US3759044A - Method of earth wall construction using cementitious bentonitic mud - Google Patents

Method of earth wall construction using cementitious bentonitic mud Download PDF

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US3759044A
US3759044A US3759044DA US3759044A US 3759044 A US3759044 A US 3759044A US 3759044D A US3759044D A US 3759044DA US 3759044 A US3759044 A US 3759044A
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sections
cementitious mixture
cementitious
mud
mixture
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C Caron
J Hurtado
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Soletanche SA
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Soletanche SA
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B14/00Use of inorganic materials as fillers, e.g. pigments, for mortars, concrete or artificial stone; Treatment of inorganic materials specially adapted to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone
    • C04B14/02Granular materials, e.g. microballoons
    • C04B14/04Silica-rich materials; Silicates
    • C04B14/10Clay
    • C04B14/104Bentonite, e.g. montmorillonite
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D5/00Bulkheads, piles, or other structural elements specially adapted to foundation engineering
    • E02D5/18Bulkheads or similar walls made solely of concrete in situ

Abstract

A method of constructing a fluid impermeable wall in the ground. A first trench is dug and simultaneously filled with a cementitious bentonitic mud, which is sufficiently viscous to prevent the sides of the trench from caving in. This first trench forms a first section of the wall. Before the mud of the firt section has set, a second trench is dug adjacent to and continuing or extending from the first trench, to form a second wall section, and the second trench is also simultaneously filled with cementitious bentonitic mud. The abuttting end sections then bond firmly together upon setting to form a continuous wall.

Description

United States Patent Caron et al.

[ METHOD OF EARTH WALL CONSTRUCTION USING CEMENTITIOUS BENTONITIC MUD [75] Inventors: Claude Caron, Samoreau; Jean Hurtado, Paris, both of France [73] Assignee: Soletanche Societe Auonyme, Paris,

France [22] Filed: June 15, 1971 211 App]. No.2 153,424

[30] Foreign Application Priority Data June 16, 1970 France 7022l0| [52] US. Cl. 61/35, 61/39 [51] Int. Cl E02d 5/18 [58] Field of Search 61/35, 36, 30, 39

[56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,310,952 3/1967 Veder 61/35 2,791,886 5/1957 Veder 61/35 X Sept. 18, 1973 3,464,665 9/1969 Schoewert 61/35 X 3,603,099 9/1971 Zakiewicz 61/35 X 3,422,627 1/1969 Courte 61/35 3,645,101 2/1972 Sherard 61/35 Primary Examiner-Mervin Stein Assistant Examiner--Philip C. Kanman Attorney-Richard C. Sughrue et al.

[57] ABSTRACT A method of constructing a fluid impermeable wall in the ground. A first trench is dug and simultaneously filled with a cementitious bentonitic mud, which is sufficiently viscous to prevent the sides of the trench from caving in. This first trench forms a first section of the wall. Before the mud of the firt section has set, a second trench is dug adjacent to and continuing or extending from the first trench, to form a second wall section, and the second trench is also simultaneously filled with cementitious bentonitic mud. The abuttting end sections then bond firmly together upon setting to form a continuous wall.

11 Claims, No Drawings METHOD OF EARTH WALL CONSTRUCTION USING CEMENTITIOUS BENTONITIC MUD One method of constructing a fluid permeable dia phragm wall in the ground consists of digging a trench in the ground and maintaining the trench full of a ben tonitic mud, which is sufficiently viscous or thixotropic to prevent the earth walls of the trench caving in, whilst the digging is carried out through the mud. The mud is subsequently displaced by concrete to form the finished wall in situ in the ground. This method has the disadvantage that the long diaphragm wall has to be constructed in longitudinally displaced sections and some form of fluid tight seal, and in many cases also a mechanical connection, has to be made between the adjacent ends of the adjacent sections. Also there is a difficulty of storing, carting, recovering and regenerating the bentonitic mud when each section is cast.

In accordance with the present invention in a method of constructing in the ground a fluid impermeable diaphragm wall incorporating a number of longitudinally displaced sections, each wall section consists of a length of trench filled with cementitious bentonitic mud and of each two adjacent sections one is first constructed and the other one is then constructed before the mud of the first section has set so that the mud in the two sections bond together to provide a perfect fluid impermeable diaphragm wall. Such a wall is thus produced without having to insert or construct a fluid tight seal between the two sections.

The use of a bentonitic mud which includes a proportion of cement surprisingly retains the high viscous or thixotropic properties of bentonitic mud as well as the setting properties of cement.

Numerous tests by the applicants have proved that slow setting cementitious bentonitic mud makes it possible to cast slabs, constituting separate wall sections, of which the ends of the slabs have set sufficiently after 24 to 48 hours to tolerate the absence of pressure of the soil during the forming of an adjacent slab section, but insufficiently to provide any difficulty of uniting with the adjacent section when it is cast. Experiments have shown that the same results are obtained whatever the type of cement employed, provided that the setting speed is adjusted as necessary by adding to the cementitious bentonitic mud an appropriate retarding agent.

Preferably if the setting time of the mud-is T, the second one of the two sections is constructed in a period between 0.5 T and 0.9 T after the first one of the sections has been constructed. A typical diaphragm wall may have a thickness of between 0.2 and l m and a depth of between 1 and 60 m.

The manner in which the diaphragm wall is constructed of separate sections is open to many variations. Thus a first-section may be constructed, then the next section but one, and finally the intermediate section before the first two sections have set fully. It is then preferable if the partially set inner ends of the end sections are cut off during the construction of the middle section to ensure that no earth remains to interfere with the seal between the adjacent sections. Again it is possible to work simultaneously at several sections, using several machines, or to work progressively along the wall section by section.

A diaphragm wall of exceptionable permeability, even to gases, can be produced by embedding into the wall sections a continuous foil of plastics material extending along the wall. Alternatively if exceptional strength is required, metal reinforcement may be embedded in the sections. In either case the plastic sheeting or reinforcement is simply immersed in the mud filled trench and remains there until the mud has set.

The invention thus makes possible the construction of a diaphragm wall of indefinite length, or a circular or other endless diaphragm wall, as an integral fluid tight unit without the need for any additional jointing material. The wall also has the property of being slightly flexible so that it can move slightly with the ground without impairing its impermeability. Since the mud forms the finished wall sections it does not have to be recovered and forms a cheap building material for the wall.

By way of example the invention may be carried out using a cementitious bentonitic mud consisting of bentonite containing a quantity of between 50 and 300 kilograms of cement per cubic metre. The proportion is preferably between 50 and kilograms per cubic metre for particularly impermeable walls and between 100 and 300 kilograms per cubic metre when greater strength is required. The mud should retain a substantially constant high viscosity for at least 40 hours and remain homogeneous for that period. This period can be reduced if the speed with which the work is carried out so requires, but whatever the setting time, it is preferably selected so that the cement and bentonite mixture with which the or each trench is filled, retains its homogenity and viscosity until all the construction steps have been completed.

lt is obvious that, by reason of the very numerous types of cement available, there is a very vast variety of mixtures for fulfillingfthese conditions. Appropriate retarding agents may be incorporated as necessary.

In the case of a fine cement obtained by a mixture of clinker and slag from blast furnaces, the amount of retarding agent used depends upon the proportion of clinker, whereas when the cement is made without clinker that is to say from substantially pure slag, no retarding agents are necessary.

Conversely, if for any reason that at any stage, it is desired to accelerate the setting of the whole or part of the cementitious bentonitic mud, it is only necessary to add to the mud already in place. a certain quantity of setting accelerator, for example cement without slag.

What we claim is: l. A method of constructing in the ground a fluid impermeable diaphragm wall composed of a plurality of longitudinally extending sections bonded together to form a wall, said method comprising:

excavating a first section and simultaneously completely filling the excavation with a cementitious mixture consisting essentially of bentonitic mud and cement; before said cementitious mixture in the excavated first section completely hardens and sets, excavating a second section adjacent said first section while simultaneously completely filling in the excavation of said second section with said cementitious mixture; and allowing the mixtures filling the excavation of each of said sections to harden therein whereby when the mixtures in each of said sections harden they bond together at the junction of said first and said second sections to thereby provide a fluid impermeable wall'consisting essentially of said hardened cementitious mixture.

2. A method according to claim 1, in which of three consecutive sections along the wall, the end sections are first constructed and the middle section is then constructed before the mud of the end sections has set.

3. A method according to claim 2, in which the partially set inner ends of the end sections are cut off during the construction of the middle section to ensure that no earth remains to interfere with the seal between the adjacent sections.

4. A method according to, claim 1 wherein the setting time of the cementitious mixture is T and the second one of the two sections is constructed in a period between 0.5 T and 0.9 T after the first one of the sections has been cast.

5. A method according, claim 1 wherein the diaphragm wall has a thickness of between 0.2 and l m and a depth of between 1 and 60 m.

6. A method according to, claim 1 in which a continuous foil of plastics material, extending along the wall, is embedded in the sections.

7. A method according to, claim 1 in which metal reinforcement is embedded in the sections.

8. A method according to, claim 1 in which the cementitious mixture consists essentially of bentonite mud and from 50 to 300 kilograms of cement per cubic metre.

9. A method according to, claim 1 in which a retarding agent is present in the mixture to render the mixture more slowly setting.

10. A method of constructing in the ground a fluid impermeable diaphragm wall composed of a plurality of longitudinally extending sections bended together to form a continuous wall, said method comprising:

a. excavating a first section and simultaneously completely filling the excavation with a cementitious mixture consisting of bentonitic mud and from 50 to 300 kilograms of cement per cubic meter of mixture,

b. before said cementitious mixture completely filling the excavated first section completely hardens and sets, excavating a second section adjacent said first section while simultaneously completely filling the excavation of said second section with said cementitious mixture,

c. allowing the mixtures filling the excavations of each of said sections to harden therein, and

d. repeating step (a) (0) until a wall of the desired length is obtained, whereby when the mixtures in each of said sections harden they bond together at the junction with each adjacent section to thereby provide a continuous fluid impermeable wall consisting of said hardened cementitious mixture.

11. A method of constructing in the ground a fluidimpermeable diaphragm wall composed of a plurality of longitudinally-extending sections bonded together to form a continuous wall, said method comprising:

1. excavating a first section and simultaneously completely filling the excavation with a cementitious mixture consisting of bentonitic mud, from 50 to 300 kilograms of cement per cubic meter of said cementitious mixture and a retarding agent to render the cementitious mixture more slowly setting;

2. before said cementitious mixture completely filling the first excavated first section completely hardens and sets, excavating a second section adjacent said first section while simultaneously completely filling the excavation of said second section with said cementitious mixture;

3. allowing the mixtures filling the excavations of each of said sections to harden therein; and

4. repeating steps (l)- (3) until a wall of the desired length is obtained, whereby when the cementitious mixtures in each of said sections harden they bond together at the junction with each adjacent section to thereby provide a continuous fluid impermeable wall consisting of said hardened cementitious mixture.

Claims (14)

1. A method of constructing in the ground a fluid impermeable diaphragm wall composed of a plurality of longitudinally extending sections bonded together to form a wall, said method comprising: excavating a first section and simultaneously completely filling the excavation with a cementitious mixture consisting essentially of bentonitic mud and cement; before said cementitious mixture in the excavated first section completely hardens and sets, excavating a second section adjacent said first section while simultaneously completely filling in the excavation of said second section with said cementitious mixture; and allowing the mixtures filling the excavation of each of said sections to harden therein whereby when the mixtures in each of said sections harden they bond together at the junction of saiD first and said second sections to thereby provide a fluid impermeable wall consisting essentially of said hardened cementitious mixture.
2. A method according to claim 1, in which of three consecutive sections along the wall, the end sections are first constructed and the middle section is then constructed before the mud of the end sections has set.
2. before said cementitious mixture completely filling the first excavated first section completely hardens and sets, excavating a second section adjacent said first section while simultaneously completely filling the excavation of said second section with said cementitious mixture;
3. allowing the mixtures filling the excavations of each of said sections to harden therein; and
3. A method according to claim 2, in which the partially set inner ends of the end sections are cut off during the construction of the middle section to ensure that no earth remains to interfere with the seal between the adjacent sections.
4. A method according to, claim 1 wherein the setting time of the cementitious mixture is T and the second one of the two sections is constructed in a period between 0.5 T and 0.9 T after the first one of the sections has been cast.
4. repeating steps (1) - (3) until a wall of the desired length is obtained, whereby when the cementitious mixtures in each of said sections harden they bond together at the junction with each adjacent section to thereby provide a continuous fluid impermeable wall consisting of said hardened cementitious mixture.
5. A method according, claim 1 wherein the diaphragm wall has a thickness of between 0.2 and 1 m and a depth of between 1 and 60 m.
6. A method according to, claim 1 in which a continuous foil of plastics material, extending along the wall, is embedded in the sections.
7. A method according to, claim 1 in which metal reinforcement is embedded in the sections.
8. A method according to, claim 1 in which the cementitious mixture consists essentially of bentonite mud and from 50 to 300 kilograms of cement per cubic metre.
9. A method according to, claim 1 in which a retarding agent is present in the mixture to render the mixture more slowly setting.
10. A method of constructing in the ground a fluid impermeable diaphragm wall composed of a plurality of longitudinally extending sections bended together to form a continuous wall, said method comprising: a. excavating a first section and simultaneously completely filling the excavation with a cementitious mixture consisting of bentonitic mud and from 50 to 300 kilograms of cement per cubic meter of mixture, b. before said cementitious mixture completely filling the excavated first section completely hardens and sets, excavating a second section adjacent said first section while simultaneously completely filling the excavation of said second section with said cementitious mixture, c. allowing the mixtures filling the excavations of each of said sections to harden therein, and d. repeating step (a) - (c) until a wall of the desired length is obtained, whereby when the mixtures in each of said sections harden they bond together at the junction with each adjacent section to thereby provide a continuous fluid impermeable wall consisting of said hardened cementitious mixture.
11. A method of constructing in the ground a fluid-impermeable diaphragm wall composed of a plurality of longitudinally-extending sections bonded together to form a continuous wall, said method comprising:
US3759044D 1970-06-16 1971-06-15 Method of earth wall construction using cementitious bentonitic mud Expired - Lifetime US3759044A (en)

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JP (1) JPS5322367B1 (en)
AT (1) AT330093B (en)
BE (1) BE767737A (en)
CA (1) CA944168A (en)
CH (1) CH549699A (en)
CS (1) CS251052B2 (en)
DE (1) DE2121893A1 (en)
ES (1) ES391810A1 (en)
FR (1) FR2094290A5 (en)
GB (1) GB1284856A (en)
HU (1) HU170336B (en)
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Cited By (20)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3925992A (en) * 1973-06-14 1975-12-16 Svenska Entreprenad Sentab Method and reservoir for storing nuclear residues
US3968658A (en) * 1973-09-12 1976-07-13 Schlegel Engineering Gmbh Method and apparatus for introducing water-proof sheeting into the ground in a vertical position
JPS52132513A (en) * 1976-04-30 1977-11-07 Tekken Constr Co Method of constructing continuous wall
US4180350A (en) * 1978-03-30 1979-12-25 Early California Industries, Inc. Method for forming foundation piers
US4193716A (en) * 1978-01-13 1980-03-18 Ugo Piccagli Impermeable wall construction
US4255067A (en) * 1978-11-02 1981-03-10 John C. Wright Disposal of liquid waste and recovery of metals therefrom
US4257814A (en) * 1977-05-10 1981-03-24 Coal Industry (Patents) Limited Accelerating agents for accelerating hardening of cement
US4329083A (en) * 1977-01-26 1982-05-11 Societe Soletanche Methods of laying underground conduits
US4344722A (en) * 1981-01-13 1982-08-17 Bemalux Inc. Waterproofing barrier
US4453366A (en) * 1983-03-03 1984-06-12 Ugo Piccagli Process of forming a continuous wall in the ground
US4543016A (en) * 1983-11-14 1985-09-24 Tallard Gilbert R Underground leachate barrier and method of making same
US4673316A (en) * 1984-12-07 1987-06-16 Ed. Zublin Aktiengesellschaft Method for fabricating slotted walls with built-in thin-walled sealing elements
US4687372A (en) * 1986-01-27 1987-08-18 Thornton Ken O Toxic waste drain system and method
US4838980A (en) * 1984-08-22 1989-06-13 Ed. Zublin Aktiengesellschaft Method and apparatus for introducing and joining diaphragms in slotted walls
US4877358A (en) * 1981-04-09 1989-10-31 Finic, B.V. Method and apparatus of constructing a novel underground impervious barrier
US4909674A (en) * 1987-05-28 1990-03-20 Kajima Corporation Underground continuous impervious wall and method for installing same
US5782970A (en) * 1995-01-03 1998-07-21 Composite Industries Of America, Inc. Lightweight, waterproof, insulating, cementitious composition
US5852077A (en) * 1995-01-03 1998-12-22 Composite Industries Of America, Inc. Lightweight, waterproof, insulating, cementitious compositions and methods for forming and using such compositions
US20080222969A1 (en) * 2007-03-16 2008-09-18 Abb Technology Ag Docking station for a transformer and method for installation of a transformer station
US9371623B2 (en) 2011-07-14 2016-06-21 Ccmj Systems Ltd Diaphragm wall apparatus and methods

Families Citing this family (11)

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JPS5144943U (en) * 1974-09-30 1976-04-02
FR2450911B1 (en) * 1979-03-07 1983-05-27 Sade Travaux Hydraulique
DE62808T1 (en) * 1981-04-09 1983-06-23 Finic B.V., 3001 Rotterdam, Nl Method and device for producing an underground sealing wall.
FR2516113B1 (en) * 1981-11-12 1985-01-18 Soletanche
JPS58148592U (en) * 1982-03-30 1983-10-05
DE3226113C1 (en) * 1982-07-13 1983-11-24 Bilfinger Berger Bau Process for producing a waterproof wall of prefabricated components in the subterraneous curtain process
JPS5994275U (en) * 1982-12-17 1984-06-26
GB2136861A (en) * 1983-03-18 1984-09-26 Intrafor Cofor Process for the construction of insulated sites in particular for the discharge of polluant products or the formation of impervious barricades or barriers, and works thereby constructed
US4818144A (en) * 1986-11-14 1989-04-04 Dennis Mraz Flood isolation dam
US4784522A (en) * 1986-11-14 1988-11-15 Dennis Mraz Method and apparatus for effecting high pressure isolation of liquids
DE19526396C2 (en) * 1995-07-19 2000-11-02 Dyckerhoff Ag Construction pit shoring, process for its production and building material mix therefor

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US2791886A (en) * 1950-05-30 1957-05-14 I C O S Impresa Costruzioni Op Method for the construction of a cut-off wall
US3310952A (en) * 1957-03-07 1967-03-28 I C O S Impresa Di Costruzioni Method for the construction of a wall in the ground
US3422627A (en) * 1964-04-27 1969-01-21 Soletanche Method for interconnecting successive sections of walls and partitions cast in the ground
US3464665A (en) * 1964-11-11 1969-09-02 Tot Aanneming Van Werken Voorh A template adapted for use in producing a concrete wall
US3603099A (en) * 1968-01-22 1971-09-07 Przed Specjalistyczne Gornictw Process of making intraground waterproof baffles and a device therefor
US3645101A (en) * 1970-11-04 1972-02-29 James L Sherard Method and apparatus for constructing impervious underground walls

Patent Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2791886A (en) * 1950-05-30 1957-05-14 I C O S Impresa Costruzioni Op Method for the construction of a cut-off wall
US3310952A (en) * 1957-03-07 1967-03-28 I C O S Impresa Di Costruzioni Method for the construction of a wall in the ground
US3422627A (en) * 1964-04-27 1969-01-21 Soletanche Method for interconnecting successive sections of walls and partitions cast in the ground
US3464665A (en) * 1964-11-11 1969-09-02 Tot Aanneming Van Werken Voorh A template adapted for use in producing a concrete wall
US3603099A (en) * 1968-01-22 1971-09-07 Przed Specjalistyczne Gornictw Process of making intraground waterproof baffles and a device therefor
US3645101A (en) * 1970-11-04 1972-02-29 James L Sherard Method and apparatus for constructing impervious underground walls

Cited By (23)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3925992A (en) * 1973-06-14 1975-12-16 Svenska Entreprenad Sentab Method and reservoir for storing nuclear residues
US3968658A (en) * 1973-09-12 1976-07-13 Schlegel Engineering Gmbh Method and apparatus for introducing water-proof sheeting into the ground in a vertical position
JPS52132513A (en) * 1976-04-30 1977-11-07 Tekken Constr Co Method of constructing continuous wall
US4329083A (en) * 1977-01-26 1982-05-11 Societe Soletanche Methods of laying underground conduits
US4257814A (en) * 1977-05-10 1981-03-24 Coal Industry (Patents) Limited Accelerating agents for accelerating hardening of cement
US4193716A (en) * 1978-01-13 1980-03-18 Ugo Piccagli Impermeable wall construction
US4180350A (en) * 1978-03-30 1979-12-25 Early California Industries, Inc. Method for forming foundation piers
US4255067A (en) * 1978-11-02 1981-03-10 John C. Wright Disposal of liquid waste and recovery of metals therefrom
US4344722A (en) * 1981-01-13 1982-08-17 Bemalux Inc. Waterproofing barrier
US4877358A (en) * 1981-04-09 1989-10-31 Finic, B.V. Method and apparatus of constructing a novel underground impervious barrier
US4453366A (en) * 1983-03-03 1984-06-12 Ugo Piccagli Process of forming a continuous wall in the ground
US4543016A (en) * 1983-11-14 1985-09-24 Tallard Gilbert R Underground leachate barrier and method of making same
US4990210A (en) * 1984-08-22 1991-02-05 Ed. Zublin Aktiengesellschaft Apparatus for introducing and joining diaphragms in slotted walls
US4838980A (en) * 1984-08-22 1989-06-13 Ed. Zublin Aktiengesellschaft Method and apparatus for introducing and joining diaphragms in slotted walls
US4673316A (en) * 1984-12-07 1987-06-16 Ed. Zublin Aktiengesellschaft Method for fabricating slotted walls with built-in thin-walled sealing elements
US4687372A (en) * 1986-01-27 1987-08-18 Thornton Ken O Toxic waste drain system and method
US4909674A (en) * 1987-05-28 1990-03-20 Kajima Corporation Underground continuous impervious wall and method for installing same
US5022792A (en) * 1987-05-28 1991-06-11 Kajima Corporation Undergrond continuous impervious wall and method for installing same
US5782970A (en) * 1995-01-03 1998-07-21 Composite Industries Of America, Inc. Lightweight, waterproof, insulating, cementitious composition
US5852077A (en) * 1995-01-03 1998-12-22 Composite Industries Of America, Inc. Lightweight, waterproof, insulating, cementitious compositions and methods for forming and using such compositions
US20080222969A1 (en) * 2007-03-16 2008-09-18 Abb Technology Ag Docking station for a transformer and method for installation of a transformer station
US8198966B2 (en) * 2007-03-16 2012-06-12 Abb Technology Ag Docking station for a transformer and method for installation of a transformer station
US9371623B2 (en) 2011-07-14 2016-06-21 Ccmj Systems Ltd Diaphragm wall apparatus and methods

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MC890A1 (en) 1972-03-06
ATA512171A (en) 1975-08-15
NL168023B (en) 1981-09-16
CH549699A (en) 1974-05-31
AT330093B (en) 1976-06-10
BE767737A1 (en)
DE2121893A1 (en) 1971-12-23
GB1284856A (en) 1972-08-09
CS251052B2 (en) 1987-06-11
JPS5322367B1 (en) 1978-07-08
BE767737A (en) 1971-10-18
CA944168A1 (en)
NL168023C (en) 1982-02-16
ES391810A1 (en) 1973-06-16
FR2094290A5 (en) 1972-02-04
NL7011750A (en) 1971-12-20
CA944168A (en) 1974-03-26
SE392935B (en) 1977-04-25
HU170336B (en) 1977-05-28

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