WO2006017991A1 - Stepped sequential treatment method for municipal domestic refuse - Google Patents

Stepped sequential treatment method for municipal domestic refuse Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2006017991A1
WO2006017991A1 PCT/CN2005/001286 CN2005001286W WO2006017991A1 WO 2006017991 A1 WO2006017991 A1 WO 2006017991A1 CN 2005001286 W CN2005001286 W CN 2005001286W WO 2006017991 A1 WO2006017991 A1 WO 2006017991A1
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Prior art keywords
waste
biogas
fermentation
anaerobic fermentation
organic matter
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PCT/CN2005/001286
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French (fr)
Chinese (zh)
Inventor
Yiran Li
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Yiran Li
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Priority claimed from CNB2004100700819A external-priority patent/CN1244506C/en
Application filed by Yiran Li filed Critical Yiran Li
Publication of WO2006017991A1 publication Critical patent/WO2006017991A1/en

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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05FORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C, e.g. FERTILISERS FROM WASTE OR REFUSE
    • C05F17/00Preparation of fertilisers characterised by biological or biochemical treatment steps, e.g. composting or fermentation
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B09DISPOSAL OF SOLID WASTE; RECLAMATION OF CONTAMINATED SOIL
    • B09BDISPOSAL OF SOLID WASTE
    • B09B3/00Destroying solid waste or transforming solid waste into something useful or harmless
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05FORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C, e.g. FERTILISERS FROM WASTE OR REFUSE
    • C05F9/00Fertilisers from household or town refuse
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F11/00Treatment of sludge; Devices therefor
    • C02F11/02Biological treatment
    • C02F11/04Anaerobic treatment; Production of methane by such processes
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/10Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture
    • Y02A40/20Fertilizers of biological origin, e.g. guano or fertilizers made from animal corpses
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P20/00Technologies relating to chemical industry
    • Y02P20/141Feedstock
    • Y02P20/145Feedstock the feedstock being materials of biological origin
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W30/00Technologies for solid waste management
    • Y02W30/40Bio-organic fraction processing; Production of fertilisers from the organic fraction of waste or refuse

Definitions

  • the invention relates to a method for treating municipal solid waste in cascades, in particular to a method for treating weeds, crop straws, livestock manure and urban organic waste in cascade. Background technique
  • the method includes:
  • the present invention also provides another method for stepping up municipal solid waste, the method comprising:
  • the anaerobic fermentation treatment is carried out after pretreatment of the organic matter.
  • the fungus is a Hanspore mushroom.
  • the anaerobic fermentation waste liquid and manure are used to grow crops and/or vegetables.
  • the method provided by the invention utilizes anaerobic digestion technology to treat livestock manure, urban sewage, weeds and orange poles, produce biogas, biogas incineration waste power generation; biogas residue cultivation of Agaricus bisporus, mushroom waste culture;
  • the organic fertilizer is used to grow crops and/or vegetables, and crops and/or vegetables can be used as feed for raising livestock to form a benign ecological circulation system.
  • the interlocking, step-by-step and layer-by-layer benefits have truly realized the maximum utilization of the abandoned materials.
  • Anaerobic digestion can obtain three kinds of products, biogas, biogas residue and biogas slurry.
  • Biogas is used to incinerate waste-to-energy.
  • Biogas slurry is used to grow crops and/or vegetables.
  • Biogas residue is used as a culture material for Agaricus bisporus.
  • Traditional fermentation is used. Aerobic fermentation is the main one, the cycle lasts for one month, and the labor intensity is large, the energy loss is much, and the post-seed fermentation treatment before sowing is theoretically: it is an artificial method, which leads to competition with the bisporus.
  • Mushrooms are used to feed cockroaches, worm mounds and biogas slurry for growing crops and/or vegetables.
  • the biogas produced by the anaerobic digestion of weeds, crop straws and livestock manure is used to incinerate waste-to-energy, which is more expensive than the direct combustion of it as a substitute for raw coal.
  • waste-to-energy which is more expensive than the direct combustion of it as a substitute for raw coal.
  • the construction cost of the gas pipeline network is high, and the cost of electricity consumption is naturally high.
  • the calorific value of one cubic meter of biogas is only equivalent to one kilogram of raw coal.
  • the farm is also a large electricity consumer, and the waste heat generated by the power is used to heat up the fermentation raw materials, keep warm or heat the mushroom house, which not only improves the biogas itself.
  • the economic value has alleviated the sharp contradiction of local power shortage. Therefore, the use of biogas for incineration of waste-to-energy generation is higher than that of direct combustion.
  • the invention utilizes livestock manure, urban sewage, weed grass, orange pole and organic matter in municipal solid waste to generate decane (biogas) instead of coal or kerosene to incinerate garbage by anaerobic fermentation; biogas can also directly use piston biogas engine ( Jinan, Shandong, China) direct power generation or use of coal as a substitute for coal, liquefied gas, natural gas; winter slag, winter and autumn, production of Agaricus bisporus, spring pheasant and other precious grass rot fungi; mushroom slag raising, sputum Return organic fertilizer to the field and complete the cycle.
  • the biogas slurry is used as irrigation water and fertilizer for greenhouse vegetables or crops. Throughout the process, the “zero” emission standard is achieved.
  • the above-mentioned treatment of the municipal solid waste of the invention can completely solve the "secondary pollution” problem brought about by the "foot scrap” generated during the treatment of the traditional urban domestic garbage, and realize the most complete, harmless and resource treatment of the waste. , fundamentally solved the drawbacks of traditional urban waste disposal.
  • urban garbage in the present invention means urban household garbage, restaurant garbage, park garbage, farmer's market garbage, street cleaning garbage, and urban sewage.
  • the term "fermented slag" refers to an organic matter fraction which is subjected to conventional anaerobic fermentation of municipal solid waste.
  • the "after-cultivation of the fungus" described in the present invention means that the edible fungal strain is inoculated with the conventionally fermented slag and the fungus mycelium remaining after the fungal fruit body (mushroom) is harvested is cultured. The remainder.
  • Figure 1 shows the flow chart of the treatment of urban domestic garbage, weeds, crop stalks and livestock manure.
  • Garbage available in the drawings waste plastic, metal, paper, and sortable leaves, peels, etc.;
  • Unusable garbage The remaining domestic garbage after sorting.
  • the scheme will adopt pretreatment technologies (such as water shield adjustment, power generation waste heat utilization and energy-saving heat exchange system) that have been successfully operated by many biogas projects at home and abroad, and have the characteristics of low investment economy, low energy consumption and easy operation.
  • pretreatment technologies such as water shield adjustment, power generation waste heat utilization and energy-saving heat exchange system
  • biogas residue After anaerobic digestion, the residue (biogas residue, biogas slurry) has high organic matter content.
  • the main nutrients are: humic acid, various biological bacteria, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and stimulating factors that promote crop growth.
  • This project is a necessary supporting project for using biogas residue as the culture material of Agaricus bisporus and planting forage in biogas slurry. As a culture material for the mushroom
  • the culture of Agaricus bisporus mainly provides nutrients through the decay of manure grass, and the traditional fermentation is "oxygenated". Fermented "mainly, with a period of one month, and labor intensity, energy loss, post-seed fermentation treatment, is a technical treatment program for artificially causing competitive microbial death of bacteria.”
  • the "biogas residue” obtained after the "anaerobic” fermentation process has a variety of microorganisms, mainly anaerobic species, and is exposed to the air for a few minutes to die, thus naturally achieving the post-fermentation treatment effect.
  • the biogas residue after anaerobic fermentation is the best material for cultivating Agaricus bisporus, and truly implements "no pollution" cultivation.
  • the mushroom is used to feed the mound, and the manure and the biogas are used to feed the forage.
  • the purified biogas is used for power generation (in developed countries such as Europe, biogas is mainly used for power generation), which is a manifestation of the conversion of biomass and biomass into higher-grade energy, and its return on capital is high (Ira 3 biogas can generate electricity).
  • the waste heat of power generation is used for heating, heat preservation or mushroom room temperature increase of fermented raw materials, which not only achieves energy efficient use, but also increases the gas production of biogas and ensures stable operation of biogas project.
  • the daily production of biogas is about 20000m 3 ;
  • the waste plastics can be recycled and cracked into diesel oil, and the organic matter directly enters the anaerobic digester for anaerobic fermentation, and the biogas generated in the anaerobic digester is processed by conventional processes.
  • Dehydration de-> after application to the piston-type internal combustion biogas engine direct power generation; can also be used as the main gas body incineration waste-to-energy generation (no need for dehydration, desulfurization), the generated furnace smoke reaches the standard discharge;
  • biogas residue has been planted with mushrooms, mushroom residue cultured, and the resulting rainbow trout produces organic fertilizers, crops and vegetables, and other re-use procedures have been fully utilized;
  • the rest is biogas slurry, biogas slurry It can be directly used to grow crops and vegetables; in addition to meeting the needs of human life, the crops and vegetables produced can also raise livestock, thus achieving a virtuous cycle of renewable resources.
  • the non-useable garbage part is incinerated by biogas combustion, and the generated slag can be used for brick making.
  • the method provided by the invention forms a benign ecological cycle, realizes the maximum utilization of waste resources, and is the most economical and practical treatment method for solving livestock manure pollution and carrying out urban garbage resource treatment.

Abstract

The present invention provides a treatment method of municipal domestic refuse. In the method the organic matter processes an anaerobic fermentation, the obtained methane can be helpful to burning to generate electricity. The biogas residue from the anaerobic fermentation can be used as a culture material for growing edible mushrooms. The residue discharged from edible mushrooms can be used to cultivate earthworm. Besides the organics, the other substance of the municipal domestic refuse will be incinerated to generate electricity. The present invention realises a comprehensive utilization of waste resource.

Description

梯级处理城市生活垃圾的方法  Method for processing urban domestic garbage in cascade
技术领域 Technical field
本发明涉及一种梯级处理城市生活垃圾的方法, 具体讲涉及一种梯级处理 野草、 农作物秸秆、 牲畜粪便、 城市有机废弃物的方法。 背景技术  The invention relates to a method for treating municipal solid waste in cascades, in particular to a method for treating weeds, crop straws, livestock manure and urban organic waste in cascade. Background technique
目前世界上普遍采取的垃圾处理方法有两种: 一种为填埋, 二种为焚烧。 填埋对土地的浪费、 地下水及地表环境、 大气的污染十分严重, 其危害性已曰 益为人们所认识; 焚烧技术可以减少填埋对土地的浪费, 但是依赖地矿能源辅 助燃烧, 废气需耗巨资处理, 投资和运行成本高。  At present, there are two common methods of garbage disposal in the world: one for landfill and two for incineration. Landfill waste, groundwater and surface environment, and atmospheric pollution are very serious, and their harmfulness has been recognized by people. Incineration technology can reduce landfill waste, but rely on geology and energy to assist combustion. Costly processing, high investment and operating costs.
垃圾处理不论是填埋还是焚烧, 对处理单位都是一种负担。 减少投资, 就 得牺牲环境; 增加投资, 则投资风险随之增大, 普遍处理难度大。 因此,' 改变 这种 "负担性" 的处理方式为 "效益性" 投资处理方式, 是我们研发这套综合 处理程序的最基本的背景理念, 将过去 "负担性"、 "公益性" 的投资处理模式, 变成 "商业性" "盈利型" 的生态环保、 能源综合利用开发模式。  Whether it is landfill or incineration, waste disposal is a burden on the processing unit. If you reduce your investment, you have to sacrifice the environment. If you increase your investment, your investment risk will increase and it will be difficult to deal with it. Therefore, 'changing this kind of "burden" treatment is "efficient" investment processing, which is the most basic background concept for us to develop this comprehensive processing program, and will invest in the past "burden" and "public welfare". The processing model has become a "commercial" and "profitable" eco-environmental and energy-utilization development model.
人们生活水平总是伴随禽畜业的发展而日益提高的, 近年来, 畜禽业的大 规模养殖获得了长足发展, 不少城市相继建成了规模多达几万头的奶牛养殖基 地, 高达百万头的养猪场, 千万只规模的养鸡场。 养殖业的迅猛发展带来了一 些新问题, 其中主要的问题是粪便处理。 规模化养殖业粪便污水处理一般有三 种方式: 一是通过简单沉淀、 人工分离, 将粪便中的干物质进行自然堆沤, 发 酵后作粗肥还田, 分离后的污水集中储存, 经自然沉淀处理后用作农田肥料; 二是利用好氧生物将有机物分解为二氧化碳和水; 三是厌氧生物处理即沼气技 术。 目前, 部分城市的大型养殖场禽畜粪便未进行安全有效处理, 其中只有小 部分作为基肥施入农田, 相当大的一部分是直接排入水渠或下水道, 不仅浪费 了资源, 又严重损害了环境, 对水域生态环境造成严重威胁。 People's living standards have always been accompanied by the development of the livestock industry. In recent years, the large-scale breeding of the livestock and poultry industry has achieved rapid development. Many cities have successively built dairy farms with a scale of tens of thousands of heads. Million pig farms, tens of thousands of chicken farms. The rapid development of the aquaculture industry has brought about some new problems, the main problem of which is fecal management. There are generally three ways to treat fecal sewage in large-scale aquaculture: First, the natural dry matter in the feces is naturally piled up by simple sedimentation and artificial separation. After fermentation, the fertilizer is returned to the field, and the separated sewage is stored in a concentrated manner. It is used as farmland fertilizer after treatment; the second is to use aerobic organisms to decompose organic matter into carbon dioxide and water; the third is anaerobic biological treatment, ie biogas technology. At present, the livestock manure of large farms in some cities has not been safely and effectively treated, of which only small Part of it is applied to farmland as a base fertilizer. A considerable part is directly discharged into the canal or sewer. It not only wastes resources, but also seriously damages the environment and poses a serious threat to the ecological environment of the waters.
随着城市的发展, 垃圾量在增加, 污染环境的危害性在增大; 处理的难度 在增加; 市场对双孢蘑菇和电力供应的需求日益增加。 本技术发明就是希望解 决这些问题、 达到这些目的而产生。  With the development of the city, the amount of garbage is increasing, the harm of polluting the environment is increasing; the difficulty of treatment is increasing; the market demand for Agaricus bisporus and power supply is increasing. The technical invention is intended to solve these problems and achieve these goals.
发明内容 Summary of the invention
本发明的目的是提供一种梯级处理城市废弃物及有机废物的方法, 以避免 环境不受污染, 部分緩解电力供应紧张的局面。  It is an object of the present invention to provide a method for the treatment of municipal waste and organic waste in a cascade to avoid environmental pollution and to partially alleviate the tight supply of electricity.
该方法包括:  The method includes:
( 1 )对城市生活垃圾经分拣后的有机物进行厌氧发酵;  (1) Anaerobic fermentation of organic matter sorted by municipal solid waste;
( 2 )发酵后的渣料作真菌培养基;  (2) the slag after fermentation is used as a fungal medium;
( 3 )培养真菌后的下脚料作蚯蚓饲料;  (3) The waste material after cultivating the fungus is used as a cockroach feed;
( 4 )对城市生活垃圾经分拣后除废金属、 废塑料和有机物外的其余物质进 行焚烧发电。  (4) The municipal solid waste is sorted and the remaining materials except scrap metal, waste plastics and organic matter are incinerated to generate electricity.
本发明还提供了梯级处理城市生活垃圾的另一种方法, 该方法包括:  The present invention also provides another method for stepping up municipal solid waste, the method comprising:
( 1 )对城市污水、 餐厨垃圾、 野草、 秸秆、 牲畜粪便进行厌氧发酵;  (1) Anaerobic fermentation of municipal sewage, kitchen waste, weeds, straw, and livestock manure;
( 2 )发酵后的渣料作真菌培养基;  (2) the slag after fermentation is used as a fungal medium;
( 3 )培养真菌后的下脚料作蚯蚓饲料。  (3) The waste material after the cultivation of the fungus is used as a feed for cockroaches.
优选地, 对有机物预处理后再进行所述厌氧发酵处理。  Preferably, the anaerobic fermentation treatment is carried out after pretreatment of the organic matter.
所述真菌为汉孢蘑菇。  The fungus is a Hanspore mushroom.
所述厌氧发酵的废液和蚯蚓粪用于种植农作物和 /或蔬菜。  The anaerobic fermentation waste liquid and manure are used to grow crops and/or vegetables.
本发明提供的方法利用厌氧消化技术处理牲畜粪便、 城市污水、 野草及桔 杆, 生产沼气, 沼气焚烧垃圾发电; 沼渣种植双孢蘑菇, 蘑菇下脚料养殖蚯蚓; 虫丘蚓粪制作有机肥用于种植农作物和 /或蔬菜, 农作物和 /或蔬菜可用作饲料饲 养牲畜, 形成一种良性生态循环系统。 环环相扣, 梯级、 层层受益, 真正实现 了廈弃物资源最大化利用。 The method provided by the invention utilizes anaerobic digestion technology to treat livestock manure, urban sewage, weeds and orange poles, produce biogas, biogas incineration waste power generation; biogas residue cultivation of Agaricus bisporus, mushroom waste culture; The organic fertilizer is used to grow crops and/or vegetables, and crops and/or vegetables can be used as feed for raising livestock to form a benign ecological circulation system. The interlocking, step-by-step and layer-by-layer benefits have truly realized the maximum utilization of the abandoned materials.
鉴于收集的野草、 秸秆、 牲畜粪便中含有大量纤维、 木质素及泥沙等杂质, 且随气候和环境而变化, 因此, 进行厌氧消化前需进行必要的诸如粉碎、 沉沙、 水质、 水量、 调温等惯常预处理, 以保证后续厌氧消化正常运行。  In view of the fact that the collected weeds, straws, and livestock manure contain a lot of impurities such as fiber, lignin and sediment, and vary with climate and environment, necessary smashing, sedimentation, water quality and water volume are required before anaerobic digestion. Customary pretreatment such as temperature adjustment to ensure normal operation of subsequent anaerobic digestion.
厌氧消化可得三种产物, 沼气、 沼渣和沼液, 沼气用于焚烧垃圾发电, 沼 液用于种植农作物和 /或蔬菜, 沼渣用于作双孢菇的培养料, 传统的发酵以 "有 氧发酵" 为主, 周期长达一月, 且劳动强度大, 能量损耗多, 播种前的后发酵 处理, 从理论上讲: 是一个用人工的方法, 导致与双孢菌有竟争性的、 好氧微 生物死亡的技术处理过程, 通过厌氧 "发酵" 后得到的沼渣, 其中存在着以厌 氧微生物种类为主的、 多种微生物, 暴露在通过过滤处理的、 无菌的、 含氧的 空气中, 几分钟即会死亡, 这样既达到了有氧发酵的处理效果, 又减免了后发 酵处理的麻烦程序, 进而可以直接接种, 完成史无前例的、 双孢蘑菇工厂化、 流水线生产程序。 经厌氧发酵的沼渣, 是栽培双孢蘑菇的优质原料, 就处理周 期方面, 相比较于传统长达一个月的 "有氧发酵", 缩短至 48 小时, 减轻了劳 动强度, 为实行工厂化生产创造了条件, 真正实现了无公害栽培。  Anaerobic digestion can obtain three kinds of products, biogas, biogas residue and biogas slurry. Biogas is used to incinerate waste-to-energy. Biogas slurry is used to grow crops and/or vegetables. Biogas residue is used as a culture material for Agaricus bisporus. Traditional fermentation is used. Aerobic fermentation is the main one, the cycle lasts for one month, and the labor intensity is large, the energy loss is much, and the post-seed fermentation treatment before sowing is theoretically: it is an artificial method, which leads to competition with the bisporus. Technical process for the death of aerobic microorganisms, biogas residue obtained by anaerobic "fermentation", in which there are various microorganisms mainly composed of anaerobic microorganisms, exposed to filtration, sterile, In the air containing oxygen, it will die in a few minutes, which not only achieves the treatment effect of aerobic fermentation, but also reduces the troublesome process of post-fermentation treatment, and can be directly inoculated to complete the unprecedented planting and production of Agaricus bisporus. program. The anaerobic fermentation of biogas residue is a high-quality raw material for cultivation of Agaricus bisporus. In terms of treatment cycle, compared with the traditional "aerobic fermentation" for up to one month, it is shortened to 48 hours, reducing labor intensity. Chemical production has created conditions that truly achieve pollution-free cultivation.
用蘑菇下脚料喂养蚯蚓, 虫丘蚓粪和沼液用于种植农作物和 /或蔬菜。  Mushrooms are used to feed cockroaches, worm mounds and biogas slurry for growing crops and/or vegetables.
野草、 农作物秸秆、 牲畜粪便经厌氧消化后产生的沼气用于焚烧垃圾发电, 较之直接将其作为替代原煤燃烧, 其资金回报率高。 一方面是由于规模化畜禽 养殖场多数远离城镇, 输气管网的建设费用高, 用电用气成本自然也高; 另一 方面是一立方米沼气的热值仅仅与一公斤原煤相当。 而养殖场又是用电大户, 发电的余热用于发酵原料升温、 保温或蘑菇房升温, 这不仅提高了沼气自身的 经济价值, 又緩解了当地电力紧缺的尖锐矛盾。 所以, 将沼气用于焚烧垃圾发 电要比直接作燃汽燃烧, 附加值高。 The biogas produced by the anaerobic digestion of weeds, crop straws and livestock manure is used to incinerate waste-to-energy, which is more expensive than the direct combustion of it as a substitute for raw coal. On the one hand, because most of the large-scale livestock and poultry farms are far away from the towns, the construction cost of the gas pipeline network is high, and the cost of electricity consumption is naturally high. On the other hand, the calorific value of one cubic meter of biogas is only equivalent to one kilogram of raw coal. The farm is also a large electricity consumer, and the waste heat generated by the power is used to heat up the fermentation raw materials, keep warm or heat the mushroom house, which not only improves the biogas itself. The economic value has alleviated the sharp contradiction of local power shortage. Therefore, the use of biogas for incineration of waste-to-energy generation is higher than that of direct combustion.
本发明利用牲畜粪便、 城市污水、 野草、 桔杆及城市生活垃圾中的有机物, 通过厌氧发酵, 产生曱烷(沼气)代替煤或煤油焚烧垃圾发电; 沼气也可以直 接使用活塞式沼气发动机(中国山东济南产)直接发电或作为燃汽代替煤、 液 化气、 天然气; 沼渣冬、 秋二季生产双孢蘑菇, 春季种鸡腿菇等一些珍贵草腐 菌类; 菇渣养蚯蚓, 蚓粪制成有机肥还田, 完成循环。 沼液作大棚蔬菜或农作 物的灌溉水肥。 整个处理流程, 达到 "零" 排放标准。  The invention utilizes livestock manure, urban sewage, weed grass, orange pole and organic matter in municipal solid waste to generate decane (biogas) instead of coal or kerosene to incinerate garbage by anaerobic fermentation; biogas can also directly use piston biogas engine ( Jinan, Shandong, China) direct power generation or use of coal as a substitute for coal, liquefied gas, natural gas; winter slag, winter and autumn, production of Agaricus bisporus, spring pheasant and other precious grass rot fungi; mushroom slag raising, sputum Return organic fertilizer to the field and complete the cycle. The biogas slurry is used as irrigation water and fertilizer for greenhouse vegetables or crops. Throughout the process, the “zero” emission standard is achieved.
本发明城市生活垃圾经过上述处理, 可以彻底解决传统城市生活垃圾处理 时产生的 "下脚料" 带来的 "二次污染" 问题, 将废弃物实现了最完全的、 无 害化、 资源化处理, 根本上解决了传统城市垃圾处理的弊病。  The above-mentioned treatment of the municipal solid waste of the invention can completely solve the "secondary pollution" problem brought about by the "foot scrap" generated during the treatment of the traditional urban domestic garbage, and realize the most complete, harmless and resource treatment of the waste. , fundamentally solved the drawbacks of traditional urban waste disposal.
本发明中的术语 "城市生活垃圾"意指城市家庭生活垃圾、 餐馆垃圾、公园 垃圾、 农贸市场垃圾、 街道清洁垃圾、 城市污水。  The term "urban garbage" in the present invention means urban household garbage, restaurant garbage, park garbage, farmer's market garbage, street cleaning garbage, and urban sewage.
本发明中术语 "发酵后的渣料,,指指将城市生活垃圾, 经惯常厌氧发酵后的 有机质碎料。  In the present invention, the term "fermented slag" refers to an organic matter fraction which is subjected to conventional anaerobic fermentation of municipal solid waste.
本发明中所述的 "培养真菌后的下脚料"指用惯常发酵后的渣料接种了可食 用真菌菌种并培养收获了真菌子实体(蘑菇)后剩下的带有大量真菌菌丝体的 剩余物。  The "after-cultivation of the fungus" described in the present invention means that the edible fungal strain is inoculated with the conventionally fermented slag and the fungus mycelium remaining after the fungal fruit body (mushroom) is harvested is cultured. The remainder.
附图说明 DRAWINGS
图 1为梯级处理城市生活垃圾、 野草、 农作物秸犴、 牲畜粪便流程图。 Figure 1 shows the flow chart of the treatment of urban domestic garbage, weeds, crop stalks and livestock manure.
附图中可利用的垃圾: 废塑料、 金属、 纸张、 及可分拣的菜叶、 果皮等; Garbage available in the drawings: waste plastic, metal, paper, and sortable leaves, peels, etc.;
不可利用的垃圾: 分拣后的剩余生活垃圾。  Unusable garbage: The remaining domestic garbage after sorting.
该流程图中的每一个工艺步骤所采用的技术方案均为惯常、 通用技术。 具体实施方式 The technical solutions used in each of the process steps in the flow chart are conventional, general-purpose techniques. detailed description
预处理  Pretreatment
因牲畜粪便、 野草、 农作物秸秆、 牲畜粪便和城市生活垃圾中的有机物中 含有大量的纤维、 木质素等, 加之材料收集过程还将带入一定量的泥砂等杂质, 另外, 野草、 农作物秸秆、 牲畜粪便和城市生活垃圾中的有机物温度是随着气 候及环境温度变化的。 因此, 在进行厌氧消化前, 要进行必要的粉碎、 沉砂、 水质、 水量、 加温等预处理, 以保证后续厌氧消化工序的正常运行。  Because the livestock manure, weeds, crop straw, livestock manure and municipal solid waste contain a lot of fiber, lignin, etc., and the material collection process will also bring in a certain amount of impurities such as mud and sand, in addition, weeds, crop straw, The temperature of organic matter in livestock manure and municipal solid waste varies with climate and ambient temperature. Therefore, before anaerobic digestion, pre-treatment such as crushing, sanding, water quality, water volume, and heating should be carried out to ensure the normal operation of the subsequent anaerobic digestion process.
本方案将采用已在国内外多项沼气工程成功运行的预处理技术(如水盾调 节、 发电余热利用及节能型换热系统等), 具有投资经济、 能耗低、 操作简便等 特点。  The scheme will adopt pretreatment technologies (such as water shield adjustment, power generation waste heat utilization and energy-saving heat exchange system) that have been successfully operated by many biogas projects at home and abroad, and have the characteristics of low investment economy, low energy consumption and easy operation.
厌氧消化工艺  Anaerobic digestion process
采用适宜、 且有较高产气率、 操作管理简便的高温全混合厌氧消化野草、 农作物秸秆、 牲畜粪便和城市生活垃圾中的有机物的工艺 (Complete St irred Tank Reactor— CSTR )。 该工艺在中国及欧洲等国家广泛应用于处理高浓度、 高 悬浮物的有机废水, 特别是含有大量的纤维、 木质素的牲畜粪, 并能达到全料 发酵产气、 基本消除恶臭、 改善生产环境卫生, 是一项比较成熟的实用技术。  The use of a high-temperature, fully-mixed anaerobic digestion of weeds, crop stalks, livestock manure, and organic matter in municipal solid waste (Complete St irred Tank Reactor-CSTR) with appropriate high gas yield and easy operation and management. The process is widely used in China and Europe to treat organic wastewater with high concentration and high suspended solids, especially livestock manure containing a large amount of fiber and lignin, and can achieve full fermentation and gas production, basically eliminate malodor, and improve production. Environmental sanitation is a relatively mature and practical technology.
厌氧消化后的残留物沼渣、 沼液的利用  Utilization of residue biogas residue and biogas slurry after anaerobic digestion
经过厌氧消化后的残留物 (沼渣、 沼液)有机质含量较高, 主要养分有: 腐殖酸, 各类生物菌体, 氮、 磷、 钾和促进农作物生长的刺激因子等。 本项目 利用沼渣作双孢蘑菇的培养料、 沼液种植饲草, 是一项必需的配套工程。 作为默孢蘑菇的培养料  After anaerobic digestion, the residue (biogas residue, biogas slurry) has high organic matter content. The main nutrients are: humic acid, various biological bacteria, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and stimulating factors that promote crop growth. This project is a necessary supporting project for using biogas residue as the culture material of Agaricus bisporus and planting forage in biogas slurry. As a culture material for the mushroom
双孢蘑菇的培养料主要是通过粪草腐烂提供养分, 传统的发酵以 "有氧发 酵" 为主, 周期达一个月, 且劳动强度大, 能量损耗多, 播种前的后发酵处理, 埋论上是一个人工致与双孢菌有竟争性的发酵微生物死亡的技术处理程序, 通 过 "厌氧" 发酵工艺后所得到的 "沼渣", 其中存在着多种微生物, 以厌氧种类 为主, 暴露在空气中几分钟即死亡, 这样就自然达到后发酵的处理效果。 经过 了厌氧发酵后的沼渣, 正是栽培双孢蘑菇的上等材料, 真正实施 "无公害" 栽 培。 The culture of Agaricus bisporus mainly provides nutrients through the decay of manure grass, and the traditional fermentation is "oxygenated". Fermented "mainly, with a period of one month, and labor intensity, energy loss, post-seed fermentation treatment, is a technical treatment program for artificially causing competitive microbial death of bacteria." The "biogas residue" obtained after the "anaerobic" fermentation process has a variety of microorganisms, mainly anaerobic species, and is exposed to the air for a few minutes to die, thus naturally achieving the post-fermentation treatment effect. The biogas residue after anaerobic fermentation is the best material for cultivating Agaricus bisporus, and truly implements "no pollution" cultivation.
蚯蚓粪连同沼液种祠草  蚯蚓 蚯蚓 连同 连同 沼 沼 沼
利用蘑菇下脚料喂养丘蚓, 蚯蚓粪连同沼液还田种饲草。  The mushroom is used to feed the mound, and the manure and the biogas are used to feed the forage.
沼气发电及发电的余热利用  Waste heat utilization of biogas power generation and power generation
净化后的沼气用于发电 (在欧洲等发达国家, 沼气主要用于发电), 是生物, 质能转化为更高品位能源的一种表现方式, 其资金回报率较高 (Ira3沼气可以发 电 1. 4- 1. 6KW. h )。 发电的余热用于发酵原料的加温、 保温或菇房增温, 既达到 能源高效利用, 又可提高沼气产气量, 确保沼气工程稳定运行。 The purified biogas is used for power generation (in developed countries such as Europe, biogas is mainly used for power generation), which is a manifestation of the conversion of biomass and biomass into higher-grade energy, and its return on capital is high (Ira 3 biogas can generate electricity). 1. 4- 1. 6KW. h). The waste heat of power generation is used for heating, heat preservation or mushroom room temperature increase of fermented raw materials, which not only achieves energy efficient use, but also increases the gas production of biogas and ensures stable operation of biogas project.
主要经济指标 Main economic indicators
日处理粪便及 污水 800- 1000吨(TS: 8°/o-10% );  Daily treatment of manure and sewage 800-1000 tons (TS: 8°/o-10%);
日生产沼气量 20000m3左右; The daily production of biogas is about 20000m 3 ;
日沼气发电量: 30000KW. h (每年有 9个月), l OOOOKW. h (每年有 3个月); 日产沼肥(沼渣、 沼液) 600-800吨。  Daily biogas power generation: 30000KW. h (9 months per year), l OOOOKW. h (3 months per year); Nissan biogas fertilizer (biogas residue, biogas slurry) 600-800 tons.
实施例 1  Example 1
对收集的城市污水、 餐厨垃圾、 野草、 秸秆、 牲畜粪便, 直接进入厌氧消 化器进行高温厌氧发酵, 厌氧消化器中产生的沼气, 经常规工艺脱水、 脱硫后 直接用于活塞沼气发动机发电或作为焚烧发电时的助燃气体, 产生的炉烟达标 排放; 从沼气发生器中溢出的、 经脱水后得到的沼渣, 经过种植蘑菇、 蘑菇渣 养殖蚯蚓、 产生的蚯蚓粪制作有机肥种植农作物和蔬菜等一系列再利用程序后, 已全部资源化利用完毕; 其余部分为沼液, 沼液可直接用于种植农作物和蔬菜; 生产的农作物和蔬菜, 除满足人类的生活需要外, 还可以饲养牲畜, 从而实现 了一个资源可再生利用的良性循环。 Collecting urban sewage, kitchen waste, weeds, straw, livestock manure, directly into the anaerobic digester for high-temperature anaerobic fermentation, biogas generated in the anaerobic digester, used for dehydration, desulfurization, and directly used for piston biogas The engine generates electricity or as a combustion-supporting gas in the process of incineration, and the generated smoke reaches the standard discharge; the biogas residue which is overflowed from the biogas generator and dehydrated, after planting mushrooms and mushroom residue After the breeding of cockroaches, the production of cockroaches, the production of organic fertilizers, crops and vegetables, and other re-use procedures, all resources have been utilized; the rest is biogas slurry, which can be directly used to grow crops and vegetables; Vegetables, in addition to meeting the needs of human life, can also raise livestock, thus achieving a virtuous cycle of renewable resources.
实施例 1  Example 1
城市垃圾通过机械分拣后, 将可利用的部分进行回收加工, 废塑料可回收 裂解成柴油, 而有机物直接进入厌氧消化器进行厌氧发酵, 厌氧消化器中产生 的沼气, 经常规工艺脱水、 脱^ >后应用于活塞式内燃沼气发动机直接发电; 也 可作为主燃气体焚烧垃圾发电 (无需脱水、 脱硫), 产生的炉烟达标排放; .从沼 气发生器中溢出的、 经脱水后得到的沼渣经过种植蘑菇, 蘑菇渣养殖蚯蚓, 产 生的虹蚓粪制作有机肥种植农作物和蔬菜等一系列再利用程序后, 已全部被资 源化利用完毕; 其余部分为沼液, 沼液可直接用于种植农作物和蔬菜; 生产的 农作物和蔬菜除满足人类的生活需要外, 还可以饲养牲畜, 从而实现了一个资 源可再生利用的良性循环。  After the municipal garbage is sorted by machinery, the available parts are recycled and processed, the waste plastics can be recycled and cracked into diesel oil, and the organic matter directly enters the anaerobic digester for anaerobic fermentation, and the biogas generated in the anaerobic digester is processed by conventional processes. Dehydration, de-> after application to the piston-type internal combustion biogas engine direct power generation; can also be used as the main gas body incineration waste-to-energy generation (no need for dehydration, desulfurization), the generated furnace smoke reaches the standard discharge; After the biogas residue has been planted with mushrooms, mushroom residue cultured, and the resulting rainbow trout produces organic fertilizers, crops and vegetables, and other re-use procedures have been fully utilized; the rest is biogas slurry, biogas slurry It can be directly used to grow crops and vegetables; in addition to meeting the needs of human life, the crops and vegetables produced can also raise livestock, thus achieving a virtuous cycle of renewable resources.
城市垃圾分拣后的、 不可利用 垃圾部分, 通过沼气助燃进行焚烧发电, 产生的炉渣可用于制砖。  After the municipal garbage is sorted, the non-useable garbage part is incinerated by biogas combustion, and the generated slag can be used for brick making.
本发明提供的方法形成了一个良性生态循环, 实现了废弃物资源最大限度 的综和利用, 是解决畜禽粪便污染及开展城市垃圾资源化处理最为经济实用的 处理方法。  The method provided by the invention forms a benign ecological cycle, realizes the maximum utilization of waste resources, and is the most economical and practical treatment method for solving livestock manure pollution and carrying out urban garbage resource treatment.
本领域技术人员阅本专利申请读说明书后可以进行种种修改和变更, 但这 些修改和变更均在申请待批的权利要求保护范围之内。  Various modifications and changes can be made by those skilled in the art after reading the specification, and the modifications and variations are within the scope of the appended claims.

Claims

权 利 要 求 Rights request
1. 梯级处理城市生活垃圾的方法, 其特征在于该方法包括: A method for processing urban domestic waste in a cascade, characterized in that the method comprises:
(1)对城市生活垃圾经分拣后的有机物进行厌氧发酵;  (1) Anaerobic fermentation of organic matter sorted by municipal solid waste;
(2)发酵后的渣料作真菌培养基;  (2) the slag after fermentation as a fungal medium;
(3) 培养真菌后的下脚料作蚯蚓饲料;  (3) The lower leg of the fungus after cultivation is used as a feed;
(4)对生活垃圾废弃物经分拣后除废金属、废塑料和有机物外的其余物质进行 焚烧发电。  (4) The domestic wastes are sorted and the remaining materials except scrap metal, waste plastics and organic matter are incinerated to generate electricity.
2. 梯级处理城市生活垃圾的方法, 其特征在于该方法包括:  2. A method for processing urban domestic waste in a cascade, characterized in that the method comprises:
(1)对城市污水、 餐厨垃圾、 野草、 秸秆、 牲畜粪便进行厌氧发酵;  (1) Anaerobic fermentation of municipal sewage, kitchen waste, weeds, straw, and livestock manure;
( 2 )发酵后的渣料作真菌培养基;  (2) the slag after fermentation is used as a fungal medium;
( 3 )培养真菌后的下脚料作蚯蚓饲料。  (3) The waste material after the cultivation of the fungus is used as a feed for cockroaches.
3. 根据权利要求 1或 2的方法, 其特征在于对有机物预处理后再进行所述厌氧 发酵处理。  3. Process according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the anaerobic fermentation treatment is carried out after pretreatment of the organic matter.
4. 根据权利要求 1或 2的方法, 其特征在于所述真菌为双孢蘑菇。  4. Method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the fungus is Agaricus bisporus.
5. 根据权利要求 1或 2的方法, 其特征在于所述厌氧发酵的废液和蚯矧粪用于 种植农作物和 /或蔬菜。  5. Process according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the anaerobic fermentation waste liquor and manure are used for growing crops and/or vegetables.
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