US3555830A - Concrete wall structure and method - Google Patents

Concrete wall structure and method Download PDF

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US3555830A
US3555830A US3555830DA US3555830A US 3555830 A US3555830 A US 3555830A US 3555830D A US3555830D A US 3555830DA US 3555830 A US3555830 A US 3555830A
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members
concrete
wale
reinforcing
earth
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Philip J York
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J H POMEROY AND CO Inc
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D17/00Excavations; Bordering of excavations; Making embankments
    • E02D17/02Foundation pits
    • E02D17/04Bordering surfacing or stiffening the sides of foundation pits
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D5/00Bulkheads, piles, or other structural elements specially adapted to foundation engineering
    • E02D5/20Bulkheads or similar walls made of prefabricated parts and concrete, including reinforced concrete, in situ
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B2/00Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls
    • E04B2/84Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ

Abstract

A CONCRETE WALL STRUCTURE AND METHOD CHARACTERIZED BY PORTIONS OF A WALE DISPOSED INTERNALLY OF THE WALL. THE WALE IS FORMED BY PREPARING A SOLDIER BEAM WITH LATERALLY EXTENDING REINFORCING ELEMENTS AND THEN CARRYING THE REINFORCING ELEMENTS INTO A TRENCH DEFINED BETWEEN UPSTANDING SOLDIER BEAMS. TREMIE-POURED CONCRETE IS THEN PLACED IN THE TRENCH.

Description

Jan.^19,'1971" 1 MYQRK n 355543910 K CONCRETE WALL STRUCTURE AANDMETHOD Filed Jan. 27. 41969 s 'sheets-sheet 1 INVENTon 'Attorneys Jan. 19, 1971 P. J. YORK 3,555,830

CONCRETE WALL STRUCTURE AND METHOD Filed Jan. 27, 1969 s sheets-sheet 2 .wir

INVENTOR Philip J. Yorkv Attorneys Jan. 19, 1971 P. J. YORK 3,555,830

CONCRETE WALL STRUCTURE AND METHOD Filed Jan. 27, 1969 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 Fig.

INVENTOR. Philip J. York www Attorneys United States Patent O 3,555,830 CONCRETE WALL STRUCTURE AND METHOD Philip J. York, Mill Valley, Calif., assignor to J. H. lorneroy & Co. Inc., San Francisco, Calif., a corporation of Washington Filed Jan. 27, 1969, Ser. No. 793,985 Int. Cl. E02d 5/20, 17/04 U.S. Cl. 61-39 10 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A concrete Wall structure and method characterized by portions of a Wale disposed internally of the wall. The Wale is formed by preparing a soldier beam with laterally extending reinforcing elements and then carrying the reinforcing elements into a trench defined between upstanding soldier beams. Tremie-poured concrete is then placed in the trench.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention pertains to concrete wall structures and methods of constructing same. More particularly this invention pertains to such wall structures as employed in excavations, for example, as in the forming of the foundation for a building or the like. This invention is particularly useful in constructing wall structures of a type, for example, as shown in U.S. Letters Patent 3,412,562.

Heretofore, in many instances, wall structures have required supplemental support applied from the excavated side of the wall. A common approach in supplying such supplemental support has been to employ elongated Wale members disposed horizantally along the face of the foundation Wall while horizontal struts, extending for great distances across the entire excavation, are jacked endwise against the Wale members of the confronting or opposite walls of the excavation.

These Wale members are typically quite bulky, extend for a great length, are hard to work with and position, and are quite expensive. Further, it frequently happens that the particular position of a Wale member will obstruct a desired work area, as Where permanent building members must be located or where access driveways to and from the excavation are preferably to be located.

For the above reasons, great additional expense, duplication of function, and inconvenience have been endured to employ shortened Wale members arranged on a wall face at different levels so that the ends of such members overlap a substantial amount, i.e., in the sense that a" lateral extension from the end of one member will intersect the other member at a point on the latter defined a substantial distance removed from the end nearest to such point.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION AND OBJECTS In general a wall construction has been provided for establishing improved lateral support to unexcavated earth bearing against one side thereof where earth on the other side of the wall is excavated away from the wall. The wall structure comprises a series of soldier beams, such as structural steel H-beam members, disposed upright in a line and formed with spaced parallel flange portions. An elongated Wale carrier member, in the form of an H-beam specially prepared with laterally extending reinforcing elements adapted to form Wale portions, stands between alternate ones of the H-beam members.

The reinforcing elements extend substantially to the proximity of an adjacent one of the H-beam members. A slab of concrete is formed between adjacent pairs of the members, including the Wale carrier members, and the laterally extending Wale elements are embedded in the concrete so as to cooperate with the concrete of the slap.

ice

Thus the embedded Wale elements serve to form a Wale disposed internally of the wall for laterally distributing pressures along the Wall from one portion to the next. Support forces, as supplied, for example, by struts, or the like, can be locally applied to the upstanding H-beam members to aid in counteracting the earth pressure acting from the unexcavated side of the wall. Thus by virtue of the Wale elements embedded in the concrete and their cooperation with the concrete, these locally supplied support forces are laterally distributed among the various upright members.

From the above general description it will be readily apparent that the embedded Wale elements need not necessarily all be located at the same level and that ilexibility in their location is thus provided.

The above wall construction is provided by pursuing the steps of a method wherein upstanding spaced apart holes are rst formed in the earth and then elongated members are disposed in the holes. Thereafter the earth is excavated from between the upstanding members so as to form a trench between two lupstanding members. Next an elongated Wale carrier member is interposed between the two upstanding members wherein the Wale carrier member is prepared with laterally extending reinforcing elements to be embedded in concrete and formed to extend substantially adjacent the first named said -members so as to aid in distributing among the other members loads applied to the Wale carrier member. Subsequent to the above procedure the trench is filled with a hardenable cementicious material to form a wall portion. After permitting the material of the wall portion to harden, and removing earth from one side of the wall portion so as to subject the wall portion to lateral earth pressure acting against the unexcavated side of the wall, counteracting support pressure is applied from the excavated side of the wall directed locally against one of the upstanding members so as to be transmitted laterally along the wall portion (via cooperation of the concrete with the ernbedded elements) to others of the upstanding members so as to distribute the counteracting applied support pressure along the wall portion.

It is a general object of this invention to provide an improved wall construction and method of constructing same.

It is another object of the invention to provide a wall construction wherein the arduous task and expense involved in providing elongated Wale members externally of the face of the wall is eliminated while retaining substantially the same function achieved internally of the wall structure.

The foregoing and other objects of the invention will be readily apparent from the following detailed description of preferred embodiments of the invention when considered in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a portion of an excavation incorporating a wall construction according to the mvention;

FIG. 2 is a perspective view, partially broken away and in section showing a portion of a wall construction according to the invention;

FIGS. 3 through 9 are plan diagrammatic views showing successive steps in the formation of a wall construction according to the method of the invention; and

FIGS. l0 and 11 are plan views diagrammatically illustrating other embodiments of the wall construction according to the invention.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS An excavation 10 (FIG. 1) is diagrammatically shown utilizing a wall construction 11 according to the inven- 3 tion. The wall construction 11 is of a type suitable for forming a portion, for example, of a building foundation and as disclosed in FIG. l is shown in that state of development wherein additional work is continuing and before the transverse beams of the building structure are provided to take the load of earth pressure acting against the unexcavated side of the wall 11.

In this stage of development the excavation can typically be expected to include horizontally disposed elongated strut members 12 of steel or other suitable rigid material jacked by means not shown and in the usual manner so as to urge the ends of struts 12 in engagement with the opposed confronting faces of oppositely disposed walls 11 (only one of which is shown). The ends of struts 12 are preferably disposed to direct their applied forces locally against one of the soldier beams 13, such as upright H-beam members 13, contained within the structure of wall 11 as described further below. Flanges 19 may be exposed on one side of the wall 11.

These locally applied counteracting support forces are laterally distributed along the wall via embedded laterally extending reinforcing elements 14 carried by one of the H-beam members 13 (designated 13').

H-beam members 13 are designated with the prime mark to indicate that they have been specially prepared with the laterally extending reinforcing elements 14, which, as will be explained further below, provide the functioning of a wale as might otherwise be employed against the excavated side of wall 11. Thus H-beam members 13' are hereinafter referred to as elongated wale carrier members 13.

Reinforcing elements 14 may be formed in a generally U-shaped construction as shown in the embodiment in FIG. 2 wherein the ends 16 are attached, as by welding, to the web 17 of the 'H-beam member 13'. Elements 14 are sufficiently elongated so as to extend substantially to the proximity of an adjacent one of H-beam members 13. Preferably the distal end 18 of members 14 will lie between the inner faces of the spaced parallel anges 19 characteristic of the usual H-beam member.

As will be readily evident from the method of constructing the wall as further explained below, the location of -the laterally extending reinforcing elements 14 permits them to cooperate with the concrete of the slab 21 formed and dened vbetween the flanges of adjacent H-beam members.

As noted in FIG. 1 the laterally extending reinforcing elements 14 in cooperation with the concrete constitute wale portions internally arranged within wall construction 11 in a manner whereby various wale portions can be located at different elevations so as to be located as desired in the excavation and avoid the problems referred to at the outset above.

In order to construct the foregoing wall structure it is preferred to utilize the method outlined in general earlier above.

Thus, the method of forming the concrete wall construction 11 follows the steps of first forming upstanding spaced apart holes 22 in the earth (FIG. 3). This can be suitably accomplished by drilling in a conventional manner.

The next step is to dispose elongated members such as the H-beam members 13 in holes 22. Thereafter, a weakly cemented grout material of conventional composition 23 is introduced in holes 22 so as to surround members 13 whereby upon hardening a moderate earth seal is created about each of the H-beam members 13. Subsequently earth is excavated from between members 13 so as to form trench portions 24 defined between each adjacent pair of members 13. Next the elongated wale carrier member 13 in the form of an H-beam member prepared with laterally extending reinforcing elements 14 is interposed between each adjacent pair of members 13 so as to dispose reinforcing elements 14 to be embedded in concrete 26 thereafter placed in trench portions 24 as further described below.

It is to be observed in FIG. 7 that reinforcing elements 14 extend substantially to a position adjacent the webs 17 so that they are essentially locked by the spaced ilanges thanking their outer ends whereby lateral wall pressure acting against the wall will be further transmitted to additional structural mem'bers of the wall.

The next step of the method is merely to permit the cementicious material of the wall portion to harden and thereafter removing earth from one side of the wall portion so as to subject the wall portion to lateral earth pressure acting from the unexcavated side of the wall. As noted above counteractng support pressures are applied from the excavated'side of the wall and directed locally against one of the upstanding H-beam members 13 or preferably against the wale carrier members 13.

Thus, even though the wall structure does not entail the use of a laterally extending wale member located on the exterior surface of the wall for distributing forces along the wall, the action of the concrete in cooperation with the reinforcing elements -14 serves to provide wale means internally disposed within the wall construction 11 suitable for receiving the application of the conventional struts which are usually jacked against foundation walls when constructed to stand against the earth, so as to retain them in proper position.

In weak soil conditions it is preferred to maintain a sufficient slurry in the holes 22 when conducting the drilling thereof or in the trench portions 24 when excavating them so as to seal the exposed usrfaces thereof and to give lateral support to the confronting faces of the trench portions and to prevent cave-in.

In filling the trench portions 24 with concrete 26 it is preferable to use a tremie pipe 29 so as to displace the slurry therein.

As is known in the art, a tremie pipe for the pouring of a wet concrete mix consists of a straight metal pipe or conduit open at both its upper and lower ends, and communicating at its upper end with a hopper into which the wet mix is introduced. At the beginning of the pour the lower end of the pipe is positioned near the bottom of the space to be filled, and as the level of the poured concrete rises about the lower end of the pipe, the pipe is gradually elevated while introduction of concrete continues without substantial interruption.

As is known, concrete may be placed under water through a tremie or water tight pipe 12 inches to 24 inches in diameter, having a conical shaped top so as to aid in receiving the charge of concrete. At the start of operations the mouth of the pipe is set on the bottom and the pipe lled with concrete. The pipe is then slowly raised, allowing the concrete to ow out as more concrete is poured in at the top, always keeping the pipe fully charged. It is essential, once the concreting operations are started, that the lower end of the pipe be kept buried in the concrete until the entire operation is completed. In this manner, washing out of the concrete is prevented. The upper layer of concrete displaces the water, and laitance is kept at the surface of the concrete whence it may be nally and effectively removed. If any time during the operations the bottom of the pipe loses contact with the concrete, the charge will Ibe lost; therefore particular care must be taken in continuing operations not to stir up the fresh concrete in place. Tremie operations should be continuous until the structural unit has been completed.

Tremie concrete must be of a consistency that will permit it to flow readily and it therefore requires more cement and water than concrete placed in the dry. A conventional slurry of the above type consists mainly of water.

In making the excavation between adjacent webs 17 of the upstanding soldier beams 13, 13 clamshell or other types of excavators may be used, such as by drilling.

In placing the tremie poured concrete it will be readily evident that the weakly cemented and hardened grout 23 serves to prevent the loss of the concrete as might be occasioned by its finding an escape path around the bounding H-beam members 13. Thus, the earth seal provided by the weakly cemented grout 23 in conjunction With the utilization of slurry in the trench portions 24 combines to prevent the inadvertent escape of the concrete` 26 being poured.

From the foregoing it Will be readily evident that an improved Wall construction is provided whereby simple, on-the-site labor, can be employed to prepare a Wale carrier such as Wale carriers 13' for location between upstanding soldier beams such as the H-beam members 13. The Wale thus formed is therefore not necessarily required to define a continuous horizontal line extending at the same level completely across the face of Wall 11. In addition, it is also readily apparent that even though it may be necessary to form a Wale across the face of a Wall in a number of individual sections located at different levels, it is not necessary that their ends overlap With attendant Waste which is necessarily involved in the conventional practice. Thus, as shown in FIG. 1, Wale portions 27 are located at various levels Within the internal connes of Wall construction 11.

From the foregoing it Will be readily apparent that reinforcing elements 14 include portions disposed to lie proximate to the front and back faces of the slab 21 on both the excavated and unexcavated sides of slab 21. In this manner all of the upright members 13, 13 are adapted to receive support forces applied locally thereto from the excavated side of the Wall as by means of the struts 12.

Thus the struts 12 may be located variously Within the excavated portion of the building construction being erected and considerable flexibility in their placement is thereby provided.

With respect to the embodiments shown in FIGS.

and 1l, as now to be described, it Will be apparent that location of the struts 12 for local application of support pressures to the Wall is preferably to be restricted to one or the other of the soldier beam members 13 or 13.

Thus, with respect to FIG. 10 another embodiment of the invention is shown wherein elongated laterally extending reinforcing elements 31, such as may be formed by the use of reinforcing steel rods, are Welded at one end to the Web 38 of an H-beam member 39. Rods 31 are formed at their outer or distal ends 32 to include a U-shaped hooked portion adapted to engage an upstanding steel reinforcing rod 33 which is secured to the hooked ends 32.

These reinforcing elements 31 are located internally of the Wall 36 but on the excavation side of a vertical midplane defined through the center line 37 of the Wall.

By locating reinforcing elements 31 to lie proximate to the front face of slab 34 the elements 31 serve to cause concrete portions of slab 34 disposed proximate the back face of the slab to be subjected to compressive forces under action of support forces applied locally from the excavated side of the Wall by struts 41 to those of the soldier beams other than the carrier beam 39.

By reference to FIG. 10 the functioning of this relationship is diagrammatically illustrated in that the arrows 42 indicate the locally applied forces directed against the H- beam members 43. It is to be understood that earth pressure Will be acting in the direction of the small arrows 44 distributed generally uniformly along the unexcavated side of wall 36. In this condition the concrete material proximate to the back face of slab 34 Will be subjected to compressive forces indicated by the series of cs shown along the back portion of slab 34. At the same time concrete material of slab 34 will, in the region Iproximate its front face, be subjected to tension forces represented "by the series of small ts which would normally Ibe expected to cause cracking in the concrete and other deterioration of the Wall, Ibut for the elements 31.

Thus, the embodiment shown in FIG. 10is considerably less expensive by elimination of substantially half of the reinforcing elements but at the expense of some loss of the flexibility of choice with which struts 12, 41 can be located to avoid being placed in an undesirable location. In a given excavation project it is anticipated that both the embodiments shown in FI-G. 2 and the embodiment shown in FIG. 10 and/or FIG. 11 as described further below Would be used in combination, in a given Wall structure. Thus, it may be readily evident at the outset of the initiation of construction that flexibility of choice in location of the support struts will not be necessary in certain portions of the excavation area but only in certain limited locations. Where flexibility of choice of such location is not required or indicated as being desirable, the less expensive procedure shown in FIGS. l0 or 11 may be used.

With reference to the embodiment shown in FIG. 11, something of the reverse of the embodiment shown in FIG. 10 has been provided whereby the soldier beams 46, 47, respectively represent a Wale carrier beam 46 and its campanion wall support soldier beams 47.

Laterally extending reinforcing elements 48 are disposed in the manner described above With respect to the embodiments of FIGS. 1 and 10 and engage, at their outer hooked ends, a vertically disposed reinforcing rod 49; The curved portion of the hooked distal ends of elements 48 serves to encompass rods 49 so as to firmly anchor the reinforcing elements 48 in the concrete slabs S1 and prevent them from merely being slidably moved through the concrete under action of compressive forces locally applied by a strut as located such as 52 to bear against the flange of soldier beam 46.

In the functioning of the arrangement shown in FIG. 11, the portions of slabs 51 placed in compression will be disposed proximate to the front face of the Wall While the portions of the concrete slabs 51 subjected to tensioning forces Will be located proximate to the back Well While reinforcing elements 48 serve to cooperate With the concrete and prevent damage to the back Wall under such tensioning forces.

I claim:

1. In a Wall for providing lateral support to unexcavated earth bearing against one side thereof, as lWhere earth has been excavated away from the other side, a Wall construction comprising a series of structural steel HJbeam members disposed upright in a line and formed With spaced parallel flanged portions, said H-'beam members further including a web portion normal to the flange portions, an elongated Wale carrier member standing between said H-beam members and carrying laterally extending reinforcing elements adapted to form Wale portions, said reinforcing elements extending substantially to the proximity of an adjacent one of said H-beam members, a slab of concrete formed between adjacent pairs of said members, said elements being embedded therein and disposed proximate the surface of the slab and remote from the 'vertical mid-plane of the slab to cooperate with the concrete of the slab, to form Wale means disposed internally of the Wall for laterally distributing pressures along the Wall from one portion to the next, said members being adapted to receive support forces locally applied thereto from the excavated side of the Wall to counteract said earth pressures, said support forces being laterally distributed among said members via said internal Wale means.

2. A Wall construction according to claim 1 wherein said reinforcing elements include portions disposed to lie proximate to the front and back faces of said slab on both the excavated and unexcavated sides of said slab 'whereby all of said members are adapted to receive support forces applied locally thereto from the excavated side of the Wall.

3. A Wall construction according to claim 1 wherein said reinforcing elements lie proximate to the front face of said slab and serve to cause concrete portions of the slab disposed proximate the back face of the slab to be subjected to compressive forces runder action of support forces applied locally from the excavated side of the wall to those of said members other than said carrier members.

4. A Wall construction according to claim 1 wherein said reinforcing elements lie proximate to the back face of said slab and serve to cause concrete portions of the slafb disposed proximate the front face of the slab to be subjected to compressive forces under action of support forces applied locally from the excavated side of the wall to said carrier members.

5. A Wall construction according to claim 1 wherein the distal ends of said reinforcing elements are disposed to lie in a position flanked by said flange portions to aid in resisting said earth pressures.

6. A Wall construction according to claim 1 wherein said reinforcing elements comprise individual elongated reinforcing members formed at their distal ends With curved portions, and an upstanding reinforcing rod disposed Within said curved portions.

7. In the method of forming a concrete Wall construction the steps of forming upstanding spaced apart holes in the earth, disposing elongated members in the holes, excavating earth from between said members to form a trench portion, interposing between said members an elongated Wale carrier member prepared with laterally extending reinforcing elements to be embedded in concrete and formed to extend substantially to a position adjacent at least one of the rst named said members for distributing thereto loads applied to said carrier member, filling the trench portion defined between the carrier member and said one member With a hardenable cementicious material to form a Wall portion, permitting the material of the wall portion to harden, removing earth from one side of the Wall portion after the material hardens to subject the Wall portion to lateral earth pressure acting from the unexcavated side of the wall portion, and applying counteracting support pressure from the excavated side of the Wall, said support pressure being directed locally against one of said members to be transmitted laterally along the Wall portion via said embedded elements to another of said members so as to distribute the counteracting applied support pressure laterally along the wall portion.

8. In a wall for providing support to unexcavated earth 'bearing against one side thereof as Where earth has been excavated away from the other side, a Wall construction comprising at least three upstanding soldier beams, concrete wall portions between each adjacent pair of said soldier beams, one of said soldier beams carrying laterally extending Wale elements disposed out of the mid-plane of said concrete wall portions, said Wale elements extending into the proximity of at least one of the other two soldier beams, and serving to laterally transmit forces to at least said one of the soldier beams via said concrete Wall portions.

9. In a wall construction for providing lateral support to unexcavated earth bearing against one side thereof as Where earth has been excavated away from the other side, a Wall construction comprising a series of upstanding structural steel H-beam members, a concrete slab poured between each of said Hebeam members, and means disposed internally of the Wall forming an elongated Wale extending across the wall in the plane of the Wall, said Wale including reinforcing elements extending laterally of said Hdbeam members and out of the mid-plane of the slabs, and upstanding elements and serving to cause the last named elements to cooperate with the concrete of the Wall defined between adjacent pairs `of the H-beam members to aid in placing portions of said slab under compression in response to support forces applied locally to said members.

10. In the method of forming a concrete wall construction the steps of forming upstanding spaced apart holes in the earth, disposing elongated members in the holes, excavating earth from between said Imembers to form a trench portion, preparing an elongated wall carrier member with laterally extending reinforcing elements adapted to be embedded in concrete and formed of a length to extend substantially to a position adjacent the first named said members for distributing among the other members loads applied to said carn'er member, interposing said carrier member between the rst named said members, filling the trench defined between each two adjacent members in the trench with a hardenable cementicious material to form a wall portion permitting the material of the wall portion to harden, and removing earth from one side of the wall portion after the material hardens to subject the wall portion to lateral earth pressure acting from the unexcavated side of the Wall portion, and applying counteracting support pressure from the excavated side of the wall directed locally against one of said members to be transmitted laterally along the Wall portion via said embedded elements to the others of said members so as t0 distribute the counteracting applied support pressure laterally along the Wall portion.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,228,161 1/1966 McCown 52-601X 3,364,640 1/1968 Guddal 52-601X 3,381,483 5/1968 Huthsing, vJr 61-49 3,412,562 11/1968 Doughty. 3,416,322 12/ 1968 Bodine 61-39X JACOB SHAPIRO, Primary Examiner U.S. Cl. X.R.

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US3910053A (en) * 1973-01-17 1975-10-07 Josef Krings Sheeting arrangement for shoring a trench with a graduated cross section
US3937026A (en) * 1973-10-04 1976-02-10 Josef Krings Lining apparatus for the protection of trenches
FR2321014A1 (en) * 1975-08-12 1977-03-11 Icos Corp A method of constructing a waterproof wall
US4055927A (en) * 1975-08-12 1977-11-01 Icos Corporation Of America Concrete walls and reinforcement cage therefor
US4369004A (en) * 1980-10-01 1983-01-18 Schnabel Foundation Company Earth retaining method and structure
US4407612A (en) * 1979-01-30 1983-10-04 Foundacon Bv Soil and/or water-retaining wall; method for forming this soil and/or water-retaining wall; and forming mould suitable for use with this method
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US3735548A (en) * 1970-09-10 1973-05-29 A Ferrari Prefabricated self-supporting reinforced concrete shelving element for forming storage spaces
US3910053A (en) * 1973-01-17 1975-10-07 Josef Krings Sheeting arrangement for shoring a trench with a graduated cross section
US3937026A (en) * 1973-10-04 1976-02-10 Josef Krings Lining apparatus for the protection of trenches
FR2321014A1 (en) * 1975-08-12 1977-03-11 Icos Corp A method of constructing a waterproof wall
US4055927A (en) * 1975-08-12 1977-11-01 Icos Corporation Of America Concrete walls and reinforcement cage therefor
US4075852A (en) * 1975-08-12 1978-02-28 Icos Corporation Of America Steel reinforced underground wall
US4407612A (en) * 1979-01-30 1983-10-04 Foundacon Bv Soil and/or water-retaining wall; method for forming this soil and/or water-retaining wall; and forming mould suitable for use with this method
US4369004A (en) * 1980-10-01 1983-01-18 Schnabel Foundation Company Earth retaining method and structure
US4561804A (en) * 1980-10-01 1985-12-31 Schnabel Foundation Company Earth retaining method
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CN103541733A (en) * 2013-10-15 2014-01-29 北京工业大学 Shield vertical shaft assembling type concrete-filled steel tube inner support system and construction method thereof
JP2015148099A (en) * 2014-02-07 2015-08-20 鹿島建設株式会社 Earth supporting material and end metal part used for the same

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