US3651755A - Waste and trash crushing and compacting apparatus - Google Patents

Waste and trash crushing and compacting apparatus Download PDF

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US3651755A
US3651755A US868091A US3651755DA US3651755A US 3651755 A US3651755 A US 3651755A US 868091 A US868091 A US 868091A US 3651755D A US3651755D A US 3651755DA US 3651755 A US3651755 A US 3651755A
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crushing
generally
rollers
trash
materials
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US868091A
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Louis Gati
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POLLUTION TECHTRONICS Inc
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POLLUTION TECHTRONICS Inc
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B30PRESSES
    • B30BPRESSES IN GENERAL
    • B30B9/00Presses specially adapted for particular purposes
    • B30B9/30Presses specially adapted for particular purposes for baling; Compression boxes therefor
    • B30B9/3003Details
    • B30B9/3035Means for conditioning the material to be pressed, e.g. paper shredding means
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B30PRESSES
    • B30BPRESSES IN GENERAL
    • B30B9/00Presses specially adapted for particular purposes
    • B30B9/30Presses specially adapted for particular purposes for baling; Compression boxes therefor
    • B30B9/3078Presses specially adapted for particular purposes for baling; Compression boxes therefor with precompression means

Abstract

Crusher and compacter for waste material particularly trash and other residential type waste material particularly adapted for disposition as at the bottom of a chute to enable trash deposited therein to be compacted to facilitate removal thereof from the premises, as for incineration or burial at a remote location.

Description

[54] WASTE AND TRASH CRUSHHNG AND 3,141,401 7/1964 Lindemann et al. ..100/98 COMPACTING APPARATUS 3,189,286 6/1965 OConnor .1
3,481,268 12/1969 Price et a1. ..100/218 X [72] Invent: 1,429,679 9/1922 Hieber ..100 39x Assignee; Pollution Techn-onics, Inc. Willmarth n 3,009,413 11/1961 Alexander et al. 100/95 UX [221 Wed: 21,1 3,320,051 /1967 Lieberman ..100/39 21 Appl 3 3,091 3,547,577 12/1970 Louercheck.. ...100/97 X 3,563,164 2/1971 Carkhuff ..100/98 [52] US. Cl ..100/96, lOO/98, IOU/139, FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 100/141,100/145,100/17l,lO0/176,100/215, 100/218, 100/249, 100/288, 241/157, 241 302,185 12/1917 Germany ...100/139 51 1m.CI. ..Bb l/24,B30b 15/30 166954 0/1950 Ausma [58] Field of Search ..241/157, 222, 230, 190; I
100/39, 42, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 137, 138, 139, 140, EmmmerB1l1yJ- wllhlte 141, 142, 145,218, 249, 215,288, 176, 171 y & Lackenbach [56] References Cited ABSTRACT UNITED STATES PATENTS Crusher and compacter for waste material particularly trash and other resldentlal type waste materlal particularly adapted 537,909 4/1395 s r-m UX for disposition as at the bottom of a chute to enable trash 929,960 8/ 1909 Low e -100/96 UX deposited therein to be compacted to facilitate removal 1,026,987 5/19l2 Kal'dos e e loo/218 x thereof from the premises, as for incineration or burial at a 1,819,480 8/1931 Paxton..... 100/96 UX remotelocatiom 2,691,338 10/1954 Robbins... .....100/97 2,738,932 3/1956 R1etz ..241/190 21 Claims,51Drawing Figures l 24 l C Z5 ,4 (l 59 {1Q 54 '1 ,1 28 82 jg 4 SQJZ i l 66 i) i 54 5 -1 1 1 1 4 I1 32 4 x 5 .36 34 k 5 52 e 1 I 46 6 I 4 a r i 74 {/0 76 l l 42 1 9/ 1 0 5 69 20 1 z 1' W i i 78 75'\ I, f I 65 L I \Y 1 /6 lmi 5 66 64 96 5 f, 88 5 9 W 22 I H 1 1 WASTE ANlD TRASH-I CRUSHING AND COMPACTING APPARATUS This invention relates generally to waste disposal and, more particularly, to apparatus for waste crushing and compaction.
The various problems involved in attempting to handle and dispose of solid type waste materials, such as garbage and trash and particularly in our large cities have become enormous. These materials have traditionally been carted and hauled, as in trucks, out of the city for disposal as by burying or ocean disposal. However, as the volume of solid trash increases, as it has been doing for many years due to both more and more use of expendable items and increased population density, it becomes more and more difficult to physically remove the sheer volume of waste materials involved.
Traditionally, the volume of waste materials to be carted or hauled outwardly from our cities has been reduced by incineration, either directly on location or premises or at private or municipal incinerators located conveniently to the residential areas. These incinerators, however, have been a major source of air pollution and their appeal as an element in the waste disposal system has accordingly become less and less. In fact, it has now become apparent that, at least in the case of small on premises incinerators, they are wholly unsatisfactory and, in fact, are more and more becoming illegal to operate.
As the utilization of incinerators as the initial or primary units of waste disposal systems decreases, coupled with the increases in waste to be disposed of, it becomes evident that some substitute means of reducing the volume of the waste to be disposed must be found.
It has, therefore, been suggested to compact and compress our trash and waste materials to volumes substantially less than they would occupy if untreated. It is obviously of greater convenience to the tenants of a multi-story apartment house if they can dispose of their trash by merely depositing the same in a chute having an inlet on each floor of the building located conveniently to the tenants. Utilizing. such chutes, and waste compacting apparatus heretofore available, an employee of the building must generally manually transfer the trash and waste materials from the bottom end portion of the chute to the waste compacter for compaction or compression for more efficient transfer for pickup and disposal. Since trash has a tendency to jam in the lower portion of the chute, removal of the trash to the compacting equipment is often difficult and objectionable. A direct connection between the chute and such compacting equipment as has been heretofore available has not been found to be effective due to tendencies of the waste materials to jam.
Moreover, it has been very difficult, utilizing such trash compacters as have been heretofore available, to accomplish complete and uniform compaction. Since the trash loaded into such devices is seldom of any degree of uniformity, either or particle size, composition or configuration, the presence of large, hard walled pieces tend to interfere with proper compaction. Similarly, certain shapes, particularly regular geometric figures, tend to resist compaction better than other shapes, notably random flakes. Hence, it is advantageous to pre-treat trash to eliminate such regular shapes and/or apply compacting forces thereto in more than a single direction so as to reduce the effectiveness of such regular shapes in resisting compaction.
Having in mind the foregoing, it is therefore a primary object of the present invention to provide novel and improved apparatus for waste or trash crushing and compaction which is effective and adapted for efficient direct connection or installation at the bottom of such a waste chute.
Yet further, it is another primary object of the present invention, in addition to the foregoing object, to provide such apparatus for compacting trash and waste to a small percentage of its free, uncompacted volume, for easy further disposal.
Yet still further, it is another primary object of the present invention, in addition to each of the foregoing objects, to provide such waste compaction apparatus with a novel inlet portion which at least partially crushes the incoming trash, feeds the trash to a compaction portion and aids in precluding jamming of the trash in the access chute.
Still further, it is yet another primary object of the present invention, in addition to each of the foregoing objects, to provide such apparatus capable of discharging the compacted trash directly into a rigid or semirigid wall trash container or into a baglike flexible walled trash container.
Yet further, it is still another primary object of the present invention, in addition to the foregoing objects, to provide such novel apparatus capable of compacting trash and waste materials to a high degree of uniformity.
Still another primary object of the present invention, in addition to each of the foregoing objects, is the provision of novel apparatus for crushing, chopping, kneading, masticating and compacting trash and waste materials.
Another and still further primary object of the present invention, in addition to each of the foregoing objects, is the provision of apparatus of the class described which requires only a minimum of supervision.
The invention resides in the novel combination, construction, arrangement and disposition of the various component parts and elements incorporated in an improved waste crusher and compacter constructed in accordance with the principles of this invention. The present invention will be better understood and objects and important features other than those specifically enumerated above will become apparent when consideration is given to the following details and description, which when taken in conjunction with the annexed drawing describes, discloses, illustrates and shows a preferred embodiment or modification of the present invention and what is presently considered and believed to be the best mode of practicing the principles thereof. Other embodiments or modifications may be suggested to those having the benefit of the teaching herein, and such other embodiments or modifications are intended to be reserved especially as they fall within the scope and spirit of the subjoined claims.
IN THE DRAWING:
FIG. 1 is a schematic, side elevational cross-sectional view of a waste crushing and compaction device constructed in ac cordance with the principles of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a top plan illustration of another inlet or crushing portion in accordance with the present invention; and
FIG. 3 is a side elevational cross-sectional view taken along line 33 of FIG. 2.
FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view taken along line 44 of FIG. 1; and
FIG. 5 is a cross-sectional illustration taken along line 5-5 of FIG. 1. With reference now to the drawing, and particularly to FIG. 1 thereof, there is shown and illustrated trash, refuse or waste material crushing and compacting apparatus constructed in accordance with the principles of the present invention and designated generally by the reference character 10.
As may be readily seen, the apparatus 10 comprises an inlet portion, designated generally by the reference character 12, adapted to receive trash or refuse, as by being positioned beneath a chute 14 extending upwardly to the upper floors of a building, or the like, and through which refuse or trash may be dropped or deposited into the inlet portion 12; an outlet portion designated generally by the reference character 16 adapted to greatly compress and compact the trash and refuse so as to take up a minimum of space and permit easy removal thereof, as by being deposited within a conventional trash can 18, or the like; and an intermediate portion for chopping, kneading and masticating the material, such as a screw conveyor portion 20 disposed between the inlet and outlet portions 12 and 16, respectively.
While the various component parts and elements of the apparatus 10 are shown and illustrated as being driven mechanically, by gear, chain or belt drives, it is to be understood that such parts and elements could easily be driven by substantially any desired drive means, such as hydraulic drive means, or the like, it requiring merely the exercise of mere mechanical skill to provide such drives and the mechanical drive shown and illustrated be considered to provide the simplest and clearest illustration.
The entire apparatus may be supported, for example, at a plurality of support frame portions 22 structurally associated therewith.
The inlet portion 12 may comprise an inlet opening 24 in general alignment beneath the chute 14 so that refuse, trash or waste materials 26 deposited into the chute 14 will fall into the inlet portion 12. Beneath the inlet opening 24, the inlet portion 12 may comprise a generally tubular casing 28 of, for example, generally rectangular or square cross-sectional configuration within and adjacent one edge which there are disposed a plurality of crusher rollers 30 rotatably mounted therein, as on generally fixedly positioned axles 32 extending generally transversely thereacross adjacent the lower wall 34 of the tubular casing 28. The crusher rollers 30 may be driven, as by belts or chains 36 extending around pulleys or sprockets 38 rotatably connected therewith and around pulley or sprocket means 40 rotatably driven, for example, by means of an electric motor, or the like 42. Positioned opposite the crusher rollers 30, there may be positioned means spaced apart therefrom for compressing the trash therebetween, such as, a plurality of movable crusher or idler rolls 46 rotatably carried, for example, for free rotational movement about a plurality of axles 48 extending generally parallel the axles 30. The axles 48 may be carried, for example, on spring arms 50 and 52, respectively, and movable within arcuate slots 54 and 56. one end portion of the spring arm 50 being secured, as through a fixed angle 58 so that the movable or idler crusher rollers 46 may move towards and away from the crusher rollers 30 while being yet spring biased towards the crusher rollers 30. Each of the crusher or idler rollers 30 and 46 may be of generally cylindrical configuration having a plurality of teeth 59 and 60, respectively, extending generally radially outwardly thereof. The teeth 59 and 60 are preferably of a straight spur continuous configuration but may be of the interrupted and/or helical tooth variety.
Hence, as the trash, waste or refuse 26 enters the inlet portion 12, it engages the rotating crusher cylinders 30 which draw the refuse or trash 26 downwardly while tending to crush the same. As the refuse or trash 26 is moved downwardly by the upper ones of the crusher rollers 30, it is engaged between the lower ones ofthe fixed crusher rollers 30 and the movable or idler crusher rollers 46 where it is further compacted. If a particular unit of refuse or trash is too big and too hard to be effectively crushed and broken by the crusher rollers 30 and 46, the spring mounted crusher or idler rollers 46 may move generally outwardly away from the fixed crusher rollers 30 so as to permit that particular piece of refuse or trash to pass therethrough. it is to be remembered, however, that since the movable or idler crusher rollers 46 are heavily spring biased, they will tend to further crush the refuse or trash passing therebetween. Since the inlet portion 12 is provided with the aforesaid crusher rollers, jamming or wedging of the trash therewithin is substantially eliminated and substantially any quantity of trash or refuse deposited to the chute 14, even if deposited therein while the apparatus 10 is not operating, upon the operation thereof and particularly the rotation of the crusher rollers 30, by the motor means 42, the trash and refuse which has piled up above in inlet portion 12 will commence feeding into the apparatus 10 without hesitation or jamming, since the rollers tend to draw or pull any such material into the apparatus 10.
The intermediate portion may comprise a generally tubular casing 62 within which there may be mounted a conveyor screw 64 having one or more helical tooth 66 intending in screw fashion therealong and which may be extending within the casing 62, as by means of end bearings 68 and 70. The screw conveyor 64 may be driven, for example, by means of a motor 73 structurally operatively associated therewith, as
by means of a reduction gear assembly 72 so as to rotate the screw conveyor 64 in a direction so as to advance materials forwardly therealong.
Preferably, the tooth or teeth 66 is configured so as to pro vide a generally sharp cutting edge 65 for cooperation with a cutting edge 67 provided extending along the tubular casing 62 adjacent an inlet opening 69 provided therethrough in general alignment with the inlet or crusher portion 12. Therefore, as the crushed trash or refuse is fed out of the crusher portion 12 by the rotating crusher rollers 30, it will be fed under positivepressure into the groove 71 formed between the land or tooth 66 and subsequently sheared into small bits by the shearing, chopping or cutting action of the moving tooth 66 and fixed cutting edge 67.
Between the casing 28 and the casing 62, there may be provided a transition casing 74 having a generally rectangular or square upper end portion mating with the generally square or rectangular casing 28 at a lower end opening adapted to mate with the tubular casing 20 generally above the motor end of the screw conveyor 64, as shown so that trash and refuse passing through the inlet portion 12 will be fed into the rotating conveying screw 64, between the teeth 66 thereof. Since the crusher cylinders 30 provide a positive drive to the refuse and trash as it enters the transition portion 74 and the screw conveyor portion 20, as well as breaking up and crushing the trash to units capable of fitting between the teeth 66 of the screw conveyor 64, jamming and wedging of trash and waste materials at the inlet of the screw conveyor 64 are eliminated. As the screw conveyor 64 is rotated, the trash, refuse and waste materials which were partially broken up, crushed and compacted during passage through the inlet section 12, are chopped or sheared into small pieces upon engaging the conveyor screw 64 and then further broken and crushed during movement along the screw thread conveyor 64 as well as being kneaded and masticated during passage therealong.
The outlet portion 16 may comprise a generally hollow casing 76 of substantially any desired cross section although, preferably, the casing 76 is of generally cylindrical configuration so as to have a generally circular cross section so that the compacted trash, refuse and waste materials may be readily handled and uniformly compacted, as will become apparent.
Slidably disposed within the tubular casing 76, as for reciprocating movement therewithin, there may be disposed a ram 78 together with means, such as an elongated toothed rack 80 structurally associated with one end portion of the ram 78 and having the teeth thereof engaged with a gear 82 driven, for example, by an electric motor 84. An idler gear 86 may be mounted oppositely the gear 82 so that the toothed rack 80 may be engaged therebetween. The outlet portion 16 may further comprise a trap door or gate valve closure 88 disposed oppositely from the ram drive mechanism, for example, generally beneath the screw conveyor 64 and having an actuator comprising, for example, a tooth rack 90 structurally associated therewith having the teeth thereof engaged with a drive gear 92 driven, for example, by an electric motor 94. There may be provided a backup or idler gear 96 also engaged with the tooth rack 90 oppositely the drive gear 92. Preferably, the ram 78 is ofsufficient length so as to completely close off the tubular casing 62 of the screw conveyor portion 20 at one extreme end of its stroke, and at the other extreme end of its stroke, to be completely clear of the tubular casing 62. Yet further, ifit is desired, for example, to compact the trash or waste materials to 25 percent of its free volume, the trap or gate valve plate 88 may be disposed a distance beneath the lower extreme end of the ram stroke such that such compaction will occur. The outlet portion casing 76 may, as illustrated, be disposed in a generally vertical orientation with the lower end portion thereof spaced upwardly from the floor a distance sufficient that a conventional trash can 18, or the like, can be disposed thereunder so that, upon opening of the gate valve plate 88, the compacted waste will drop into the trash can 18. Alternatively, the rack 80 may be of sufiicient length that the ram 78 may be moved further downwardly,
after the gate valve plate 88 is opened, to force the compacted waste fully and completely outwardly of the casing 76. Further, the compacted waste may, if desired, rather than being disposed within conventional trash cans 18, be placed in in plastic or paper bags-waste bins, directly on a waste conveyor for passage outwardly of the building, or handled in any other desired manner. As heretofore pointed out, the various mechanical drives shown for purposes of illustration may, of course, be replaced by substantially any desired drive means, such as hydraulic drive components.
Accordingly, it is believed readily apparent that as the trash, refuse or waste materials drop into the inlet portion 12, they are continuously and forcefully broken up, compacted and crushed as they pass through the three successive stages, the first stage or inlet portion 12 being constructed and arranged so as to be capable of receiving the trash or refuse in its raw, bulk state, and breaking up the large bulk pieces and compacting the refuse into a form and under sufficient pressure that it can be readily received by the conveyor screw 64, without jamming. The inlet portion 12 is particularly adapted to preclude jamming of the inlet portion thereof.
Once the refuse or trash has been initially broken up and partially compacted by the inlet portion 12, it is in a state whereat it can be readily received by the conveyor screw 64 without jamming. During the passage of the refuse or trash along the screw conveyor 64 it is further broken up, chopped or sheared into small pieces and, to some extent, homogenized, kneaded, masticated, and intermixed so as to be relatively uniform by the time it exits from the screw conveyor 64. As the trash exits from the conveyor screw 64, it is forced into the outlet portion casing 76, with the ram 78 thereof in its upper or withdrawn position. continued rotation of the screw 64 provides a slight degree of compaction of the refuse or trash within the outlet casing 76 so that the outlet casing 76 is substantially entirely and uniformly filled by the crushed and partially compacted trash. When a sufficient quantity of trash has been deposited within the outlet portion 76, as may be determined, for example, by back pressure being generated on the conveyor screw 64, the conveyor screw 64 may be stopped and the ram 78 moved downwardly to thoroughly and completely compact the crushed refuse or trash within the lower portion of the outlet casing 76 and against the gate 88. When the trash has been compacted to the desired degree, the gate 88 may be opened and the slug of compacted trash permitted to drop out of the lower end of the outlet casing 76, or, alternatively, the ram 78 be moved further downwardly to push the compacted trash outwardly of the casing 76 and into an appropriate receptacle, such as the trash can 18.
With reference now to FIGS. 2 and 3, there is shown and illustrated another inlet portion which may comprise a part of the present invention and wherein like reference characters refer to similar parts as in FIG. 1, except that the reference characters associated with the embodiment shown and illustrated in FIGS. 2 and 3 are primed. Hence, the inlet portion shown and illustrated in FIGS. 2 and 3 is designated generally by the reference character 12' and is adapted to receive trash or refuse, as by being positioned beneath a chute 14 extending upwardly to the upper floors ofa building, or the like, and through which refuse or trash may be dropped for deposit into the inlet portion 12'.
While the various component parts and elements of the inlet portion 12 are shown and illustrated as being driven mechanically by a belt drive, it is to be understood that such parts and elements could be driven by substantially any desired drive means, such as hydraulic drive means, or the like.
The inlet portion 12 may comprise an inlet opening 24' in general alignment beneath the chute 14 so that refuse, trash or waste materials 26 deposited into the chute 14' will fall into the inlet portion 12'. Beneath the inlet opening 24', the inlet portion 12' may comprise a generally tubular casing 28 of, for example, generally rectangular or square cross-sectional configuration within which there are disposed a plurality of crusher rollers 30 rotatably mounted therein, as on generally fixedly positioned axles 32 extending generally vertically adjacent one edge of the inlet opening 24. The crusher rollers 30 may be driven, as by belts 36 extending around the pulleys or sprockets 38' rotatably connected therewith and around pulley means 40 rotatably driven, for example, by means of electric motor, or the like 42'.
Positioned generally opposite and in spaced apart relationship to the crusher rollers 30', with their axes inclined or obliquely disposed similarly within the casing 28 so as to be closer to the crusher rollers 30 at the lower end portions and adjacent the opposite edge of the inlet opening 24 at their upper end portion, there may be further provided spaced apart means such as a plurality of movable idler crusher rollers 46' carried, for example, for free rotational movement about a plurality of axles 48. The axles 48 may be carried, for example, on generally horizontally extending arms 50 and 52' at the upper and lower end portions thereof, respectively. The arms 50' and 52 may be pivotally carried as by means of generally horizontally extending hinges 54 and 56 mounted with the casing 28 adjacent the upper edge portion thereof and with a support bar 58 movably mounted relative to the housing 28 and biased towards the crusher rollers 30', as by means of spring means 57. Hence, the lower end portions of the movable or idler crusher rollers 46' may move towards and away from the crusher rollers 30 while being yet spring biased theretowards. Each of the crusher rollers 30 may, as shown, be of generally truncated conical configuration, having a wider base than top, so as to project progressively further across the inlet opening 24, downwardly thereof. The movable or idler crusher rollers 46' may be of substantially any desired configuration, for example, being generally cylindrical as shown. Each of the crusher rollers 30 and 46 may be provided with one or more helically extending land or tooth 59 and 60', respectively, and which may be sharp, at least in a downwardly cutting or pulling direction, as illustrated.
Hence, as the trash or refuse 26' enters the inlet portion 12, it engages the rotating crusher cylinders 30' so that the tooth 59' thereof draws the refuse or trash 26' downwardly while tending to crush the same. As the refuse or trash 26 is moved downwardly by the upper portions of the tooth 59 of the crusher rollers 30', it is engaged between the tooth 60' of the movable or idler crusher rollers 46 and the tooth 59 of the crusher rollers 30 where it is further compacted. If a particular unit of refuse or trash is too big and too hard to be effectively crushed and broken by the crusher rollers 30 and 46, the spring mounted idler crusher rollers 46 may move generally outwardly away from the crusher rollers 30' so as to permit that particular piece of refuse or trash to pass therethrough. It is to be remembered, however, that since the movable or idler crusher rollers 46' are heavily spring biased by the spring means 57', they will tend to further crush the refuse or trash passing therebetween.
Since the inlet portion 12 is provided with the aforesaid crusher rollers 30 and 46, jamming or wedging the trash therewithin is substantially eliminated and substantially any quantity of trash or refuse deposited into the chute 14, even if deposited therein While the apparatus 10 is not operating, upon the operation thereof and particularly the rotation of the crusher rollers 30' by the motor means 42, the trash and refuse which is piled up above the inlet portion 112 will commence feeding into the apparatus 10 without hesitation or jamming and will be positively driven thereby into the screw conveyor or intermediate portion 20.
While the invention has been described, disclosed, illustrated and shown in terms of certain preferred embodiments or modifications which it has assumed in practice, the scope of the invention should not be deemed to be limited by the precise embodiments or modifications herein described, disclosed, illustrated or shown, such other embodiments or modifications as may be suggested to those having the benefit of the teaching herein being intended to be reserved especially as they fall within the scope and breadth of the claims here appended.
What is claimed is:
inn/van In.
1. Apparatus for treating trash and other waste material comprising, in combination, means for crushing trash and other waste materials deposited therein, as from a chute, sufficiently to preclude wedging or jamming thereof; means for masticating the crushed materials disposed to receive the materials as they pass outwardly of said crushing means so that uniform compaction thereof may be performed; and means for compacting the masticated materials to a substantially uniform high density and low volume so that they may be readily conveniently and economically transported to a disposal location, said crushing means comprising, in turn, a plurality of toothed crushing rollers mounted for rotation generally adjacent a generally open and unobstructed inlet opening, means for rotating said crushing rollers so that trash and other waste material enters in said inlet opening will be drawn therefrom by said crushing rollers, means disposed in spaced apart relationship to said crushing rollers for engaging such materials therebetween, means for mounting at least one of said crushing rollers and said spaced apart means for relative movement towards and away from the other of said crushing rollers and spaced apart means together with means for biasing said one of said crushing rollers and said spaced apart means towards the other of said crushing rollers and spaced apart means to provide a substantially uniform crushing force against such materials.
2. Apparatus defined in claim 1 wherein the rotational axes of said crushing rollers are disposed generally horizontally one above the other adjacent a side of said opening and said spaced apart means comprises a plurality of toothed idler rollers mounted for rotation with their axes generally horizontal one above the other adjacent an opposite side of said opening, each of said idler rollers being mounted for substantially independent movement towards and away from said crushing rollers.
3. Apparatus defined in claim 2 wherein said crushing rollers are suspended from spring arms so as to move in generally arcuate paths about centers of rotation extending generally horizontally.
4, Apparatus defined in claim 3 wherein the spring arms supporting the uppermost of said idler rollers provide pivotal movement about a generally fixed axis and the spring arms of each lower succeeding idler roller is suspended generally from the axis of rotation ofthe preceding idler roller.
5. Apparatus defined in claim 3 wherein said crushing and idler rollers are of generally cylindrical configuration.
6. Apparatus defined in claim 5 wherein the teeth of said crushing and idler rollers extend substantially continuously and linearly along the surfaces thereof.
7. Apparatus defined in claim 5 wherein the innermost surface of each lower succeeding crushing roller extends further inwardly of the preceding roller so that continuously increasing crushing forces are applied to such materials.
8. Apparatus defined in claim 2 wherein said means for masticating comprises a conveyor screw defined by a cutting blade disposed generally helically around a rotating mandrel and a generally cylindrical casing therefor having an edge adapted to cooperate with the helical cutting blade to chop the materials fed therein by said crushing means.
9. Apparatus defined in claim 8 wherein said compacting means comprises a generally cylindrical casing disposed generally transversely across the outlet of said conveyor screw casing and ram means reciprocatably mounted within said compacting means casing for movement generally transversely across said conveyor screw to compact the waste material masticated thereby.
10. Apparatus defined in claim 1 wherein said crushing rollers rotate about generally vertically disposed axes adjacent a side edge of said opening and wherein the teeth thereof extend generally helically therealong.
11. Apparatus defined in claim 10 wherein said spaced apart means comprises a plurality of idler rollers mounted for rotation about generally vertical axes adjacent an opposite side of said opening and wherein the teeth thereof extend generally helically therealong.
12. Apparatus defined in claim 11 wherein said idler rollers are carried by a frame pivotally suspended from adjacent said opposite edge together with means tending to pivot the lower end portion ofsaid frame towards said crushing rollers.
13. Apparatus defined in claim 12 wherein the surface of said crushing rollers adjacent said idler rollers extends generally obliquely downwardly and inwardly of said opening so as to provide a continuously increasing crushing force against such material.
14. Apparatus defined in claim 13 wherein said crushing rollers are of generally truncated conical configuration.
Apparatus for treating trash and other waste materials comprising, in combination, means for crushing trash and other waste materials deposited therein, as from a chute, sufficiently to preclude wedging orjamming thereof; means for masticating the crushed materials disposed to receive the materials as they pass outwardly of said crushing means so that uniform compaction thereof may be performed; and means for compacting the masticated materials to a substantially uniform high density and low volume so that they may be readily conveniently and economically transported to a disposal location, said masticating means comprising, in turn, a movable shearing blade for chopping trash and other waste materials engaged thereby into small pieces and for kneading the chopped material to masticate it and provide a substantially uniform consistency thereto as it is moved by said moving cutting blade and comprising, in turn a helical rib extending outwardly of a rotatably supported central mandrel to define therewith a screw conveyor, and a generally cylindrical housing having a generally upwardly directed opening positioned adjacent one end portion thereof, one edge portion of said opening defining a fixed shear for cooperation with said helical blade to chop such waste materials during rotation of said screw conveyor.
16. Apparatus defined in claim 15 wherein said opening is disposed generally beneath said crushing means so that operation of said crushing means will be effective to force the waste materials into said screw conveyor.
17. Apparatus defined in claim 16 further comprising means for rotating said screw conveyor.
18. Apparatus defined in claim 15 wherein said compacting means comprises a casing extending generally transversely across the outlet of said screw conveyor and a ram mounted for reciprocation within said casing across said outlet and a closure mounted with said compacting means casing generally adjacent one edge portion of said screw conveyor outlet for selectively resisting movement of such materials and enabling compaction of such materials between said ram and said closure.
19. Apparatus defined in claim 18 wherein said closure is movable generally outwardly of said compacting means casing.
20. Apparatus for treating trash and other waste material comprising, in combination, a plurality of toothed crushing rollers mounted for rotation generally adjacent a generally open and unobstructed inlet opening, means for rotating said crushing rollers so that trash and other waste material entering said inlet opening will be drawn therefrom by said crushing rollers, means disposed in spaced apart relationship to said crushing rollers for engaging such materials therebetween, means for mounting at least one of said crushing rollers and said spaced apart means for relative movement towards and away from the other of said crushing rollers and spaced apart means together with means for biasing said one of said crushing rollers and said spaced apart means towards the other of said crushing rollers and spaced apart means to provide a substantially uniform crushing force against such materials.
21. Apparatus for treating trash and other waste materials comprising, in combination, a movable shearing blade for chopping trash and other waste materials engaged thereby into small pieces and for kneading the chopped material to masticate it and provide a substantially uniform consistency thereto as it is moved by said moving cutting blade and comprising, in turn, a helical rib extending outwardly ofa rotatably l01029 Ol05

Claims (20)

1. Apparatus for treating trash and other waste material comprising, in combination, means for crushing trash and other waste materials deposited therein, as from a chute, sufficiently to preclude wedging or jamming thereof; means for masticating the crushed materials disposed to receive the materials as they pass outwardly of said crushing means so that uniform compaction thereof may be performed; and means for compacting the masticated materials to a substantially uniform high density and low volume so that they may be readily conveniently and economically transported to a disposal location, said crushing means comprising, in turn, a plurality of toothed crushing rollers mOunted for rotation generally adjacent a generally open and unobstructed inlet opening, means for rotating said crushing rollers so that trash and other waste material enters in said inlet opening will be drawn therefrom by said crushing rollers, means disposed in spaced apart relationship to said crushing rollers for engaging such materials therebetween, means for mounting at least one of said crushing rollers and said spaced apart means for relative movement towards and away from the other of said crushing rollers and spaced apart means together with means for biasing said one of said crushing rollers and said spaced apart means towards the other of said crushing rollers and spaced apart means to provide a substantially uniform crushing force against such materials.
2. Apparatus defined in claim 1 wherein the rotational axes of said crushing rollers are disposed generally horizontally one above the other adjacent a side of said opening and said spaced apart means comprises a plurality of toothed idler rollers mounted for rotation with their axes generally horizontal one above the other adjacent an opposite side of said opening, each of said idler rollers being mounted for substantially independent movement towards and away from said crushing rollers.
3. Apparatus defined in claim 2 wherein said crushing rollers are suspended from spring arms so as to move in generally arcuate paths about centers of rotation extending generally horizontally.
4. Apparatus defined in claim 3 wherein the spring arms supporting the uppermost of said idler rollers provide pivotal movement about a generally fixed axis and the spring arms of each lower succeeding idler roller is suspended generally from the axis of rotation of the preceding idler roller.
5. Apparatus defined in claim 3 wherein said crushing and idler rollers are of generally cylindrical configuration.
6. Apparatus defined in claim 5 wherein the teeth of said crushing and idler rollers extend substantially continuously and linearly along the surfaces thereof.
7. Apparatus defined in claim 5 wherein the innermost surface of each lower succeeding crushing roller extends further inwardly of the preceding roller so that continuously increasing crushing forces are applied to such materials.
8. Apparatus defined in claim 2 wherein said means for masticating comprises a conveyor screw defined by a cutting blade disposed generally helically around a rotating mandrel and a generally cylindrical casing therefor having an edge adapted to cooperate with the helical cutting blade to chop the materials fed therein by said crushing means.
9. Apparatus defined in claim 8 wherein said compacting means comprises a generally cylindrical casing disposed generally transversely across the outlet of said conveyor screw casing and ram means reciprocatably mounted within said compacting means casing for movement generally transversely across said conveyor screw to compact the waste material masticated thereby.
10. Apparatus defined in claim 1 wherein said crushing rollers rotate about generally vertically disposed axes adjacent a side edge of said opening and wherein the teeth thereof extend generally helically therealong.
11. Apparatus defined in claim 10 wherein said spaced apart means comprises a plurality of idler rollers mounted for rotation about generally vertical axes adjacent an opposite side of said opening and wherein the teeth thereof extend generally helically therealong.
12. Apparatus defined in claim 11 wherein said idler rollers are carried by a frame pivotally suspended from adjacent said opposite edge together with means tending to pivot the lower end portion of said frame towards said crushing rollers.
13. Apparatus defined in claim 12 wherein the surface of said crushing rollers adjacent said idler rollers extends generally obliquely downwardly and inwardly of said opening so as to provide a continuously increasing crushing force against such material.
14. Apparatus defined in Claim 13 wherein said crushing rollers are of generally truncated conical configuration. Apparatus for treating trash and other waste materials comprising, in combination, means for crushing trash and other waste materials deposited therein, as from a chute, sufficiently to preclude wedging or jamming thereof; means for masticating the crushed materials disposed to receive the materials as they pass outwardly of said crushing means so that uniform compaction thereof may be performed; and means for compacting the masticated materials to a substantially uniform high density and low volume so that they may be readily conveniently and economically transported to a disposal location, said masticating means comprising, in turn, a movable shearing blade for chopping trash and other waste materials engaged thereby into small pieces and for kneading the chopped material to masticate it and provide a substantially uniform consistency thereto as it is moved by said moving cutting blade and comprising, in turn a helical rib extending outwardly of a rotatably supported central mandrel to define therewith a screw conveyor, and a generally cylindrical housing having a generally upwardly directed opening positioned adjacent one end portion thereof, one edge portion of said opening defining a fixed shear for cooperation with said helical blade to chop such waste materials during rotation of said screw conveyor.
16. Apparatus defined in claim 15 wherein said opening is disposed generally beneath said crushing means so that operation of said crushing means will be effective to force the waste materials into said screw conveyor.
17. Apparatus defined in claim 16 further comprising means for rotating said screw conveyor.
18. Apparatus defined in claim 15 wherein said compacting means comprises a casing extending generally transversely across the outlet of said screw conveyor and a ram mounted for reciprocation within said casing across said outlet and a closure mounted with said compacting means casing generally adjacent one edge portion of said screw conveyor outlet for selectively resisting movement of such materials and enabling compaction of such materials between said ram and said closure.
19. Apparatus defined in claim 18 wherein said closure is movable generally outwardly of said compacting means casing.
20. Apparatus for treating trash and other waste material comprising, in combination, a plurality of toothed crushing rollers mounted for rotation generally adjacent a generally open and unobstructed inlet opening, means for rotating said crushing rollers so that trash and other waste material entering said inlet opening will be drawn therefrom by said crushing rollers, means disposed in spaced apart relationship to said crushing rollers for engaging such materials therebetween, means for mounting at least one of said crushing rollers and said spaced apart means for relative movement towards and away from the other of said crushing rollers and spaced apart means together with means for biasing said one of said crushing rollers and said spaced apart means towards the other of said crushing rollers and spaced apart means to provide a substantially uniform crushing force against such materials.
21. Apparatus for treating trash and other waste materials comprising, in combination, a movable shearing blade for chopping trash and other waste materials engaged thereby into small pieces and for kneading the chopped material to masticate it and provide a substantially uniform consistency thereto as it is moved by said moving cutting blade and comprising, in turn, a helical rib extending outwardly of a rotatably supported central mandrel to define therewith a screw conveyor, and a generally cylindrical housing having a generally upwardly directed opening positioned adjacent one end portion thereof, one edge portion of said opening defining a fixed shear for cooperation with said helical blade to chop such waste materials during rotation of said screw conveyor.
US868091A 1969-10-21 1969-10-21 Waste and trash crushing and compacting apparatus Expired - Lifetime US3651755A (en)

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Cited By (20)

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US3861117A (en) * 1972-05-30 1975-01-21 Quinto Defilippi Refuse disposal apparatus
US3871291A (en) * 1971-12-29 1975-03-18 Rush Corp Floyd Apparatus for processing garbage
US3956980A (en) * 1971-12-29 1976-05-18 Lassiter Rush E Method for processing refuse material
FR2440826A1 (en) * 1978-11-06 1980-06-06 Bollegraaf Appingedam Maschf METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR COMPACTING A LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIAL OF VARIOUS NATURE AND DIMENSIONS INTO A PRODUCT WHICH MAY BE BALLOT FORM
US4229946A (en) * 1978-11-06 1980-10-28 Slavinsky Valentin N Plant for collecting and briquetting domestic waste
US4548131A (en) * 1982-08-25 1985-10-22 Williams John L Mobile apparatus for the infield handling of fibrous material
US4703611A (en) * 1985-11-04 1987-11-03 Young Ronald D Apparatus for handling compactible articles
US5322009A (en) * 1993-01-25 1994-06-21 Rowland Retrum Apparatus for metered infeeding, compacting as required, and pumping to elevated pressure tough long-stranded material of little fluidity, such as raw feathers
US5363758A (en) * 1992-02-08 1994-11-15 Harris Waste Management Group, Inc. Baler for polystyrene material
WO1995024307A1 (en) * 1994-03-10 1995-09-14 Hans Ruf Compacting press
FR2717120A1 (en) * 1994-03-10 1995-09-15 Bema Paper shredder and compactor used for forming bricks
US5542348A (en) * 1993-06-10 1996-08-06 Bendzick; Ervin J. Process for compacting metal shavings
US5575201A (en) * 1995-04-25 1996-11-19 Marathon Equipment Company Compactor having an auger and method of its operation
US6349638B1 (en) 1999-09-14 2002-02-26 Prab, Inc. Dual die chip compactor
US6409110B1 (en) * 1999-02-15 2002-06-25 Babcock & Wilcox Volund Aps Apparatus for processing compacted biomass
EP1300202A1 (en) * 2001-10-08 2003-04-09 Luciano Salda Appartus for treating medical waste
ES2214944A1 (en) * 2002-06-28 2004-09-16 Juan Manuel Gonzalez Villalba Compactor for separating municipal solid waste e.g. residues, has compact container provided with treatment systems that are utilized for depositing urban waste in container, where waste is separated and compacted by solar energy source
US20050086921A1 (en) * 2003-10-28 2005-04-28 Bares Robert M. Cotton feeding roller structure
US20100095857A1 (en) * 2007-03-19 2010-04-22 Wolfgang Strautmann Press having a loading device and a device for opening and removing good pieces
US20140048386A1 (en) * 2012-08-16 2014-02-20 Serac Group Installation for processing articles, the installation including a screw transfer device

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US3871291A (en) * 1971-12-29 1975-03-18 Rush Corp Floyd Apparatus for processing garbage
US3956980A (en) * 1971-12-29 1976-05-18 Lassiter Rush E Method for processing refuse material
US3861117A (en) * 1972-05-30 1975-01-21 Quinto Defilippi Refuse disposal apparatus
FR2440826A1 (en) * 1978-11-06 1980-06-06 Bollegraaf Appingedam Maschf METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR COMPACTING A LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIAL OF VARIOUS NATURE AND DIMENSIONS INTO A PRODUCT WHICH MAY BE BALLOT FORM
US4229946A (en) * 1978-11-06 1980-10-28 Slavinsky Valentin N Plant for collecting and briquetting domestic waste
US4548131A (en) * 1982-08-25 1985-10-22 Williams John L Mobile apparatus for the infield handling of fibrous material
US4703611A (en) * 1985-11-04 1987-11-03 Young Ronald D Apparatus for handling compactible articles
US5363758A (en) * 1992-02-08 1994-11-15 Harris Waste Management Group, Inc. Baler for polystyrene material
US5322009A (en) * 1993-01-25 1994-06-21 Rowland Retrum Apparatus for metered infeeding, compacting as required, and pumping to elevated pressure tough long-stranded material of little fluidity, such as raw feathers
US5542348A (en) * 1993-06-10 1996-08-06 Bendzick; Ervin J. Process for compacting metal shavings
DE4408138A1 (en) * 1994-03-10 1995-09-14 Hans Ruf Compacting press
FR2717120A1 (en) * 1994-03-10 1995-09-15 Bema Paper shredder and compactor used for forming bricks
WO1995024307A1 (en) * 1994-03-10 1995-09-14 Hans Ruf Compacting press
US5873304A (en) * 1994-03-10 1999-02-23 Ruf; Hans Compacting press
US5575201A (en) * 1995-04-25 1996-11-19 Marathon Equipment Company Compactor having an auger and method of its operation
US6409110B1 (en) * 1999-02-15 2002-06-25 Babcock & Wilcox Volund Aps Apparatus for processing compacted biomass
US6349638B1 (en) 1999-09-14 2002-02-26 Prab, Inc. Dual die chip compactor
EP1300202A1 (en) * 2001-10-08 2003-04-09 Luciano Salda Appartus for treating medical waste
ES2214944A1 (en) * 2002-06-28 2004-09-16 Juan Manuel Gonzalez Villalba Compactor for separating municipal solid waste e.g. residues, has compact container provided with treatment systems that are utilized for depositing urban waste in container, where waste is separated and compacted by solar energy source
US20050086921A1 (en) * 2003-10-28 2005-04-28 Bares Robert M. Cotton feeding roller structure
US6901732B2 (en) * 2003-10-28 2005-06-07 Deere & Company Cotton feeding roller structure
US20100095857A1 (en) * 2007-03-19 2010-04-22 Wolfgang Strautmann Press having a loading device and a device for opening and removing good pieces
US8336453B2 (en) * 2007-03-19 2012-12-25 Sib Strautmann Ingenieurbuero Gmbh Press having a loading device and a device for opening and removing good pieces
US20140048386A1 (en) * 2012-08-16 2014-02-20 Serac Group Installation for processing articles, the installation including a screw transfer device
US9434548B2 (en) * 2012-08-16 2016-09-06 Serac Group Installation for processing articles, the installation including a screw transfer device

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