热板 605 的作用之一是减少太阳能吸收板 603 后的高温区向吸湿剂床的直接的热传导,使高温区与吸湿剂床之间有较大的温度差,从而产生较大的气体自然对流的推动力。 This embodiment is similar to the above embodiment, except that the solar collector is composed of a flat type solar collector assembly, and the moisture absorption unit is disposed inside the flat type collector and sealed to form by solar heating. The natural convection internal circulation system has the same function as the container of the above embodiment. As shown 6 and 7 are schematic views of an apparatus for collecting water from ambient air using a flat solar collector. Flat plate collector 6 is provided with transparent cover 601 and transparent glass wool in front. The solar absorption plate 603 and the heat dissipation fins 604, and the front heat insulation plate 605, the upper and lower ends of the front heat insulation plate 605 and the wall surface of the flat heat collector 607 There is a gap between them to allow gas to circulate. The clear glass wool 602 reduces heat loss in the front of the flat panel collector 6. The solar absorption plate 603 has a film with high selective absorption of solar radiation, and the solar absorption plate 603 A hermetic seal is formed between the flat collector wall 607 to prevent water vapor from entering the space between the solar absorbing panel 603 and the transparent cover 601 to reduce the transparency of the transparent cover 601. Solar absorption board The 603 and the front heat shield 605 constitute an air flow passage for the gas to flow upward, and the front heat shield 605 and the rear heat shield 606 constitute a gas flow passage for the gas to flow downward. Moisture absorber 1 placed in several breathable boxes Inside 101, the venting box 101 is layered on the support beam 103 at the rear of the flat plate collector 6. A plurality of vent covers 201 are provided on the flat collector wall 607 (Fig. 6 Only draw one of them). The lower portion of the flat condenser 3 also serves as a water tank, and a small hole in the middle of the rear heat shield 606 allows water vapor to enter the condenser 3 . When the device is desorbed, sunlight passes through the transparent cover 601, transparent glass wool 602 irradiation heating solar absorption plate 603, solar absorption plate 603 and heat dissipation fins 604 heating air, solar absorption plate 603 and front insulation board 605 The hot air flows upwardly, and the cooler air between the front heat shield 605 and the rear heat shield 606 flows downward, forming a natural convection of the air. One of the functions of the front heat shield 605 is to reduce the solar absorption panel 603 The direct heat transfer from the high temperature zone to the moisture absorbent bed causes a large temperature difference between the high temperature zone and the moisture absorbent bed, thereby generating a large driving force for natural gas convection.
该设备可制作成各种规格。中型设备的尺寸如:长 2m ,宽 1m ,厚 0.2m ,吸湿剂装载量 35kg 。透明盖板宜采用双层玻璃,太阳能吸收板及散热肋片可采用薄钢板。小型便携式设备的尺寸为:长 0.5m ,宽 0.2m ,厚 0.15m ,吸湿剂装载量 2kg 。采用轻质材料,透明盖板为甲基丙烯酸甲酯板,太阳能吸收板及散热肋片为铝合金板。本实施例采用平板集热器的优点是采光面积相对较大,缺点是平板集热器前部与环境空气接触,对流传导热损失较大。为了增加太阳光入射,还可以在平板集热器前部安装太阳光反射器或采用其它聚光罩设备。 The device can be made in a variety of sizes. The size of the medium-sized equipment is 2m long, 1m wide, 0.2m thick, and the moisture-absorbing agent load is 35kg. . The transparent cover should be double-layered glass, and the solar absorption plate and the heat dissipation fins can be made of thin steel plate. The size of the small portable device is: length 0.5m, width 0.2m, thickness 0.15m, moisture absorbent loading 2kg . The lightweight material is used, the transparent cover is a methyl methacrylate plate, and the solar absorption plate and the heat dissipation fin are aluminum alloy plates. The advantage of using the flat plate collector in this embodiment is that the lighting area is relatively large, and the disadvantage is that the front part of the flat plate collector is in contact with the ambient air, and the convective conduction heat loss is large. In order to increase the incidence of sunlight, it is also possible to install a solar reflector on the front of the flat plate collector or to use other concentrator devices.
与实施例 3 的外循环流动方式相比较,本实施例的内循环流动方式的好处是设备结构紧凑,气体循环流动路径较短,流动阻力较小。 And embodiment 3 Compared with the external circulation flow mode, the internal circulation flow mode of the present embodiment has the advantages of compact structure, short gas circulation flow path and low flow resistance.
如果需要如实施例 3 所描述的那样利用烟囱效应来进行白天吸附水分操作,则本实施例可以在太阳能吸收板 603 与前隔热板 605 之间通道上方的平板集热器壁面增设排气阀,并在前隔热板 605 的上端与平板集热器壁面 607 之间空隙处增设阀门(蝶阀或闸阀)。 If it is desired to utilize the chimney effect for the daytime moisture adsorption operation as described in Example 3, the present embodiment can be used in a solar absorption panel. An exhaust valve is added to the wall of the flat collector above the passage between the 603 and the front heat shield 605, and the upper end of the front heat shield 605 and the wall of the flat collector 607 A valve (butterfly valve or gate valve) is added between the gaps.
本实施例未提及的部分与实施例 3 类似,此处不再赘述。 The parts not mentioned in this embodiment are similar to the embodiment 3, and are not described herein again.
实施例 5 Example 5
本实施例与实施例 4 类似,其不同之处在于,太阳能集热器由温室构成,所述温室与所述平板式太阳集热器的作用相同。如图 8 所示的采用温室的从环境空气中收集水的设备可用于装载大量吸湿剂的场合。温室 6 的南墙有透明盖板 601 ,采光面积 20m2 ,吸湿剂 1 的装载量达 400kg ,分层散放在孔板 101 上。其余部分与实施例 4 类似,工作原理与实施例 4 相同,不再赘述。This embodiment is similar to Embodiment 4 except that the solar collector is composed of a greenhouse which functions the same as the flat type solar collector. An apparatus for collecting water from ambient air using a greenhouse as shown in Fig. 8 can be used for loading a large amount of moisture absorbent. The south wall of the greenhouse 6 has a transparent cover 601 with a lighting area of 20 m 2 and a moisture absorbent 1 load of 400 kg, which is layered and scattered on the orifice plate 101. The rest is similar to the embodiment 4, and the working principle is the same as that of the embodiment 4, and details are not described herein again.
实施例 6 Example 6
以上的实施例 1 至 5 都利用太阳能加热,并且属于自然对流方式,无需用电,适合于没有电力供应的场合。在有电力供应的条件下(包括电网供电、常规燃料发电机供电、新能源和可再生能源如太阳能、风能、海洋能发电设备供电等),则可应用电动风机驱动的强迫对流方式(有自然能动力装置时,可应用自然能风机驱动的强迫对流方式)。即可以在上述实施例的基础上增设风机,并且让风机分别接通吸湿单元与加热器并促使吸湿单元与加热器之间形成循环气流。例如,实施例 5 (图 8 )的前隔热板 605 下方增设若干个循环风机,则成为强迫对流内循环方式。实施例 3 (图 5 )在容器 2 和上联管 505 之间增设一个双向轴流风机(并且取消阀门 17 、 28A 、过滤器 11A 和进气口 12A ),解吸操作时气流方向是从上联管 505 流到容器 2 ,吸附操作时气流方向是从容器 2 到排气口 13 ,则成为强迫对流外循环方式。 The above examples 1 to 5 They are all heated by solar energy and belong to the natural convection mode. They do not need electricity and are suitable for occasions without electricity supply. Under the condition of power supply (including grid power supply, conventional fuel generator power supply, new energy and renewable energy such as solar energy, wind energy, power supply for ocean energy power generation equipment, etc.), the forced convection method driven by electric fan can be applied (with natural When the power unit can be powered, the forced convection method driven by the natural energy fan can be applied). That is, a fan can be added to the above embodiment, and the fan can be respectively turned on to the moisture absorption unit and the heater to cause a circulating airflow between the moisture absorption unit and the heater. For example, an embodiment 5 (Fig. 8) The front insulation board 605 is equipped with several circulation fans below it, which becomes the forced convection internal circulation mode. Example 3 (Fig. 5) in the container 2 and the upper tube 505 A two-way axial fan is added (and valves 17 and 28A, filter 11A and inlet 12A are eliminated), and the flow direction is from the upper pipe 505 to the vessel during the desorption operation. When the airflow direction is from the container 2 to the exhaust port 13 during the adsorption operation, it becomes a forced convection external circulation mode.
一种强迫对流外循环方式的采用真空太阳集热器阵列的从环境空气中收集水的设备如图 9 所示。符合国标《玻璃 - 金属封接式热管真空太阳集热管》( GB/T 19775-2005 )的真空管 5 每八个为一组,每个真空管的热管放热段接入上联管 505 ,每八组的上联管 505 串联连接,再与另外的八组真空管的上联管 505 并联连接,构成真空太阳集热器阵列,总采光面积 25.6m2 。吸湿剂 1 装载量 500kg 。辅助加热器 10 用于阴天时辅助加热。An apparatus for collecting water from ambient air using a vacuum solar collector array for forced convection outside the circulation is shown in FIG. The vacuum tube 5 conforming to the national standard "Glass-Metal Sealed Heat Pipe Vacuum Solar Collector" (GB/T 19775-2005) is a group of eight, and the heat pipe of each vacuum tube is connected to the upper tube 505, every eight The upper tubes 505 of the group are connected in series, and are connected in parallel with the upper tubes 505 of the other eight sets of vacuum tubes to form a vacuum solar collector array with a total lighting area of 25.6 m 2 . Moisture absorber 1 loading capacity 500kg. The auxiliary heater 10 is used for auxiliary heating on a cloudy day.
采用全封闭方法时该设备操作过程如下:在早上日出时打开阀门 20 、 23 、 25 ,关闭阀门 19 、 21 、 22 、 24 ,运行风机 9 ,设备内空气由太阳集热器阵列加热,热空气进入容器 2 使吸湿剂 1 解吸,热空气中的水蒸气浓度增加。当水蒸气浓度增加至 60g/kg- 干空气或以上时,调节阀门 21 、 22 、 23 ,使循环气体总流量的约 10% 至 30% 流经冷凝器 3 ,冷凝水由排放口 301 排出。继续上述解吸操作直至无冷凝水排出。傍晚日落时打开阀门 19 、 23 、 24 ,关闭阀门 20 、 21 、 22 、 25 ,运行风机 9 ,整个夜晚外界潮湿空气从进气口 12 进入,水分被吸湿剂 1 吸附,干燥空气经排气口 13 排出。吸附 - 解吸操作周期为 24 小时。 When using the fully enclosed method, the operation of the equipment is as follows: open the valve 20, 23, 25 in the morning sunrise, close the valve 19 , 21, 22, 24, running the fan 9 , the air inside the equipment is heated by the solar collector array, the hot air enters the container 2 makes the moisture absorbent 1 Desorption, the concentration of water vapor in the hot air increases. When the water vapor concentration is increased to 60g/kg-dry air or above, adjust the valves 21, 22, 23 to make the total flow of the circulating gas about 10% to 30% flows through the condenser 3, and the condensed water is discharged from the discharge port 301. Continue the above desorption operation until no condensed water is discharged. Open the valve 19, 23, 24 in the evening at sunset, close the valve 20 , 21, 22, 25, running the fan 9 , the outside humid air enters from the air inlet 12 throughout the night, the moisture is absorbed by the moisture absorbent 1 , and the dry air is discharged through the exhaust port 13 . Adsorption - The desorption operation cycle is 24 hours.
在上述全封闭的解吸操作模式下,没有向外界排放任何气体。循环流动的气体始终是以设备内部原先存在的空气为主。循环流动的空气是一种传热介质,将太阳集热器阵列收集的太阳辐射能量传递到吸湿剂;循环流动的空气同时也是一种载体,将吸湿剂解吸产生的水蒸气输送到冷凝器。 In the fully enclosed desorption mode described above, no gas is emitted to the outside. The circulating gas is always dominated by the air originally present inside the equipment. The circulating air is a heat transfer medium that transfers the solar radiation energy collected by the solar collector array to the moisture absorbent; the circulating air is also a carrier that delivers the water vapor generated by the desorption of the moisture absorbent to the condenser.
本实施例中冷凝器的设置方式与现有技术有较大区别。现有技术是将冷凝器设置在排气管道上,全部气体都流经冷凝器(就是将图 9 的冷凝器 3 设置在阀门 23 的位置,没有阀门 23 ,没有阀门 21 、 22 及所在的分支管道)。而本实施例是循环流动的气体的 10% 至 30% 流经冷凝器 3 。以下说明本实施例的冷凝器设置方式的有益效果。 The arrangement of the condenser in this embodiment is quite different from the prior art. In the prior art, the condenser is placed on the exhaust pipe, and all the gas flows through the condenser (that is, the condenser 3 of FIG. 9 is placed in the valve 23 The position, no valve 23, no valves 21, 22 and the branch pipe in which it is located). In this embodiment, 10% to 30% of the circulating gas flows through the condenser 3 . The advantageous effects of the condenser setting mode of the present embodiment will be described below.
循环流动的气体包含热空气与水蒸气。使用冷凝器来冷凝循环气体的目的是冷凝水蒸气,但热空气也同时被冷却降温,热空气的热量被损失掉。因此,进入冷凝器的气体流量越小,则热损失越小;进入冷凝器的气体所含水蒸气浓度越高,则热损失越小。举例来说,气体被太阳集热器阵列加热至约 150 ℃温度后进入容器 2 ,将显热提供给吸湿剂 1 后降温至约 80 ℃再从容器 2 排出,提供给吸湿剂 1 的显热约为 70 kJ/kg- 干空气。水分的解吸热为 2500 kJ/kg- 水。因此,热空气每次流经吸湿剂 1 时每公斤热空气提供给吸湿剂 1 的显热只足以脱附 28g 的水分。历经 6 次循环后,循环流动的气体中积累的水蒸气浓度将达 168 g/kg- 干空气(需要注意的是, 150 ℃时含湿量 168 g/kg- 干空气的相对湿度为 21%RH ,其对于吸湿剂解吸的影响很小,因为在 150 ℃时吸湿剂内部的水蒸气分压远高于循环流动气体的水蒸气分压)。上述参数状态下,让循环流动气体的约 16.7% 流经冷凝器 3 ,则在冷凝器 3 冷凝排出的水的重量与吸湿剂 1 解吸产生的水蒸气重量相等,达到了平衡状态。让循环流动气体的 16.7% 流经冷凝器的热损失远小于现有技术循环流动气体的 100% 都流经冷凝器的热损失。 The circulating gas contains hot air and water vapor. The purpose of using a condenser to condense the circulating gas is to condense the water vapor, but the hot air is also cooled and cooled, and the heat of the hot air is lost. Therefore, the smaller the gas flow rate into the condenser, the smaller the heat loss; the higher the water vapor concentration of the gas entering the condenser, the smaller the heat loss. For example, the gas is heated by the solar collector array to about After entering the vessel 2 at a temperature of 150 °C, the sensible heat is supplied to the moisture absorbent 1 and then cooled to about 80 °C and then discharged from the container 2, and the sensible heat supplied to the moisture absorbent 1 is about 70 kJ/kg- Dry air. The desorption heat of moisture is 2500 kJ/kg-water. Therefore, the sensible heat supplied to the moisture absorbent 1 per kilogram of hot air per gram of hot air per liter of the absorbent 1 is only sufficient to desorb 28 g of moisture. After 6 After the second cycle, the concentration of water vapor accumulated in the circulating gas will reach 168 g / kg - dry air (note that the moisture content at 168 g / kg at 150 ° C - the relative humidity of dry air is 21% RH has little effect on the desorption of the moisture absorbent because the partial pressure of water vapor inside the moisture absorbent is much higher than the partial pressure of water vapor of the circulating flowing gas at 150 °C. Under the above parameters, let the circulation of the flowing gas 16.7% flows through the condenser 3, and the weight of the water condensed and discharged in the condenser 3 is equal to the weight of the water vapor generated by the desorption of the moisture absorbent 1, and reaches an equilibrium state. Let the circulating gas flow 16.7% The heat loss through the condenser is much less than the heat loss through the condenser, which is 100% of the prior art circulating flow gas.
简而言之,本发明的冷凝器设置方式使含有低浓度水蒸气的热空气不进入冷凝器,使含有高浓度水蒸气的热空气的小部分进入冷凝器(其余大部分作为传热介质在吸湿剂与加热器之间循环流动),从而大幅度地减少了热空气进入冷凝器所带来的热损失。前述的实施例 1 至 5 、及其以下的实施例 7 的冷凝器设置方式都具有类似的减少热损失的效果。例如,参见图 6 ,太阳能加热升温时,仅有少量热空气进入冷凝器 3 ,绝大部分热空气在太阳能吸收板 603 与吸湿剂 1 之间循环流动时并不流经冷凝器 3 。只有当热空气含有较多水蒸气使其压力增大时,水蒸气才进入冷凝器 3 。 Briefly, the condenser of the present invention is arranged such that hot air containing low concentrations of water vapor does not enter the condenser, and a small portion of the hot air containing high concentration of water vapor enters the condenser (the rest mostly acts as a heat transfer medium). The circulatory flow between the moisture absorbent and the heater) greatly reduces the heat loss caused by the hot air entering the condenser. The foregoing embodiment The condenser arrangement of Example 7 of 1 to 5 and below has similar effects of reducing heat loss. For example, see Figure 6. When the solar heating is warming up, only a small amount of hot air enters the condenser. Most of the hot air does not flow through the condenser 3 when it circulates between the solar absorption plate 603 and the moisture absorbent 1. Water vapor enters the condenser only when the hot air contains more water vapor to increase its pressure. .
本实施例未提及的部分与以上实施例类似,此处不再赘述。 The parts not mentioned in this embodiment are similar to the above embodiments, and are not described herein again.
实施例 7 Example 7
在太阳能资源丰富的地区(如中国的西部),太阳灶有一定程度的普及。本发明的一种采用太阳灶的从环境空气中收集水的设备如图 10 所示。需要注意的是,本实施例的技术方案与上述实施例的区别在于,利用现有技术的太阳灶取代上述实施例的真空太阳集热管,吸湿剂置于容器内,所述容器接通冷凝器,所述容器通过吸收外界热量促使容器内腔与吸湿剂之间形成循环气流,从而将外界热量传递给吸湿剂。由于需要接受太阳辐射,所述容器的各壁面都没有保温层。具体地,如图 10 所示,太阳灶的锅圈 702 上放置有容器 2 ,容器 2 的背向太阳辐射 8 的一边设置有平板式冷凝器 3 (兼作水箱),冷凝器 3 还设有排水阀和水位表(图中未画出),容器 2 内的气体可通过其壁面的小孔通入冷凝器 3 ,容器 2 的底部具有圆柱状凹口 202 。 In areas with abundant solar energy resources (such as the western part of China), solar cookers have a certain degree of popularity. A device for collecting water from ambient air using a solar cooker of the present invention is shown in FIG. Shown. It should be noted that the technical solution of the present embodiment is different from the above embodiment in that the vacuum solar collector tube of the above embodiment is replaced by the solar cooker of the prior art, and the moisture absorbent is placed in the container, and the container is connected to the condenser. The container generates a circulating air flow between the inner cavity of the container and the moisture absorbent by absorbing external heat, thereby transferring external heat to the moisture absorbent. Due to the need to receive solar radiation, the walls of the container have no insulating layer. Specifically, as shown As shown in Fig. 10, a container 2 is placed on the pot ring 702 of the solar cooker, and a flat condenser 3 (also serving as a water tank) is provided on the side of the container 2 facing away from the solar radiation 8 , and the condenser 3 A drain valve and a water level gauge (not shown) are also provided, and the gas in the container 2 can be passed through the small hole in the wall to the condenser 3, and the bottom of the container 2 has a cylindrical recess 202.
每个容器 2 配有若干个透气盒 101 ,内有吸湿剂 1 的透气盒 101 平时放在室外通风处来吸附空气的水分。解吸操作时,将内有吸湿剂 1 的透气盒 101 放入容器 2 并旋紧上盖 201 ,将容器 2 置于锅圈 702 上。调整太阳灶使聚光罩 701 将太阳辐射 8 聚焦至容器 2 底部的凹口 202 。凹口 202 的底部和壁面吸收太阳辐射被加热,容器 2 内气体受热发生自然对流,将热量传递给吸湿剂 1 。吸湿剂 1 解吸产生水蒸气使容器 2 内压力升高。水蒸气进入冷凝器 3 被冷凝为液体水。 Each container 2 is provided with a plurality of venting boxes 101, a venting box with a moisture absorbent 1 Usually placed in an outdoor ventilated place to absorb the moisture of the air. In the desorption operation, the ventilated box 101 containing the moisture absorbent 1 is placed in the container 2 and the upper cover 201 is screwed, and the container 2 is placed in the pot 702 On. Adjusting the solar cooker causes the concentrator 701 to focus the solar radiation 8 to the notch 202 at the bottom of the container 2. The bottom and wall of the recess 202 absorb solar radiation and are heated, container 2 The internal gas is naturally convected by heat, transferring heat to the moisture absorbent 1 . The moisture absorbent 1 desorbs to produce water vapor to increase the pressure inside the container 2. The water vapor enters the condenser 3 and is condensed into liquid water.
本实施例也可以采用底部受热面为平底的容器 2 ,但平底容器的光反射和对流传热损失较大(因为太阳灶是露天设置的,室外气温低,风速大,导致与外界冷空气直接接触的容器 2 外表面散热损失大)。图 10 中容器 2 底部凹口 202 的作用是减少光反射和对流传热损失。还可以通过以下方式进一步减少光反射和 / 或对流传热损失:( 1 )在凹口 202 的开口处增设一块平板,该平板的中心有一个孔(直径相当于聚光罩 701 将太阳辐射 8 聚焦至容器 2 底部的光斑直径),并使聚焦的光斑通过这个孔进入凹口 202 ,则可发生黑洞效应,聚焦的光斑能量全部被容器 2 吸收。( 2 )在凹口 202 的开口处增设一块透明板,所述透明板上有Φ 1~2mm 泄气孔,用于维持透明板内外侧压力均衡。解吸操作时使太阳灶聚焦的光斑通过这块透明板进入凹口 202 ,可大幅减少对流传热损失。( 3 )可用于平底容器或底部具有凹口的容器的一种改进方式是增设一个与该容器的外形相配合的透明外套。例如,容器 2 为圆柱状时,透明外套为上部开口、壁面和底部为透明材料的圆柱筒,容器 2 可从上部开口放入透明外套的内部。所述透明外套的作用是减少容器 2 的外壁面的散热损失。 In this embodiment, the container with the bottom heating surface as a flat bottom can also be used. However, the light reflection and convection heat transfer loss of the flat-bottomed container is large (because the solar cooker is set in the open air, the outdoor air temperature is low, and the wind speed is large, resulting in a large heat loss of the outer surface of the container 2 which is in direct contact with the outside cold air). Figure 10 container 2 The bottom notch 202 acts to reduce light reflection and convective heat transfer losses. Light reflection and/or convective heat transfer losses can also be further reduced by: (1) at notch 202 A flat plate is added to the opening, and the center of the plate has a hole (the diameter corresponding to the spot size of the concentrating cover 701 for focusing the solar radiation 8 to the bottom of the container 2), and the focused spot passes through the hole to enter the notch. 202, a black hole effect can occur, and the focused spot energy is all absorbed by the container 2. (2) Adding a transparent plate at the opening of the notch 202, the transparent plate has Φ 1~2mm Vent hole for maintaining pressure balance inside and outside the transparent plate. When the desorption operation causes the spot focused by the solar cooker to enter the notch 202 through the transparent plate, the convective heat transfer loss can be greatly reduced. (3 An improved way of being able to be used for a flat bottom container or a container having a notch at the bottom is to add a transparent outer sleeve that matches the outer shape of the container. For example, container 2 In the case of a cylindrical shape, the transparent outer casing is a cylindrical cylinder having an upper opening, a wall surface and a transparent material at the bottom, and the container 2 can be placed inside the transparent casing from the upper opening. The function of the transparent outer cover is to reduce the container 2 The heat loss of the outer wall surface.
上述解吸操作除了使用太阳灶外,亦可以使用其它任何形式的加热设备或外界热源。例如,在野外使用该设备时,晴天时可用太阳灶加热容器 2 ,阴天时可收集生物质燃料烧火来加热容器 2 。 The above desorption operation may use any other form of heating device or external heat source in addition to the solar cooker. For example, when using the device in the field, the solar cooker can be used to heat the container on sunny days 2 On cloudy days, biomass fuel can be collected to heat the vessel 2 .
本实施例的优点是产水率较高、结构简单、成本低廉、无需用电、便于携带、可灵活使用任何方便的加热器或外界热源来加热解吸、吸附 - 解吸操作周期有很大的灵活性。 The advantages of the embodiment are high water production rate, simple structure, low cost, no need for electricity, easy to carry, flexible use of any convenient heater or external heat source for heating desorption and adsorption - The desorption operation cycle has great flexibility.
本实施例未提及的部分与以上实施例类似,此处不再赘述。 The parts not mentioned in this embodiment are similar to the above embodiments, and are not described herein again.
太阳能是清洁能源,使用太阳能既不消耗矿物燃料,又不排放污染物。因此,本发明的实施例 1 至 7 给出的从环境空气中收集水的设备涉及用太阳能集热器来加热吸湿剂。需要说明的是,本发明并不局限于使用太阳能集热器。本质上,太阳能集热器是将太阳辐射能量转化为热能,主要通过太阳能吸收板的发热来提供热量。对于本领域的普通技术人员来说,显而易见的是可以利用任何形式的加热设备或外界热源以本发明所描述的设备和 / 或方式来进行吸湿剂的加热解吸。例如,电加热器、换热器(加热介质可为高温水蒸气、烟气、导热油、发动机尾气、工业余热等)、燃用气体、液体或固体燃料的加热器、利用新能源或可再生能源的加热器、红外、射频加热器等。例如,图 9 中的太阳集热器阵列可被其它形式的加热器替代;当利用连续排出的工业余热作为解吸热源时,可将数个吸湿单元并联连接并将各吸湿单元按循环回路的方式与解吸热源连接,交替地进行各吸湿单元的吸湿和解吸操作,即构成连续从环境空气中收集水的设备;或者使用旋转床设备如吸湿转轮也可以进行连续的空气取水操作。本发明可应用于固定床、移动床、旋转床等各种形式的吸湿单元设备。 Solar energy is a clean energy source that uses neither solar energy nor fossil fuels. Therefore, the embodiments 1 to 7 of the present invention The given device for collecting water from ambient air involves the use of a solar collector to heat the moisture absorbent. It should be noted that the present invention is not limited to the use of solar collectors. Essentially, solar collectors convert solar radiation energy into heat, primarily through the heat of the solar absorber. It will be apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art that any form of heating device or external heat source can be utilized with the devices described herein and / Or way to perform heat desorption of the moisture absorbent. For example, electric heaters, heat exchangers (heating medium can be high-temperature steam, flue gas, heat transfer oil, engine exhaust, industrial waste heat, etc.), heaters for burning gases, liquids or solid fuels, using new energy or renewable Energy heaters, infrared, RF heaters, etc. For example, the figure 9 The solar collector array can be replaced by other forms of heaters; when continuously exhausting industrial waste heat is used as the desorption heat source, several moisture absorption units can be connected in parallel and each moisture absorption unit can be connected to the desorption heat source in a circulation loop manner. The moisture absorption and desorption operations of the respective moisture absorption units are alternately performed, that is, the devices that continuously collect water from the ambient air; or the continuous air water extraction operation can be performed using a rotating bed device such as a moisture absorption wheel. The invention can be applied to various forms of moisture absorbing unit equipment such as fixed bed, moving bed, rotating bed and the like.
本发明的各种实施方案中可以配置温度、湿度、压力、水位、太阳光照传感器、 PLC 、电磁阀、安全阀等来构成自动化操作系统是显而宜见的。 Temperature, humidity, pressure, water level, solar light sensor, PLC can be configured in various embodiments of the invention , solenoid valves, safety valves, etc. to form an automated operating system is obvious.
显然,本发明的上述实施例仅仅是为清楚地说明本发明所作的举例,而并非是对本发明的实施方式的限定。对于所属领域的普通技术人员来说,在上述说明的基础上还可以做出其它不同形式的变化或变动,这里无需也无法对所有的实施方式予以穷举。凡在本发明的精神和原则之内所作的任何修改、等同替换和改进等,均应包含在本发明权利要求的保护范围之内。 It is apparent that the above-described embodiments of the present invention are merely illustrative of the present invention and are not intended to limit the embodiments of the present invention. Other variations and modifications of the various forms may be made by those skilled in the art in light of the above description, and all embodiments are not required to be exhaustive. Any modifications, equivalent substitutions and improvements made within the spirit and scope of the invention are intended to be included within the scope of the appended claims.

Claims (14)

  1. 一种从环境空气中收集水的设备,其特征在于,包括吸湿单元、加热器、冷凝器,所述冷凝器设有冷凝水排放口,所述吸湿单元分别接通所述加热器和所述冷凝器,并且布置为所述加热器的发热能促使所述吸湿单元与所述加热器的发热面之间的气体在所述吸湿单元与所述加热器的发热面之间循环流动,以使所述加热器能通过循环气流向所述吸湿单元供热。 An apparatus for collecting water from ambient air, comprising: a moisture absorption unit, a heater, a condenser, the condenser is provided with a condensed water discharge port, and the moisture absorption unit respectively turns on the heater and the a condenser, and arranged to generate heat of the heater to cause a gas between the moisture absorbing unit and a heat generating surface of the heater to circulate between the moisture absorbing unit and a heat generating surface of the heater, so that The heater is capable of supplying heat to the moisture absorbing unit through a circulating gas stream.
  2. 根据权利要求 1 所述的从环境空气中收集水的设备,其特征在于,所述加热器为太阳能集热器。An apparatus for collecting water from ambient air according to claim 1 wherein said heater is a solar collector.
  3. 根据权利要求 2 所述的从环境空气中收集水的设备,其特征在于,所述吸湿单元包括容器和置于所述容器内的吸湿剂,所述容器分别接通所述太阳能集热器和所述冷凝器。According to claim 2 The apparatus for collecting water from ambient air, characterized in that the moisture absorption unit comprises a container and a moisture absorbent disposed in the container, the container respectively turning on the solar heat collector and the condenser .
  4. 根据权利要求 3 所述的从环境空气中收集水的设备,其特征在于,还包括透气盒,所述吸湿剂置于所述透气盒内,所述透气盒置于所述容器内。According to claim 3 The apparatus for collecting water from ambient air, further comprising a venting box, the moisture absorbing agent being disposed within the venting box, the venting box being disposed within the container.
  5. 根据权利要求 3 或 4 任一项所述的从环境空气中收集水的设备,其特征在于,所述太阳能集热器为若干个真空太阳集热管,所述容器连接所述若干个真空太阳集热管。According to claim 3 or 4 The apparatus for collecting water from ambient air according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the solar heat collector is a plurality of vacuum solar heat collecting tubes, and the container connects the plurality of vacuum solar heat collecting tubes.
  6. 根据权利要求 4 所述的从环境空气中收集水的设备,其特征在于,所述太阳能集热器为真空太阳集热管,所述容器为所述真空太阳集热管的内管,所述透气盒为圆柱状,所述透气盒置于所述真空太阳集热管的内管的内部,所述透气盒与所述真空太阳集热管的内管的内壁面之间有空隙。According to claim 4 The device for collecting water from ambient air is characterized in that: the solar collector is a vacuum solar collector tube, the container is an inner tube of the vacuum solar collector tube, and the gas permeable box is cylindrical. The gas permeable box is placed inside the inner tube of the vacuum solar heat collecting tube, and a gap exists between the gas permeable box and an inner wall surface of the inner tube of the vacuum solar heat collecting tube.
  7. 根据权利要求 3 或 4 任一项所述的从环境空气中收集水的设备,其特征在于,所述容器的上端和下端分别与所述太阳能集热器的上端和下端连通。According to claim 3 or 4 An apparatus for collecting water from ambient air according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the upper end and the lower end of the container are in communication with upper and lower ends of the solar collector, respectively.
  8. 根据权利要求 7 所述的从环境空气中收集水的设备,其特征在于,从所述容器的上端至所述太阳能集热器的上端的连接管道上依次设置有进气口、阀门、排气口,从所述容器的下端至所述太阳能集热器的下端的连接管道上依次设置有进气口、阀门,所述进气口和所述排气口上还设有阀门。According to claim 7 The device for collecting water from ambient air, characterized in that: an air inlet, a valve, and an exhaust port are sequentially disposed on a connecting pipe from an upper end of the container to an upper end of the solar heat collector. An air inlet and a valve are disposed on the connecting pipe of the lower end of the container to the lower end of the solar heat collector, and a valve is further disposed on the air inlet and the air outlet.
  9. 根据权利要求 8 所述的从环境空气中收集水的设备,其特征在于,所述太阳能集热器为若干个真空太阳集热管或者若干个平板式太阳集热器,所述若干个真空太阳集热管相互并联接通,所述若干个平板式太阳集热器相互并联接通。According to claim 8 The device for collecting water from ambient air is characterized in that the solar collector is a plurality of vacuum solar collectors or a plurality of flat solar collectors, and the plurality of vacuum solar collectors are coupled to each other. The plurality of flat solar collectors are connected in parallel with each other.
  10. 根据权利要求 3 或 4 任一项所述的从环境空气中收集水的设备,其特征在于,所述太阳能集热器为平板式太阳集热器或者温室,所述容器为所述平板式太阳集热器或者温室,所述平板式太阳集热器或者温室具有透明盖板和太阳能吸收板,所述吸湿剂放置在所述平板式太阳集热器或者温室的内部,所述吸湿剂与所述太阳能吸收板之间有空隙,还包括隔热板,所述隔热板位于所述吸湿剂与所述太阳能吸收板之间,所述隔热板与所述太阳能吸收板之间有空隙,所述隔热板的上端和下端与所述平板式太阳集热器或者温室的内壁面之间也有空隙。According to claim 3 or 4 The device for collecting water from ambient air according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the solar collector is a flat solar collector or a greenhouse, and the container is the flat solar collector or the greenhouse. The flat type solar collector or greenhouse has a transparent cover plate and a solar absorption plate, and the moisture absorbent is placed inside the flat solar collector or the greenhouse, between the moisture absorbent and the solar absorption plate Having a gap, further comprising a heat insulating plate, the heat insulating plate being located between the moisture absorbent and the solar energy absorbing plate, wherein the heat insulating plate and the solar energy absorbing plate have a gap, the heat insulating plate There is also a gap between the upper end and the lower end and the inner wall surface of the flat solar collector or the greenhouse.
  11. 一种从环境空气中收集水的设备,其特征在于,包括吸湿单元、加热器、风机、冷凝器,所述冷凝器设有冷凝水排放口,所述吸湿单元分别接通所述加热器和所述冷凝器,所述风机分别接通所述吸湿单元和所述加热器并能促使气体在所述吸湿单元与所述加热器的发热面之间循环流动,以使所述加热器能通过循环气流向所述吸湿单元供热。An apparatus for collecting water from ambient air, comprising: a moisture absorption unit, a heater, a fan, a condenser, the condenser is provided with a condensed water discharge port, and the moisture absorption unit respectively turns on the heater and The condenser, the fan respectively turns on the moisture absorption unit and the heater and can promote circulation of gas between the moisture absorption unit and the heat generating surface of the heater, so that the heater can pass The circulating gas stream supplies heat to the moisture absorbing unit.
  12. 根据权利要求 11 所述的从环境空气中收集水的设备,其特征在于,所述加热器为太阳能集热器或太阳能集热器阵列,所述吸湿单元包括容器和置于所述容器内的吸湿剂,所述容器分别接通所述太阳能集热器和所述冷凝器,所述风机的排气口通过管道连接所述太阳能集热器或太阳能集热器阵列的进气端,所述太阳能集热器或太阳能集热器阵列的排气端通过管道连接所述容器的进风端,所述容器的排风端通过管道连接所述风机的进气口,所述冷凝器通过管道并联接通在所述吸湿单元与所述风机之间的管道上以构成冷凝支路,所述冷凝支路上设有阀门以限制从所述吸湿单元进入所述冷凝器的气体流量。According to claim 11 The device for collecting water from ambient air, wherein the heater is a solar collector or a solar collector array, and the moisture absorption unit comprises a container and a moisture absorbent disposed in the container. The container respectively turns on the solar collector and the condenser, and the exhaust port of the fan is connected to the inlet end of the solar collector or the solar collector array through a pipeline, the solar collector Or the exhaust end of the solar collector array is connected to the air inlet end of the container through a pipe, and the exhaust end of the container is connected to the air inlet of the fan through a pipe, and the condenser is connected in parallel through the pipe. A conduit between the moisture absorption unit and the fan to form a condensation branch, the condensation branch being provided with a valve to limit the flow of gas from the moisture absorption unit into the condenser.
  13. 一种从环境空气中收集水的设备,其特征在于,包括吸湿剂、容器、冷凝器,所述冷凝器设有冷凝水排放口,所述吸湿剂置于所述容器内,所述容器接通所述冷凝器,所述容器通过吸收外界热量能促使容器内的气体在容器受热面与所述吸湿剂之间形成循环气流,以使外界热量由循环气流传递给所述吸湿剂。An apparatus for collecting water from ambient air, comprising: a moisture absorbent, a container, a condenser, the condenser is provided with a condensed water discharge port, the moisture absorbent is placed in the container, and the container is connected Through the condenser, the container can promote the circulation of gas between the heated surface of the container and the moisture absorbent by absorbing external heat, so that external heat is transferred from the circulating airflow to the moisture absorbent.
  14. 根据权利要求 13 所述的从环境空气中收集水的设备,其特征在于,还包括透气盒,所述吸湿剂置于所述透气盒内,所述透气盒置于所述容器内,还包括太阳灶,所述太阳灶用于加热所述容器,还包括以下至少一种:( 1 )所述容器的受热面具有凹口;( 2 )所述容器的受热面的凹口的开口处有平板,所述平板有孔,所述孔的直径相当于所述太阳灶的聚光罩将太阳辐射聚焦至所述容器的底部的光斑直径;( 3 )所述容器的受热面的凹口的开口处有透明板,所述透明板有泄气孔;( 4 )还包括与所述容器的外形相配合的透明外套。According to claim 13 The device for collecting water from ambient air, characterized in that it further comprises a ventilating box, the moisture absorbing agent is placed in the ventilating box, the ventilating box is placed in the container, and further comprises a solar cooker. The solar cooker is used to heat the container, and further includes at least one of the following: ( 1) the heated surface of the container has a notch; (2 a flat plate at the opening of the recess of the heated surface of the container, the flat plate having a hole having a diameter corresponding to a spot size of the solar cooker concentrating the solar radiation to the bottom of the container ;( 3 a transparent plate at the opening of the recess of the heated surface of the container, the transparent plate having a venting opening; (4) further comprising a transparent outer casing that cooperates with the outer shape of the container.
PCT/CN2015/093915 2014-12-05 2015-11-05 Device for collecting water from ambient air WO2016086751A1 (en)

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