CN102174586B - Method and device for recycling edible mushroom residues - Google Patents

Method and device for recycling edible mushroom residues Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102174586B
CN102174586B CN2011100058174A CN201110005817A CN102174586B CN 102174586 B CN102174586 B CN 102174586B CN 2011100058174 A CN2011100058174 A CN 2011100058174A CN 201110005817 A CN201110005817 A CN 201110005817A CN 102174586 B CN102174586 B CN 102174586B
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anaerobic reactor
biogas
edible fungi
anaerobic
water
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CN102174586A (en
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王艳芹
边文范
任鹏飞
袁长波
张昌爱
姚利
刘�英
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Institute of Agricultural Resources and Environment of Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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Institute of Agricultural Resources and Environment of Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12MAPPARATUS FOR ENZYMOLOGY OR MICROBIOLOGY; APPARATUS FOR CULTURING MICROORGANISMS FOR PRODUCING BIOMASS, FOR GROWING CELLS OR FOR OBTAINING FERMENTATION OR METABOLIC PRODUCTS, i.e. BIOREACTORS OR FERMENTERS
    • C12M23/00Constructional details, e.g. recesses, hinges
    • C12M23/38Caps; Covers; Plugs; Pouring means
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12MAPPARATUS FOR ENZYMOLOGY OR MICROBIOLOGY; APPARATUS FOR CULTURING MICROORGANISMS FOR PRODUCING BIOMASS, FOR GROWING CELLS OR FOR OBTAINING FERMENTATION OR METABOLIC PRODUCTS, i.e. BIOREACTORS OR FERMENTERS
    • C12M21/00Bioreactors or fermenters specially adapted for specific uses
    • C12M21/04Bioreactors or fermenters specially adapted for specific uses for producing gas, e.g. biogas
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12MAPPARATUS FOR ENZYMOLOGY OR MICROBIOLOGY; APPARATUS FOR CULTURING MICROORGANISMS FOR PRODUCING BIOMASS, FOR GROWING CELLS OR FOR OBTAINING FERMENTATION OR METABOLIC PRODUCTS, i.e. BIOREACTORS OR FERMENTERS
    • C12M23/00Constructional details, e.g. recesses, hinges
    • C12M23/02Form or structure of the vessel
    • C12M23/18Open ponds; Greenhouse type or underground installations
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12MAPPARATUS FOR ENZYMOLOGY OR MICROBIOLOGY; APPARATUS FOR CULTURING MICROORGANISMS FOR PRODUCING BIOMASS, FOR GROWING CELLS OR FOR OBTAINING FERMENTATION OR METABOLIC PRODUCTS, i.e. BIOREACTORS OR FERMENTERS
    • C12M27/00Means for mixing, agitating or circulating fluids in the vessel
    • C12M27/02Stirrer or mobile mixing elements
    • C12M27/06Stirrer or mobile mixing elements with horizontal or inclined stirrer shaft or axis
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12MAPPARATUS FOR ENZYMOLOGY OR MICROBIOLOGY; APPARATUS FOR CULTURING MICROORGANISMS FOR PRODUCING BIOMASS, FOR GROWING CELLS OR FOR OBTAINING FERMENTATION OR METABOLIC PRODUCTS, i.e. BIOREACTORS OR FERMENTERS
    • C12M43/00Combinations of bioreactors or fermenters with other apparatus
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E50/00Technologies for the production of fuel of non-fossil origin
    • Y02E50/30Fuel from waste, e.g. synthetic alcohol or diesel
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P20/00Technologies relating to chemical industry
    • Y02P20/10Process efficiency
    • Y02P20/133Renewable energy sources, e.g. sunlight
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W10/00Technologies for wastewater treatment
    • Y02W10/30Wastewater or sewage treatment systems using renewable energies
    • Y02W10/37Wastewater or sewage treatment systems using renewable energies using solar energy

Abstract

The invention relates to a method and device for recycling edible mushroom residues. The method mainly comprises the steps of placing waste mushroom residues and maize straws or excrements from a cattle farm into an anaerobic reactor for united fermentation to produce biogas, and covering a red-mud plastic head cover on the anaerobic reactor, wherein an inclined stirrer is arranged and is beneficial to feeding/discharging of mushroom residue raw materials and avoidance of crusting. The produced biogas is used for power generation and agriculture, biogas residues are used for manufacturing organic fertilizers, biogas slurry is prepared into foliar fertilizer for fruits or vegetables, and thus, new energy sources, namely the biogas and the organic fertilizers, are obtained while the mushroom residues are treated. The method and the device in the invention are mainly used in major edible mushroom producing areas, a solar-panel greenhouse and a solar heat supply device are assorted for the device, a composite microbial inoculum is assorted for the method, and the anaerobic reactor can be normally used all the year round.

Description

A kind for the treatment of process of edible fungi residue recycling and device
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind for the treatment of process and device of edible fungi residue recycling, can solve the waste bacterial slag wasting of resources and problem of environmental pollution simultaneously, belong to agricultural technology field.
Background technology
At present, China has become Edible Fungi first big country in the world, and national edible mushrooms ultimate production reached 2.02 * 10 in 2009 7T accounts for more than 70% of global ultimate production, and Shandong Province's edible mushrooms ultimate production reaches 2,060,000 t, accounts for 10.2% of national edible mushrooms ultimate production.Be accompanied by the flourish of mushroom industry, have every year a large amount of edible fungi residues to produce, press edible fungus biology efficient average 40% and calculate national edible fungi residue ultimate production about 5.05 * 10 in 2009 7T, Shandong Province's edible fungi residue total amount reaches 5,150,000 t, enormous amount.
It is reported that Shandong Province's culturing edible fungus is mainly with cotton seed hull, corn cob, vinasse are major ingredient, and the contained nutrition of cotton seed hull is more comprehensive, water-absorbent is strong, good permeability is convenient to send out the bacterium fruiting, is mainly used in cultivating flammulina velutipes, and dried corn cob contains moisture 8.7%, organic matter 91.3%, wherein crude protein 2.0%, crude fat 0.7%, robust fibre 28.2%, soluble-carbohydrate 58.4%, coarse ash 2.0%, calcium 0.1%, phosphorus 0.08%, mainly be suitable for cultivating white mushroom, vinasse also are a kind of good edible fungus culturing raw materials, and its nutritive ingredient is fit to the growth of shaggy mane mycelium, both the Coprinus comatus production cost can be reduced, contaminate environment can be prevented again.These raw materials are extensive use of by the mushroom farming because of its distinctive character.
Yet how edible fungi residue is carried out environmental protection effectively handle, never be well solved.Be used as fertilizer except a small amount of bacterium slag every year, a large amount of bacterium slags arbitrarily abandon, this has not only caused the huge waste of agriculture organic resource, also caused the deterioration of surrounding environment, cause bacterial reproduction, pathophoresis has been caused near resident living environment and has a strong impact on, and has caused significant damage also near mushroom industry.
For the edible fungi residue comprehensive utilization, some relevant reports being arranged at present, is to disclose a kind of method of utilizing edible fungi residue to produce fertilizer in 200810070366.0 " a kind of methods of handling edible fungi residues production fertilizer " as the patent No.; The patent No. is that 201010151096.3 " a kind of methods of utilizing edible fungi leftovers to produce pig feed " disclose a kind of method of utilizing edible fungi residue to produce pig feed; The patent No. 200710049438.9 " is utilized discarded edible mushroom slag to prepare process of active carbon " to disclose a kind of edible fungi residues that utilizes and is prepared process of active carbon, because of edible fungi residue wood fibre cellulose content height, be not easy by anaerobic digestion, cause factor of created gase low, crust and obstruction easily still do not have at present and utilizes the edible fungi residue anaerobically fermenting to produce the report of the method for biogas in anaerobic fermentation process.
In recent years, the agricultural wastes anaerobic treatment process development of China is very rapid, various novel procesies, novel method constantly occur, as full-mixing type anaerobic reactor (CSTR), flow lifting type solid reactor (USR), upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB) and internal-circulation anaerobic reactor (IC) etc., all obtained significant effect.Full-mixing type anaerobic reactor (CSTR) is mainly for the treatment of plant's ight soil, the solid substance of fermentation raw material (TS) concentration can reach 8-12%, stirring system is set, flow lifting type solid reactor (USR) mainly is suitable for the livestock and poultry feces of solid substance (TS) concentration 5-8%, inside arranges water distribution system, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB) and internal-circulation anaerobic reactor (IC) are mainly used to handle high concentrated organic wastewater, as alcohol, molasses, factory effluents such as citric acid, also can handle intermediate concentration organic waste water, as beer, butcher, factory effluents such as soft drink, can also handle low-concentration organic waste water, as sanitary sewage, municipal effluent etc., but solid substance (TS) concentration is unsuitable too high.
Because of the characteristic of edible fungi residue material, if use anaerobic reactor (as common full-mixing type anaerobic reactor) or hydraulic type domestic methane tank (10-30m commonly used at present 3) wait the anaerobic digestion device anaerobically fermenting, there is the charging difficulty, crust easily in the anaerobic fermentation process, problem such as discharging difficulty behind the anaerobically fermenting.Produce biogas for a kind of new anaerobically fermenting of handling edible fungi residue that is applicable to, can make things convenient for input and output material, prevent crust, can guarantee the anaerobic reaction apparatus that run well winter again, still do not have report at present.
Summary of the invention
The present invention is directed to the deficiencies in the prior art, a kind for the treatment of process and device of edible fungi residue recycling is provided, realize the edible fungi residue recycling.
Summary of the invention
The object of the present invention is to provide a kind for the treatment of process and device of edible fungi residue recycling, mainly be to place the anaerobic reactor combined ferment to produce biogas waste bacterial slag and maize straw or cattle farm ight soil, elder generation is with edible fungi residue and maize straw or cattle farm ight soil mixing stack retting in the method, regulate the plain decomposition rate of suitable carbon-nitrogen ratio and accelerating fibers, material adds microbiobacterial agent after entering anaerobic ferment devices, can accelerate the carrying out of marsh gas fermentation processes, improve bacterium slag raw material gas producing efficiency, the anaerobic reactor top covers the red-sludge plastic top cover in the device, and be provided with the inclined type agitator, when being beneficial to bacterium slag raw material input and output material, avoided crust, device adopts semi-underground or full underground type, can utilize part ground temperature, place in the greenhouse, can absorb and utilize part sun power that material is heated, supporting sun power in the winter time, these measures can guarantee that the anaerobic reaction apparatus runs well winter.The biogas that produces is used for generating or agricultural, and the natural pond slag is made fertilizer, and natural pond liquid is deployed into fruit or vegetables foliage fertilizer, when handling the bacterium slag, has also obtained new forms of energy---biogas and organic fertilizer.
The term explanation:
Fresh cow manure: water ratio is mass percent 78%-80%.
Dried maize straw: water ratio is mass percent 16%-18%.
Stack retting: with organism (as stalk, ight soil etc.) stack up, by the fermentative action of inner microorganism organism is decomposed then, be converted into available small-molecule substance.
Edible fungi residue and stalk raw materials carry out being used for biogas fermentation behind the stack retting in advance, and a lot of benefits are arranged: 1. in the stack retting process, the effect of enrichment bacterial classification is played in the fermenting bacteria raised growth breeding that sees in the raw material; 2. can slow down acidification after the material that becomes thoroughly decomposed of stack retting enters methane-generating pit, be conducive to the balance of acidifying and methanation; 3. cellulosic material (as straw, edible fungi residue etc.) is behind stack retting, and Mierocrystalline cellulose fluffs diffusing, has enlarged cellulose-decomposing bacterium and cellulosic contact surface, the decomposition rate of accelerating fibers element greatly, the carrying out that accelerates marsh gas fermentation processes; 4. the stack retting cellulosic material water content of rotting is bigger, sinks to the bottom very soon after going into the pond, is difficult for the surface crust; 5. volume-diminished behind the raw material stack retting is convenient to adorn the pond.
Red-sludge plastic: a kind of biogas anaerobic reaction apparatus top cover material, mainly by compound composition of red soil high-intensity fiber of antiaging agent, antioxidant, it is good to have heat absorptivity, anticorrosive, uvioresistant, advantage such as anti-aging can fully absorb solar energy, anaerobically fermenting temperature height, the methane gas producing amount is big, there is the plurality of specifications model commercially available prod, all can be used in the present invention.
Brick mix structure: brick mix structure is a kind of of mixed structure, is to adopt brick wall to come load-bearing the mixed structure system that members such as reinforced concrete beam column plate constitute.
The enameling sheet structure: enameling sheet is the titanium alloy steel plate special, and thickness can reach 20mm, and steel plate thickness 3-8mm commonly used, contains rust, contains oxide skin the surface of steel plate oil-containing, through pre-treating technologies such as overpickling, alkali cleaning, sandings, surface of steel plate is handled totally; At electric furnace back warp 900 high temperature secondary enamel, coat the 0.3mm enamel coating on the inside and outside two sides of steel plate again.Has very strong bonding force between enamel coating and the steel plate.Enamel coating can not only stop the tank body corrosion, and has anti-strong acid, the function of highly basic.And has an extremely strong abrasion resistance.The Beijing YingheRui environmental protection equipment Co., Ltd is on sale.
The technical scheme that the present invention adopts for achieving the above object is as follows:
A kind for the treatment of process of edible fungi residue recycling, step is as follows:
(1) taken out bacterium bag behind the mushroom, removed plastic coatedly, the edible fungi residue enclosed mass has been pulverized, made edible fungi residue be loose shape; Water ratio is mass percent 50%-60%;
The C/N of the edible fungi residue after (2) step (1) is handled compares less than (20-30): 1 o'clock, edible fungi residue is mixed with the dried maize straw of pulverizing or fresh cow manure, C/N is compared at (20-30): 1, add water to stir, making water ratio is mass percent 60%-80%;
The C/N of the edible fungi residue after step (1) is handled compares at (20-30): 1 o'clock, directly add water to stir, and making water ratio is mass percent 60%-80%;
Get mixture;
(3) mixture with step (2) piles stockpile, covers with plastics film or plastic cloth and carries out stack retting; 5-9 days stack retting time, get the edible fungi residue fermentation raw material;
(4) the edible fungi residue fermentation raw material behind step (3) stack retting is dropped in the anaerobic reactor, the inoculum that adds the 10%-15% of anaerobic reactor volume, add water to the 80-90% of anaerobic reactor volume, making the interior material solid content of anaerobic reaction device is mass percent 10%-12%, and adjusting pH value is 7.2-7.5;
(5) in anaerobic reactor, add complex micro organism fungicide, every 10m 3The anaerobic reactor volume adds the 0.5-1.2kg complex micro organism fungicide, stirs, and seals with the red-sludge plastic top cover that anaerobic reactor is suitable for reading to get final product.
Complex micro organism fungicide described in the step (5) is the commercially available prod, but market is buied, " green straw spirit " board biogas microbial inoculum (1kg dress) of producing of Hebaiyi Ecological Energy Sci., ﹠ Tech. Development Co., Ltd., Beijing for example, the microbiobacterial agent (1kg dress) that Shandong Jin Mao biological products limited liability company product is sold.Described complex micro organism fungicide also can be the product by prior art for preparing, for example 200810140400.7 1 kinds of used for methane tank complex micro organism fungicides and preparation method thereof.This microbial inoculum mainly contains under decomposition of cellulose and the low temperature effect that improves factor of created gase, can improve bacterium slag raw material factor of created gase, and makes in the anaerobic reactor fermented feed liquid normal gas producing more than 10 ℃ the time.
According to aforesaid method of the present invention, be preferably as follows:
In the described step (2), edible fungi residue and dried maize straw or fresh cow manure quality proportioning are:
Edible fungi residue 6-10 mass parts, dried maize straw 1-2 mass parts; Or
Edible fungi residue 15-20 mass parts, fresh cattle ight soil 8-10 mass parts.
Stockpile described in the described step (3), long 2-2.7m, wide 1.5-2m, high 1.2-1.6m; Be preferably in stockpile intermediate vertical jack and be beneficial to air admission.
The stack retting time is in the described step (3): 5-6 days summer, 7-8 days winter, 6-7 days season in spring and autumn.
The bacterium bag that has gone out mushroom described in the step (1) is: be the golden mushroom plantation bacterium slag of main raw material with the corn cob, be the mushroom cultivation bacterium slag of main raw material with the cotton seed hull or be the cultivating chicken leg mushroom bacterium slag of main raw material with vinasse.
Common pulverizer is adopted in pulverizing described in the step (1), and market is on sale, generally plants mushroom enterprise or peasant household all from having.
Inoculum described in the step (4) is natural pond liquid or the natural pond slag in the normal gas producing methane-generating pit.
Reloaded 1 time every 2-3 month, during input and output material, open the red-sludge plastic top cover, feed liquid is gone out clearly from anaerobic reactor, stay 1/3 natural pond slag as inoculum, new disposable the entering of edible fungi residue fermentation raw material.Try not to reload winter (December-March).
Natural pond slag behind the aerogenesis and natural pond liquid can be used as organic fertilizer and use.
A kind for the treatment of unit of edible fungi residue recycling, comprise anaerobic reaction apparatus, biogas dehydration devulcanizer, accumulator unit and biogas utilization device, it is characterized in that described anaerobic reaction apparatus comprises anaerobic reactor, brooder, solar energy heat collector; The anaerobic reactor top covers the red-sludge plastic top cover, and anaerobic reactor inside is provided with inclined type agitator and interior hot channel, and interior hot channel is communicated with the some loop pipes of pressing close to pool wall, and this loop pipe is covered with the anaerobic reactor pool wall; The anaerobic reactor outside has brooder, solar energy heat collector places outside the brooder, the solar energy heat collector bottom has the solar-heating pipeline to link to each other with hot channel feed-water end in the anaerobic reactor, and the hot channel water side is connected by return water pipe and solar energy heat collector top water inlet in the anaerobic reactor; The anaerobic reactor top has methane outlet to be communicated with the biogas escape pipe.
Described anaerobic reaction apparatus size can be selected according to Edible Fungi district raw material condition, can be made as 8-200m 3, can be 1 of every household, also can produce the edible mushrooms district for batch production.
Described solar energy heat collector can be selected according to anaerobic reactor size and temperature of charge requirement in winter, and market is on sale, and for example Sangle Solar Co., Ltd., Shandong produces and sells.
Anaerobic reactor can link to each other with dewater desulphurization system, accumulator unit of biogas successively by the biogas escape pipe, is connected with biogas generator or household biogas kitchen range then, uses for the user.The dehydration desulphurization system is the universal product, and market is on sale.(for example Dongguan City Condar environmental protection heat company limited produce sell), according to every day gas production rate can select different models, those skilled in the art all can select.
The treatment unit of the edible fungi residue recycling that uses for every household, volume is 8-30m 3, can be complete underground brick mix structure, do not match biogas residue and biogas liquid storage pool, natural pond liquid preparing pool and natural pond slag and handle the field, biogas residue and biogas liquid peasant household can apply the farmland voluntarily.
Produce the edible mushrooms district for batch production, anaerobic reaction apparatus volume is 30-200m 3, can be semi-underground type enameling sheet structure, need supporting biogas residue and biogas liquid storage pool, natural pond liquid preparing pool and natural pond slag to handle the field, natural pond liquid is deployed into fruit, fertilizer special for vegetable, and the natural pond slag is made fertilizer.
Devulcanizer is a kind of instrument in the household biogas gas transmission system of rural area.Devulcanizer is made up of tensimeter, switch, cylinder for desulfurization and sweetening agent.The family generally is 1.6 liters with the cylinder for desulfurization volume, dress sweetening agent in the cylinder for desulfurization.Sweetening agent has two kinds: a kind of is solid desulfurating agent; Another kind is the liquid sweetening agent.Market is on sale.
According to said apparatus of the present invention, be preferably as follows:
Described anaerobic reactor is the complete underground or semi-underground enameling sheet structure of right cylinder.Described brooder material is double-deck sunlight board, and market is on sale.
Described solar-heating installs pipes and the anaerobic reactor interior conduit is the water medium heat-transfer pipe.
Said apparatus is opened the red-sludge plastic top cover when input and output material, feed liquid is gone out clearly from anaerobic reactor, and new disposable the entering of edible fungi residue fermentation raw material reloaded 1 time every 2-3 month.Try not to reload winter (December-March).
The red-sludge plastic top cover of described anaerobic reactor top, by compound composition of red soil high-intensity fiber of antiaging agent, antioxidant, commercially available, the plurality of specifications model is arranged, because edible fungi residue is wooden, content of cellulose is high, and do not have flowability, the mixed fermentation solid-liquid ratio is than difficult degradation, the problem that has the input and output material difficulty, the red-sludge plastic top cover of use can directly be opened, and input and output material is convenient.
Described anaerobic reactor is complete underground or right cylinder semi-underground type structure, the top has the sunlight board brooder, inside is provided with the anaerobic reactor interior conduit, and by the heat supply of solar-heating device, these measures can guarantee that in the winter time feed liquid reaches more than 10 ℃ in the anaerobic reactor.
Inclined type agitator in the described anaerobic reactor mainly is near the scum silica frost the slurries can be squeezed in the fermented liquid in mixing process, prevents the scum silica frost sclerosis, plays the broken shell effect.
The facility supporting with said apparatus also comprises facilities such as preprocessing field, biogas residue and biogas liquid storage pool, natural pond liquid preparing pool and natural pond slag processing field, and these parts all are well known to those skilled in the art.
Described biogas residue and biogas liquid storage pool, natural pond liquid preparing pool are underground brick mix structure, and the biogas residue and biogas liquid storage pool is used for the storage of edible fungi residue anaerobic reactor fermentation back biogas residue and biogas liquid.Natural pond liquid preparing pool is used for biogas residue and biogas liquid after solid-liquid separation, and natural pond liquid enters natural pond liquid preparing pool, is modulated into vegetables or fruit dedicated liquid fertilizer by adding trace element.
It mainly is cement face place on the ground that described preprocessing field and natural pond slag are handled, and preprocessing field is used for the mixing stack retting pre-treatment of edible fungi residue and agricultural crop straw, plant's ight soil, and pretreated mixture material directly enters anaerobic reactor.The natural pond slag is handled the field and is mainly used in biogas residue and biogas liquid after solid-liquid separation, the drying and other treatment of natural pond slag, the natural pond dregs for producing organic fertilizer after the mummification.
The treatment unit of above-mentioned edible fungi residue recycling, size is according to how many selections of the bacterium quantity of slag that produces, and those skilled in the art can implement according to general knowledge.
The present invention compared with prior art has following advantage:
1, the inventive method fermentation efficiency height, gas production rate is big, supporting use complex micro organism fungicide, winter can normal gas producing as long as temperature of charge reaches more than 10 ℃.
2, the treatment process of edible fungi residue recycling of the present invention, with edible fungi residue as a kind of resource, use as the methane-generating pit fermentation raw material, when having solved the bacterium slag waste pollution problem of edible mushrooms main producing region, obtained new forms of energy-biogas, simultaneously, the natural pond slag behind the aerogenesis and natural pond liquid also can be used as organic fertilizer.
3, apparatus of the present invention anaerobic reactor is complete underground or right cylinder semi-underground type anaerobic reactor, and the top covers the red-sludge plastic top cover, because the bacterium slag is the characteristic of main raw material material, the red-sludge plastic top cover can be opened during this structure input and output material, and is easy to use.
4, anaerobic reaction apparatus of the present invention adopts complete underground or semi-underground type, the top has sunlight plane skylight brooder, inside is provided with the anaerobic reactor interior conduit, and these insulation intensification measures can guarantee that feed liquid reaches more than 10 ℃ in the anaerobic reactor in winter under the situation of consume fuel not.
5, anaerobic reaction apparatus of the present invention is provided with the inclined type agitator, mainly can solve bacterium slag or the floating problem of stalk in anaerobic reactor, improves gas producing efficiency.
6, edible fungi residue treatment process of the present invention is simple to operate, easy to use, practical, can be in large-scale application.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the structural representation of the treatment unit-anaerobic reaction apparatus of edible fungi residue recycling of the present invention;
Wherein: 1, anaerobic reactor, 2, the red-sludge plastic top cover, 3, the inclined type agitator, 4, brooder, 5, solar energy heat collector, 6, hot channel in the anaerobic reactor, 7, solar-heating pipeline, 8, the biogas escape pipe, 9, water trap, 10, methane desulfurizer, 11, accumulator unit, 12, biogas generator or household biogas kitchen range, 13, biogas residue and biogas liquid storage pool, 14, natural pond liquid preparing pool, 15, the heat collector return water pipe, 16, loop pipe, 17, ground level.
Dotted line in the accompanying drawing in the anaerobic reactor represents fermented feed liquid; Dotted line representative between anaerobic reactor and biogas residue and biogas liquid storage pool, the natural pond liquid preparing pool does not have pipe connection, and preprocessing field, biogas residue and biogas liquid storage pool, natural pond liquid preparing pool and natural pond slag are handled field independent setting the separately.
Embodiment
Below by embodiment and with reference to accompanying drawing the present invention is described in detail.It is important to point out that embodiment only is used for the present invention is further specified; can not be interpreted as limiting the scope of the invention, the person skilled in the art in this field can make some nonessential improvement and adjustment to the present invention according to the invention described above content.Among the embodiment not in detail the explanation all by state of the art.
Embodiment 1:
Be method and the device that resource utilization method-anaerobically fermenting of the golden mushroom slag of main raw material is produced biogas with the corn cob.
The anaerobic reaction apparatus that is used for the edible fungi residue treatment process, as shown in Figure 1, comprise anaerobic reaction apparatus, biogas water trap, methane desulfurizer, accumulator unit and biogas utilization device, it is characterized in that described anaerobic reaction apparatus comprises anaerobic reactor 1, brooder 4, solar energy heat collector 5; The anaerobic reactor top covers red-sludge plastic top cover 2, and anaerobic reactor inside is provided with hot channel 6 in inclined type agitator 3 and the anaerobic reactor, and hot channel 6 is communicated with the some loop pipes of pressing close to pool wall in the anaerobic reactor, and this loop pipe is covered with the anaerobic reactor pool wall; Anaerobic reactor 1 outside has brooder 4, solar energy heat collector 5 places outside the brooder, solar energy heat collector 5 bottoms have solar-heating pipeline 7 to link to each other with hot channel 6 in the anaerobic reactor, and hot channel 6 water sides are connected by heat collector return water pipe 15 and solar energy heat collector 5 top water inlets in the anaerobic reactor; The anaerobic reactor top has methane outlet to be communicated with biogas escape pipe 8.
The biogas escape pipe is connected with dehydration desulphurization system, methane storage device, biogas generator or household biogas kitchen range, uses for the user.
Also comprise facilities such as preprocessing field, biogas residue and biogas liquid storage pool, natural pond liquid preparing pool and natural pond slag processing field with the facility of said apparatus quota cover, these parts all term are well known to those skilled in the art.
The edible fungi residue raw material is the bacterium slag of corn cob raw material planting needle mushroom, and main nutrient composition is (being mass percent):
Corn cob raw material daily output 1t needle mushroom enterprise, can produce waste bacterial slag 500t every year, according to the fermentation period of bacterium slag, every batch of material liquid fermentation 3 months, solid content is 10-12%, and each fermentation materials is 340t, and try not to reload winter (December-March).
Concrete device is as follows:
1, the preprocessing field area is 50m 2, the stack retting for fermentation materials is of a size of length * wide 10.0m * 5.0m;
2, anaerobic reaction device is the enameling sheet structure, and hydraulic detention time is 120d, and reactor volume is 190m 3, 2 anaerobic reactors are arranged, cubic capacity 380m 3
3, calculating 90d anaerobic reactor 2/3 biogas residue and biogas liquid feed liquid according to routine is 240m 3, biogas residue and biogas liquid storage pool volume is 260m 3, material is that brick mixes, and is of a size of length * wide * height=13.0m * 5.0m * 4.0m;
4, calculate 260m according to routine 3Biogas residue and biogas liquid natural pond liquid measure after solid-liquid separating machine separates is 200m 3, natural pond liquid preparing pool is 210m 3, brick mix structure is of a size of length * wide * height=7.0m * 3.0m * 10.0m;
5, natural pond slag processing field is 100m 2, be of a size of length * wide=10.0m * 10.0m.
Concrete grammar is as follows:
(1) takes out edible fungi residues, with pulverizer the edible fungi residue enclosed mass is pulverized, make the bacterium slag be loose shape, place preprocessing field; This moment, water ratio was 60%;
(2) edible fungi residues is added water and mix, the limit adds the waterside and stirs, and making final water ratio is 70%;
(3) with bacterium slag muck growth 2-2.7m, wide 1.5-2m, high 1.2-1.6m.Jack in the middle of the stockpile.Carry out stack retting with the thin cloth covering of plastics, jack is so that air admission in the middle of the plastic cloth.The stack retting time is 5-6 days summer, 7-8 days winter, 6-7 days season in spring and autumn.
(4) the bacterium slag fermentation raw material behind the stack retting is dropped in 2 anaerobic reactors, each adds 30m 3Inoculum, add water to that feed liquid is 180m in each anaerobic reactor 3, and adjusting pH value is 7.2-7.5;
(5) each anaerobic reactor adds complex micro organism fungicide 20kg, stirs, and capping gets final product.Complex micro organism fungicide is that Shandong Jin Mao biological products limited liability company produces the microbiobacterial agent of selling (1kg dress).
The mushroom farming of corn cob raw material planting needle mushroom, every family can build 10m 3Household methane tank, annual charging gets final product for 2 times.
Concrete device is as follows:
1, anaerobic reaction device is the enameling sheet structure, and reactor volume is 10m 3
2, opening for feed connects the lavatory, and lavatory excrement dirt directly enters methane-generating pit, can regulate carbon-nitrogen ratio, improves gas production rate simultaneously.
3, need not preprocessing field, biogas residue and biogas liquid storage pool, natural pond liquid preparing pool and natural pond slag and handle the field, the biogas residue and biogas liquid peasant household of generation directly applies the farmland and makes fertilizer;
Concrete grammar is as follows:
(1) takes out edible fungi residues, with pulverizer the edible fungi residue enclosed mass is pulverized, make the bacterium slag be loose shape, place in the institute; This moment, water ratio was 60%;
(2) edible fungi residues is added water and mix, the limit adds the waterside and stirs, and making final water ratio is 70%;
(3) with bacterium slag muck growth 1.0-1.2m, wide 1.5-2m, high 1.0-1.2m.Jack in the middle of the stockpile.Carry out stack retting with the thin cloth covering of plastics, jack is so that air admission in the middle of the plastic cloth.The stack retting time is 5-6 days summer, 7-8 days winter, 6-7 days season in spring and autumn.
(4) the bacterium slag fermentation raw material behind the stack retting is dropped in the methane-generating pit, add 1.5m 3Inoculum, add water to methane-generating pit volume 70%, and to regulate the pH value be 7.2-7.5;
(5) add complex micro organism fungicide 1kg, stir, capping gets final product.Complex micro organism fungicide is that Shandong Jin Mao biological products limited liability company produces the microbiobacterial agent of selling (1kg dress).
Embodiment 2: the resource utilization method of the bacterium slag of cotton seed hulls raw material planting flat mushroom-anaerobically fermenting is produced the method for biogas and is installed employed device with embodiment 1.
The edible fungi residue raw material is the bacterium slag of cotton seed hulls raw material planting flat mushroom, and main nutrient composition is (being mass percent):
The cotton seed hulls raw material daily output 0.5t flat mushroom enterprise that does not have the milk cattle cultivating field on every side, can produce waste bacterial slag 200t every year, fermentation period according to the bacterium slag, every batch of material liquid fermentation 3 months, 4 chargings of annual branch fermentation, each bacterium slag raw material 50t needs to add the dried maize straw adjusting of 8t carbon-nitrogen ratio, each fermentation materials is 180t, and try not to reload winter (December-March).Concrete device is as follows:
(1) the preprocessing field area is 30m 2, be of a size of length * wide=10.0m * 3.0m;
(2) anaerobic reaction device is the enameling sheet structure, and hydraulic detention time is 90d, and reactor volume is 200m 3
(3) calculating 90d anaerobic reactor 2/3 biogas residue and biogas liquid feed liquid according to routine is 120m 3, biogas residue and biogas liquid storage pool volume is 150m 3, material is that brick mixes, and is of a size of length * wide * height=7.5m * 5.0m * 4.0m;
(4) calculate 120m according to routine 3Biogas residue and biogas liquid natural pond liquid measure after solid-liquid separating machine separates is 100m 3, natural pond liquid preparing pool is 110m 3, brick mix structure is of a size of length * wide * height=5.5.0m * 5.0m * 4.0m;
(5) natural pond slag processing field is 50m 2, be of a size of length * wide=10.0m * 5.0m.
Concrete grammar is as follows:
(1) takes out edible fungi residues, pulverize the edible fungi residue enclosed mass with pulverizer, make the bacterium slag be loose shape, place preprocessing field; This moment, water ratio was 60%;
(2) get the dried maize straw that toxic substances such as no agricultural chemicals, thimerosal pollute, be crushed to 1-1.5cm length with pulverizer; Add water with edible fungi residue and mix, the limit adds the waterside and stirs, and making final water ratio is 70%;
(3) mixture is piled long 2-2.7m, wide 1.5-2m, high 1.2-1.6m.Carry out stack retting with the thin cloth covering of plastics, need jack to guarantee air admission in the middle of the plastic cloth.The stack retting time is 5-6 days summer, 7-8 days winter, 6-7 days season in spring and autumn.
(4) the bacterium slag fermentation raw material behind the stack retting is dropped in the anaerobic reactor, add 20m 3Inoculum, add water to that feed liquid is 160m in the anaerobic reactor 3, and adjusting pH value is 7.2-7.5.
(5) add complex micro organism fungicide 20kg, stir, capping gets final product.Complex micro organism fungicide is that Shandong Jin Mao biological products limited liability company produces the microbiobacterial agent of selling (1kg dress).
Embodiment 3: the bacterium slag anaerobically fermenting of cotton seed hulls raw material planting flat mushroom is produced the device of biogas
The cotton seed hulls raw material daily output 0.5t flat mushroom enterprise of milk cattle cultivating field is arranged on every side, and each bacterium slag raw material 50t needs to add 25t fresh cattle ight soil and regulates carbon-nitrogen ratio, and each fermentation materials is 180t, and device is with embodiment 1.Method steps is with embodiment 2, and difference is that step (2) operation is as follows: get fresh cattle ight soil and add water with edible fungi residue and mix, the limit adds the waterside and stirs, and making final water ratio is 70%.

Claims (3)

1. the treatment unit of an edible fungi residue recycling, comprise anaerobic reaction apparatus, methane desulfurizer, accumulator unit and biogas utilization device, it is characterized in that described anaerobic reaction apparatus comprises anaerobic reactor, brooder, solar energy heat collector; The anaerobic reactor top covers the red-sludge plastic top cover, and anaerobic reactor inside is provided with inclined type agitator and interior hot channel, and interior hot channel is communicated with the some loop pipes of pressing close to pool wall, and this loop pipe is covered with the anaerobic reactor pool wall; The anaerobic reactor outside has brooder, solar energy heat collector places outside the brooder, the solar energy heat collector bottom has the solar-heating pipeline to link to each other with hot channel feed-water end in the anaerobic reactor, and the hot channel water side is connected by return water pipe and solar energy heat collector top water inlet in the anaerobic reactor; The anaerobic reactor top has methane outlet to be communicated with the biogas escape pipe.
2. the treatment unit of a kind of edible fungi residue recycling as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that hot channel is the water medium heat-transfer pipe in described solar-heating pipeline and the anaerobic reactor.
3. the treatment unit of a kind of edible fungi residue recycling as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that described anaerobic reactor is complete underground or right cylinder semi-underground type enameling sheet structure.
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