US3783739A - Gun toggle mechanism with biasing means positioned in predetermined area on toggle to absorb shell explosive reactive forces - Google Patents

Gun toggle mechanism with biasing means positioned in predetermined area on toggle to absorb shell explosive reactive forces Download PDF

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US3783739A
US3783739A US3783739DA US3783739A US 3783739 A US3783739 A US 3783739A US 3783739D A US3783739D A US 3783739DA US 3783739 A US3783739 A US 3783739A
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toggle
weapon
bolt
frame
action
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W Perrine
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PIRANHA INTERNATIONAL Inc A CORP OF NV
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Assigned to KOEHMEMANN, JOHN G., 2256 W. LINDNER, #29, MESA, AZ reassignment KOEHMEMANN, JOHN G., 2256 W. LINDNER, #29, MESA, AZ LICENSE (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: PERRINE, WALTER E.
Assigned to PIRANHA INTERNATIONAL, INC., A CORP. OF NV reassignment PIRANHA INTERNATIONAL, INC., A CORP. OF NV ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST. Assignors: KOEHNEMANN, JOHN G.
Assigned to W S DEVELOPMENT INC., 7702 W. COLLEGE DR., PHOENIX, AZ 85033 A CORP. OF ARIZONA reassignment W S DEVELOPMENT INC., 7702 W. COLLEGE DR., PHOENIX, AZ 85033 A CORP. OF ARIZONA ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST. Assignors: PERRINE, WALTER E.
Assigned to PERRINE, WALTER E. reassignment PERRINE, WALTER E. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST. Assignors: W S DEVELOPMENT, INC.
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F41WEAPONS
    • F41AFUNCTIONAL FEATURES OR DETAILS COMMON TO BOTH SMALLARMS AND ORDNANCE, e.g. CANNONS; MOUNTINGS FOR SMALLARMS OR ORDNANCE
    • F41A3/00Breech mechanisms, e.g. locks
    • F41A3/12Bolt action, i.e. the main breech opening movement being parallel to the barrel axis
    • F41A3/36Semi-rigid bolt locks, i.e. having locking elements movably mounted on the bolt or on the barrel or breech housing
    • F41A3/50Toggle-joint locks, e.g. crank-operated

Abstract

A toggle action pistol in which a toggle is tripped to recede into its handle by the effects of gas pressure generated at the time of firing and employing a toggle biasing means in a given area on the toggle mechanism for absorbing shell explosive reactive forces.

Description

Unite States Patent Perrine Jan. 8, 1974 GUN TOGGLE MECHANISM WITH 1,322,053 11/1919 Reising 89/199 BIASING MEANS POSITIONED IN 3:3

- e s PREDETERMINED AREA 0N TOGGLE To 472,377 4/1892 Mallen 89/175 ABSORB SHELL EXPLOSIVE REACTIVE FORCES Trabue 89/199 FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 333,662 3/1921 Germany 89/189 328,013 10/1920 Germany 89/189 Primary ExaminerStephen C. Bentley Attorney-Warren F. B. Lindsley [57] ABSTRACT A toggle action pistol in which a toggle is tripped to recede into its handle by the effects of gas pressure for absorbing shell explosive reactive forces.

12 Claims, 8 Drawing Figures PATENTEDJAR 8 1974 [AWE/V702 Warm E. PEER/M6 ATTORNEY PATENTEDJAH 81974 34783739 11V V5 702 ML 7512 5. Paw/v5 ATYUZIVEY GUN TOGGLE MECHANISM WITH BIASING MEANS POSITIONED IN PREDETERMINED AREA ON TOGGLE TO ABSORB SHELL EXPLOSIVE REACTIVE FORCES BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention pertains to toggle action weapons, and is particularly directed to means for causing a blow back toggle to recede into the handle of the pistol by gas pressure generated at the time of firing and employing a toggle biasing means in a given area on the toggle mechanism to absorb blow back forces.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION This invention is particularly directed to toggle action weapons such as pistols wherein a bolt extending toggle is tripped from a locked position by gas pressure from the gun barrel when the gun is fired. The toggle is caused to recede into the handle of the pistol to offset the effects of firing recoil and is biased toward its locked position by a spring means bearing in a given area on the toggle.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PRIOR ART Heretofore, the majority of all toggle actuated weapons of this class have been recoil operated, thus lending their complexity to a degree of inefficiency that was not acceptable to the public or to the military market. Further, all prior small and hand-held weapons, pistols, revolvers and submachine guns have been limited to the use of small, low energy pistol ammunition, and were limited as to size, weight, chamber pressure and velocity of the projectile.

Under-center and over-center toggles in toggle action weapons can be made to work efficiently and lock permanently when properly designed. These weapons, including pistols, can be designed to use high chamber pressure ammunition, i.e., heavy charged ammunition, and to use it effectively in short barreled guns if the toggles are biased properly in a given manner.

Heretofore it was thought necessary to use an overcenter toggle if heavily charged ammunition was to be used efficiently. In fact, it has been found that heavily charged bullets can be used effectively in a short barreled gun having slightly under-center toggle locking mechanism because the toggle has a shorter distance to move before it collapses than does a similar over-center toggle action weapon, and accordingly its rate of repetetive operation or cycle of operation is of a shorter time thanheretofore possible with the overcenter toggle action weapons.

When comparing the under-center toggle action weapon to the known blow back and hesitation lock types of toggle action weapons the disclosed mechanism is a little slower than the blow back type of triggering toggle action weapon described in U. S. Pat. No. 3,630,119, entitled Gas Operated Toggle Action Weapon and the hesitation type weapon described in U. S. Pat. No. 3,709,091 entitled Adjustable Hesitation Blow Back Operated Gun Toggle Mechanism, both granted to Walter E. Perrine.

In accordance with the invention claimed herein, a new and improved toggle mechanism is disclosed which can be used effectively in any given mechanism to absorb the effects of the shell explosive forces, whether using an undercenter toggle, over-center toggle, or any variation thereof. The new and improved weapons employing such a toggle mechanism is disclosed which can be used effectively in any given mechanism to absorb the effects of the shell explosive forces. whether using an under-center toggle, over-center toggle, or any variation thereof. The new and improved weapons employing such a toggle mechanism utilize gun barrel pressure to drive the biased toggle from its locked position to its tripped position. At the time this happens the bullet has left the barrel of the gun and the residual pressure in the gun breaks or collapses the toggle and causes the toggle to move to its fully retracted position in the handle of the weapon. Recoil springs in the gun reacting on the toggle in a particular area or spot on the toggle arms return the toggle to a predetermined locked position.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In accordance with the invention claimed, an improved toggle action weapon is provided which is locked in a given position and triggered by gas pressure generated in its gun barrel.

It is, therefore, one object of this invention to provide an improved toggle action weapon, whether of the undercenter or over-center type, in which gas pressure generated in a gun barrel is needed to trip the toggle, causing it to recede to a retracted position in the handle of the weapon.

Another object of this invention is to provide an improved toggle action weapon biased to a given position by spring means engaging the toggle in a particular area on the toggle mechanism.

A further object of this invention is to provide a weapon with a toggle design such that it can utilize high chamber pressure ammunition.

A still further object of this invention is to provide a weapon having a collapsible toggle mechanism tripped by pressure generated in the gun barrel which controls the breech pressure at the time of opening so as to eliminate or greatly reduce residual pressure at the time the breech opens.

A still further object of this invention is to provide an adjustably positioned toggle mechanism for a weapon that employs a biasing means reacting against the toggle in a predetermined position so that it is dynamically balanced to accomplish a smooth, consistent, and continuous pressure throughout the movement of the bolt after tripping, in which the line of force from the moving parts is directed to the palm of the hand, thereby virtually eliminating all noticeable recoil.

Further objects and advantages of the invention will become apparent as the following description proceeds and the features of novelty which characterize this invention will be pointed out with particularity in the claims annexed to and forming a part of this specification.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a sectional view of a gas operated toggle action weapon incorporating the features of this invention;

FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view taken on the line 2-2 of FIG. 11;

FIG. 3 is a sectional view schematically showing the toggle of the gun shown in FIG. I in a toggle breaking position;

FIG. 4 is a sectional view similar to FIG. 3 of the weapon shown in FIG. 1 in toggle collapsed position;

FIG. 5 is a top view of a modification of the weapon shown in FIGS. 1-4 wherein a piston actuated toggle actuating wedge collapses the toggle as a result of the explosive forces of the shell;

FIG. 6 is a front view of the weapon shown in FIG.

FIG. 7 is a further modification of the weapon shown in FIGS. 1-4 wherein an under-center hesitation locking mechanism is employed to control the bolt which mechanism is controlled by the explosive effects of the shells; and

FIG. 8 is a further modification of the weapon shown in FIGS. 1-4 employing an over-center toggle gas actuated mechanism.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT FIGS. 1-4 illustrate an example of one embodiment of this invention similar to the gun illustrated in U.S. Pat. No. 3,630,119. More particularly FIGS. 1 and 2 illustrate a pistol having a frame 10, handle 11, trigger 12 with trigger guard 13, and a bullet magazine 14. A demountable adjustably positioned barrel 15 has a rear end diameter portion 16 which is received in the semicircular bore 18 in the front end of frame 10. An elongated clamp 20 is pivotally mounted on a suitable hinge screw 21 secured in the frame so that the clamp 20 can swing outwardly. Reference is made to the US. Pat. No. 3,630,119 for more detail of this structure. The outer end of clamp 20 is provided with a mating semi-circular bore and groove to match bore 18 to grip the diameter portion 16 to secure the gun barrel in firing position on frame 10.

The bullet magazine 14 is demountably secured by the usual releasable latch in a guide sleeve 27 of frame 10 to feed the bullets 28 into insertion and firing position by the usual bolt 29, which moves on the guide keys 30 in appropriate guide slots 31 and 32 in the frame 10 and clamp 20. The rear end of the bolt 29 is pivotally connected by a pivot pin 34 carried in the front end of the front link 35, the rear end of which is pivotally connected by a pivot pin 36 to the front end of the rear link 37, in turn pivotally connected by a pivot pin 38 carried in the rear portion of the frame 10 to thus provide a toggle 35-37 for controlling the movement of the bolt 29.

Normally, when the bullet 28 has been loaded in the barrel in firing position, the toggle 35-37 is aligned, as shown in full line in FIG. 1, at which time the axis 40 of pin 36 is slightly below a line between the axes 41 and 42 of pins 34 and 38 so that the toggle 35-37 is in an under-center locked position as shown in full line in FIG. 1. A compression spring 44 is carried on a push rod 45 slidingly supported in a clearance hole 46 in a baffle 47 in the handle 11 and pivotally connected by a pin 48 to the link 37, the compression spring 44 operating between the baffle 47 and a flange 49 of the push rod 45 to normally yieldingly hold the toggle 35-37 against flat surface 39 in under-center locked firing position of the gun.

The toggle 35-37 is tripped from under-center locked position by gas pressure from the gun barrel when the gun is fired.

A gas tube 50 is provided which communicates between a port 51 in the gun barrel l5 and a chamber 52 arranged at the back or handle end of the weapon immediately above the under-center toggle 35-37. Chamher 52 contains an opening or orifice 53 directly above.

the under-center toggle so that gas under pressure from the gun barrel can be communicated directly to the under-center toggle.

If desired, a pocket (not shown) may be formed in one of the links of the over-center toggle such as link 37 to form a means for holding or controlling the gas under pressure used to trip the toggle mechanism, although this pocket is not needed since gas under pressure in tube 50 will trip the under-center toggle without the pocket indentation.

As shown in the drawing, a compression spring 61 is arranged between a shoulder 62, formed around a bore 63 defined in a protruding lug 64 of bolt 29 and a ridge 62a formed in a bore 65 defined by frame 10 and clamp 20. Lug 64 is shown as being integral with bolt 29.

When bullet 28 is fired gas under pressure in barrel 15 is driven through port 51, tube 50, chamber 52 and its orifice 53 to link 37 of the over-center toggle tripping the toggle, causing it to start to retract to its position shown in the handle of the pistol in FIG. 3.

At the time bullet 28 is fired and leaves the barrel l5 and is on its way to its target, residual pressure existing in a chamber 58 will drive bolt 29 backwards with sufficient force to complete the travel of the toggle mechanism 35-37 sufi'lcient to move the center pin 36 and force it to complete its downward travel to its lowest point down inside the handle 11 of the gun against the bias of compression spring 44, as shown in FIG. 4.

The inertia of the bolt 29 continues rearwardly, compressing the recoil compression spring 61 until the end of the lug 64 engages a stop surface 67 of the frame 10. The bolt 29 and toggle 35-37are returned to their original positions by the stored-up energy in the two springs 44 and 61. This completes the firing cycle and prepares the gun for the second firing, having picked up an additional bullet 28 from the clip magazine and placed it in the chamber when the bolt returned to its original position by well known conventional mechanism.

In order to trip the toggle 35-37 to load the first bul-' let into the gun, a manual lever 70, as shown in FIGS. 5 and 6, may be provided on the gun shown in FIG. 1 which, when rotated by the operator clockwise against the action of a spring, contacts the under-center toggle 35-37, causing it to trip far enough to allow the operator to move the bolt 29 back sufficiently to allow a bullet 28 from the clip magazine 14 to enter the chamber of the gun for the first firing action. Upon collapse of the toggle, bolt 29 is moved rearwardly by the operator pulling on rod 72, shown in FIG. 2.

As shown in FIGS. 1-4, the toggle 35-37, when in the under-center locked position and in its collapsed position, causes very little lateral movement of push rod 45 so that most of the action of compressions spring 44 acts longitudinally of the length of push rod 45 to take substantially full advantage of its expansion and contraction forces for moving the toggle to its locked and unlocked positions. This type of action aids in absorbing the reaction forces or kick of the weapon upon explosion of the bullets used in the weapon.

FIG. 1 illustrated toggle 35-37 in its extended undercenter locked position being forced there by compreschamber 52 to the top of toggle 35-37. This results in the collapse of the toggle to the position shown in FIG. 3. Spring 61 is compressed absorbing the initial kick back force in a direction longitudinally of bolt 29. The toggle now being tripped, link 37 of toggle 35-37 is moved to a position substantially at right angles to link 35 and push rod 45 as shown in FIG. 3, with link 35 and push rod 45 being substantially coaxially aligned. At this point in the recoil action, the result of the forces compressing springs 61 and 45 is directed substantially in a direction along the longitudinal axis of spring 44 and rod 45. Thus, at the moment of the greatest kick back force all of the pressure is directed along the longitudinal axis of spring 44.

Further compression of springs 61 and 44 results in the toggle 35-37 collapsing, causing link 37 to form an acute angle with link 35, as shown in FIG. 4. The complete collapse of the toggle occurs after the largest portion of the reactive forces has been absorbed by link 37 when at substantial right angles to link 35 and rod 45.

It should be noted that when spring 61 is most effective in its compression cycle it is substantially aligned with link 35 and when spring 44 is most effective in its compression cycle it is coaxially aligned with link 35 and link 37 is perpendicular to link 35. This arrangement greatly reduced the effect of kick back on the holder of the weapon.

In FIGS. 5 and 6 a weapon 10' employing a piston actuated toggle collapsing wedge is shown and is disclosed in more detail in U. S. Pat. No. 3,630,119 referred to above, and is similar to weapon 10 shown in FIGS. 1-4. Like parts of a substantially similar configuration to weapon 10 are provided with the same reference characters as in FIGS. 5 and 6 but identified with a prime symbol.

Normally, when bullet 28 has been loaded in the barrel in firing position the toggle 3537' is aligned as shown in full lines in FIG. 6, with the top surface 37a up against the locating abutment surface 39' of the frame 10 at which time the axis 40 is slightly above a line 36a between the axes 41 and 42' of pins 34' and 38 so that the toggle 3537 is in an over-center locked position as shown in full line in FIG. 6. Compression spring 44' as in FIGS. 1-4 is carried on a push rod 45 slidingly supported in a clearance hole 46 in abaffle 47 in the handle 11 and pivotally connected by a pin 48 to the link 37', the compressionspring 44' operating between the baffle 47' and a flange 4 9 of the push rod 45' to normally yieldingly hold the toggle 35'-37 in over-center locked firing position of the gun.

The toggle 35-37' is tripped from over-center locked position by gas pressure from the gunbarrel when the gun is fired. One example of such mechanism may comprise an actuating cam 73 connected to a piston rod 74 slidably mounted in an elongated cylinder bore 75 formed in the clamp which bore 75 in turn is in communication through a port 76 in the clamp 20' and an aligned port 77 in the gun barrel 15 A tension spring 78 connected between an anchor pin 79in the frame 10' and the actuating cam 73 in retracted position as shown in full line in FIG. 6. When the cam 73 moves rearwardly from gas pressure from the gun barrel in cylinder bore 75, the sloping cam surface 80 engages the pin 36' to push the pin downwardly below the line 36a to break dead center for the toggle 35'37'.

At the time this happens, the bullet 28 has left the barrel 15 and is on its way to its target. The force still remaining in the inertia of the piston rod 74 and the cam 73 plus the residual pressure still existing in the chamber 81 continues to drive the piston rod 74 and bolt 29' with sufficient force to complete the travel of the piston rod, activating the cam to its rearmo'st travel position 82 against stop pin 83 sufficient to move the center pin 36' and force it to complete its downward travel along the arcuate path 84 to its lowermost point 85 down inside the handle 11 of the gun, compressing spring 44'.

The inertia of the bolt 29' continues rearwardly, compressing the recoil compression spring 61' acting between the bolt 29' and the frame 10 of the gun until the bolt engages the frame. At that time, spring 78 returns the piston rod 74 and cam 73 forwardly to retracted position shown in full line in FIG. 6. The bolt 29' and toggle 35'37' are returned to their original po sitions by the stored-up energy in the two springs 44' and 61'. This completes the firing cycle and prepares the gun for the second firing, having picked up an additional bullet 28 from the clip magazine and placed it in the chamber when the bolt returned to its original position by well known conventional mechanism.

FIG. 7 illustrates a hesitation blow back operated toggle mechanism for a weapon 10" which is simiar to weapons 10 and 10 shown in FIGS. 1-6 and wherein like parts of a substantially similar configuration are provided with the same reference characters identified with a double prime symbol. For a more detailed illustration and explanation of the weapon reference is made to U. S. Pat. No. 3,709,091.

As described in U. S. Pat. No. 3,709,091, the bullet magazine 14 is demountably secured by the usual releasable latch in the guide sleeve 27" of the frame 10" to feed the bullets 28 into insertion and firing position by the usual bolt 29 which moves on guide keys in appropriate guide slots in frame 10'. The rear end of bolt 29" is pivotally connected by a pivot pin 34" carried in the front end of the front link 35", the rear end of which is pivotally connected by a pivot pin 36" to the front end of the rear link 37", in turn pivotally connected by a pivot pin 38" carried in the rear portion of the frame 10 to thus provide a toggle 35"37" for controlling the movement of the bolt 29".

Normally, when the bullet 28 has been loaded in the barrel in firing position, the toggle 3537 is aligned, as shown in full line in FIG. 7, with the top surface 37a" up against an adjustable locating abutment means 39" threadedly mounted in frame 10'', at which time the axis 40" of pin 37 is slightly below a line between the axes 411" and 42" of pins 34" and 38" so that the toggle 35-37" is in an under-center locked position as shown in full line in FIG. 7. A compression spring 44" is carried on a push rod 45" slidingly supported in a clearance hole 46" in a bafile 47" in the handle 11" and pivotally connected by a pin 48" to the link 37", the compression spring 44" operating between the baffle 47 and a flange 49" of the push rod 45" to normally yieldingly hold the toggle 35"37" against adjustment means 39" in under-center locked firing position of the gun.

The toggle 35"37" is tripped from under-center locked position by gas pressure from the gun barrel when the gun is fired.

In accordance with the invention claimed the adjustment locating means 39" comprises an adjustment screw which makes it possible to hold the toggle 35"-37" in one of a number of under-center toggle positions and to hold that position until gas pressure from the firing of the gun causes the toggle to recede into the handle.

As shown in the drawings a compression spring 61" is arranged between a shoulder 62", formed around a bore 63 defined in a protruding lug 64 of bolt 29" and a ridge 62a" formed in a bore 65 defined by frame 10''. Lug 64" is shown as being integral with bolt 29".

At the time bullet 28 is fired and leaves the barrel and is on its way to its target residual pressure existing in a chamber 58" will drive bolt 29" backward with sufficient force to complete the travel of the toggle mechanism "-37 sufficiently to move the center pin 36" and force it to complete its downward travel to its lowest point 60" down inside the handle 11" of the gun against the bias of compressing spring 44".

The inertia of the bolt 29 continues rearwardly compressing the recoil compression spring 61" until the end of the lug 64" engages a stop surface 67" of the frame 10''. The bolt 29" and toggle 35"-37" are returned to their original positions by the stored-up energy in the two springs 44" and 61". This completes the firing cycle and prepares the gun for the second firing, having picked up an additional bullet 28 from the clip magazine and placed it in the chamber when the bolt returned to its original position by well known conventional mechanism.

FIG. 8 illustrates an over-center toggle actuated weapon 10" wherein like parts of a substantially similar configuration with those shown in FIGS. 14 are provided with. the same reference characters identified with a triple prime symbol. In this weapon the toggle 35"'-37"' is actuated as in FIGS. l-4 by gas under pressure from the exploding shell conducted through port 51", gas tube 50", chamber 52" and through orifice 53" to link 37" of the toggle mechanism in the same manner as in FIGS. 1-4.

It should be noted that applicant has disclosed in FIGS. 1 through 8 a gas actuated toggle mechanism for weapons, some of which are locked in an over-center position and others in an under-center position.

In the over-center locked position as shown in FIG. 8, the toggle mechanism is particularly suitable for rifles and high-powered bullets, 30 caliber machine guns and so forth, and also 3.08 automatic rifles. In the under-center toggle locked position of the weapons disclosed, the toggle mechanism may be more quickly collapsed than in the over-center locked position; therefore one advantage of the under-center locked type of weapon is that this type of toggle mechanism can be used effectively with weapons having shorter barrel lengths and still achieve the efficiency as with a long barrel and an over-center locked toggle mechanism.

Where the over-center and under-center toggle mechalapse and absorb the explosive forces of the shell during firing and the reloading cycle of the weapon.

Therefore, a need exists for both the under-center and over-center toggle mechanism called a hesitation lock, well known in the art.

When properly designed the under-center toggle mechanism operates as effectively and locks as permanently as an over-center toggle mechanism.

One important common characteristic about properly designed over-center, under-center and hesitation lock toggle mechanisms for weapon use and particularly those employed in pistol type guns, is the proper placing of the springs used to absorb the exploding shell recoil action of the weapon.

I-Ieretofore, springs placed in the weapon to bias the toggle into its extended position had difficulty in placing the toggle and the bullet in the magazine in an identical position each time the weapon was fired. If a spring was positioned in the gun so as to be longitudinally arranged with the bolt of the weapon, the spring was then capable of driving the bullet forward into the chamber of the gun hard enough to seat it properly, but it was not in a favorable position for absorbing recoil of the weapon or to aid in positioning the toggle in its properly extended position each and every cycle of gun actuation. Thus, if only a single spring was used longitudinally of the toggle mechanism, the toggle, whether it was an under-center or over-center mechanism, usually sagged a bit, and if there was any friction in the operation of the moving parts, the sag prevented the bullet from being seated identically in the same position each time. Springs mounted to operate on the knee of the toggle arranged transversely to the longitudinal axis of the toggle failed also to seat the bullet each and every time and particularly were not in the most favorable position for absorbing recoil of the exploding shell.

Therefore, it is necessary to construct a toggle mechanism featuring springs that are dynamically balanced to operate in conjunction and combination with each other. The dynamic balance obtained by the use of a pair of springs properly positioned to absorb the recoil of the exploding shell as well as control the operation of the collapsing and extending of the toggle mechanism is an important feature of the new and improved weapons disclosed in this application. The pair of springs disclosed in each of the weapons shown in the figures of the drawing achieve a dynamic balance. The bottom spring 44 in each weapon illustrated pushes up against the toggle joint, premanently securing the bolt in identically the same position each and every firing cycle so that the bolt is always identically placed with the same identical pressure on it each time the weapons are discharged. This provides a consistency in the explosive and reactive reaction operation of the bolt in its forward and rearward movements each and every time it is actuated. As springs 44-44' are compressed during an explosive action of a shell, they recede into the handle of the weapon, becoming less and less effective, due to the angles and the change of angles of the toggle arms. Initially it absorbs a tremendous amount of recoil because of its position and later becomes almost totally ineffective when the toggle has reached a certain position. At this point, where the springs 44-44' become ineffective, the toggle still continues to go rearward and the top springs 61-61' compress and store up energy for the initial return of the bolt to the toggle extended position. In fact, springs 61-61 generally have more force than is necessary to drive the cartridge carriage of the exploded shell out of the gun and to push forward a new shell into the chamber. When springs 61-61' become less effective after being extended in their effort to drive'the bolt back to the toggle extended position, the lower springs 44-44 accelerate and add to the effort of the top spring sufficient energy to drive forward the bolt 29 and to lock it permanently in position through the proper positioning of the toggle arms of the toggle mechanism. This is accomplished identically the same each and every cycle of the firing of the weapon.

Heretofore, either one or two springs have been used to aid in positioning the toggle, but in each and every instance the springs were so designed that they .did not exert this dynamic balance that applicant has achieved through his weapon design, and accordingly did not close the weapon in the same identical position each and every time.

Thus, in order to provide a toggle actuated mechanism which is of the ideal configuration for use in under-center, over-center or hesitation lock weapons, the toggle arms of the toggle linkage must be of specific lengths so that when the springs 44-44' and 61-61' act on them the proper collapsing effect occurs in such a manner as to totally absorb the recoil of the exploding shell. As shown in the Figures of the drawing, the toggle mechanism comprises two movable links 35 and 37, 35' and 37, 35" and 37", and 35 and -37"', which are of given lengths so that when the toggle mechanisms have reached their midpoint in their collapsing action, the toggle arms 37, 37', 37" and 37" are at substantial right anglesto the other arm of each toggle mechanism, i.e. 35, 35', 35" and 35" At this instance it is also desirable that the springs 44-44' are positioned such that they are at right angles to the toggle arm 37,37, 37" and 37".

In order to so design the toggle mechanisms shown in FIGS. 1-8 so that this collapsing feature exists in each of the guns shown, the longer linkage arm, i.e., 37, 37 37" and 37", must be of sufficient length so that the bolt may move backward into the rear of the gun a distance equal to the feed ramp .of the mechanism plus the length of the bullet plus sufficient distance to feed a new bullet into the chamber. In a given weapon, one linkage of the toggle mechanism is equal to a feed ramp (0.400 inches) plus the bullet (1.169 inches) and the distance necessary to feed a new bullet into the chamber (0.125 inches). The total linkage, then, is 1.694 inches. The second toggle arm of the linkage comprises a link which is the length of the linkage arm above defined times 0.707 inches. Thus, if a toggle mechanism is made of the above defined linkage lengths and so arranged in a toggle actuated weapon so that springs 44-44' are atsubstantial right angles to the toggle mechanisms when they have reached substantially midway in their collapsing operation, the toggles will be effective for absorbing substantially total recoil or kick.

back of the weapon, regardless of whether they are used in an over-center, under-center or hesitation lock mechanism. Additionally, in either of these gun weapon designs, springs 61-61 should be arranged such that they effectively operate on the bolt in a direction longitudinally to the longitudinal axis of the bolt travel.

Reference is made to FIG. 3 of the drawing wherein the toggle is shown in its mid position during a collapsing operation, showing arm 37 of the toggle linkage mechanism to be at substantial right angles to arm 35 of the mechanism, with spring 44 operating on the knee of the toggle in a direction substantially perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of link 37. The disclosed mechanism results in the recoil force being directed into the palm of the hand of the holder of the weapon, which force is then absorbed by spring 44. Part of the recoil force is absorbed by the top spring 61.

Recoil is generated at the instant the bullet moves from its case through the barrel and out the gun. As bolts 29, 29, 29" and 29" move backward in the weapon, springs 61, 61, 61" and 61" absorb part of the force, the remainder of the force being directed into the handle of the weapon and absorbed by springs 44, 44', 44 and 44'.

Heretofore in weapons of the type disclosed, the toggle mechanism acted as a locking device, and when collapsed the recoil had to be absorbed by the bolt as it struck an abutting surface at the rear of the weapon. The bolt would come to a dead stop at the rear of the weapon, thereby transmitting the recoil of the exploding shell to the holder of the weapon. In the FIGS. 1-8 the weapons shown absorb part of the recoil in the handle of the gun, and this is absorbed by springs 44, 44, 44" and 44". These springs are so situated that they work effectively during the recoil action by being compressed into the handle of the gun after the springs 61, 61', 61" and 61" have provided their full shock absorbing action.

Although the toggles of the weapons shown in FIGS. 1-8 are triggered initially to collapse in different manners, as described, the force of the bolt moving back under the action of the exploding shell causes collapse of the toggle.

In any of these mechanisms, the toggle after it collapses transmits force to the holder of the weapon. In the weapons set forth in FIGS. 1-8, this force is absorbed by a combination of the springs 44-44' and 61-61, as heretofore described. The new and improved toggle actuated weapon disclosed employs a novel toggle mechanism of a certain geometrical configuration so biased by a combination of springs that substantially full recoil is absorbed by the weapon without distorting the gun causing a deflection of the weapon under the action of the explosive shell.

It should be noted that the toggle size can be identified by the characteristic of the gun. For example, it has been noted that if the length of the feed ramp of the gun is added to the length of the bullet plus a distance sufiicient to feed a new bullet into the gun, this distance will result in the length of'link 37 of the toggle. Link 35 will then be 0.707 times that distance.

Although buta few embodiments of the invention have been shown and claimed, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that various changes and modifications may be made therein without departing from the spirit of invention or from the scope of the appended claims.

I claim:

1. A gas operated toggle action weapon comprising:

a frame,

a handle on the frame,

a barrel having a firing chamber,

a bolt movable in the frame axially to and from the firing chamber of the gun barrel,

a toggle interconnected between the bolt and the frame,

said toggle comprising a pair of pivotally connected links, the free end of one of said links being pivotally connected to said bolt and the free end of the other of said links being pivotally connected to said frame, said toggle being movable to a locked position when said bolt has been moved to said firing chamber,

a first compression means for controlling the movement of said toggle as it collapses by causing the intermediate pivot axis to swing downwardly away from said bolt, saod compression means comprising a push rod pivotally mounted on said toggle at a point between its ends and slidably mounted for movement transversely of said bolt, and a first spring means mounted on said push rod between a fixed flange in said handle and a fixed flange on said push rod for compression of said spring means during movement of said push rod upon collapsing of said toggle, said first spring means biasing said toggle to its locked position after a collapsing action of said toggle,

a second compression means mounted on said frame for controlling the movement of said toggle as it collapses, said second compression means comprising a second spring means mounted between said frame and said bolt for compression upon movement of said bolt during collapsing of said toggle, said second spring means biasing said bolt toward said firing chamber after a collapsing action of said toggle,

said second spring means extending longitudinally of said bolt and compressing immediately upon collapsing of said toggle to absorb a portion of the reactive force of an exploding shell in the weapon, said first spring means compressing to absorb another portion of said reactive force upon the further collapsing action of said toggle,

said links being of predetermined length so that they are perpendicular to each other, and said first spring means being longitudinally positioned with said one of said links when said toggle is partially collapsed to thereby distort said reactive force transversely to the longitudinal axis of said bolt.

2. The gas operated toggle action weapon set forth in claim I wherein said one of said links is 0.707 times the length of said other of said links.

3. The gas operated toggle action weapon set forth in claim 1 wherein said first spring means is substantially perpendicular with said other of said links when said links are perpendicular to each other, said links when perpendicular to each other causing said reactive forces to be distorted transversely to said bolt into the handle of said weapon.

4. A gas operated toggle action weapon set forth in claim 1 wherein the intermediate pivot axis of said toggle swings downwardly within the handle of the weapon.

5. A gas operated toggle action weapon set forth in claim 1 wherein a gas operated actuating device movable on the frame is arranged to actuate and release the toggle from its locked position by gas pressure developed in the barrel by firing of the weapon.

6. A gas operated toggle action weapon set forth in claim 1 wherein a gas operated mechanism for tripping the toggle from its locked position comprises a cylinder bore in the frame in communication with the gun barrel bore, a piston rod reciprocatable in the cylinder bore having cam means to engage an intermediate point of the toggle.

7. A gas operated toggle action weapon as set forth in claim 1 in further combination with conduit means interconnecting the interior of said hollow barrel with a zone immediately adjacent said toggle for transmitting gas under pressure in said barrel during firing to said zone for releasing said toggle from its locked position.

8. A toggle action gun as set forth in claim 1 wherein said push rod is pivotally mounted on said toggle and arranged to move substantially parallel with the longitudinal axis of the handle during movement of said toggle.

9. A toggle action weapon as set forth in claim 1 wherein said first and second compression spring means bias said toggle to an under-center locked position after a toggle collapsing operation slightly below a line between the pivotal connection of the toggle on the bolt and on the frame when said weapon is in operative position.

10. The toggle action weapon set forth in claim 1 wherein said first and second compression spring means bias said toggle to an over-center locked position after a toggle collapsing operation slightly above a line between the pivotal connection of the toggle on the bolt and on the frame when said weapon is in operative position.

11. The toggle action weapon set forth in claim 1 wherein said toggle is characterized by an under-center hesitation locked position slightly below a line between the outer pivot axes of the toggle on the bolt and on the frame when the weapon is in operative position.

12. The toggle action weapon set forth in claim 1 wherein said second spring means drives said bolt back to said firing chamber during a shell loading operation and said first spring means places said toggle in locked position.

Claims (12)

1. A gas operated toggle action weapon comprising: a frame, a handle on the frame, a barrel having a firing chamber, a bolt movable in the frame axially to and from the firing chamber of the gun barrel, a toggle interconnected between the bolt and the frame, said toggle coMprising a pair of pivotally connected links, the free end of one of said links being pivotally connected to said bolt and the free end of the other of said links being pivotally connected to said frame, said toggle being movable to a locked position when said bolt has been moved to said firing chamber, a first compression means for controlling the movement of said toggle as it collapses by causing the intermediate pivot axis to swing downwardly away from said bolt, saod compression means comprising a push rod pivotally mounted on said toggle at a point between its ends and slidably mounted for movement transversely of said bolt, and a first spring means mounted on said push rod between a fixed flange in said handle and a fixed flange on said push rod for compression of said spring means during movement of said push rod upon collapsing of said toggle, said first spring means biasing said toggle to its locked position after a collapsing action of said toggle, a second compression means mounted on said frame for controlling the movement of said toggle as it collapses, said second compression means comprising a second spring means mounted between said frame and said bolt for compression upon movement of said bolt during collapsing of said toggle, said second spring means biasing said bolt toward said firing chamber after a collapsing action of said toggle, said second spring means extending longitudinally of said bolt and compressing immediately upon collapsing of said toggle to absorb a portion of the reactive force of an exploding shell in the weapon, said first spring means compressing to absorb another portion of said reactive force upon the further collapsing action of said toggle, said links being of predetermined length so that they are perpendicular to each other, and said first spring means being longitudinally positioned with said one of said links when said toggle is partially collapsed to thereby distort said reactive force transversely to the longitudinal axis of said bolt.
2. The gas operated toggle action weapon set forth in claim 1 wherein said one of said links is 0.707 times the length of said other of said links.
3. The gas operated toggle action weapon set forth in claim 1 wherein said first spring means is substantially perpendicular with said other of said links when said links are perpendicular to each other, said links when perpendicular to each other causing said reactive forces to be distorted transversely to said bolt into the handle of said weapon.
4. A gas operated toggle action weapon set forth in claim 1 wherein the intermediate pivot axis of said toggle swings downwardly within the handle of the weapon.
5. A gas operated toggle action weapon set forth in claim 1 wherein a gas operated actuating device movable on the frame is arranged to actuate and release the toggle from its locked position by gas pressure developed in the barrel by firing of the weapon.
6. A gas operated toggle action weapon set forth in claim 1 wherein a gas operated mechanism for tripping the toggle from its locked position comprises a cylinder bore in the frame in communication with the gun barrel bore, a piston rod reciprocatable in the cylinder bore having cam means to engage an intermediate point of the toggle.
7. A gas operated toggle action weapon as set forth in claim 1 in further combination with conduit means interconnecting the interior of said hollow barrel with a zone immediately adjacent said toggle for transmitting gas under pressure in said barrel during firing to said zone for releasing said toggle from its locked position.
8. A toggle action gun as set forth in claim 1 wherein said push rod is pivotally mounted on said toggle and arranged to move substantially parallel with the longitudinal axis of the handle during movement of said toggle.
9. A toggle action weapon as set forth in claim 1 wherein said first and second compression spring means bias said toggle to an under-center locked position after a Toggle collapsing operation slightly below a line between the pivotal connection of the toggle on the bolt and on the frame when said weapon is in operative position.
10. The toggle action weapon set forth in claim 1 wherein said first and second compression spring means bias said toggle to an over-center locked position after a toggle collapsing operation slightly above a line between the pivotal connection of the toggle on the bolt and on the frame when said weapon is in operative position.
11. The toggle action weapon set forth in claim 1 wherein said toggle is characterized by an under-center hesitation locked position slightly below a line between the outer pivot axes of the toggle on the bolt and on the frame when the weapon is in operative position.
12. The toggle action weapon set forth in claim 1 wherein said second spring means drives said bolt back to said firing chamber during a shell loading operation and said first spring means places said toggle in locked position.
US3783739D 1971-12-07 1971-12-07 Gun toggle mechanism with biasing means positioned in predetermined area on toggle to absorb shell explosive reactive forces Expired - Lifetime US3783739A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

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US20553371A true 1971-12-07 1971-12-07

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US (1) US3783739A (en)
JP (1) JPS4876398A (en)
AR (1) AR193552A1 (en)
BE (1) BE792340A (en)
BR (1) BR7208563D0 (en)
CA (1) CA972197A (en)
CH (1) CH566536A5 (en)
DE (1) DE2255289A1 (en)
ES (1) ES409008A1 (en)
FR (1) FR2164335A5 (en)
GB (1) GB1389718A (en)
IL (1) IL40987A (en)
IT (1) IT973926B (en)
NO (1) NO136316C (en)
SE (1) SE397725B (en)

Cited By (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4467698A (en) * 1981-11-16 1984-08-28 Perrine Walter E Angular shape firing pin for use with a collapsible toggle recoil in a hand held weapon
US4471549A (en) * 1980-07-14 1984-09-18 The Secretary Of State For Defence In Her Britannic Majesty's Government Of The United Kingdom Of Great Britain And Northern Ireland Actuating mechanisms for small arms
US4719841A (en) * 1986-08-18 1988-01-19 Perrine Walter E Trigger release mechanisms for full and semi automatic open bolt weapons
US20040069137A1 (en) * 2002-06-07 2004-04-15 Jebsen Jan Henrik Firearm with enhanced recoil and control characters
US20090077852A1 (en) * 2005-09-30 2009-03-26 Steimke David L Over riding chamber impulse average weapon
US20100170385A1 (en) * 2007-06-01 2010-07-08 Steimke David L Ammunition container and feed system
US7997183B2 (en) 2002-06-07 2011-08-16 Kriss Systems Sa Firearm with enhanced recoil and control characteristics
US20120240760A1 (en) * 2011-02-11 2012-09-27 Jorge Pizano Firearm having an articulated bolt train with transversally displacing firing mechanism, delay blowback breech opening, and recoil damper
USD685873S1 (en) 2012-01-05 2013-07-09 Ra Brands, L.L.C. Recoil reducer
US8813405B2 (en) 2002-06-07 2014-08-26 Kriss Systems Sa Firearm with enhanced recoil and control characteristics
US10281233B2 (en) 2011-09-30 2019-05-07 Ra Brands, L.L.C. Recoil reducer

Families Citing this family (3)

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DE3915547C2 (en) * 1989-05-12 1993-04-01 Johann 8889 Syrgenstein De Uhl
DE9406455U1 (en) * 1994-04-19 1994-09-15 Seehuber Erich Locking system for guns
AT13131U1 (en) * 2012-02-22 2013-06-15 Strasser Maschb Gmbh Closure for a firearm

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DE328013C (en) * 1919-04-23 1920-10-20 Fritz Walther Knee closure for selbsttaetige firearms
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US2069432A (en) * 1932-12-30 1937-02-02 Watanabe Saburo Automatic device for automatic firearms

Cited By (18)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4471549A (en) * 1980-07-14 1984-09-18 The Secretary Of State For Defence In Her Britannic Majesty's Government Of The United Kingdom Of Great Britain And Northern Ireland Actuating mechanisms for small arms
US4467698A (en) * 1981-11-16 1984-08-28 Perrine Walter E Angular shape firing pin for use with a collapsible toggle recoil in a hand held weapon
US4719841A (en) * 1986-08-18 1988-01-19 Perrine Walter E Trigger release mechanisms for full and semi automatic open bolt weapons
US8281699B2 (en) 2002-06-07 2012-10-09 Kriss Systems Sa Firearm with enhanced recoil and control characteristics
US7997183B2 (en) 2002-06-07 2011-08-16 Kriss Systems Sa Firearm with enhanced recoil and control characteristics
US9038524B2 (en) * 2002-06-07 2015-05-26 Kriss Systems Sa Firearm with enhanced recoil and control characters
US8813405B2 (en) 2002-06-07 2014-08-26 Kriss Systems Sa Firearm with enhanced recoil and control characteristics
US20040069137A1 (en) * 2002-06-07 2004-04-15 Jebsen Jan Henrik Firearm with enhanced recoil and control characters
US20100077914A1 (en) * 2005-09-30 2010-04-01 General Dynamics Armament And Technical Products Over riding chamber impulse average weapon
US7717024B2 (en) 2005-09-30 2010-05-18 General Dynamics Armament And Technical Products Over riding chamber impulse average weapon
US20090077852A1 (en) * 2005-09-30 2009-03-26 Steimke David L Over riding chamber impulse average weapon
US7526991B2 (en) 2005-09-30 2009-05-05 General Dynamics Armament And Technical Products Over riding chamber impulse average weapon
US7762174B1 (en) 2007-06-01 2010-07-27 General Dynamics Armament And Technical Products Ammunition container and feed system
US20100170385A1 (en) * 2007-06-01 2010-07-08 Steimke David L Ammunition container and feed system
US20120240760A1 (en) * 2011-02-11 2012-09-27 Jorge Pizano Firearm having an articulated bolt train with transversally displacing firing mechanism, delay blowback breech opening, and recoil damper
US9217614B2 (en) * 2011-02-11 2015-12-22 Jorge Pizano Firearm having an articulated bolt train with transversally displacing firing mechanism, delay blowback breech opening, and recoil damper
US10281233B2 (en) 2011-09-30 2019-05-07 Ra Brands, L.L.C. Recoil reducer
USD685873S1 (en) 2012-01-05 2013-07-09 Ra Brands, L.L.C. Recoil reducer

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
NO136316C (en) 1977-08-17
NO136316B (en) 1977-05-09
ES409008A1 (en) 1975-10-16
CA972197A1 (en)
IT973926B (en) 1974-06-10
BR7208563D0 (en) 1973-10-04
BE792340A1 (en)
IL40987D0 (en) 1973-04-30
SE397725B (en) 1977-11-14
IL40987A (en) 1975-12-31
CH566536A5 (en) 1975-09-15
BE792340A (en) 1973-03-30
DE2255289A1 (en) 1973-06-20
FR2164335A5 (en) 1973-07-27
GB1389718A (en) 1975-04-09
AR193552A1 (en) 1973-04-30
CA972197A (en) 1975-08-05
JPS4876398A (en) 1973-10-15

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