US817044A - Land-anchor. - Google Patents

Land-anchor. Download PDF

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Publication number
US817044A
US817044A US27630005A US1905276300A US817044A US 817044 A US817044 A US 817044A US 27630005 A US27630005 A US 27630005A US 1905276300 A US1905276300 A US 1905276300A US 817044 A US817044 A US 817044A
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Prior art keywords
arms
center piece
anchor
end
earth
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US27630005A
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William E Cissna
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William E Cissna
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D5/00Bulkheads, piles, or other structural elements specially adapted to foundation engineering
    • E02D5/74Means for anchoring structural elements or bulkheads
    • E02D5/80Ground anchors
    • E02D5/803Ground anchors with pivotable anchoring members

Description

PATENTED APR. 3

No., &17,044,

W. E. GISSNA.

LAND ANCHOR.

APPLIOATION FILED AUGA 29, 1905.

2 SEEETS--SHEET 1.

akte su g&

No. 817044. PATENTED APK., 3, 1906. W. E. GISSNA.

LAND ANCHOR.

APPLIOATION FILED AUG. 29, 1905.

2 SHEETS -SHEET 24 witnesses tmiren s'rrrrns PATENT OFFICE;

WILLJLAM E. cissNA, orMouNr VERNoN, INDIANA.

i LuNa-nuanca iva.. ernesa.

Hpeciflcation of Letters Patent.

- Application filed August 29, 1906. Serial No. 278,300.

Patented April 3, 1906.

To aZZ wlwm it may concern:

Be it known that-l, WILLIAM E. CISSNA, a citizen `of the United States, residing at Mount Vernon, in the county of Posey and State of Indiana, have invented new and use- :lul llm rovements in Land-Anchors, of which the fol owing is a s ecification.

' This invention chors for fixing and maintaining an object in lace in contradistinction to Inarine anchors tor use in connection With ships to hold them in laco.

he chief diculty with land anchcrs heretofore has been to operate the arms so that the fiukes would take sufliciently secure hold to. keep the anchor from being pulled up. A suihciently secure hold" in a landanchor is one that Will allow the anchor to be subj ected to the utmoat strain that it is known to be ca able of without breaking, the hold of the fi ikes under these conditions being perfectly safe, and safe, for that matter, if the strain on the anchor should go much" beyond the known dangerpoint to itself.

By long and careful research and experiment I have been able to produce an anchor meeting the foregoing requirements, and this i do by a construction and mode of operation hereinafter fully set iorth, reference being had to the anneired drawin s, forming a part of this specification, in which Figure 1 is a pers ective view of one form oi means in white my invention is embodied, showing the arms as closed and the anchor in position in the. earth ready to have the draft-red drawn upon to s read the arms and give the flukes an initial old. Fig. 2 is a plan of the center piece shown in Fig. 1. Fig. 3 is a sectional detail view oi the same. Fig., a is a detail view relating to the hoolr and-eye connection oi the arms at the top as shown in lFi 1.' hi .5 isa erspective View oi a modifie form o means %rom that shown in Fig. 1 and showing the invention in anchored position in the earth. Fig. fi'is -a plan of the center piece shown in Filg. 5. Fr 7 is a sectional detail view oi the same. ig. 8 is an under side view of the up er bent end oi one of the armsA. lFig. 9 is a p an of amodified form of center piece from that shown in Fig. 5. Fig. 10 isa plan of a modified form ol'" means for hingedly connecting the upper ends oi' the arms. p

Similar letters oi reference designate similar arts wherever they occur.

eretofore the forms of earthanchors as relation. to land -anmost generally employedg, so far as I have been able to learn, have been those constructed on the princple of augers for giving the fiukes of the arms a hold in the ground, or such as a proach the form of scoops, which slide into a liole in the earth and are supposed to be turned over. Whether they have been of the form mentioned or of other construction they have been open to failure because the flukes do not take safe hold and the anchor pulls up when subjected to the strain put upon `it in desired or necessary work. By my construction the faults mentioned are overcome and the difficulties removed, and this is accomplished by means and methods as Will presently appear.

Of course it is the object of these improvements from what has been previously stated to provide an earth-anchor that 'only will not pull up, but one' in which the greater the strain and draft u on it the greater the surface of earth the ane or has to pull a ainst and displace. By actual experiment t has been found that this 'anchor will not only operate with'entire safet in solid dry earth, but that it may be emp oyed in marshy or wet soil to resist quite as much strain as the old and well-known dead-man.

The anchor is composed of but four rin'- cipal parts--namely, the two arms i& to w 'ch are connected the flukes or holding means E; the center piece C between the arms upon which thedraft is made and which by reason oi' the difficulty of spreadng the arms resistsdisplacement, and the draft-rod D, connected at one end to the center piece and arranged to pull in a direction tending to spread the arms. i i

, While it is not proposed to limit this invention to particular size, form, or material of which it is made, it may be remarked for the pul' ose of giving artisans a clear conception of t e invention that in the present case the machine for the most part is composed of steel. The arms A are constructed of different widths, rangin from six inches to one foot in width. The flukes B are made of Width oorresponding to the arms and taper somewhat from base to edge. In Fig. 1 the form of the flulres in top view is halfround or half-moon shape. The arms are connected at IOO their tops byany means that will hold them there in hingng or pivoted order and so that their lower ends may Swing outward or apart to the extent of allowing thearms to stand in a substantially straight line. The anchor IlIO ,up through use.

here shown may further be supposed `to be six feet long, have arms two feet long nine inches wide and one inch thick, flukes or toes five inches long, and center piece six inches long, with a width the same as the arms. This anchor makes a total width of eighteen inches. However, it may be re eated that the size and proportion of parts will de end upon the requirements of the machine, an d these are easily ascertainable from. the foregoing.

In Fig. 1" thearms A are shown as having a sort of hook-and-eye connection-that is, one arm has at its to a dovetail projection a, through which a hol e or eye is formed bent inwardly from its center, and the to of the ,opposite arm is provided at its si es with two inwardly-bent hooks b b, adapted to catch over the top of the first-mentioned arm at the sides of the eye projection and' rest thereon. Each arm is slotted longitudinally, as at c, for the reception of the shanks of the lugs d, formed on the sides of the center piece. The shanks d have transverselyarranged heads e formed on ;their outer ends, which provides for a kind oF'buttoning" of the shanks in the slots and necessitates the turnng of the center piece at an angle to the arms in order to et the shanks d into the slots c. Transverse rbs f are formed on the top .of the center piece, and a sort of thimble g eX- tends up from the hole through which the draft-rod passes. The former are for strengthening purposes and thelatter for the same and as a guide.

The parts being constructed as so far described they may be assembled as shown in Fig. 1, where they are shown as set in the earth to any suitable depth and the ground around the arms solidl tamped. By drawing upwardly on rod there will be a tendency to raise the center piece C between the arms, Swing the flukes or holding means outwardly on' the arc of a circle, as indicated in Fig. 5, and -cause the flukes 'to fasten themselves in the earth. This displacement of the arms and their connections, it will be understood, will be resisted by the earth over the arms and all that may be influenced by it through the tendency ef adhesion and other properties and will be most powerful. Friction alone Operating upon the arms and center piece in oppositon to their dis placement by an upward pull on the rod D has been found sufiicient almost to render safe the anchorage of the flukes to the entire strength of the machine, and where the first-mentioned resistances to the displacement of the a arms are added to these last-mentioned it can be readily understood and appreciated that the anchor once properly set cannot bepulled a In primarily setting the anchor a hole will be dug just large enough to allow the anchor to pass down, with all of the parts assembled arms having the hook-and-eye connection already described and as shown in the last- ,mentioned figure, the rod D'will be passed 'string or piece of wire (not shown) may be secured to the to of the arms in letting them down into the ho e in the earth. This string will support the arms and keep them from spreadng while' the center pece is being put in place and other matters are being arranged.

' In my experiments I have discovered a greatly-improved method of setting anchors which is applicable not only to this invention, but others of a cognate nature.

The idea of securing' and holding the anchor by spreadin the arms and making the flukes takei'nto t e earth through the intervention of the center piece ives rise to man different forms of means that may be use For instance, the arms ma be given the -form of a se ment of a cylin er, as shown in Fig.` 5, in'w ich case the sides of the center piece may be as represented in Fg. 6 or t maybe round. Again, the arms maybe made -unnecessary to explainin detail all of the changes that maybe made in the many differ ent forms and arrangement of parts. These are obvious and within the scope of a sln'lled mechanic and Would not constitute a departure from the nature and spirit' of this 'invenioo IOS

tion, which, being broadly stated, c'onsists of e the two arms of any suitable form, size, &c., provided with flukes, catches, toes, or other means to make fast in the earth, rocks, &c., and a center iece, being a device of any suitable nature or spreading the arms and the flukes carried by them. The rod D can-be threaded for; say, three and one-half nches from the extreme lower end upward, so that one tap or nut may be screwed on the end below the center iece and another tap on the rod just above ecenter ece. By ths conlIO IIS

struction the anchor may e released from its v hold in the ground by'striking the top of the rod D with a hammer or the like and driving the center piece down and drawing the arms to ether.

' claim- 1; In an earth-anchor of the character described, the combinationof -separable arms havin the upper ends overlapping provided with ukes, with a center piece to operate between the flukes to separate them andmeans `for Operating the center piece.

6 5 as shown in Fig. 1. The upper ends of the 2. Inan earth-anchor of the character detweet 4 eerihed, the eombinetion of erme pivoteiiy connected and overlepping et their up er ende, With e center piece i'or Operating etween the arme, end meene for Operating the center piece.

3; An eerth-enchor, coneisting of e peir of erms pivotelly connected and overle ping et their upper ende, end provided 'with dilke/e on' their lower ende; combined With means for eepiereting end bringing together their lower en s.

4. The combinetion, of the erne pivotedly connected end overlepping et their upper ende, with e center piece operetivei-y erranged between the arme.

5. The combinetion, ot' the arms pivotedly connected and overleppinget their u per ende, and provided with flukee on t eir iower ende, with e center piece operativeiy errenged between the arme, end means for operetin, the center piece.

6. The combinetien, with the arme, eech 'elotted verticelly, of' the center piece provided on its o poeite eides with means to engegethe seid e ete, the seid arms being pivoted together et their upper ende, end e vertieellymoveble rod engeging the seid center piece.

7. The combinetion, with the'erme each elotted verticelly, of the center piece provided on its oppoeite eidee with ehenks end treneverseiy-erren red heads to engege the seid elote, the eai erme being pivoted together et their upper ende, and e verticellymoveble rod engeging 'the seid center piece.

8. The combinetion, with the arme having fhkee et their lower ende, eeeh slotted verticelly, of the center piece provided on its e posite sidee with mesme to engege the Smd Slots, the seid arme being piveted together et their upper ende end rovided with eyes in their pvotel mrte end & verticelly-moveble red engegng t e seid eeterpieee end extend ing upward between the ernis end through the seid eyes.

9. The eembinetion, with the arme pivoted together et their upper ende end provided with eyes in their pivetel parte, of e center piece errenged between the arms and provided et its center With e hole, e thinble-lke rojection extending upwerd around the hola, end e verticelly-'noveble red engeging the seid center piece in seid hole end extending Upward through the thinble-like projection between the arms end through the eyee. 10. The comhinetion, with the arms heving their upper ende overlepping, provided wth eyes, and pvoted together, end outwerdly-extending fiukes on their lower ende, of e center piece errenged between, the arms end rovided et its center with e hole, e thim lelike rojection extended upwerd around the ho e, and e verticellymoveble red engeging the seid center piece in seid hole end extending upwerd through the seid thimble-Iike projection between the arms end through the eyes.

in teetimony whereof I eix my signature in presence of two subseribimz witnesses.

WILLIAM E. CISSNA. Witneseee:

E. K. RIDENOUR, NEALE CAVANAH.

US27630005A 1905-08-29 1905-08-29 Land-anchor. Expired - Lifetime US817044A (en)

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Cited By (12)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2538409A (en) * 1948-02-02 1951-01-16 Binkley Mfg Company Earth anchor
US2633212A (en) * 1949-08-02 1953-03-31 Mcgraw Electric Co Ground anchor
US2748909A (en) * 1950-03-20 1956-06-05 Mcgraw Electric Co Ground anchor
US4843785A (en) * 1986-06-26 1989-07-04 Secure Anchoring & Foundation Equipment, Inc. Anchoring and foundation support apparatus and method
US4882891A (en) * 1986-06-26 1989-11-28 S.A.F.E. Anchoring and foundation support apparatus having moment resisting vanes and method
WO1990010133A1 (en) * 1989-03-02 1990-09-07 Per Dammen Clamp for fastening of a post element
US5622015A (en) * 1995-04-12 1997-04-22 Collins; James S. Method and apparatus for consolidating earth and anchor setting device
US5987811A (en) * 1998-07-30 1999-11-23 Wiesener; Mark Device for the fixing of bait stations at ground level
US20030115810A1 (en) * 2001-11-20 2003-06-26 Reinert Gary L. Segmented foundation installation apparatus and method
US20080230758A1 (en) * 2007-03-23 2008-09-25 Mfpf, Inc. Barrier Fencing System
US20090165403A1 (en) * 2004-03-05 2009-07-02 Mfpf, Inc. Metal Fin Pipe Foundation Apparatus and Method
US20150121777A1 (en) * 2012-05-03 2015-05-07 Blue Systems AB a corporation Anchor & method

Cited By (16)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2538409A (en) * 1948-02-02 1951-01-16 Binkley Mfg Company Earth anchor
US2633212A (en) * 1949-08-02 1953-03-31 Mcgraw Electric Co Ground anchor
US2748909A (en) * 1950-03-20 1956-06-05 Mcgraw Electric Co Ground anchor
US4843785A (en) * 1986-06-26 1989-07-04 Secure Anchoring & Foundation Equipment, Inc. Anchoring and foundation support apparatus and method
US4882891A (en) * 1986-06-26 1989-11-28 S.A.F.E. Anchoring and foundation support apparatus having moment resisting vanes and method
WO1990010133A1 (en) * 1989-03-02 1990-09-07 Per Dammen Clamp for fastening of a post element
US5622015A (en) * 1995-04-12 1997-04-22 Collins; James S. Method and apparatus for consolidating earth and anchor setting device
US5797704A (en) * 1995-04-12 1998-08-25 Collins; James S. Pier foundation and method of installation
US5987811A (en) * 1998-07-30 1999-11-23 Wiesener; Mark Device for the fixing of bait stations at ground level
US20030115810A1 (en) * 2001-11-20 2003-06-26 Reinert Gary L. Segmented foundation installation apparatus and method
US7621098B2 (en) 2001-11-20 2009-11-24 Mfpf, Inc. Segmented foundation installation apparatus and method
US20090165403A1 (en) * 2004-03-05 2009-07-02 Mfpf, Inc. Metal Fin Pipe Foundation Apparatus and Method
US20100319273A1 (en) * 2004-03-05 2010-12-23 Mfpf, Inc. Metal Fin Pipe Foundation Apparatus and Method
US20120050072A1 (en) * 2004-03-05 2012-03-01 Mfpf, Inc. Metal fin pipe foundation apparatus and method
US20080230758A1 (en) * 2007-03-23 2008-09-25 Mfpf, Inc. Barrier Fencing System
US20150121777A1 (en) * 2012-05-03 2015-05-07 Blue Systems AB a corporation Anchor & method

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