US314739A - Theodobe - Google Patents

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US314739A
US314739A US314739DA US314739A US 314739 A US314739 A US 314739A US 314739D A US314739D A US 314739DA US 314739 A US314739 A US 314739A
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10JPRODUCTION OF PRODUCER GAS, WATER-GAS, SYNTHESIS GAS FROM SOLID CARBONACEOUS MATERIAL, OR MIXTURES CONTAINING THESE GASES; CARBURETTING AIR OR OTHER GASES
    • C10J1/00Production of fuel gases by carburetting air or other gases without pyrolysis
    • C10J1/213Carburetting by pyrolysis of solid carbonaceous material in a carburettor

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  • This invention relates more particularly to the process and apparatus for uniformly carbureting water-gas with hydrocarbon vapor and forming a fixed illuminating-gas by forcing hot water-gas in numerous small jets or 2O streams into the passing current of hydrocarbon vapor, then passing the mixture through the fixing-chamber in the reverse direction to that in which the hot products of combustion Vwere passed for heating the fixing-chamber,
  • the hot water-gas andI hydrocarbon oil .or /f vapor may be combined in any known man- 5'55 nerwith the hot water-gas, and the mixture then passed through the fixing-chamber in the reverse direction to that in which the fixing" ⁇ " ⁇ chamber was heated.
  • Figure l represents a longitudinal vertical section of my improved gas-generating apparatus.
  • Fig. 2 represents a longitudinal vertical section of my improved gas-generating apparatus.
  • the fuel and steam decomposing chamber 5o A is built of brick with an iron jacket, in the usual manner, and has the usual opening, S,
  • a grate, a separates the fuel-charnber from the closed ash-box .A, which is made hopper-shaped, and has a tight-t-ting door or valve, c', closing its contracted lower end.
  • Ashbox A" may be made of metal, as cast-iron, and projects into the ash-chamber A, inclosed by a downward extension of the. furnace walls. This lower ash-chamber should have a door in its wall opening to the external air.
  • Air-blast pipe V having valve x and connecting with an air-forcing engine or blower, conducts air to the fuel below the grate through the medium of annular flue T and ports t.
  • Air-blast pipe V' having valve a, also connects with the top of fuel-chamber A.
  • An escape-pipe, C for heating gas, connects the top of fuel and decomposing chamber A with the top of fixingchainber B.
  • a water-cooled valve-box, C', and contained valve c are connected in pipe C.
  • the valve c fits up against a seat around the inlet portion of pipe C at the top of the box, and has astem, d, passing down through a stuffing-box in the bottom ofthe box, and is operated byapivoted lever.
  • Inlet water-pipe lz connects with pipe C above the valve, and outlet water-pipe IL connects with such pipe above the valve, and also with the box below the valve, and a trapovertlow pipe, It, conneets with the box, all as shown.
  • Steam-pipe K having valve k, connects with pipe C above the valve for supplying steam to the top of ⁇ the fuel and steam-decomposing chamber.
  • the outlet- ⁇ pipe D for water-gas connects the base of the fuel-chamber, through the medium of annular flue T and ports t, with the base of the fixing-chamber B through the medium of the peculiarly constructed and arranged pipes described below.
  • Pipe D connects with the tapering perforated pipe D, which projects into and throughthe large surrounding hydrocarbon-vapor pipe I, which opens freely at its inner end into the base of the iixing chamber.
  • Pipe. H for supplying hydrocarbon vapor from a suitable vaporizng device, connects with the end o'vapor-pipe I, projecting out ⁇ side of the fixing-chamber, and the vapor passing through pipe I surrounds the perforated pipe D', which delivers water-gas in numerous small jets through its length into such surrounding and inilowing hydrocarbon vapor,
  • Good results in mixing gas and vapor may be secured by laying the gas and vapor dues side by side, with a perforated partition-plate or wall between them, so arranged as to form a tapering gas-due, and so -that the water-gas will be delivered in numerous small jets into the inowing hydrocarbon vapor, as repre sented in the modification shown in Fig. 2.
  • the naphtha or other hydrocarbon iiuid is to be vaporized in a long cylindrical pipe or chamber supplied with steam-heating pipes or a coil. ized by passage through a pipe vor pipes laid in the water-gas flue by the heat of the watergas, and the vapor then delivered into the vapor-flue surrounding or extending alongside of the perforated gas-flue.
  • Pipe D has ⁇ a con-l trolling-valve, Z, provided with a stem, Z, passing up through a stuffing-box and connected toa pivoted operating-lever.
  • Vapor-pipe H is also providedwith a controlling-valve, i.
  • the xing-chamber B is constructed of brick, and covered by an iron jacket in the usual manner. It is provided at the top with man-hole P, having tight lid or cap p, with air-inlet pipe V, opening adjacent to the pipe C, admitting heating-gas, and with pipe E, for conducting off the illuminating-gas to the hydraulic seal-box, from which itv is to be passed through the purifiers and to the holder in the usual way.
  • man-hole P having tight lid or cap p
  • air-inlet pipe V opening adjacent to the pipe C, admitting heating-gas
  • pipe E for conducting off the illuminating-gas to the hydraulic seal-box, from which itv is to be passed through the purifiers and to the holder in the usual way.
  • rlhe upper portion of the fuel and decomposing chamber A has numerous portions of refractory brick or tiles, R, projecting several inches into the chamber, which greatly increase the heatingsurface and absorb heat while'the fuel is being raised to incandescence, and which afterward serve to super
  • Fixing-chamber B is filled with refractory brick looselyflaid and supported upon the perforated arch b, near the bottom ofthe chamber, in the usual manner. Below such arch connects outlet-pipe F, having hinged cap or lid f, for the escape of products of complete combustion.
  • the hydrocarbon-vapor pipe I extends below the arch and opens into the ge'chamber by vpassage t, through which the mixed water-gas and hydrocarbon vapor pass up into the heated refractorybrick-work to be fixed.
  • rIhe fixing-chamber is to be supported on a suitable foundation of masonry or on iron columns at about the samelevel as the fuel and decomposing chamber. This of itself is often advantageous,where the building in which the generator is set up is not of sufficient height to admit of the two chambers being placed one above the other in a vertical column',as shown in patents previously granted to me.
  • the ash- The naphtha may also be Vapor-V pit doors are closed, lids s and p are closed, valve Zin pipe D and valve i in pipeH are closed, valve c in connecting-pipe C and cap fin smoke-escape pipe F are opened, and the air-blast is admitted to the base of the fuel by opening valve x, and is continued till by combustion the fuel is heated to incandescence to a distance of several feet from the grate.
  • the resulting hot gaseous products containing a valuable percentage of carbonio oxide, are at the same time passed through pipe C into the top of chamber B, where they are completely burned by the admission of an air blast through pipe V, the hot products of combustion passing down through the refractory brickwork and highly heating it at the upper portion and gradually heating it to a lower temperature toward the lower portion, so that vthe bottoln portion of such brick-work and of the brick-work above the fuel, to be afterward utilized in superheati'ng steam.
  • the fuel and the fixing chamber being suitably heated, the air-blasts are shut off, valve c and cap f are closed, valve Z is opened, and steam is let into the top of the fuel-chamber by opening valve 7c in steam-supply pipe K, which opens into pipe C.
  • the steam is superheated in the top of chamberA and in the upper portion of the fuel, and is completely decomposed by passage down through the incandescent portion of the fuel, and the resulting water-gas passes out through vports t, annular ue T, pipe D, and perforated pipe D into the vapor-pipe I.
  • the hydrocarbon vapor at the same time is admitted into pipe I and ows around perforated pipe D, so that the hot water-gas is passed gradually and in numerous fine jets, and mingles. with the inflowing oil-vapor, thereby gradually and uniformly heating up such vapor and preventing the formation of lamp-black.
  • the commingled gas and vapor now pass into the cooler portion of the brickwork, becoming uniformly combined, and thence on into the hottest brick-work, where a homogeneous fixed gas is formed.
  • the oilvapor being first subjected to the cooler portion of the briclcwork has opportunity to ⁇ expand and thoroughlydiffuse itself through the water-gas before it can be burned and turned to lamp-black, and oil is thus economized and better results secured,
  • the two ash-chambers, with a valve or door between them, permit the ash to be cleaned out without interfering with the operation of the generator.
  • the means for cooling valve c and box C form no part of my invention in this IOO IIO
  • the xed illuminating gas passes by pipe E to the hydraulic seal-box, (not shown,) from which it passes through the purifiers to the holder in the usual manner.
  • illuminating-gas whichv consists in decomposing steam in contact with highly-heated fuel, and forcing the resulting hot water-gas in numerous fine jets or streams into a current of inliowing hydrocarbon vapor for gradually and uniformly heating such vapor, mixing the two together, then subjecting the mixture to a comparatively low temperature and to a gradually-increasing temperature till a homogeneous fixed gas is produced, whereby the formation of lamp-black is prevented and improved results are secured.
  • a gas-outlet pipe or flue having numerous small perforat-ions, and an adjacent vapor pipe or flue with which such perforations communicate, an inlet vapor-pipe, and a connecting receiving-chamber.
  • decomposing-chamber A decomposing-chamber A, fixing-chamber B, a pipe having a controlling-valve connecting them at the top, a pipe having a controlling-valve connecting them at the bottom, an escape-pipe for gas leading from one end of the fixing-chamber, and an escape-pipe for waste products of combustion leading from the other end of such chamber, and suitable connecting-pipes for air, steam, and oil or oil-vapor.
  • the process of manufacturing gas,whieh consists in blasting a body of fuel with air in one direction till it is highly heated, then supcrheating and decomposing steam by passing it first into the cooler portion of the fuel and then through the hottest portion thereof in a direction the reverse of that traversed by the air-blast, and forcing the resulting hot water-gas in numerous streams or jets into a passing current of hydrocarbon vapor or oil, whereby such vapor or oil is gradually heated and mixed with the water-gas, and then converting the same into a fxedilluminating-gas.
  • a gas-discharge pipe of tapering form having numerous perforations in one or more of its walls, and an adjacent hydrocarbon-vapor pipe or flue with which such perforations communicate, an inlet vapor-pipe, and a connecting lining-chamber, for the purpose described.

Description

(No Modem T. G. SPRINGER.
PROCESS OP AND APPARATUS POR MANUPACTRlNG'GAS.
N. PETERS. Phnro-Lnhugmplmr. washingion, D. c.
UNITED STATES PATENT irren.
THEODORE G. SPRINGER, OF NEW YORK, N. Y.
PROCESS OF AND APPARATUS FOR MANUFACTURING GAS.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 31@,739, dated March 3l, 1885.
Application lcd ANovember 15, 1884. (No model.)
To all whom, it may concern: y
Beit known that LTHnoDoRE G. SPRINGER, of the city of New York, in the county of New York and State of New York, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Processes of and Apparatus for Manufacturing Gas; and I do hereby declare that the following is a full, clear, and exact description of the invention, which will enable others skilled in I@ the art to which it appertains to make and use l the same, reference being had to the accompanying drawings, and to the letters of reference marked thereon, which form part of this speciiication.
This invention relates more particularly to the process and apparatus for uniformly carbureting water-gas with hydrocarbon vapor and forming a fixed illuminating-gas by forcing hot water-gas in numerous small jets or 2O streams into the passing current of hydrocarbon vapor, then passing the mixture through the fixing-chamber in the reverse direction to that in which the hot products of combustion Vwere passed for heating the fixing-chamber,
and subjecting the mixture to a progressivelyincreasing temperature in such fixing-cham ber, thereby preventing carbonization oi' oily matter orforination of lainp-black, and consequent wa-ste of hydrocarbon oil or vapor; and
3o the invention embraces improvementsY upon processes and apparatus covered by patents heretofore granted to me.
The hot water-gas andI hydrocarbon oil .or /f vapor may be combined in any known man- 5'55 nerwith the hot water-gas, and the mixture then passed through the fixing-chamber in the reverse direction to that in which the fixing"` "`\chamber was heated.
"j The improvements will be disclosed in the 4o description of the construction and operation of theI apparatus, and will be particularly pointed ont in the claims.
In the accompanying drawings, Figure l represents a longitudinal vertical section of my improved gas-generating apparatus. Fig. 2
represents a sectional detail view of a modiiied form of the gas and hydrocarbon-vapor mixing pipes.
. The fuel and steam decomposing chamber 5o A is built of brick with an iron jacket, in the usual manner, and has the usual opening, S,
and lid s for charging in the fuel. A grate, a, separates the fuel-charnber from the closed ash-box .A, which is made hopper-shaped, and has a tight-t-ting door or valve, c', closing its contracted lower end. Ashbox A" may be made of metal, as cast-iron, and projects into the ash-chamber A, inclosed by a downward extension of the. furnace walls. This lower ash-chamber should have a door in its wall opening to the external air. Air-blast pipe V, having valve x and connecting with an air-forcing engine or blower, conducts air to the fuel below the grate through the medium of annular flue T and ports t. Air-blast pipe V', having valve a, also connects with the top of fuel-chamber A. An escape-pipe, C, for heating gas, connects the top of fuel and decomposing chamber A with the top of fixingchainber B. A water-cooled valve-box, C', and contained valve c are connected in pipe C. The valve c fits up against a seat around the inlet portion of pipe C at the top of the box, and has astem, d, passing down through a stuffing-box in the bottom ofthe box, and is operated byapivoted lever. Inlet water-pipe lz connects with pipe C above the valve, and outlet water-pipe IL connects with such pipe above the valve, and also with the box below the valve, and a trapovertlow pipe, It, conneets with the box, all as shown. Steam-pipe K, having valve k, connects with pipe C above the valve for supplying steam to the top of `the fuel and steam-decomposing chamber. iThe outlet-`pipe D for water-gas connects the base of the fuel-chamber, through the medium of annular flue T and ports t, with the base of the fixing-chamber B through the medium of the peculiarly constructed and arranged pipes described below. Pipe D connects with the tapering perforated pipe D, which projects into and throughthe large surrounding hydrocarbon-vapor pipe I, which opens freely at its inner end into the base of the iixing chamber. Pipe. H, for supplying hydrocarbon vapor from a suitable vaporizng device, connects with the end o'vapor-pipe I, projecting out` side of the fixing-chamber, and the vapor passing through pipe I surrounds the perforated pipe D', which delivers water-gas in numerous small jets through its length into such surrounding and inilowing hydrocarbon vapor,
ICO
so that the gas and vapor are uniformly and thoroughly mixed together preparatory to con version into a xed illuminatinggas.
Good results in mixing gas and vapor may be secured by laying the gas and vapor dues side by side, with a perforated partition-plate or wall between them, so arranged as to form a tapering gas-due, and so -that the water-gas will be delivered in numerous small jets into the inowing hydrocarbon vapor, as repre sented in the modification shown in Fig. 2.
The naphtha or other hydrocarbon iiuid is to be vaporized in a long cylindrical pipe or chamber supplied with steam-heating pipes or a coil. ized by passage through a pipe vor pipes laid in the water-gas flue by the heat of the watergas, and the vapor then delivered into the vapor-flue surrounding or extending alongside of the perforated gas-flue. Pipe D has` a con-l trolling-valve, Z, provided with a stem, Z, passing up through a stuffing-box and connected toa pivoted operating-lever. Vapor-pipe H is also providedwith a controlling-valve, i.
The xing-chamber B is constructed of brick, and covered by an iron jacket in the usual manner. It is provided at the top with man-hole P, having tight lid or cap p, with air-inlet pipe V, opening adjacent to the pipe C, admitting heating-gas, and with pipe E, for conducting off the illuminating-gas to the hydraulic seal-box, from which itv is to be passed through the purifiers and to the holder in the usual way. rlhe upper portion of the fuel and decomposing chamber A has numerous portions of refractory brick or tiles, R, projecting several inches into the chamber, which greatly increase the heatingsurface and absorb heat while'the fuel is being raised to incandescence, and which afterward serve to superheat steam.
Fixing-chamber B is filled with refractory brick looselyflaid and supported upon the perforated arch b, near the bottom ofthe chamber, in the usual manner. Below such arch connects outlet-pipe F, having hinged cap or lid f, for the escape of products of complete combustion. The hydrocarbon-vapor pipe I extends below the arch and opens into the ge'chamber by vpassage t, through which the mixed water-gas and hydrocarbon vapor pass up into the heated refractorybrick-work to be fixed. rIhe fixing-chamber is to be supported on a suitable foundation of masonry or on iron columns at about the samelevel as the fuel and decomposing chamber. This of itself is often advantageous,where the building in which the generator is set up is not of sufficient height to admit of the two chambers being placed one above the other in a vertical column',as shown in patents previously granted to me.
Other advantagesv of the construction and arrangement shown will appear n the description of the operation of the apparatus, as follows: After the tire is kindled and a sufficient quantity of fuel fed into chamber A the ash- The naphtha may also be Vapor-V pit doors are closed, lids s and p are closed, valve Zin pipe D and valve i in pipeH are closed, valve c in connecting-pipe C and cap fin smoke-escape pipe F are opened, and the air-blast is admitted to the base of the fuel by opening valve x, and is continued till by combustion the fuel is heated to incandescence to a distance of several feet from the grate. The resulting hot gaseous products, containing a valuable percentage of carbonio oxide, are at the same time passed through pipe C into the top of chamber B, where they are completely burned by the admission of an air blast through pipe V, the hot products of combustion passing down through the refractory brickwork and highly heating it at the upper portion and gradually heating it to a lower temperature toward the lower portion, so that vthe bottoln portion of such brick-work and of the brick-work above the fuel, to be afterward utilized in superheati'ng steam. The fuel and the fixing chamber being suitably heated, the air-blasts are shut off, valve c and cap f are closed, valve Z is opened, and steam is let into the top of the fuel-chamber by opening valve 7c in steam-supply pipe K, which opens into pipe C. The steam is superheated in the top of chamberA and in the upper portion of the fuel, and is completely decomposed by passage down through the incandescent portion of the fuel, and the resulting water-gas passes out through vports t, annular ue T, pipe D, and perforated pipe D into the vapor-pipe I. The hydrocarbon vapor at the same time is admitted into pipe I and ows around perforated pipe D, so that the hot water-gas is passed gradually and in numerous fine jets, and mingles. with the inflowing oil-vapor, thereby gradually and uniformly heating up such vapor and preventing the formation of lamp-black. The commingled gas and vapor now pass into the cooler portion of the brickwork, becoming uniformly combined, and thence on into the hottest brick-work, where a homogeneous fixed gas is formed. The oilvapor being first subjected to the cooler portion of the briclcwork, has opportunity to` expand and thoroughlydiffuse itself through the water-gas before it can be burned and turned to lamp-black, and oil is thus economized and better results secured, The two ash-chambers, with a valve or door between them, permit the ash to be cleaned out without interfering with the operation of the generator. The means for cooling valve c and box C form no part of my invention in this IOO IIO
application. The xed illuminating gas passes by pipe E to the hydraulic seal-box, (not shown,) from which it passes through the purifiers to the holder in the usual manner.
The operations of heating 'up the apparatus and making gas are conducted alternately in the usual manner.
Having described my invention, what I claim, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, 1s
1. The process of generating gas,which consists in decomposing steam in contact with incandescent or highly-heated fuel, and forcing the resulting hot water-gas in numerous fine I 5 jets or streams into a passing current of inflowing hydrocarbon vapor, whereby such vapor is gradually and uniformly heated and mixed with the water-gaaand then converting the mixture into a xed gas.
2. rIhe process of manufacturing illuminating-gas, whichv consists in decomposing steam in contact with highly-heated fuel, and forcing the resulting hot water-gas in numerous fine jets or streams into a current of inliowing hydrocarbon vapor for gradually and uniformly heating such vapor, mixing the two together, then subjecting the mixture to a comparatively low temperature and to a gradually-increasing temperature till a homogeneous fixed gas is produced, whereby the formation of lamp-black is prevented and improved results are secured.
3. In combination with the decomposingchamber, a gas-outlet pipe or flue having numerous small perforat-ions, and an adjacent vapor pipe or flue with which such perforations communicate, an inlet vapor-pipe, and a connecting receiving-chamber.
4. In combination with a gas-generator, a perforated discharge-pipe, a surrounding vapor-pipe, an inlet-pipe for conveying hydrocarbonvapor connected with such surrounding vapor-pipe, and a connected fixing-chamber.
5. The combination of decomposing-chamber A, fixing-chamber B, a pipe having a controlling-valve connecting them at the top, a pipe having a controlling-valve connecting them at the bottom, an escape-pipe for gas leading from one end of the fixing-chamber, and an escape-pipe for waste products of combustion leading from the other end of such chamber, and suitable connecting-pipes for air, steam, and oil or oil-vapor. l
6. The chambers A and B, connected at top and bottom by pipes having controllingvalves, outlet gas-pipe E, and escape-pipe F for products of combustion connected, respectively, with the top and bottom of chamber B, in combination with a perforated water-gas conduit communicating with and discharging into a hydrocarbon-vapor pipe arranged at the base of the xing-chambenfcr the purpose described. y
7. The process of manufacturing gas,whieh consists in blasting a body of fuel with air in one direction till it is highly heated, then supcrheating and decomposing steam by passing it first into the cooler portion of the fuel and then through the hottest portion thereof in a direction the reverse of that traversed by the air-blast, and forcing the resulting hot water-gas in numerous streams or jets into a passing current of hydrocarbon vapor or oil, whereby such vapor or oil is gradually heated and mixed with the water-gas, and then converting the same into a fxedilluminating-gas.
8. In combination with a gas-generator, a gas-discharge pipe of tapering form having numerous perforations in one or more of its walls, and an adjacent hydrocarbon-vapor pipe or flue with which such perforations communicate, an inlet vapor-pipe, and a connecting lining-chamber, for the purpose described.
In testimony that I claim the foregoing as my own I affix my signature in presence of two witnesses.
THEODORE G. SPRINGER.
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