US659507A - Recoil-operated firearm. - Google Patents

Recoil-operated firearm. Download PDF

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Publication number
US659507A
US659507A US455700A US1900004557A US659507A US 659507 A US659507 A US 659507A US 455700 A US455700 A US 455700A US 1900004557 A US1900004557 A US 1900004557A US 659507 A US659507 A US 659507A
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bolt
barrel
locking
carrier
breech
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John M Browning
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John M Browning
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F41WEAPONS
    • F41AFUNCTIONAL FEATURES OR DETAILS COMMON TO BOTH SMALLARMS AND ORDNANCE, e.g. CANNONS; MOUNTINGS FOR SMALLARMS OR ORDNANCE
    • F41A17/00Safety arrangements, e.g. safeties
    • F41A17/34Magazine safeties
    • F41A17/38Magazine mountings, e.g. for locking the magazine in the gun

Description

' No. 659,507. Patented Det. 9, |900.

J. M. BBUWNING.

BECOIL OPERATED FIREARM` (Application led Feb. 8, 1900.)

5 Sheets--Sheet` 2.

(nu Model.)

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J. M. BRWNING. HEGOIL UPI'ERATED FIREARM.

(Application led Feb. B, 1900.)

Patented ont. 9, mim.4

5-Sheets-aneet 3.

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(No Modell.)

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' with thetrigger-plate and all of its connected it is moved bythe rocking tumbler; Fig. 5,

c d of' Fig. 9, looking rearward and taken V- extension thereof; Fig. 12, a detached plan in Firearms; and -I do'hereby declare the f0lcation, and represent, in-

Atail view showing the coaction of the hammer sea; of the trigger; Fig. 8, a. corresponding UMTE' STATES.

Y.tous M. R-owNINdonoebEN, UTAH.

RECOlL-OPERATED FERRM.-

sPEcmcaTIoN forming pm or Letters Patent No. 659,56?,- dnted october 9, 1900. Appntanon inea ren-nary s, 1900. semi no. 4,551. ma modem -To aZZ whom may concern:

Be it known that I, JOHN M. BROWNING,

of Ogden, in the county of Weber and State of Utah, have invented a new Improvement lowing, when taken in connection with the accompanying drawings andthe letters of reference marked thereon, to be full, clear, and exact description of the same, and which said drawings constitute part of this speci Figure 1,a viewin side elevation of the lefthand side of an automatic firearm constructed in accordance with my invention; Fig. 2, a similar view of the right-hand side thereof, showing the ejection-opening formed in its receiver or gun-frame; Fig. 3, a broken view, in vertical longitudinal section, showing the gun in the closed positions of its parts; Fig.y 4, a less comprehensive broken view of the gun in vertical section drawn to full size and with the parts in their closed positions and parts removed for the sake of clearness; Fig. 5,a detail section showing the breech-bolt in its closed position,but with the locking-block thereof in the unlocked -position into which a detached perspective view of the lockinghlock; Fig. 5b, a corresponding view of the operating-'tumbler thereof; Fig. 6, a broken view ofthe gun in vertical section, showing its parts in their open positions; Fig. 7, a dewit-h the two hooks constituting the double but more comprehensive view showing the hammer, the trigger with its two hooks, and a safety-catch `which -is here represented in its blocked or inoperative position; Fig. 9, a broken view ot the gun in' vertical section, showing the parts of the gun in the positions dueto them when the gun has been opened manually instead of automatically.4 In this view the trigger-plate, with its connected parts has been removed for the sake of clear'- ness; Fig. 10, a broken view, in vertical section, of the receiver onth'e line a b of Fig. 2; Fig. 11, a view invert-ical section on the line through the gun-barrel at a point close to the view of the breech-bolt, showing the lockingi block and rocking tumbler mounted therein; Fig'. 13, a broken view, in horizontal section, on the line e f of Fig, 2 and designed to show vthe carrier, the combined cartridge-stop and carrier-catch, and the sliding inertia-piece or carrier-catch lock; Fig. 14, a similar but less comprehensive view showing the' carriercatch in the position which it has afterit has4 been operated hy a cartridge for releasing the carrier and is acting as a cartridge-stop; Fig. 15, a detached plan view of the operating-link andoperating-rod bf the gun.; Fig. 16, a detached view in longitudinal section of the link; Fig. 17, a detached broken view, in side elevation, of the carrier; Fig. 18, a detached plan view otl the carrier; Fig. 19, a

therecoiiing parts are housed for their pro-V tection, as well as the protection of' the user of the arm, and ingwhich'the parts are constructed with particular reference to simplicity`of construction, strength, durability, and.v

reliability of operation. i

With these ends in view my invention consists in certain details of construction and combinations'of parts, as will be hereinafter described, and pointed out in the claims.4

In carrying -out my invention as herein shown I provide a gun-barrel A with a tubelike extension'A', into the forward end of which the barrel is screwed. This extension is located within and housed by the upper p'ortion ot' the gun-frameV or receiver B,fin whichtlue extension reciprocates back and forth, together with the barrel, the rear end of which enters the receiver during the recoil following the explosion of a cartridge in the barrel. The barrel and `extension are returned to their normal or closed positions aihed pers pecti ve K ter the recoil by means of a spiral actionspring C,`luounted upon the rear end of the 'magazine D, the open rear end of which is is'formed with a segmental flange 'e to adapt it to be inserted into a recess B',-formed in the forwardend of the receiver. At its forward end the fore'stock is held in place by theimpingement against it ofa n ut E',screwed upon the projecting forward end of the magazine, which is threaded for the purpose, as shown in Fig, 3. To take the shock of the -return of the barrel and its extension under the action of the action-spring, I employ a buffer, which, as herein shown, consists of a series of vulcanized fiber rings E2, located -in the front stock at a point in front of the collar or sleeve D', with which the rearmost ring engages, while the outermost ring' engages with a shoulder e', formed within the said front stock. If desired, the rings E2 might be dispensed with and the fore stock itself adapted to act as the buer.

Within the extension A', I locate the breechclosure F, which is of the bolt type and ywhich is confined to movement back and forth.

This breech-closu re is provided at its forward end with two yielding extractors F' F', of any approved construction, which project slightly beyond its forward end. l

For locking the breech-bolt F in its closed position I employ a vertically-movable locking-block F2, which is mounted -in it and which is provided upon its oppositeedges with vertical ribs F3 F2, which enter grooves ff, cut in the opposite side walls of the vertical chamberf', formed in the bolt, as shown in Fig. 20, for the reception of the lockingblock, the upper end of which is adapted to enter a substantially'- rectangular lockingopening A2, formed to receive it in the upper portion of the barrel extension, as seen in Figs. 3 and 4'.' The locking-blockis reciprocated for the purpose of being thrown 'into its locked and unlocked positions by means of a tumbler G, located in the chamberf"aforesaid and swinging on a horizontalpin G', the ends of which enter the side walls of the breech-bolt. This tumbler is provided at its upper forward corner with an arm G2, entering a transverse slot F4, formed in the rear face of the locking-block, the upper and lower faces of these arms being rounded, as seen in Figs. 5 and 5". The said tumbler is swung on its pivot G', as required for raising and lowering the block, by means of an operating-link H, the forward end of whichis pivotally connected with the tuinblex by means of a pin H'. At its rear end this link is connected by a pin H2 with theforward end of an operating-rod I, which extends rearward in an inclined position into a long chamber J, formed for `its reception Pin the butt-stock J. 'lhs.rod, as shown in Fig. 15, is formed with a very long narrow slot l', receiving an operating-lever K, which is located in a narrow vertically-arranged slot J2, formed in the butt-stock J. The said lever K is pivotally mounted in a small plate K', set into the upper edge of the butt-stock,

while its lower end projects just enough below the lower edge of the butt-stock to permitit to be readily engaged and operated by hand. The forward end of a' coiled operating-spring J8, encircling said rod, impinges against a shoulder t', formed at the forward end of the operating-rod l, while its rearend abuts against a washer i', through which the .rod is free to play and which =is supported upon the forward end of a tube I', located in the butt-stock and formed with a vertical longitudinal slot i2 for the downward passage through it of the lever K andv receiving a small head '113, which is secured to the extreme rear end of the rod I. In the automatic operation of the gun the spring J2 is compressed by the rearward excursion ofthe b'reeclybolt, at which .time the rod I moves freely rearward without disturbing thelcver K, which, as aforesaid, passes. downwardly Athrough the longr slot J2.

thin rear end of a locking-lever L, mounted in the lower face of the breech-boit F and hung upon a horizontal pivot L', located just in front of the lower end of they locking-block F2. At its extreme forward end thelever is formed with a lug L2, imping'ed upon by a sl .all coledspring L2, located within a socket l formed within the breech-bolt. The said si Y'ing exerts a-constant effort to depress the fo. "ard end of the lever, and hence lift its rear end into engagement with a transverselyarranged locking-notch g, formed in the lower forward corner of the rocking tumbler. When the'rear end of the lever L is entered into the said notch g, the bolt F2 is held down inits locking-lever L, acts as a secondary cartridgev stop, as will appear later on.

When the gun is ready to be fired, the breech-bolt F is locked to the barrel A through the medium of the locking-block F2, the upper end of which is entered intotheopeniug A2 of the barrel extension A', the lock-ingblockbeing held inliis looked position through the medium of the rocking tumbler AG, the

link H, the operating-rod l, and iheoperat:

ing-spring J3, which exerts a constant eiort to push the said lrod and link forward, and, hence to pushthe lower end of the rocking tumbler G forward, with the effect of lifting its upper end, and hence lifting the lockingblock. At this time the extreme rear end of is locked in its unlocked position, in which it the locking-lever L is located under the nose h, formed 'at 'the extreme forward end of the link H. Now when the gun is fired the barrel, barrel extension, and breech-bolt will recoil together, an'd'atthe limit of their recoiling movement the rear ends of the breechbolt and barrel extension'will strike the rear wall of the receiver-chamber B'.

be arrested, but the momentum of the recoil lwill carrylhe rod I and link H still farther rearward, with the eEect ol' rocking the rocking tumbler G downward and rearward, so as to retract the upper end of the lockingblock from the opening A2 in the barrel'ex- I tension, whereby the breech-bolt will be unlocked 'from the said extension and barrel, which is now immediately returned to its closed position under the power of the actionspring C. Just as soon as the rocking tumbler G is swung downward, as described, it is caught and locked in such position by the snapping of the rear end of the locking-lever L into its notch g, whereby the locking-block F2 is maintained until in theclosingmovementof the rear end of the barrel extension A', Whereby the locking-block is prevented from being prematurely moved into its' locked position and so as to engage with the rear edge of the barrel extension. Soon after the lockingblock passes the rear edge of the barrel extension in the forward excursion of the breechbolt the rear end ot' the locking-lever L is pushed downward out of the locking-notchrg in the rocking tumbler by the nose 7L of the link H, which gradually assumes a horizontal position as the breech-bolt moves forward. Just as soon as the rocking tumbler F2 is unlocked by having the locking-lever thrown out of engagement with it the operating- Y spring J acts, through the operating-rod land link H, to swing the said tumbler upward,

,vided for that purpose with a. horizontallyarranged tooth-like projection M', which co-v act-s with a doubly-beveled nose M2, formed at the rear end of the pin, which is longitudinally movable in the breech-bolt and eX- tends forward through a slot M8 in the rock- The rearward excursion of the breech-bolt will thus ing tumbler and through a slot M4 in the locking-block. A shortgroove M5, formed in the rearend of the firing-pin, receives a stop-pin M6,which limits the reciprocation of the pin'. When the rocking tumbler is swung downward, as shown in Fig. 5, for the unlocking movement of the locking-block,

vthe projection M' of the rocking tumbler coaets with. the nose M2 of the firing-pin forthe retraction of the pin, as shown in the said figure. "Then when the rocking tumbler is swung upward the pin'i-s left in its retracted posit-ion, in which it is struck by the hammer N. i As has been .already explained, the barrel, barrel extensiomand breech-bolt., recoil together, lwith the 'breech-bolt locked to the barrel extension the same as in firing. When.

the breech-bolt reaches the limit o f :ts rearward excursion, the momentumof the operating rodand link operates the rocking tumbler and locking-block to unlock the'breech-bolt from Athe barrel extension, so as to permit the immediate return of the barrel and .barrel extension totheir normal positions under the influence of the action-spring C. Thebreechbolt does not, however, return with them, as just as soon'as it reaches thelimit of its rearward excursion it is locked in that position by means of a locking-dog O, mounted in a .vertical position upon a pin O' in the extreme rear endof the carrier O2, which is pivotally hung upon pins v03,'located in ,the lower portion of the gun frame-or receiver B at a point forward of the pin O', upon which the said locking-dog is mounted. The said dog is normally maintained in position tolbe. en-

gaged by the rear end of the-breech-bolt by means of a plunger o, operated by a spiral4 spring o', located within a spring-socket o2,

formed in the rear end ofthe carrienas clearly shown in Fig. 17, the rear end of the' plunger o engaging with a. n'ger o9, formed at theA lower end of the dog. For coaction with this dog the breech-bolt is formed upon therighthand side 'of its lower edge with .a lockingnotch O4, Fig. 20, the rear wall o4 of which,

4shown in Figs. 6 and 9. `The lower edge of the rearend of the bolt then slides over the dog uutil the locking-notch O4 in the bolt is brought into registration with the upper'oorner of the dog, which is then snapped into it by the action of the spring o2. Iu this rearward movement of the bolt the, abutmentface o4 of' the' notch is carried rearward beyond the upper end of the dog, with which the saidA abutment-face is, however, almost immediately rengaged for locking the bolt in its rearward position by a slight forward recoil movement of the lbolt. The lockingdog when thus engaged with the bolt operates to hold the same in its openposition the carrier, which is in turn held in its de pressed position by the carrier-catch P, Fig. 13, which isl released by the cartridges as theyare fed rearward from the tubular maga-` r zine, as wil-l be hereinafter described. W`hen the carrier-catch is disengaged from the carrier, the forward pressure of the springJa will be transmitted, through the rod I, rlinkH, and bolt F, to the locking-dog, which will be pushed downward and forward and acts to swingthe carrier upon its pivot O3, whereby the forward end of thecarrier is elevated ,as shown by broken lines in Fig. 9,for the purpose of lifting a cartridge up in front of the forward end of the breech-bolt, in which position the carrier is temporarily held by the engagement of the free end of the carrier-spring P with the rear beveled face of an operating-nose P2, formed at the rear end of the carrier. As the bolt moves forward the dog takes a position which permits the bolt to ride over it, whereby the dog is released from the notch in the, bolt. The dog 'is shown by broken 'lines in Fig. 9 in the position which it has when it has been operated, as described, to lift the carrier. When the breech-bolt movesinto its closed position, its lower face engages with the elevatedforward end of the carrier and depresses the same suciently to cause the point of the nose P2 ofthe carrier to be snapped rearward of the 'free end of the carrier-spring P', which then acts to throw the carrier into its' depressed position, as shown by full lines in Fig. 9. The construction of the nose P2 and spring P' is such, as I may here remark, that the elevation of the ca-rrier intoits intermediateposition, as shown by broken lines in Fig. 9, for loading the magazine is not sufficient to cause the said nose to be snapped over the spring,'.which will therefore operate to return the carrier to its depressed position between the feeding of each cartridge into the magazine D. The carrier-catch I is located in a shallow recessp, formed in the inner face of the left-hand wall of the gun frame orreceiver and hung upon a vertically-arranged pivotp. The forward end of the catch is bent inward, as at p2, to constitute a cartridge-stop, while its rear end is enlarged to form a locking-finger p3, formed at its base witha bevel 114, which is engaged by therims of the cartridges just before they reach their nal positions upon the carrier, for pushing the said locking-finger p3 of the catch outward and away from the lockingsurface p5bf the carrier, with which the said finger normally engages to hold the carrier in its depressed position. A spring P2, coacting with the rearend of the catch, exerts a const-ant effort to throw its locking-finger inward over the ,locking-surface p5 of the carrier. It will be understood, of course, that.

when the locking-finger p3 is pushed outward byla cartridge the stop-iinger p? at the forl ward end of the catch will be thrown inward in position to act as a cartridge-stop. At its forward end the carriercatch is provided with apush-button P3,whicl1 projects through the left-hand Wall of the frame and provides means for manually operating the carrier- '.catch to unlock the carrier'when there are no cartridges in the magazine D, which, as I may here.state,'is provided with the usual E plunger d and plunger-springd'. l

In order to preventthe carrier from being unlocked before the barrel and barrel exten-' sion have completed theirfforward movement,

(either by the premature operation of the catch P by a cartridge before the' said barrel and b'arrel extension have 'completed their said forward movement o r byv the jolt-ing of the catch out of engagement with the carrier under the shock-of stopping the recoiling parts at the limit of their forward and rear.- ward movements,) I employ a sliding lock, or, as I prefer to term it, an inertia-piece Q,

which is constructed, arranged, and operated to temporarily lock the said catch P. This inertia-piece 'Q is locatedv in the rear portion of the long sha-llow recess p before menp, is employed to hold-the inertia-piece in 4either its forward or rearward position. In its normal positionits forward end is just back of the rear end of the catch 1.

The operation of the-inertia-piece is as follows; When the gun is fired, the recoiling parts recoil nntilthe rear end of the barrel extension and the rear end of the breech-bolt strikes the rear end of the receiver. This blow drives the receiver rearward, together with its contained parts', including the carriercatch, the rear end of which'is thusdriven rearward back of the forward end of the'inertia-piece, which, not being positively connect'ed with any portion of the carrier, stands practically-still, while the receiver and its contained parts are driven rearward, as described. The recoilin g parts are immediately started forward by the' ,forward pull of the action-spring, and if a cartridge feeding rear- The opening Q' is IIC ward from the magazine should complete its rearward movement before the barrel reaches the end of its forward excursion it will strike the catch',l which will be prevented from operating to release the carrier by the inertia-piece; but when the barrel completes its forward movement the shock of stopping it and its connected parts'drives the receiver and the parts connected therewith forward, whereby the rear endof the catch is pulled away, so to speak, from the 'forward end of the inertia-piece, which stands practically r still when the receiver is being driven forward, as described. In this way the catch is' disengaged from the inertia-piece and left free to be forced outward bythe cartridge, so

as to release the carrier. It will also be seen that the inertia-piece prevents the rear end of the catch from being jolted away from the carrier, so as to unlock the same, by the,-` 'shock of stopping the recoiling parte at thelimit of their rear o their forward movement.

The hammer N is hung hy a pivot N'in the forward end ofthe trigger-plate N2, the rear end of which is extended to form the -lower tang Ns,which is secured in place by a boltN.

In order to prevent the entire charge of vcartridges in the magazine from being re'd I by one pulling of the trigger and to require a .spring R4.

separate action of -the triggerfor the explosion of each cartridge, l provide the hammer with a finger n, formed with a cooking-notch n" and a Asafety-notch n2, the former being lo-l cated nearer the lower end ofthe finger than the latter. These notches respectively coact with a rocking-hook R and asafety-hook R', arranged in opposition to each other-,with suffcient space between them for the reception of the finger 'n of the ham mer, these two hooks being virtually 'scar-hooks and formed integral with the trigger R2, which is hung on a pin R3 and provided with a trigger- The-hammer, as it will be understood,',passes upward througha long-slot H,

formed in the-link H,'and is automatically cocked during the recoil ofthe gun by the beveled forward end wall H4r of the slot HB in the said link H, whereby the safety-notch n? of the fingern of the hammer is engaged with thel safety-hook R", which vholds it. cocked when a rearward draft is maintained upon thetrigger by the finger of the user of the gun.' On the other hand, it' this draft upon the trigger is removed the spring Rwill swing the trigger so as to disengage the hook R from the notch n2; but this swinging movement of the trigger only'brings the cooking, hook R into position to strike into the cock- 'iug-notch'n' of the hammer before the harnmer has time to escape, so that thereafter the hammer will be held by the trigger unt-il the same is again pulled. In this way'antomatic 'action of the gun is limited7 to the reloading of a single cartridge -by'the recoil following .the explosion of a previously-fled cartridge. If desired, the construction justdescribed may be reversed by locating the iinger n upon the trigger and the hooksR R' upon the hammer. ,i

For the purpose of locking the trigger so that it cannot be moved in either direction I II provide the safety-hook R ofthe trigger with a nose r, which coacts with the rear wall .of an opening T, formed-in the main or hammer springT for the forward pssagethrough it of `the arms R audit'. When the hammer is cocked, the spring isdepressedand the rear end wallof the said opening is cleared lfromregistration with the' projection 'r, whereby the trigger may be swung l 'earvi rard into position to bring its' notch .s" into registration with theV nose s otv the safety-catch S.v AWhen,

however,

the hammeris released forl tiring, the spring islifted, sevlhat the rear end wall of the openingfT engages with the Yprojection rr and tilts the trigger forward, so .as to remove its notch s'from" registration-with the notch S. `It will thus be seen that the safetyy catch can only be utilized for locking the trigger when 'the hammer is cocked. This is necessary, because if it vwere possible to lock the trigger against movement in either direction with the ham-mer in its uncooked position` I th'en should' the hammer he thrownI back vbreakage would result, because the trigger must move freely to-permit the engagementof the hammer with'it.

For the-'purpose of ejecting the spent cari tridges I provide the 'barrel extension at its, rear end and along its left-handside with two ejecting-pins U U, which when theextension and barrel are near the limi-t of their return -movement under -the power 'of the actionspring C engage with the urim of the spent cartridge, which is at this time held by the ex` tractors, and swing the cartridge from left to right, causing its ejection through the ejecof the receiver. 0n t-he other hand, if lthe gunshould be opened by hand through the instrumentality ofthe operating-lever K the rim of the cartridge will be drawn against 'the pins U U with sufficient force to cause the cartridge to be ejected through the said opening V.- i

`Having fully described my improved firearm, I will now describe the operation there-- tion-opening V, formed-in the right-hand side of. I shall, however, do this only briefly, for

the reason that the operalionpofthe'gun has been so largely explained in connection with the description of the mechanism thereof."

Let it be assumed, in the first place, that the magazine has been charged with cartridges and that the last cartridge introduced thereinto has been moved back bythe magazine-spring to engagement with the shoulder v L5 upon the under 'a'ce of the locking-lever L, mounted in the breech-bolt.

'Ihe gun' must now be manually opened by drawing back upon the projecting lower end of the -operating-lever K, whereby the breech-bolt is unlocked from the' barrel extension and withdrawn' to the limit of its rearward ex cursion without disturbing the barrel or barrel extension, but at the Sametime cooking the hammer and placing the operating-.spring Js lunder tension. The said cartridge will now be pushed rearwardlyby the magazinexga ing cartridge, and so on.

'as to unlock the carrier.

spring and coact with the rcar end of thc combined carrier-catch'and cartridge-stop, so

The operating spring .1 will now assert itself and push the breech-bolt forward, with the effect of lifting the unlocked carrier, thecartridge upon which will thenbe forced into the gun-barrel. Then vafter the breech-bolt has reached its closed position it will be locked therein h v' the locking-block F2, which will be moved int-o its lock-'cd position by the 'locking-tumbler acting underthe powerof the said spring F. During this forward movement of the bolt the carrier will he forced downward into its depressed vposition against the tension of the carrier-spring. As soon as the carrier` reaches its depressed position the combined cartridge-stop and carrier-catch will snap over it. and lock it in'y that position. This movement of the said combined parts clears its forward end from its cartridge-stopping position in frontof the rear end of the magazine, from which another cartridge will now inmediately emerge and engage with the shoulder L5 on the under face of the lockinglever L. 'lhe trigger is now pulled for firing the cartridge, the explosion following which will carry the barrel, barrel extension, and breech-bolt bac-k, together with the bolt and barrel extension, and hence the barrel, locked together by means of the locking-block,which will be retracted, so as to unlock' the barrel extension and barrel from the bolt after the ybolt has reached the limit of its rearward excursion by the momentum of` the parts connected with the rocking tumbler. As soon as the bolt. reaches the limit of its rearward excursion it will belocked in that position by means of the lockingdog carried by the carrier. Just as soon as the breech-bolt has been unlocked from the barrel extension the barrel and barrel extension will be returned to their closed positions by means of the action-spring C.- In the meantime the cartridge, which was resti l1 g againstthe shoulder L5 upon the locking-lever -L, travels back to its final position upon the carrier and pushes aside the carrier-'catch and unlocks the carrier, which is now free to be lifted to lift the cartridge infront of the breec-h-bolt, which is pushed forward into its closed position by means of the operating-spring J8, which also locks the bolt in its closed position. The gun isnow ready for being tired by pulling` the trigger, the operation of reloading it having been effected entirely automatically by the recoil following the explosion of the preced` A When the last cartridge is tired, the bolt. will remain open.

I may explain that preparatory to loading the magazine the 'push-button P3 must be pushed inward, so as to operate the carriercatch in releasing the carriel` and permit it to be raised sufliciently lo allow the cartridges to be' fed under it. This movement of the carrier-catch will bring the cartridgestop into play. This action of the catch as a cartridge-stop does not, however, prevent the cartridges from being' fed into themagazine, as the stop is yielding and is readily pushed 4aside under the pressure placed upon the cartridges in pushing thetn into the rear end of the magazine.

The arm herein shown and described is what is known as a take-down arm,or, in other words, an arm constructed with refer,- ence to the detachment without the use of tools of the barrel and magazine from the receiver, so as to permit the barrel and maga,- zine to be packed in a case side by side with the butt-stock and receiver..

To take down myimproved gun, the n nt E' is removed from the forward end of the magazine and the operating-lever K drawn back until thc breech-holt iscaught and locked at the limit oi' its rearward excursion' by the locking-dog mounted in'therear end of the carrier.l The barrel and barrel extension and' the front stock'- may now'be drawn forward and separated from the receiver and magazine. For convenience the front stock is then restored to the magazine, upon which it is held by the restoration of the nut E'. 'lhc parts may now be conveniently packed in a case no longer than the ylength of the barrel and barrel extension.

'l`o reassemble the gun,thebarrel extension is entered into the open mouth of the receiver, the magazine again passed throughthe collar D', depending from the gu11.-bat'rel,the front stock is again placed over the magazine and Arengaged at its rear end with the forward end of the receiver, and the nut E is screwed home, the action-spring C, encircling the magazine, being placed under tension lat the time the front stock is` restored to position thereupon. l

I would have it .understood that I do not limit myself to the exact construction herein shown and described, but hold myself at liberty to make Such changes and alterations therein as fairly fall within the spirit and scope of my invention.

Having fully described myinvention, what I claim as' new, and desire to secu re by Letters 1. In a magazine-firearm, the combination with a recoiling barrel and barrel extension, of a breech-bolt, a vertically-movable locking-block mounted in the said bolt,v and adapted to be entered into a locking-opening formed in the barrel extension, and means mounted 4in vthe said bolt for operating the Said block in locking and unlocking the bolt IOO while the barrel and its extension are returned to their closed positions, and a gun frame or receiver constructed to house the said parts, and containing a laterally'- arranged ejer-.tion-opening- 3; In a magazine-tirearm,`the combination with a reeoi ling barrel and barrel extension, of a breech-bolt-,a vertically-movable locking-llock mounted in the said bolt and movable therein for engagement-with the locking extension, whereby thel bolt is locked to the said extension, and means "connected with the said locking-block and operated by the momentum of recoil, to move the lockingblock. into its unlocked position afterthe breech-bolt has reached the" limit of its rearward excursion."

4. In a inagazine-rearm, the combination with a recoiling barrel and barrel extension, of a breech-bolt, a vertically-movable locking-block mounted in the breech-bolt and adapted to he entered into a locking-opening formed for its reception in the-barrel extension, and means connected with the said block and operated by 'the momentum of recoil formoving the block into its' unlocked position after the breech-bolthas reached the limit of its rearward excursion.

5. In a magazine-dreamt, the combination with a recoiling barrel and barrel extension, of a breech-bolt, 'a locking-block mounted in the breech-bolt and enacting with the exten` sion for locking the. bolt thereto, a rocking tumbler also mounted in the said bolt and enacting with the said block for moving it into its locked and unlocked positions, and means connected with the said tumbler and operated by the momentum o`f the recoilfor rocking the tumbler and`moving the block into itsunlockedposition after the bolt has reached the limit of its rearward excursion.

6. ln a` magazine-|earm,the combination with a recoili-ng barrel and barrel extension, of a breech-bolt, a vertically-movablelockingblock mounted in the breech-bolt, a rocking tumbler also mounted in the said bolt, and coacting with the block for moving the same into itsvlocked and unlocked positions, an

operating-rod extending rearwardly into the butt-stock of the gun, and a link vconnecting the forward end of the said rod with the said tumbler, which is rocked by the momentum` acquired by the link and rod, which continue to move rearward after the bolt has reached the limit of its rearward excursion.

7. ln a magazine-firearm, the-combination with a recoiling barrel and barrel extension, of a breech-bolt, aVertirally-movable locking; block mounted in the breech-bolt and adapt? ed at its upper end to be enteredinto a lock the limit of it-srear'ward excursion.

8. In a magazine-firearm, the combination with'a recoiling barrel and barrel extension,

.ofabreech-bolt, a vertically;movable lockingblock enacting withthe extension to lock the- Abolt in its closed position, a rocking tumbler for operating the block, means coacting with the tumbler for rocking the same, and a locking-lever coni-.ting with the tumbler for holding the same in its depressed position in which the ltumbler holds the .block in its unlocked position, the said block, tumbler and lever being mounted in the said bolt.

9.. ln a firearm, the combination with a receiling barrel, of ai. breech-bo1t,a verticallymovable looking-block mounted in thebreechbolt for locking the breech-boltI to the barrel., a locking-lever mounted vin the breech-bolt for locking the said block in its unlocked position, and means enacting with the said locking-lever to operate the same in releasing the said block. A p n 10. ln a `firearm, the combination with a recoiling barrel and barrel extension of a breechbolt, a verticallyinovable locking block for locking the bolt to the said exten-v sion, a rocking tumbler enacting with the said block for operating the same, a locking-lever coacting with the said' tumbler for holding the same iu its depressed position, and means coacting with 'the said lever to'operate theA same in releasing the said tumbler and-hence the locking-block, .the said block, tumbler andlever being mounted in the breech-bolt. 11. Ina magazine-firearm,thecombinatio'n with a recoiling barrel and barrel extension,

'Soi 1 of a breech-bolt, a vertically-movable lockl ing-block forlocking the boltto the barrel extension, a rockingr tumbler for operating the block, a locking-lever coacting with the tumblerA for holding the same in its depressed position'in which the tumbler holds the block in its unlocked vposition, a link connected with the rocking tumbler, and coacting with the locking-lever for disengaging the same from the rocking `tumbler, and an operatingrod extending rearwardly into the gun-stock. and connected with the-link which coacts with the rod in moving the bolt int-oi s unlocked position by the momentum they?, acquire by therecoil of the gun, the said locking-block,

rocking 'tumbler and locking-lever being 4 mounted in the breech-bolt. e

v 12; In a magazine-firearm, the combination with a recoili'n,. 1,f barrel and barrel extension, of a breech-bolt, a locking-block, a rocking operation thereof, -and a -tiring-pin mount-ed in, the bolt, and coacting with the rocking tumbler which retracts it.

13. In a rearm, the combinationwith a recoiling barrel and barrel extension, of a breech-bolt, a vertically-movable lockingblock mounted in the said bolt', a`spring-actuat-ed operating-rod extending into the butt-- and opening the gun.

'tumbler coacting with the said block for the f 14. In a magazine-firearm, the combination with a reciprocating barrel and barrel extension, of a breech-bolt, a vertically-movable locking-block mounted in the bolt for locking the same to the extension, an `operating-rod extending intothe butt-stock ofthe gun, a

spring encircling the said rod, a trans\-'ersely. arranged operating part mounted in the stock of the gun, connected with the rear end of the said rod, and adapted to be manually operated for retracting the rod and placing the said spring under tension, and means connecting theforward 4end of the said rod with the said locking-block.

15. In a .magazine-gun, the combination with a reciprocating barrel and barrel extension, of a breech-bolt, a vertically-movable locking-block mounted tl1erein,a rocking.

tumbler mounted in the said bolt for operating the block, an operating-rod extending into 'the butt-stock of the gun, a link connecting the said rocking tumbler with the forward en d of the said frod, a transversely-arman ged operating-spring encircling vthe-rod, and an opel'- ating-lever 4mounted inthe butt-stock, connected with the rear end of the rod for retracting the same, and adapted to be manually operated.

16. In av magazine-gun, the combination with a reciprocating barrel and barrel extension, of a lbreech-bolt, a vertically-movable locking-block mounted in the breech-bolt, an operating-rod extending into thebutt-stock of the gun, connection between the said rod and block,an operating-spring encircling-the said rod, a tube located in the butt-stock and receiving the rear end of the rod, a washer mounted upon the forward end of the tube,

forming a bearing for the rear end of the spring, and having the rea-1' end of the rod extended rearwardly through it, and a transverselim'ranged operating-lever pivoted in the upper portion of the butt-stock, extend-` ing downward throughv the rear end of the rod, projecting below the lower edge of the butt-stock for manual operation, and passing through the said tube which is slotted for the purpose. Y i

17. In a magazine-firearm, the combination witha recoiling barrel and barrel extension, of a breech-bolt, a pivotal carrier, and means mounted in the carrier itself for locking the bolt at the limit of its rearward excursion.

18. y In a magazine-firearm, the combinationwith a recoiling barrel and barrel extension, of a breech-bolt, a pivotal carrier, and ya locking-dog mounted in the rear end of the carrier itself for engaging with the breech-bolt and locking the same at the limit of its -rearward excursion.

1,9. In a magazine-firearm', the combination with a recoilingI barrel and barrel extension,

of a breech-bolt, a pivotal carrier, a lockingdog mounted in the carrier itself and engaging with the 'breech-bolt to lock the same in its open position while the barrel and barrel extension are returned to their closed positions, and an operating-spring placed under tension by the recoil of the gun, and acting through the said bolt and the said lockingdog to lift the carrier into its elevated position when the bolt moves forward.

20. I n a magazine-firearm the combination with a recoiling "barrel and barrel extension, ot a ybreech-bolt, a locking-block mounted therein for locking it to the said extension, a

rocking tumbler mounted in the breech-bolt for operating the said block, an operatingrod extending into the butt-stock of the gun, a link connecting 'the said rod and the said rocking tumbler, a pivotal carrier, a lockingdog pivotally mounted in the rear end of the carrier at a point lo the -rear of the pivot thereof, and adapted to coact with the bolt to lock the same in its open position, andan operating-spring, whereby the locking-dog acts to lock the bolt in its open position, and to lift the carrier, under the power of the said spring, into its elevated position.

21. In a magazine-ii rearm, the com biuation with a recoiling barrel, of atube-like barrel extensionlaerally cut away for the ejection of the spent cartridges, a breech-bolt adapted to enter the said extension, a vertically-movable locking-block mounted in the said bolt for locking the same to the said extension, al rocking tumbler also mounted in thesaid bolt forcoacting with the rocking tumbler, means extending rearwardfrom the said tum bler for operating ,the same and a gun frame o; housing inclosing the said paris and formed with a lateral ejection-opening.

22. In a magazine-gun, the combination with a pivotal carrier, of a combined carriercatch and cartridge-stop which in one position locks the carrier in its depressed position and in another position acts 'as a cartridgestop, these two functions being performed alternately. Y n

23. In amagazine-firearm, thec'oinbination with a pivotal carrier, of a com bined'cartridgestop and carrier-catch for locking the carrier in its depressed position, pivotally mounted` inte operation by the recoil of the gun for pre- Venting the premature operation of the said combined part in unlocking the carrier.

26. In a magazine-gunVthe combination with a pivotal carrier,of acombined cartridgestop .and carrier-catchfor locking the carrier in its depressed position, and a sliding inertia-piece coacting with the carrier-catch end of the said combined part and brought into operation by the recoil of the gun,for preventing the premature operation of the said com bined part in unlocking the carrier.

27 .Y In a magazine-firearm, the combination with a pivotal carrier,of a combined cartridgestop and carrier-catch for locking the carrier in its depressed position, and an 7inertia-piece brought into operation by the recoil of the gun, and coacting with the carrier-catch for preventing the premature operation thereof in unlocking the carrier, the said combined part and inertia-piece being located in a recess formed in the inner face of one of the side walls of the gun.

28. In a magazine-firearm, the combination with a recoiling barrel and barrel extension, of a breech-bolt, a locking-block, a rocking tumbler for operating the block, an operatinglink connected with the said tumbler, an operating-rod connected with the said link, and a hammer passing upward through the said link which engages with it to automatically cock it.

29. An automatic firearm, having a hammer and a trigger, one of the said parts having a locking-notch and a safety-notch, and the other part having a locking-hook and a safety-hook, the. said notches and hooks coacting to prevent the hammer from being released by the trigger except as the rearward draft upon the trigger is first relieved to permit th` hold of the hammer to be transferred from the safety-notch and safety-hook tothe cooking-notch and cooking-hook. A

30. In a magazine-firearm, the combination with a hammer provided with a finger containing a locking-notch and a safety-notch, of

a trigger provided with a locking-hook anii asafety-hook arranged in opposition to each other and sufliciently separated from each other to permit the finger containing the said notches to pass down between them, and respectively coacting with the said notches to prevent the hammer from being released by the trigger except as the rearward draft upon the trigger is first relieved to permit the hold of the hammer to be transferred from the safety-notch and safety-hook to the cookingnotch and cooking-hook.

31. In a firearm, the combination with a ham mer and -a trigger, of a safety-catch for locking the trigger, and a mainspring constructed and arranged to prevent the catch from being engaged with the trigger to lock the same except -when the hammer is in its cocked position.

32. In a magazine-firearm, the-combination with a pivotal carrier formed at the extreme lower corner of its rear end with a nose, of a carrier-spring bent at its free end to conform l to the curvature of the said lnose with which it coacts to hold the carrier in its elevated and in itsdepressed positions, and to return it to its depressed position after it has been pushed upward for'feeding a cartridgel into the magazine. d

33. In a .rearm, the combination with the receiver and tubular magazine thereof, of a recoiling barrel and barrel extension maybe withdrawn from their connection with the receiver.

, 34. In a firearm, the'combination with the receiver and tubular magazine thereof, of a 'recoiling barrel'and barrel extension, an'action-spring located within the said front stockfor restoring thebarrel and barrel extension to their closed positions, a front stock within 'which the action-spring is located and through the forward end of which the magazineextends, and a buer for taking the shock of the forward excursion of the barreland its extension, and engaging withthe said front stock to which the shock is transmitted.

35. In a firearm, the combination with the receiver and tubular magaziney thereof, of a recoiling barrel and barrel extension, a front,

stock appliedV to the magazine and receiver, an action spring located within the front stock, and a nut applied to the forward end of the'magazine and engaging with the front 'stock to hold itin place. r

. 36. In a rearm, the combination with a receiling barrel, of a barrel extension formed at or near its rear end with one or more ejecting pins or projections located` in position to engage directly with a riln of as ont cartridge, a breech-bolt adapted to ent the said extension, one or more`extractors carried by.

the said bolt, a gun frame or housing inclosing theisaid parts and formed with a lateral ejection-opening, and an action-spring for restoring the barrel and barrel extension to their closed positions, during which act of restoration the said ejecting means edect the expulsion of the spentcartridge.

In testimony whereof I have signed this,

specification in the presence of two subscribing witnesses.

JOHN M. BROWNING. Witnesses: l

JOHN E. RAMSDEN, N. GAIL NORTON.

US455700A 1900-02-08 1900-02-08 Recoil-operated firearm. Expired - Lifetime US659507A (en)

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Cited By (22)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2422532A (en) * 1943-12-11 1947-06-17 Dehm Edward Bolt-actuated cartridge feeding means for rifles
US2424264A (en) * 1942-10-27 1947-07-22 Gerald A Yorks Composite bolt structure for semiautomatic rifles
US2465196A (en) * 1945-07-18 1949-03-22 J M & M S Browning Company Self-loading recoil-operated firearm
US2474975A (en) * 1944-05-11 1949-07-05 United Shoe Machinery Corp Gun-loading mechanism
US2480074A (en) * 1944-10-28 1949-08-23 J M & M S Browning Company Cartridge transfer mechanism for magazine firearms
US2732766A (en) * 1956-01-31 Mount for mortar
US2960011A (en) * 1956-05-07 1960-11-15 Bretton Rene Jean Georges Automatic firearm having inertia released breech mechanism
US3161977A (en) * 1963-12-26 1964-12-22 Olin Mathieson Breech block locking bolt for a gun
US3570366A (en) * 1969-07-01 1971-03-16 Marlin Firearms Co Device for disabling firearm action on cartridge feed interruption thereto
US3766677A (en) * 1971-09-07 1973-10-23 Innovation Resources Corp Pivotal barrel and receiver assembly having a removably mounted breech block
US4014247A (en) * 1974-11-19 1977-03-29 Ithaca Gun Company, Inc. Gas-operated shotgun
US4164088A (en) * 1976-12-29 1979-08-14 Kabushiki Kaisha Kawaguchiya Hayashi Juho Kayaku-Ten Cartridge locking device for an automatic gun
US4276707A (en) * 1978-09-22 1981-07-07 Kabushiki Kaisha Kawaguchiya Hayashi Juho Kayaku-Ten Cartridge/carrier locking device for automatic gun
US4455919A (en) * 1982-05-03 1984-06-26 The Marlin Firearms Company Last shot bolt hold-open device
US4522105A (en) * 1983-06-06 1985-06-11 Sw Daniel, Inc. Firing mechanism for semiautomatic firearms
US5605002A (en) * 1995-10-30 1997-02-25 Carey; Donald C. Firearm breech block actuator
US6742298B1 (en) 2001-02-20 2004-06-01 Ra Brands, Llc Carrier locking device
US6860258B2 (en) 2002-03-11 2005-03-01 Kenneth R. Farrell Paintball loader
US20060207153A1 (en) * 2005-03-19 2006-09-21 Lazor Ernest R Modular core block construction
US8844425B2 (en) 2011-08-08 2014-09-30 Elite Tactical Advantage Recoil apparatus for firearm
US9733034B1 (en) 2016-11-16 2017-08-15 Arthur J. Viani Trigger assembly improved
WO2019074454A3 (en) * 2017-01-12 2019-06-13 Matsan Makina Takim San. Ve Tic. A.S. Locking mechanism for firearms

Cited By (22)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2732766A (en) * 1956-01-31 Mount for mortar
US2424264A (en) * 1942-10-27 1947-07-22 Gerald A Yorks Composite bolt structure for semiautomatic rifles
US2422532A (en) * 1943-12-11 1947-06-17 Dehm Edward Bolt-actuated cartridge feeding means for rifles
US2474975A (en) * 1944-05-11 1949-07-05 United Shoe Machinery Corp Gun-loading mechanism
US2480074A (en) * 1944-10-28 1949-08-23 J M & M S Browning Company Cartridge transfer mechanism for magazine firearms
US2465196A (en) * 1945-07-18 1949-03-22 J M & M S Browning Company Self-loading recoil-operated firearm
US2960011A (en) * 1956-05-07 1960-11-15 Bretton Rene Jean Georges Automatic firearm having inertia released breech mechanism
US3161977A (en) * 1963-12-26 1964-12-22 Olin Mathieson Breech block locking bolt for a gun
US3570366A (en) * 1969-07-01 1971-03-16 Marlin Firearms Co Device for disabling firearm action on cartridge feed interruption thereto
US3766677A (en) * 1971-09-07 1973-10-23 Innovation Resources Corp Pivotal barrel and receiver assembly having a removably mounted breech block
US4014247A (en) * 1974-11-19 1977-03-29 Ithaca Gun Company, Inc. Gas-operated shotgun
US4164088A (en) * 1976-12-29 1979-08-14 Kabushiki Kaisha Kawaguchiya Hayashi Juho Kayaku-Ten Cartridge locking device for an automatic gun
US4276707A (en) * 1978-09-22 1981-07-07 Kabushiki Kaisha Kawaguchiya Hayashi Juho Kayaku-Ten Cartridge/carrier locking device for automatic gun
US4455919A (en) * 1982-05-03 1984-06-26 The Marlin Firearms Company Last shot bolt hold-open device
US4522105A (en) * 1983-06-06 1985-06-11 Sw Daniel, Inc. Firing mechanism for semiautomatic firearms
US5605002A (en) * 1995-10-30 1997-02-25 Carey; Donald C. Firearm breech block actuator
US6742298B1 (en) 2001-02-20 2004-06-01 Ra Brands, Llc Carrier locking device
US6860258B2 (en) 2002-03-11 2005-03-01 Kenneth R. Farrell Paintball loader
US20060207153A1 (en) * 2005-03-19 2006-09-21 Lazor Ernest R Modular core block construction
US8844425B2 (en) 2011-08-08 2014-09-30 Elite Tactical Advantage Recoil apparatus for firearm
US9733034B1 (en) 2016-11-16 2017-08-15 Arthur J. Viani Trigger assembly improved
WO2019074454A3 (en) * 2017-01-12 2019-06-13 Matsan Makina Takim San. Ve Tic. A.S. Locking mechanism for firearms

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