US6447669B1 - Recycling of galvanic cells - Google Patents

Recycling of galvanic cells Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US6447669B1
US6447669B1 US09555310 US55531000A US6447669B1 US 6447669 B1 US6447669 B1 US 6447669B1 US 09555310 US09555310 US 09555310 US 55531000 A US55531000 A US 55531000A US 6447669 B1 US6447669 B1 US 6447669B1
Authority
US
Grant status
Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
process
particulate
cells
solvent
material
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Fee Related
Application number
US09555310
Inventor
Michael Jonathan Lain
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
UHI MILLENNIUM INSTITUTE
Original Assignee
Accentus PLC
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Grant date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22BPRODUCTION AND REFINING OF METALS; PRETREATMENT OF RAW MATERIALS
    • C22B26/00Obtaining alkali, alkaline earth metals or magnesium
    • C22B26/10Obtaining alkali metals
    • C22B26/12Obtaining lithium
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22BPRODUCTION AND REFINING OF METALS; PRETREATMENT OF RAW MATERIALS
    • C22B7/00Working up raw materials other than ores, e.g. scrap, to produce non-ferrous metals and compounds thereof; Methods of a general interest or applied to the winning of more than two metals
    • C22B7/006Wet processes
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M10/00Secondary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M10/54Reclaiming serviceable parts of waste accumulators
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M6/00Primary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M6/52Reclaiming serviceable parts of waste cells or batteries, e.g. recycling
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M10/00Secondary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M10/05Accumulators with non-aqueous electrolyte
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P10/00Technologies related to metal processing
    • Y02P10/20Process efficiency
    • Y02P10/21Process efficiency by recovering materials
    • Y02P10/212Recovering metals from waste
    • Y02P10/234Recovering metals from waste by hydro metallurgy
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W30/00Technologies for solid waste management
    • Y02W30/50Reuse, recycling or recovery technologies
    • Y02W30/84Recycling of batteries

Abstract

Lithium ion cells in which the cathode contains a particulate insertion material and a binder are cut open in a dry, inert atmosphere (10). The cell components are treated with a first organic solvent (12) to dissolve the electrolyte, so that this can be reused. They are then treated with a second organic solvent (16) to dissolve the binder, and the particulate material separated (18) from the solution of binder. The insertion material is then reduced (22) so that it does not contain intercalated lithium. The reduction process may be performed electrolytically.

Description

This application of a 371 of PCT/GB98/03599 filed Dec. 3, 1998.

This invention relates to a process for treating lithium cells and cell components so that component materials can be safely recovered for reuse, particularly but not exclusively for treating rechargeable lithium ion cells in which both the anode and cathode comprise insertion materials.

Several of the component materials in rechargeable lithium ion cells are potentially valuable, so that their recovery and reuse is clearly desirable. In particular, the cathodes of such cells may contain metal oxides such as lithium cobalt oxide or lithium nickel oxide (or a mixed oxide of the type LiCoxNi1−xO2); it may be possible to reuse these oxides in this form, although it would usually be preferable if they could be converted to cobalt (II) oxide or nickel (II) oxide (or the mixed oxide) not containing intercalated lithium.

Furthermore the electrolyte may contain ingredients such as lithium tetrafluoroborate or lithium hexafluoro-phosphate which could be reused in making batteries; the latter material however has poor thermal stability, and undergoes hydrolysis in the presence of water. Canon KK have described, in EP 0 613 198A, methods for recovering materials from lithium cells in which an organic solvent is used to dissolve electrolyte material from the cells, but the cathode active material along with polymer binder is merely pulverized.

According to the present invention there is provided a process for treating cells, each cell including particulate cathode material and a binder, an electrolyte, and an anode material, the process comprising the following steps:

a) cutting up the cells in the absence of water;

b) contacting the cells with an organic solvent so as to dissolve out the electrolyte and any electrolyte solvent;

c) then contacting the cells with a solvent for the binder, and thereby separating the particulate material; and

d) reducing the particulate cathode material to remove intercalated ions.

The invention also provides a process for treating cell components comprising particulate cathode material and a binder, the process comprising subjecting the cell component to the steps a) and c), and then performing the step d).

In a preferred method the particulate cathode material is reduced electrochemically. For example lithium cobalt oxide may be reduced to cobalt (II) oxide, thereby also generating lithium hydroxide. The cells may also contain particulate carbon both in the cathode, and as an anode material, the anode incorporating the same binder as in the cathode, so that the particulate material separated in step c) will be a mixture of carbon and cathode material; the particulate carbon does not interfere with the electrochemical reduction process, and indeed it may improve it, as it improves the conductivity of the mixed particle bed. In a modification of this method the particulate material is electrochemically reduced at a circulating particulate bed electrode.

The components of the cells which remain after the two dissolution steps described above are principally the metal foil current collectors from the anode (typically copper) and from the cathode (typically aluminium), the separator, which is typically a non-woven fabric or a micro-porous membrane of a material such as polypropylene, and any cell casing, insulators and seals. These materials can be separated by their density, and possibly by their magnetic properties.

The cutting up of the cells may be performed using a mechanical cutting mechanism, or using a laser. This step is preferably performed in an inert atmosphere, which might for example comprise dry nitrogen. The organic solvent used in step b) to dissolve out the electrolyte preferably also contains no water, and this dissolution step is preferably performed at a temperature which does not exceed for example 60° C., so that potentially unstable electrolyte salts such as lithium hexafluoro-phosphate are not degraded. The dissolution process preferably involves re-circulating the solvent through a vessel containing the cut up cells; the solvent may be recirculated sufficiently vigorously that the cut up cells form a fluidised bed.

The invention will now be further and more particularly described, by way of example only, and with reference to the accompanying drawings in which:

FIG. 1 shows a flow chart for the cell treatment process;

FIG. 2 shows, in diagrammatic sectional view, equipment for performing dissolution steps of the process of FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 shows, in diagrammatic sectional view, alternative equipment to that of FIG. 2;

FIG. 4 shows, in diagrammatic sectional view, equipment for performing an electrochemical reduction step in the process of FIG. 1; and

FIG. 5 shows, in diagrammatic sectional view, alternative equipment to that of FIG. 4.

In this example a process will be described for recovering component materials from lithium-ion cells which comprise an anode, an electrolyte, and a cathode, inside a cell casing. The cells may be used cells, or may be cells rejected during manufacturing. The anode consists of a copper foil on which is a coating of carbon particles and PVdF as a binder; the cathode consists of an aluminium foil on which is a coating of lithium cobalt oxide particles, and carbon particles, and PVdF as a binder; the anode and the cathode are separated by a micro-porous polypropylene membrane containing, as electrolyte, lithium hexafluoro-phosphate dissolved in an. electrolyte solvent which may contain ethylene carbonate, propylene carbonate, diethyl carbonate, or dimethyl carbonate for example, or mixtures of these. These are all enclosed in a steel casing.

Referring to FIG. 1, the first step in the process is to cut up the cells in an inert atmosphere and in the absence of water (step 10), so that in the subsequent steps the solvents can contact the components of the cells. This process is desirably carried out in a dry nitrogen atmosphere, and the cutting may be performed using a laser, or mechanical shears for example. The casing is cut open and the other components, which are typically wound into a spiral, are removed. (In the process as described here, no further cutting is required at this stage; in a modification to the process, however, these other components are then further cut up or shredded to form small pieces typically one centimetre square, as described later.)

The spiral wound components (i.e. anode, separator, and cathode) are then placed in a mesh basket, each spiral being located on a spike, and the basket is enclosed in a transfer container containing a dry nitrogen atmosphere.

The basket containing the cell components is then transferred to a dissolver vessel purged with dry nitrogen, and the basket lowered to the base of the vessel. In the next step 12, an organic solvent, acetonitrile, is pumped into the dissolver vessel, warmed to 50° C., and recirculated through the vessel for a few hours to ensure that all the electrolyte and electrolyte solvent is dissolved. The acetonitrile is then pumped into an evaporator vessel, the pressure in the vessel lowered to below atmospheric pressure (e.g. 10 mm Hg), and the vessel heated to 50 or 60° C. to boil off the acetonitrile (step 14). The acetonitrile vapour is condensed and can be returned to a storage tank. The solution of electrolyte (lithium hexafluoro-phosphate) in electrolyte solvent (propylene carbonate etc.) may be stored for reuse (step 15).

NMP (N-methyl-pyrrolidone or 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone) as a solvent for the binder is then pumped into the dissolver vessel, warmed to 50° C., and recirculated through the vessel for a few hours to ensure that all the binder has dissolved (step 16). The NMP containing the PVdF in solution and the particulate material in suspension is then drained out of the dissolver vessel and passed through a filter (step 18). The filtrate is pumped into an evaporator vessel, the pressure in the vessel may be lowered to below atmospheric pressure, and the vessel heated to say 90° C. to boil off the NMP (step 20). The NMP vapour is condensed and can be returned to a storage tank for subsequent use in the dissolver vessel.

The filter is then back-washed with water and the suspension of particulate material (lithium cobalt oxide and carbon) in water transferred to an electrolysis cell. The filter is then dried with nitrogen gas before reuse. In the electrolysis cell the lithium cobalt oxide is subjected to electrolytic reduction adjacent to the cathode of the cell, the cell electrolyte being a solution of lithium hydroxide in water (step 22), to form cobalt (II) oxide, and increasing the concentration of the lithium hydroxide solution. The reaction can be represented by the equation:

e+H2O+LiCo(III)O2→Co(II)O +Li++2OH

Finally, at step 24, the lithium hydroxide solution is decanted from the cell and the cobalt oxide and carbon mixture is washed (step 25) and removed for storage. It should be noted that although the carbon may initially contain intercalated lithium ions, these come out into solution when the carbon is in contact with water or aqueous lithium hydroxide solution without the need for any chemical treatment.

The solid materials remaining in the dissolver, i.e. copper foil, aluminium foil, and micro-porous plastic sheet, are then removed and can be sorted for storage (step 26). One way in which this may be performed is to shred the materials (if this has not been done already) and then separate them according to their densities. If steel is also present, it may be separated by its magnetic properties.

Referring now to FIG. 2, there is shown a dissolver vessel 30 suitable for performing the dissolution steps 12 and 16 described above. The vessel comprises a domed lid or upper portion 32 and a generally cylindrical lower portion with a curved base 34 which are sealed to each other at a flanged joint 35. The upper portion 32 encloses a mesh basket 36 above a base plate 38 which are both supported by a slide rod 40 which projects through a seal 42, the base plate 38 sealing to an inner flange 39, while the basket 36 is being transferred from the cutting up station (not shown) to the dissolver vessel 30; and after the upper portion 32 has been joined to the lower portion 34 the basket 36 along with the base plate 38 are lowered into the lower part of the lower portion 34 as shown. The lower portion 34 is provided with several valved inlets or outlets as follows: an inlet 44 for dry nitrogen, an outlet 45 connected to a gas extracting vent; an inlet 46 for acetonitrile, an outlet 47 in the base for acetonitrile, and a pressure equalisation duct 48 connected to the acetonitrile evaporator vessel (not shown); an inlet 49 for NMP, an outlet 50 in the base for NMP, and a pressure equalisation duct 51 connected to the NMP evaporator vessel (not shown); an inlet 52 for water and an outlet 53 in the base for water. The lower portion 34 is also provided with trace electrical heating 54 so that it its contents may be warmed to for example 50° C.

Thus in operation the upper portion 32 enclosing the basket 36 is sealed to the lower portion 34, and the lower portion 34 is thoroughly dried by purging with dry nitrogen via the inlet 44 and the outlet 45; the basket 36 is then lowered into the position shown. Acetonitrile is then circulated through the vessel 30, which is held at 50° C., via the inlet 46 and outlet 47; after three or four hours the inlet 46 is closed, the pressure equalisation duct 48 is opened, and the acetonitrile is pumped via the outlet 47 to the evaporator vessel. NMP is then circulated through the vessel 30, which is still held at 50° C., via the inlet 49 and outlet 50; after three or four hours the inlet 49 is closed, the pressure equalisation duct 51 is opened, and the NMP is pumped via the outlet 50 to the NMP evaporator vessel. Any remaining water-soluble salts can then be removed by washing with water via the inlet 52 and the outlet 53.

It will be appreciated that the dissolution steps 12 and 16 might instead be performed in a different vessel. For example the cells might be shredded, either along with the casings or after removal of the casings, for example into pieces about 1 cm square, which might be processed in a fluidised bed vessel as shown in FIG. 3 to which reference is now made. The shredded pieces are fed via a hopper 55 into a dissolution chamber 60 defined between lower and upper mesh screens 62. An organic solvent such as acetonitrile is then circulated by a pump 63 and a duct 64 sufficiently vigorously that the pieces in the dissolution chamber 60 become fluidised. This may enable faster dissolution rates to be achieved than the dissolver vessel 30 described in relation to FIG. 2. When the dissolution process has been completed, the pieces can be removed via an exit duct 66.

Referring now to FIG. 4 there is shown a cell 70 for the electrolytic reduction of the lithium cobalt oxide (step 22 in FIG. 1). The cell 70 comprises a generally cylindrical, plastic-lined steel vessel 72 with a flat base. On the base is a carbon electrode 74 whose upper surface slopes towards a central shallow recess 75. A lid 76 carries a platinized titanium electrode 78 and inlets and outlets as follows: an inlet 80 for lithium hydroxide solution, an inlet 81 for water and particles of carbon and lithium cobalt oxide from the filter (not shown), an outlet duct 82 for lithium hydroxide solution which extends to a position well above the electrode 74, an outlet duct 83 for lithium hydroxide solution and treated particles, which extends into the central recess 75, and an outlet duct 84 for any gases generated during electrolysis.

In operation a mixture of carbon and lithium cobalt oxide particles washed off the filter by a stream of water flows into the cell 70 via the inlet 81 and settles out to form a bed on the electrode 74. Aqueous lithium hydroxide solution is supplied via the inlet 80 so the liquid level is above the electrode 78. A voltage of about 2.0 volts is then applied between the carbon electrode 74 as cathode and the other electrode 78 as anode, the voltage being such as to restrict hydrogen generation, and electrolysis is continued until the electric current decreases significantly. This indicates that the electrolytic reduction of the lithium cobalt oxide has been substantially completed. The electric current is then stopped, and most of the lithium hydroxide electrolyte in the cell is extracted through the duct 82 (whose open end is slightly above the top of the particle bed). The remaining lithium hydroxide solution along with all the particles are then extracted via the duct 83 to a filter (not shown). The particles of carbon and cobalt (II) oxide can then be washed off the filter with water, and stored for reuse.

It will also be appreciated that this electrolytic production process might be carried out in a different cell, for example a fluidised bed, or a divided cell 90 with a circulating particle bed electrode 92 as its cathode, as shown diagrammatically in FIG. 5 to which reference is now made. In the cell 90 a membrane 93 separates the anolyte region 94 from the catholyte region 95, and these are inclined at an angle to the vertical. A platinized titanium electrode 96 is provided as the anode, and an anolyte such as aqueous lithium hydroxide is passed through the region 94. A carbon cathodic plate 97 forms the rear surface of the region 95 and a catholyte, which may also be lithium hydroxide solution, is pumped upwardly through the catholyte region 95 between an inlet 98 and an outlet 99; the particles are introduced into the catholyte region 95, and the electrolyte flow is sufficiently vigorous that the particles circulate upwardly adjacent to the membrane 93, and then downwardly as a flowing packed bed 92 over the cathode plate 97. A voltage of about 1.75 volts is applied between the electrodes 96 and 97, and lithium cobalt oxide is reduced to cobalt (II) oxide. Such a circulating particle bed electrode is described by F. Goodridge et al (Electrochim. Acta 22 (1977) 1087), and in U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,945,892 and 3,981,787 (G.S. James et al).

It will be appreciated that the process of the invention may be modified in various ways. For example if the electrolyte solvent obtained at step 15 is a mixture, for example containing diethyl carbonate, dimethyl carbonate and propylene carbonate, then the first two (DEC and DMC) can be extracted by distillation at reduced pressure.

It will also be appreciated that the process is equally applicable to lithium ion polymer cells, which have a polymer electrolyte in place of the separator and liquid electrolyte. If the polymer electrolyte contains PVdF then it will be dissolved out by the NMP along with the electrode binder (at step 16). If it contains a different polymer then the solvents would have to be selected accordingly.

Claims (10)

What is claimed is:
1. A process for treating cell components comprising particulate cathode material and a binder, the process comprising the following steps:
a) cutting up the cell components in an inert atmosphere and in the absence of water;
b) then contacting the cell components with a solvent for the binder, and thereby separating the particulate material; and
c) reducing the particulate cathode material to remove intercalated ions.
2. A process as claimed in claim 1 wherein the particulate cathode material is reduced electrochemically.
3. A process as claimed in claim 2 wherein the particulate material is electrochemically reduced at a circulating particulate bed electrode.
4. A process as claimed in claim 1 wherein the dissolution process involves re-circulating the solvent through a vessel containing the cut up cell components.
5. A process as claimed in claim 4 wherein the solvent is recirculated sufficiently vigorously that the cut up cell components form a fluidised bed.
6. A process for treating cells, each cell including particulate cathode material and a binder, an electrolyte, and an anode material, the process comprising the following steps:
a) cutting up the cells in an inert atmosphere and in the absence of water;
b) contacting the cells with an organic solvent so as to dissolve out the electrolyte and any electrolyte solvent;
c) then contacting the cells with a solvent for the binder, and thereby separating the particulate material; and
d) reducing the particulate cathode material to remove intercalated ions.
7. A process as claimed in claim 6 wherein the particulate cathode material is reduced electrochemically.
8. A process as claimed in claim 7 wherein the particulate material is electrochemically reduced at a circulating particulate bed electrode.
9. A process as claimed in claim 6 wherein at least one dissolution process involves recirculating the solvent through a vessel containing the cut up cells.
10. A process as claimed in claim 9 wherein the solvent is recirculated sufficiently vigorously that the cut up cells form a fluidised bed.
US09555310 1997-12-03 1998-12-03 Recycling of galvanic cells Expired - Fee Related US6447669B1 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB9727222A GB9727222D0 (en) 1997-12-23 1997-12-23 Cell recycling
GB9727222 1997-12-23
PCT/GB1998/003599 WO1999034473A1 (en) 1997-12-23 1998-12-03 Recycling of galvanic cells

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US6447669B1 true US6447669B1 (en) 2002-09-10

Family

ID=10824151

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US09555310 Expired - Fee Related US6447669B1 (en) 1997-12-03 1998-12-03 Recycling of galvanic cells

Country Status (8)

Country Link
US (1) US6447669B1 (en)
EP (1) EP1042842B1 (en)
JP (1) JP4753220B2 (en)
KR (1) KR20010033420A (en)
CA (1) CA2313173A1 (en)
DE (2) DE69809469D1 (en)
GB (1) GB9727222D0 (en)
WO (1) WO1999034473A1 (en)

Cited By (28)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20030186110A1 (en) * 2002-01-09 2003-10-02 Sloop Steven E. System and method for removing an electrolyte from an energy storage and/or conversion device using a supercritical fluid
EP1589121A1 (en) * 2004-04-19 2005-10-26 Umicore Battery recycling
US20050235775A1 (en) * 2004-04-19 2005-10-27 Daniel Cheret Battery recycling
US20050244704A1 (en) * 2002-01-09 2005-11-03 Sloop Steven E System and method for processing an end-of-life or reduced performance energy storage and/or conversion device using a supercritical fluid
US20050241943A1 (en) * 2003-06-19 2005-11-03 Kawasaki Jukogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Method and apparatus for recycling electrode material of lithium secondary battery
US20060133012A1 (en) * 2003-07-09 2006-06-22 Maxwell Technologies, Inc. Dry particle based capacitor and methods of making same
US20060147712A1 (en) * 2003-07-09 2006-07-06 Maxwell Technologies, Inc. Dry particle based adhesive electrode and methods of making same
US20060146479A1 (en) * 2003-07-09 2006-07-06 Maxwell Technologies, Inc. Recyclable dry particle based adhesive electrode and methods of making same
US7227737B2 (en) 2004-04-02 2007-06-05 Maxwell Technologies, Inc. Electrode design
US7245478B2 (en) 2004-08-16 2007-07-17 Maxwell Technologies, Inc. Enhanced breakdown voltage electrode
US20070196725A1 (en) * 2004-04-06 2007-08-23 Recupyl Method for the mixed recycling of lithium-based anode batteries and cells
US7295423B1 (en) 2003-07-09 2007-11-13 Maxwell Technologies, Inc. Dry particle based adhesive electrode and methods of making same
EP1968154A1 (en) * 2005-12-27 2008-09-10 Kawasaki Plant Systems Kabushiki Kaisha Apparatus and method for recovering valuable substance from lithium rechargeable battery
US7495349B2 (en) 2003-10-20 2009-02-24 Maxwell Technologies, Inc. Self aligning electrode
US20090286137A1 (en) * 2003-01-09 2009-11-19 Sloop Steven E Recycling Batteries Having Basic Electrolytes
US20100014215A1 (en) * 2004-04-02 2010-01-21 Maxwell Technologies, Inc. Recyclable dry particle based electrode and methods of making same
US7722686B2 (en) 2004-02-19 2010-05-25 Maxwell Technologies, Inc. Composite electrode and method for fabricating same
US7791860B2 (en) 2003-07-09 2010-09-07 Maxwell Technologies, Inc. Particle based electrodes and methods of making same
US7811337B2 (en) 2007-02-28 2010-10-12 Maxwell Technologies, Inc. Ultracapacitor electrode with controlled sulfur content
US7859826B2 (en) 2005-03-14 2010-12-28 Maxwell Technologies, Inc. Thermal interconnects for coupling energy storage devices
US7883553B2 (en) 2004-02-19 2011-02-08 Maxwell Technologies, Inc. Method of manufacturing an electrode product
US7920371B2 (en) 2003-09-12 2011-04-05 Maxwell Technologies, Inc. Electrical energy storage devices with separator between electrodes and methods for fabricating the devices
CN102208706A (en) * 2011-05-04 2011-10-05 合肥国轩高科动力能源有限公司 Recycling treatment method of waste and old lithium iron phosphate battery anode materials
US20120157590A1 (en) * 2009-08-28 2012-06-21 Kureha Corporation Process for Producing Non-Aqueous Battery Electrode-Forming Binder Solutions, and Non-Aqueous Battery Electrode-Forming Binder Solution
US8518573B2 (en) 2006-09-29 2013-08-27 Maxwell Technologies, Inc. Low-inductive impedance, thermally decoupled, radii-modulated electrode core
CN105161787A (en) * 2015-08-14 2015-12-16 合肥市第四十二中学 Method for recycling polymer in waste polymer lithium-ion battery
US20180013181A1 (en) * 2016-07-07 2018-01-11 Grst International Limited Method for recycling lithium-ion battery
US9972830B2 (en) 2011-06-21 2018-05-15 Warner Babcock Institute For Green Chemistry, Llc Method for the recovery of lithium cobalt oxide from lithium ion batteries

Families Citing this family (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE10336762A1 (en) * 2003-08-08 2005-03-10 Epcos Ag A method for treating organic cations, non-aqueous solvent and carbon-containing components by electric
JP5011659B2 (en) * 2005-05-24 2012-08-29 トヨタ自動車株式会社 The method of recycling the battery
EP2410603A1 (en) * 2011-08-31 2012-01-25 Umicore SA Recovery of compounds from Li-ion battery electrolyte
JP5706460B2 (en) * 2013-03-29 2015-04-22 Jx日鉱日石金属株式会社 How to separate and recover the current collector and the positive electrode active material from the positive electrode material for lithium ion batteries
JP6271964B2 (en) * 2013-11-21 2018-01-31 Jx金属株式会社 Method for recovering metals from the positive electrode material for lithium ion batteries
FR3024288B1 (en) 2014-07-22 2016-09-02 Commissariat Energie Atomique Process for recycling of the electrolyte of a Li-ion battery and method of recycling type Li-ion batteries
FR3024287B1 (en) 2014-07-22 2016-09-02 Commissariat Energie Atomique Process for recycling of the electrolyte of a Li-ion battery and method of recycling batteries of Li-ion

Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP0618633A1 (en) * 1993-04-01 1994-10-05 Hitachi, Ltd. Lithium cell treating method and lithium cell treating apparatus

Family Cites Families (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
FI61209C (en) * 1973-08-03 1982-06-10 Parel Sa Elektrokemisk cell
FI57133C (en) * 1973-08-03 1980-06-10 Parel Sa Elektrokemisk process Science cell Foer utfoerande of Proces
US4824541A (en) * 1986-09-25 1989-04-25 Shell Internationale Research Maatschappij B.V. Fluid bed electrolysis cell
GB8623069D0 (en) * 1986-09-25 1986-10-29 Shell Int Research Fluid bed electrolysis cell
JP2721467B2 (en) * 1993-02-25 1998-03-04 キヤノン株式会社 Lithium battery material recovery method
US5612150A (en) * 1994-03-16 1997-03-18 Hitachi, Ltd. Method and apparatus for treatment of a battery containing alkali metal
JPH10255861A (en) * 1997-03-13 1998-09-25 Toshiba Corp Disposal method for waste
JPH10255862A (en) * 1997-03-14 1998-09-25 Toshiba Corp Valuable material separating method from lithium ion secondary battery
JP3452769B2 (en) * 1997-09-18 2003-09-29 株式会社東芝 Processing method of a battery

Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP0618633A1 (en) * 1993-04-01 1994-10-05 Hitachi, Ltd. Lithium cell treating method and lithium cell treating apparatus

Cited By (47)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20050244704A1 (en) * 2002-01-09 2005-11-03 Sloop Steven E System and method for processing an end-of-life or reduced performance energy storage and/or conversion device using a supercritical fluid
US7198865B2 (en) 2002-01-09 2007-04-03 Sloop Steven E System and method for removing an electrolyte from an energy storage and/or conversion device using a supercritical fluid
US20030186110A1 (en) * 2002-01-09 2003-10-02 Sloop Steven E. System and method for removing an electrolyte from an energy storage and/or conversion device using a supercritical fluid
US8067107B2 (en) 2002-01-09 2011-11-29 Eco-Bat Indiana, Llc System and method for processing an end-of-life or reduced performance energy storage and/or conversion device using a supercritical fluid
US8497030B2 (en) 2003-01-09 2013-07-30 Steven E. Sloop Recycling batteries having basic electrolytes
US20090286137A1 (en) * 2003-01-09 2009-11-19 Sloop Steven E Recycling Batteries Having Basic Electrolytes
US20050241943A1 (en) * 2003-06-19 2005-11-03 Kawasaki Jukogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Method and apparatus for recycling electrode material of lithium secondary battery
US7713396B2 (en) * 2003-06-19 2010-05-11 Kawasaki Jukogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Method and apparatus for recycling electrode material of lithium secondary battery
US20060133012A1 (en) * 2003-07-09 2006-06-22 Maxwell Technologies, Inc. Dry particle based capacitor and methods of making same
US7791860B2 (en) 2003-07-09 2010-09-07 Maxwell Technologies, Inc. Particle based electrodes and methods of making same
US20060146479A1 (en) * 2003-07-09 2006-07-06 Maxwell Technologies, Inc. Recyclable dry particle based adhesive electrode and methods of making same
US20060147712A1 (en) * 2003-07-09 2006-07-06 Maxwell Technologies, Inc. Dry particle based adhesive electrode and methods of making same
US7791861B2 (en) 2003-07-09 2010-09-07 Maxwell Technologies, Inc. Dry particle based energy storage device product
US7295423B1 (en) 2003-07-09 2007-11-13 Maxwell Technologies, Inc. Dry particle based adhesive electrode and methods of making same
US7342770B2 (en) * 2003-07-09 2008-03-11 Maxwell Technologies, Inc. Recyclable dry particle based adhesive electrode and methods of making same
US7352558B2 (en) 2003-07-09 2008-04-01 Maxwell Technologies, Inc. Dry particle based capacitor and methods of making same
US20080092808A1 (en) * 2003-07-09 2008-04-24 Maxwell Technologies, Inc. Dry Particle Based Adhesive Electrode and Methods of Making Same
US20080102371A1 (en) * 2003-07-09 2008-05-01 Maxwell Technologies, Inc. Dry particle based adhesive electrode and methods of making same
US8072734B2 (en) 2003-07-09 2011-12-06 Maxwell Technologies, Inc. Dry particle based energy storage device product
US7920371B2 (en) 2003-09-12 2011-04-05 Maxwell Technologies, Inc. Electrical energy storage devices with separator between electrodes and methods for fabricating the devices
US7495349B2 (en) 2003-10-20 2009-02-24 Maxwell Technologies, Inc. Self aligning electrode
US20090223630A1 (en) * 2003-10-20 2009-09-10 Maxwell Technologies, Inc. Method for Self Aligning Electrode
US7851238B2 (en) 2003-10-20 2010-12-14 Maxwell Technologies, Inc. Method for fabricating self-aligning electrode
US7935155B2 (en) 2004-02-19 2011-05-03 Maxwell Technologies, Inc. Method of manufacturing an electrode or capacitor product
US7883553B2 (en) 2004-02-19 2011-02-08 Maxwell Technologies, Inc. Method of manufacturing an electrode product
US7722686B2 (en) 2004-02-19 2010-05-25 Maxwell Technologies, Inc. Composite electrode and method for fabricating same
US7227737B2 (en) 2004-04-02 2007-06-05 Maxwell Technologies, Inc. Electrode design
US20100014215A1 (en) * 2004-04-02 2010-01-21 Maxwell Technologies, Inc. Recyclable dry particle based electrode and methods of making same
US20070196725A1 (en) * 2004-04-06 2007-08-23 Recupyl Method for the mixed recycling of lithium-based anode batteries and cells
US7820317B2 (en) * 2004-04-06 2010-10-26 Recupyl Method for the mixed recycling of lithium-based anode batteries and cells
US7169206B2 (en) 2004-04-19 2007-01-30 Umicore Battery recycling
US20050235775A1 (en) * 2004-04-19 2005-10-27 Daniel Cheret Battery recycling
EP1589121A1 (en) * 2004-04-19 2005-10-26 Umicore Battery recycling
US7245478B2 (en) 2004-08-16 2007-07-17 Maxwell Technologies, Inc. Enhanced breakdown voltage electrode
US7859826B2 (en) 2005-03-14 2010-12-28 Maxwell Technologies, Inc. Thermal interconnects for coupling energy storage devices
EP1968154A4 (en) * 2005-12-27 2011-02-16 Kawasaki Plant Systems Kabushiki Kaisha Apparatus and method for recovering valuable substance from lithium rechargeable battery
US20090272650A1 (en) * 2005-12-27 2009-11-05 Kawasaki Plant Systems Kabushiki Kaisha Apparatus and Method for Recovering Valuable Substance From Lithium Secondary Battery
EP1968154A1 (en) * 2005-12-27 2008-09-10 Kawasaki Plant Systems Kabushiki Kaisha Apparatus and method for recovering valuable substance from lithium rechargeable battery
US8518573B2 (en) 2006-09-29 2013-08-27 Maxwell Technologies, Inc. Low-inductive impedance, thermally decoupled, radii-modulated electrode core
US7811337B2 (en) 2007-02-28 2010-10-12 Maxwell Technologies, Inc. Ultracapacitor electrode with controlled sulfur content
EP2472649A4 (en) * 2009-08-28 2016-12-21 Kureha Corp Preparation method for binder solution for electrode formation in non-aqueous battery and binder solution for electrode formation in non-aqueous battery
US20120157590A1 (en) * 2009-08-28 2012-06-21 Kureha Corporation Process for Producing Non-Aqueous Battery Electrode-Forming Binder Solutions, and Non-Aqueous Battery Electrode-Forming Binder Solution
US9000076B2 (en) * 2009-08-28 2015-04-07 Kureha Corporation Process for producing non-aqueous battery electrode-forming binder solutions, and non-aqueous battery electrode-forming binder solution
CN102208706A (en) * 2011-05-04 2011-10-05 合肥国轩高科动力能源有限公司 Recycling treatment method of waste and old lithium iron phosphate battery anode materials
US9972830B2 (en) 2011-06-21 2018-05-15 Warner Babcock Institute For Green Chemistry, Llc Method for the recovery of lithium cobalt oxide from lithium ion batteries
CN105161787A (en) * 2015-08-14 2015-12-16 合肥市第四十二中学 Method for recycling polymer in waste polymer lithium-ion battery
US20180013181A1 (en) * 2016-07-07 2018-01-11 Grst International Limited Method for recycling lithium-ion battery

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
JP2002500424A (en) 2002-01-08 application
WO1999034473A1 (en) 1999-07-08 application
KR20010033420A (en) 2001-04-25 application
JP4753220B2 (en) 2011-08-24 grant
DE69809469T2 (en) 2003-08-28 grant
GB9727222D0 (en) 1998-02-25 grant
CA2313173A1 (en) 1999-07-08 application
DE69809469D1 (en) 2002-12-19 grant
EP1042842B1 (en) 2002-11-13 grant
EP1042842A1 (en) 2000-10-11 application

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US3401100A (en) Electrolytic process for concentrating carbon dioxide
US5707015A (en) Process for recovery of the constituent materials from lead acid batteries
US20070045125A1 (en) Electrochemical Cell for Production of Synthesis Gas Using Atmospheric Air and Water
US5019227A (en) Electrochemical method for producing hydrogen and sulfur
US5378329A (en) Process for the preparation of an alkaline-zinc slurry for use in batteries
US3915819A (en) Electrolytic oil purifying method
US4229271A (en) Method of recovering lead values from battery sludge
US5228958A (en) Regenerating slurries for use in zinc-air batteries
US4874483A (en) Process for the preparation of redox battery electrolyte and recovery of lead chloride
US4460442A (en) Hydrometallurgical method for recovering metal materials from spent lead-acid storage batteries
US3607407A (en) A method of purifying the electrolyte salt employed in an electrochemical cell
US20030186110A1 (en) System and method for removing an electrolyte from an energy storage and/or conversion device using a supercritical fluid
US4198475A (en) Methods and apparatus for generating heat and electrical energy from aluminum
US3280014A (en) Method of producing electricity and chemicals
US4274938A (en) Apparatus for the production of hydrogen and oxygen
Li et al. Recovery of valuable metals from spent lithium-ion batteries by ultrasonic-assisted leaching process
US6261712B1 (en) Method of reclaiming cathodic active material of lithium ion secondary battery
Pietrelli et al. Characterization and leaching of NiCd and NiMH spent batteries for the recovery of metals
US5491037A (en) Method for recovering lithium cell materials
Lee et al. Preparation of LiCoO2 from spent lithium-ion batteries
US6150050A (en) Method for recovering particulate material from electrical components
JPH1197076A (en) Method for processing battery
US5858061A (en) Process for the recovery of metals from used nickel/metal hydride storage batteries
US4547440A (en) Electrochemical cell
Bartolozzi et al. Hydrometallurgical recovery process for nickel-cadmium spent batteries

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: AEA TECHNOLOGY PLC, UNITED KINGDOM

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:LAIN, MICHAEL JOHNATHAN;REEL/FRAME:010867/0279

Effective date: 20000508

AS Assignment

Owner name: ACCENTUS PLC, UNITED KINGDOM

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:AEA TECHNOLOGY PLC;REEL/FRAME:012208/0307

Effective date: 20010910

CC Certificate of correction
FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 4

SULP Surcharge for late payment
AS Assignment

Owner name: AEA TECHNOLOGY PLC, UNITED KINGDOM

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:ACCENTUS PLC;REEL/FRAME:017718/0128

Effective date: 20060522

FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 8

AS Assignment

Owner name: UHI MILLENNIUM INSTITUTE, UNITED KINGDOM

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:AEA TECHNOLOGY PLC;REEL/FRAME:026001/0630

Effective date: 20110309

REMI Maintenance fee reminder mailed
LAPS Lapse for failure to pay maintenance fees
FP Expired due to failure to pay maintenance fee

Effective date: 20140910