US314400A - Theodobe g - Google Patents

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US314400A
US314400A US314400DA US314400A US 314400 A US314400 A US 314400A US 314400D A US314400D A US 314400DA US 314400 A US314400 A US 314400A
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pipe
fuel
gas
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10JPRODUCTION OF PRODUCER GAS, WATER-GAS, SYNTHESIS GAS FROM SOLID CARBONACEOUS MATERIAL, OR MIXTURES CONTAINING THESE GASES; CARBURETTING AIR OR OTHER GASES
    • C10J1/00Production of fuel gases by carburetting air or other gases without pyrolysis
    • C10J1/213Carburetting by pyrolysis of solid carbonaceous material in a carburettor

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  • This invention relatesto apparatus for geir crating illuminating and heating gas, and is especially adapted for storing and utilizing the heat of waste products of combustion, for economically and effectively-superheating and decomposing steam by passage down through the highly-heated and incandescent fuel, for carbureting the gases passed from the fuel with hydrocarbon liquids, and for combining and fixing such carburcted gases by means of heated refractory material, which material had previously been heated by the waste products of combustion.
  • the apparatus only is claimed in this application, While the process of manufacturing gas which this apparatus is particularly adapted to carry out is fully described and claimed in a separate application, filed March 4, 1884, and bearing Serial nu in her 122,968.
  • FIG. 1 represents a vertical section of our improved cupola generatingfurnace.
  • Fig. 2 represents a horizontal section on line a: .00, looking up, for showing the construction of the crown of the furnace.
  • Fig. 3 represents a horizontal section on the line y y.
  • Fig. 4 represents a horizontal section on line 2 2.
  • Figs. 5 and 6 represent detail views of the watercooled grate; and
  • Fig. 7 represents a detail view of the gas-circulating flue and oil-injector in the wall of the fixing-chamber.
  • Fig. 8 represents a sectional view of the ash-pit and grate at right angles to the plane of Fig. l.
  • the generator A is constructed of brick,
  • the side walls are built so as to diverge slightly from the top down to or below the middle, from which point or line the walls are drawn in, so as to form inwardly-inclined floors or boshes and a much-contracted grate opening, I), at the connection with the ashpit, and thus requires but a comparatively small grate, which can be much more easily managed, and is less expensiveihan a larger one.
  • the grate is made hollow and watencooled to preserve it from rapid destruction by the heat, and it is desirable to present as little water-cooled surface to the fuel as possible.
  • the shape of the fuel-chamber shown is found -to be the most practical and successful independent of any considerations as to the size of the grate.
  • the walls immediately diverge from the passage 12, so as to form a suitably-sized ash-pit, D, to accommodate the ashes without frequent removal.
  • the grate d is placed immediately below the projecting ring of the contracted opening I) of the fuel-chamber, and is made of hollow cross-heads d d and connect-
  • the cross-heads are provided with transverse partitions or stopplates, as shown in dotted lines, so as to cause the water to circulate back and forth through the bars and heads.
  • the head (1 or its tubular extensions passes through the walls of the furnace on each side of the aslrpit in suitable stuffingboxes, permitting the tubular head orits extensions to turn therein.
  • the head cl is connected to its tubular extensions or trunnions d by union-couplings if, so that, when desira ble, the grate can be quickly detached and removed from the furnace and replaced by a new one.
  • the head d is supported by its hollow trunnions d at the side of the ash-pit opposite the door thereof, while the head 01 at the side next to the door is supported by a movable water-cooled truss or support, S, Fig. 6, which may be turned up or down for holding up or letting down the grate.
  • This truss is composed of the tubular head 8, united by T- fittings with the bars 8', which connect with the swinging cross-heads s.
  • the T-fittings are also connected by union-couplings with the tubular extensions or journals 8, which project through the furnace-walls in stuffingboxes, and serve to admit and carry off the cooling-water.
  • the hollow journals d of the grate and 8 of the supportingtruss are to be provided outside of the furnace-wall with means-such as cranks or 1evers--for turning them, and thereby raising and lowering the free ends of the grate and truss.
  • the truss when turned up, as shown in Fig. 6, will support thegrate in a horizontal position, and when turned down will allow the free end to drop down, and the grate thus forms a chute leading to the doorway of the ash-pit, and constitutes a ready means for drawing out the ashes and clinker.
  • the grate constructed and operating as de scribed, is well adapted to the requirements of our improved generator, and performs an important function in connection with the false grate-bars, which may be thrust in through converging passages F, described below.
  • Such grate may be advantageously applied to many forms of furnaces, and is therefore not claimed in this application, but is reserved for a separate application for patent.
  • An air-blast pipe (indicated by letter a) connects with the ash-pit below the grate, and preferably connects at its inlet end with an air-forcing apparatus.
  • annular flue In the wall of the furnace a short distance above the grate there is formed an annular flue, E, with which connects the air-blast pipe E, having controllingvalve 0. (See Fig. 3.)
  • Converging passages or ports F extending from the outside intersect flue E and open internally into the fuel-chamber. These passages serve as tuyeres when air is admitted by pipe E and flue E for supplying air to the fuel.
  • the ports being closed at their outer ends by removable stoppers f, they also serve as clinkering-openings for the insertion of bars to stir up the fuel, break and remove any clinker which may form, and shake down the ashes. They also serve for the insertion of auxiliary grate-bars for supporting the body of fuel above when the grate is dumped and cleaned.
  • Many more ports than those shown in the drawings may be provided and used when required. and circles of ports may be formed in the wall above the set shown, in case of a high fuelchamber, in order to heat and operate upon a greater depth of fuel-body.
  • the crown B of the furnace is arched, and has aroundits circumference openings b, from which extend, through the top of the furnace, olinkering passages or ports I), closed at the top by stoppers r.
  • the charging-opening G for fuel extends through the center of the crown, and is closed by stopper or cover 9, which is removed and replaced by a screw, 1), and wheeled truck 9, running on rails on top of the cupola.
  • a fuelcar is mounted on the same rails, and may be brought into position over the passage G, and its fuel discharged into the furnace.
  • annular flue, I surrounds the passage G and opens into it by short passages t,- or fine I may connect with the fuel-chamber by means of vertical passages through crown-arch BC Afiue, 1, passing through the furnace-wall connects annular flue I with outside pipe, 1. which connects at its lower end by means of short flue P with annular flue 0, opening by numerous ports, 0, passing through crownarch G into the fixing or super-heating chamber 0, which, as shown, is preferably placed at the base of the cupola, while the fuel and gasproducing chamber is preferably placed above or at the top of the cupola.
  • valve H In the lower end of pipe 1 is fixed valve H, having stem h passing down through a stuff ing-box at the end of the pipe. Valve H fits up against a suitable seat just above the opening of pipe P. Slightly above the valve-seat a Water-inlet pipe, h, connects, and at about the same height a discharge-pipe, h, connects with pipe I and leads down below the valve, where it discharges into the lower end of the valve-chamber, and a water-sealed overflowpipe, h, serves to maintain a proper level of water in such box.
  • valve H When valve H is raised to its seat, a small stream of water is admitted above it by pipe h, and a sufficient quantity of water is maintained above the valve to perfectly seal the joint between it and the seat, and to. keep the valve cool and prevent its injury by the heat.
  • Asteanrpipe, K having valve k, connects with pipe 1 for supplying steam at the top of the fuel-chamber.
  • Two fines, L connect with the ash-pit, one on each side, and extend down and open into the annular flue M at the same point in its circumference, so as to meet at a common valvebox, 6, and both be controlled by the same valve Z.
  • This valve is composed-of a fireclay block, and is operated by a stem passing through a stuffing-box and a pivoted lever upon the outside of the furnace.
  • Annularflue M is connected by the downward flues M and One or more annular flues ports at with the upper portion of the fixing or superheating chamber 0. Flues L M M and ports on serve to deliver water-gas from the ash-pit to the fixing-chamber, where it is carbureted by hydrocarbon liquid. They also serve to deliver air, as explained farther on.
  • the oil being thus vaporized absorbs the excessive heat of the water-gas, and is itself gradually raised to near the temperature of such water-gas,and, being expanded to the form of vapor, much more readily and uniformly diffuses through and combines with the water-gas when they are brought together in the fixingchamber.
  • the hydrocarbon liquid may also be sprayed into the water-gas and intimately mixed there with by one or more steam-jets or by jets of gas under pressure.
  • the oil is admitted into ports 1) by pipe N, branching from circular pipe N, the pipe N having a turned-up jet-nozzle like an atom izer.
  • Agas'circulating tlue, p opens at one end into portpmear the spraying-injector,and passes through the wall some distance circumi'erent-ially and to a'point below the port, where it opens into chamber 0, as shown by dotted lines in Fig. 4. It is readily perceived that the spraying-injector would act to draw gas through flue p, and intimately mix it with oil-vapor in the port 9, and a number ofthese injectors, ports, and iiues placed at intervals in the wall, as shown, would thoroughly mix the whole volume of water-gas with the hydrocarbon vapor, and thus uniformly carburet it.
  • Chamber 0 is provided near the bottom with a perforated arch, c, which supports the cellular brick-work, laid up in the form used in regenerator-furnaces.
  • An outletpi-pe, T having aclosefitting lid, t, connecting below arch 0, serves for the escape of waste products of eombustion,and out let-pipe U and branch U, opening into the hydraulic seal-box V, serve to conduct away the gas.
  • the pendent pipe V surrounding the upright pipe U, dips into the sealing-liquid in the box a sufficient distance to form a seal in a well-known manner.
  • Pipe W conducts gas from the seal-box to the purifiers or scrubbers or to a place of im mediate use.
  • a lid, 1; gives admission to the seal-box, and a lid, u, gives admission to pipe 7 U and the base or chamber 0, for cleaning and repairs.
  • a platform, X surrounds the furnace just below the ash-pit, for convenience in operating the valves, furnace-door, and grate at about that level.
  • An air-blast pipe may be connected at the base of chamber 0, below arch c, as indicated by letter Y, for better heating the air-blast by passing it through the refractory material when it is desired to produce only water-gas which is not carbureted or fixed in the generator, but is passed directly out and treated in any desired manner outside, or is applied directly for heating purposes.
  • the combustion of the fuel and the gaseous products is continued till a bed of fuel several feet thick is raised to incandescence, and a large body of fuel above is highly heated, and the fixing-chamber is suitably heated.
  • the steamthusheated is further superheated by passage through the upper portion of the body of fuel, and then completely decomposed into hydrogen and carbonic oxide by passage through theincandescent lower portion of the fuel.
  • The-hot gases then pass from the ash-pit down through iiues L, M, and M into the top of fixing-chamber C, where they are uniformly carbureted with hydrocarbon vapor by means of the spray hag-injectors and circulating-passages. as described.
  • the carbureted gas is then combined and converted into a fixed illuminating-gas of uniform quality by passage down through the heated brick-work, and is finally conducted away by pipe U.
  • the manufacture of gas in this manner is continued till the body of fuel is reduced too low in temperature to successfully decompose steam. Then the steam is shut off, and
  • valve Z The quantity of air admitted to chamber 0 for supporting combustion of gaseous products therein is regulated by valve Z.
  • the air-blast When non-illuminating water-gas is to be 'made, the air-blast is shut off in pipe a, connecting with the ash-pit, cap it is closed, valve H is kept closed in pipe I, cover 9 is re moved, or a cap is provided at the upper end of pipe I, and it is removed for the escape of products of combustion, and the air-blast is admitted at pipe Y, and passed through the heated refractory material in chamber 0 up through flues M and L into the ash-pit, and thence into the body of fuel, where, on account of the highly-heated air, the fuel is quickly heated to the incandescent state.
  • the products of combustion escape through passage G or through the outlet at the top of pipe 1.
  • one or more blasts of air may be admitted near the top of the fuel-chamber, whereby the upper portion of the fuel is more highly heated, and thus serves better for superheating steam preparatory to its decomposition in the incandescent fuel below.
  • an inlet gas pipe or flue In combination with the superheating or fixing chamber, an inlet gas pipe or flue, an oil-injector opening into a port, and a circulating-gas flue, also opening into such port or injector passage and the body of refractory material, as and for the purpose described.
  • the combination with a fuel and decomposing chamber, of a fixing-chamber located directly beneath the decomposing-chamber and flues or passages connecting opposite parts of the decomposing-chamber with the fixing-chamber, substantially as described.
  • the combination with the fuel and generating chamber, of afiXing-chamber located directly beneath the same, a passage for gases leading from the lower part of the generating-chamber to the fixing-chamber, and a flue or passage leading from the upper part of the generator to the fixing-chamber, for the purpose described.
  • inlet and outlet waterpipes connecting with such pipe above the valve, for the purpose of cooling the valve and maintaining a tight joint when the valve is closed.
  • valvebox connected therewith and having a water-chamber.
  • a valve having a stem passing through the wall of the box, and inlet and outlet water-pipes connecting with the gas-pipe above the valve-seat, as and for the purpose described.
  • valve-box In combination with the gas-conducting pipe, the connected valve-box, valve, and operating'- stein, water-supply pipe h, discharge-pipe it, connected as described, and overflowpipe h, as and for the purpose de scribed.
  • the grate journaled at one end, and adapted to be let down at the opposite end, as described, the annular flue above the grate, a blast-pipe connecting therewith, and the converging passages intersecting such flue and opening into the fuel-chamber, and having removable stoppers or caps closing their outer ends, whereby false grate-bars may be inserted for supporting the fuel when the lower grate is dumped to be cleaned.
  • the fuel and steam decomposing chamber having an outlet-passage,and a stearn-supply pipe connecting at its top, in combination with the superheating or fixing chamber placed below,and having a gas-outlet pipe and an air-inlet pipe connecting with its base, and a flue connecting the adjacent ends of the two chambers, for the purpose described.
  • a gas-generating apparatus having the fuelchamber at the top and the superheating or fixing chamber at the bottom, in combinawith air-inlet pipe a, connecting with the ashpit, flues L M, connecting the ash-pit with the top of the fixing-chamber, and a gas flue or pipe connecting the top of the fuel-chamber with the top of the fixing-chamber.
  • an oil-vaporizing coil or pipe located in such flue, as described, whereby oil is vapor ized by hot gas passed through the flue, for the purpose described.
  • a steam superheating and decomposing chamber having a steam and air pipe, a fixing-chamber having an air pipe or flue, and a gas-outlet pipe, the steam superheating and decomposing chamber and the fixingchamher being connected by two separate pipes or flues, each having a controlling valve or damper for opening and closing them.

Description

(No Model.) 2 Sheets-Sheet 1.
1G. SPRINGER & G. W. JEREMY.
APPARATUS FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF GAS.
N0. 314,400. Patented Mar. 24, 1885.
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2 Shet; T. G. SPRINGER & G. W. JEREMY. APPARATUS. FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF GAS.
No. 314,400. Patented Mar. 24, 1885.
N PFI'ERS. Phoiob'lhugnphur. Washi n nnnnn C,
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THEODORE G. SPRINGER AND GEORGE W. JEREMY, OF NEXV YORK, N. Y
SAID JEREMY ASSIGNOR TO SAID SPRINGER.
APPARATUS FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF GAS.
GPECIFIC'ATION forming part of Letters Patent No. SJAAOJ, dated March 24, 1885.
Application filed A ugust 11, 1884. (N0 model To aZZ whom it may concern.-
Be it known that we, THEODORE G. SPRING- ER and GEORGE NV. JEREMY, citizens of the United States, residing at New York, in the county of NewYork and State of New York, have invented certain new and useful improvements in Apparatus for the Manufacture of Gas, of which the following is a specification, reference being had therein to the ac companying drawings.
This invention relatesto apparatus for geir crating illuminating and heating gas, and is especially adapted for storing and utilizing the heat of waste products of combustion, for economically and effectively-superheating and decomposing steam by passage down through the highly-heated and incandescent fuel, for carbureting the gases passed from the fuel with hydrocarbon liquids, and for combining and fixing such carburcted gases by means of heated refractory material, which material had previously been heated by the waste products of combustion. The apparatus only is claimed in this application, While the process of manufacturing gas which this apparatus is particularly adapted to carry out is fully described and claimed in a separate application, filed March 4, 1884, and bearing Serial nu in her 122,968.
Our apparatus embodies a number of novel and important features of construction, which features will be particularly pointed out in describing the apparatus with reference to the accompanying drawings, which form part of this specification, and in which Figure 1 represents a vertical section of our improved cupola generatingfurnace. Fig. 2 represents a horizontal section on line a: .00, looking up, for showing the construction of the crown of the furnace. Fig. 3 represents a horizontal section on the line y y. Fig. 4 represents a horizontal section on line 2 2. Figs. 5 and 6 represent detail views of the watercooled grate; and Fig. 7 represents a detail view of the gas-circulating flue and oil-injector in the wall of the fixing-chamber. Fig. 8 represents a sectional view of the ash-pit and grate at right angles to the plane of Fig. l.
The generator A is constructed of brick,
0 and the fuel and decomposing chamber B, 'ashpit D, and fixing or superhe'ating chamber 0,
- ing-bars.
and the lines are lined with fire-brick, and the entire furnace structure is covered on the out side with a tight iron jacket, preferably of riveted plate-iron.
With the form of furnace and arrangement of parts shown in the drawings it is intended to construct the fuel-chamber and the fixingchamber of unusually large dimensions, and the conformation and arrangement of parts and the method of operating are all adapted for a furnace of extra large size. The fuelchamber being of extra large horizontal area, the side walls are built so as to diverge slightly from the top down to or below the middle, from which point or line the walls are drawn in, so as to form inwardly-inclined floors or boshes and a much-contracted grate opening, I), at the connection with the ashpit, and thus requires but a comparatively small grate, which can be much more easily managed, and is less expensiveihan a larger one. Another reason for making the grate small is that it is made hollow and watencooled to preserve it from rapid destruction by the heat, and it is desirable to present as little water-cooled surface to the fuel as possible. The shape of the fuel-chamber shown is found -to be the most practical and successful independent of any considerations as to the size of the grate. The walls immediately diverge from the passage 12, so as to form a suitably-sized ash-pit, D, to accommodate the ashes without frequent removal. The grate d is placed immediately below the projecting ring of the contracted opening I) of the fuel-chamber, and is made of hollow cross-heads d d and connect- The cross-heads are provided with transverse partitions or stopplates, as shown in dotted lines, so as to cause the water to circulate back and forth through the bars and heads. The head (1 or its tubular extensions passes through the walls of the furnace on each side of the aslrpit in suitable stuffingboxes, permitting the tubular head orits extensions to turn therein. The head cl is connected to its tubular extensions or trunnions d by union-couplings if, so that, when desira ble, the grate can be quickly detached and removed from the furnace and replaced by a new one. The head d is supported by its hollow trunnions d at the side of the ash-pit opposite the door thereof, while the head 01 at the side next to the door is supported by a movable water-cooled truss or support, S, Fig. 6, which may be turned up or down for holding up or letting down the grate. This truss is composed of the tubular head 8, united by T- fittings with the bars 8', which connect with the swinging cross-heads s. The T-fittings are also connected by union-couplings with the tubular extensions or journals 8, which project through the furnace-walls in stuffingboxes, and serve to admit and carry off the cooling-water. The head 5, at its junction with the T-fitting, where the water enters, has a very small opening, t, admitting only a small portion of the water, so that the main current thereof is causedto circulate through bars 3' and cross-head 8, while a small portion flows through tubular head 8, and the entire quantity finally flows off through journal 8 at the right-hand side The hollow journals d of the grate and 8 of the supportingtruss are to be provided outside of the furnace-wall with means-such as cranks or 1evers--for turning them, and thereby raising and lowering the free ends of the grate and truss.
With the grate and truss constructed as described, the truss when turned up, as shown in Fig. 6, will support thegrate in a horizontal position, and when turned down will allow the free end to drop down, and the grate thus forms a chute leading to the doorway of the ash-pit, and constitutes a ready means for drawing out the ashes and clinker.
The grate, constructed and operating as de scribed, is well adapted to the requirements of our improved generator, and performs an important function in connection with the false grate-bars, which may be thrust in through converging passages F, described below. Such grate, however, may be advantageously applied to many forms of furnaces, and is therefore not claimed in this application, but is reserved for a separate application for patent.
An air-blast pipe (indicated by letter a) connects with the ash-pit below the grate, and preferably connects at its inlet end with an air-forcing apparatus.
In the wall of the furnace a short distance above the grate there is formed an annular flue, E, with which connects the air-blast pipe E, having controllingvalve 0. (See Fig. 3.)
Converging passages or ports F, extending from the outside intersect flue E and open internally into the fuel-chamber. These passages serve as tuyeres when air is admitted by pipe E and flue E for supplying air to the fuel. The ports being closed at their outer ends by removable stoppers f, they also serve as clinkering-openings for the insertion of bars to stir up the fuel, break and remove any clinker which may form, and shake down the ashes. They also serve for the insertion of auxiliary grate-bars for supporting the body of fuel above when the grate is dumped and cleaned. Many more ports than those shown in the drawings may be provided and used when required. and circles of ports may be formed in the wall above the set shown, in case of a high fuelchamber, in order to heat and operate upon a greater depth of fuel-body.
The crown B of the furnace is arched, and has aroundits circumference openings b, from which extend, through the top of the furnace, olinkering passages or ports I), closed at the top by stoppers r.
The charging-opening G for fuel extends through the center of the crown, and is closed by stopper or cover 9, which is removed and replaced by a screw, 1), and wheeled truck 9, running on rails on top of the cupola. A fuelcar is mounted on the same rails, and may be brought into position over the passage G, and its fuel discharged into the furnace.
An annular flue, I, surrounds the passage G and opens into it by short passages t,- or fine I may connect with the fuel-chamber by means of vertical passages through crown-arch BC Afiue, 1, passing through the furnace-wall connects annular flue I with outside pipe, 1. which connects at its lower end by means of short flue P with annular flue 0, opening by numerous ports, 0, passing through crownarch G into the fixing or super-heating chamber 0, which, as shown, is preferably placed at the base of the cupola, while the fuel and gasproducing chamber is preferably placed above or at the top of the cupola.
In the lower end of pipe 1 is fixed valve H, having stem h passing down through a stuff ing-box at the end of the pipe. Valve H fits up against a suitable seat just above the opening of pipe P. Slightly above the valve-seat a Water-inlet pipe, h, connects, and at about the same height a discharge-pipe, h, connects with pipe I and leads down below the valve, where it discharges into the lower end of the valve-chamber, and a water-sealed overflowpipe, h, serves to maintain a proper level of water in such box. When valve H is raised to its seat, a small stream of water is admitted above it by pipe h, and a sufficient quantity of water is maintained above the valve to perfectly seal the joint between it and the seat, and to. keep the valve cool and prevent its injury by the heat. The overtlow-pipe h and trap-pipe hconduot away the excess of water.
Asteanrpipe, K, having valve k, connects with pipe 1 for supplying steam at the top of the fuel-chamber.
Two fines, L, connect with the ash-pit, one on each side, and extend down and open into the annular flue M at the same point in its circumference, so as to meet at a common valvebox, 6, and both be controlled by the same valve Z. This valve is composed-of a fireclay block, and is operated by a stem passing through a stuffing-box and a pivoted lever upon the outside of the furnace. Annularflue M is connected by the downward flues M and One or more annular flues ports at with the upper portion of the fixing or superheating chamber 0. Flues L M M and ports on serve to deliver water-gas from the ash-pit to the fixing-chamber, where it is carbureted by hydrocarbon liquid. They also serve to deliver air, as explained farther on.
In the flue L for conducting the hot-water gas we place an oil-vaporizing coil of pipe, 11, with an oil-inlet connection, a, extending through the wall of the furnace, and an outlet, at, for oil-vapor,extending down through line M and out through the wall of the furnace, and also connecting with pipes N, which project into portsp of the circulating and mixing flues p. All of the hydrocarbon oil for carbureting and enriching the water-gas is preferably vaporized in the coil by means of the hot-water gas passing through flues L M on its way to the carbureting and fixing chamber. The oil being thus vaporized absorbs the excessive heat of the water-gas, and is itself gradually raised to near the temperature of such water-gas,and, being expanded to the form of vapor, much more readily and uniformly diffuses through and combines with the water-gas when they are brought together in the fixingchamber. The hydrocarbon liquid may also be sprayed into the water-gas and intimately mixed there with by one or more steam-jets or by jets of gas under pressure.
The oil is admitted into ports 1) by pipe N, branching from circular pipe N, the pipe N having a turned-up jet-nozzle like an atom izer. Branch steam-pipes R from a circular pipe, R, terminate in contracted nozzles just above the oil-pipe nozzle, the two forming an.
atomizing or spraying injector, as shown in Fig. 7. Agas'circulating tlue, p, opens at one end into portpmear the spraying-injector,and passes through the wall some distance circumi'erent-ially and to a'point below the port, where it opens into chamber 0, as shown by dotted lines in Fig. 4. It is readily perceived that the spraying-injector would act to draw gas through flue p, and intimately mix it with oil-vapor in the port 9, and a number ofthese injectors, ports, and iiues placed at intervals in the wall, as shown, would thoroughly mix the whole volume of water-gas with the hydrocarbon vapor, and thus uniformly carburet it.
Chamber 0 is provided near the bottom with a perforated arch, c, which supports the cellular brick-work, laid up in the form used in regenerator-furnaces.
An outletpi-pe, T, having aclosefitting lid, t, connecting below arch 0, serves for the escape of waste products of eombustion,and out let-pipe U and branch U, opening into the hydraulic seal-box V, serve to conduct away the gas.
The pendent pipe V, surrounding the upright pipe U, dips into the sealing-liquid in the box a sufficient distance to form a seal in a well-known manner.
Pipe W conducts gas from the seal-box to the purifiers or scrubbers or to a place of im mediate use. A lid, 1;, gives admission to the seal-box, and a lid, u, gives admission to pipe 7 U and the base or chamber 0, for cleaning and repairs.
A platform, X, surrounds the furnace just below the ash-pit, for convenience in operating the valves, furnace-door, and grate at about that level.
An air-blast pipe may be connected at the base of chamber 0, below arch c, as indicated by letter Y, for better heating the air-blast by passing it through the refractory material when it is desired to produce only water-gas which is not carbureted or fixed in the generator, but is passed directly out and treated in any desired manner outside, or is applied directly for heating purposes.
.VVhen only non-illuminating gas is made, the method of operating the apparatus is somewhat modified, as explained below.
Having described our improved furnace,we will now describe its operation as follows: A fire is first kindled on the grate and allowed at first to burn by natural draft, the cover 9 being removed for that purpose. Then as a larger body of coal is fed in, coverg is placed upon its seat, closing passage Gr. Lid t of pipe T is opened, and the combustion of the fuel is urged by an air-blast from pipe at, and the resulting gaseous products, containinga large percentage of carbonic oxide, are conducted through flues I l, pipe I", flues P O, and
ports 0, down into chamber 0, where they are burned byjets of air issuing from ports m, which air is passed from the ash-pit through flues L, M, and M, the valves H andl being open at this time. The combustion of the fuel and the gaseous products is continued till a bed of fuel several feet thick is raised to incandescence, and a large body of fuel above is highly heated, and the fixing-chamber is suitably heated. Then lid t and valve Hare closed, and steam is admitted by pipe K into pipe I, from which it passes through fiues I and I into the top of the fuel-chamber, taking up heat from such fines and carrying it back into the fuel-chamber. The steamthusheated is further superheated by passage through the upper portion of the body of fuel, and then completely decomposed into hydrogen and carbonic oxide by passage through theincandescent lower portion of the fuel. The-hot gases then pass from the ash-pit down through iiues L, M, and M into the top of fixing-chamber C, where they are uniformly carbureted with hydrocarbon vapor by means of the spray hag-injectors and circulating-passages. as described. The carbureted gas is then combined and converted into a fixed illuminating-gas of uniform quality by passage down through the heated brick-work, and is finally conducted away by pipe U. The manufacture of gas in this manner is continued till the body of fuel is reduced too low in temperature to successfully decompose steam. Then the steam is shut off, and
\ the body of fuel and fixing-chamber are again ing through the furnace-crown.
heated up by adjusting the valves and lids, and admitting the air-blast, as-before described. At the close of the operation of decomposing steam the fuel is left hottest on and just above the grate, and the brick about the ash-pit is also left highly heated, so that when the airblast is let into the ash-pit it takes up the heat and conducts it into the fuel, which is readily ignited and quickly raised to incandescence. It is thus seen that heat stored in the flues and brickwork is carried back by the air and steam and focused, as it were, in the fuel-chamber in the most advantageous and economical manner. Fuel is periodically charged through the passage G for maintaining a sufficient body thereof in chamber B. Ashes and clinker are periodically cleaned from the grate and removed from the ash-pit. Olinker is removed from the side walls,and the fuel is shaken down by bars inserted through passages 12 extend- The quantity of air admitted to chamber 0 for supporting combustion of gaseous products therein is regulated by valve Z.
When non-illuminating water-gas is to be 'made, the air-blast is shut off in pipe a, connecting with the ash-pit, cap it is closed, valve H is kept closed in pipe I, cover 9 is re moved, or a cap is provided at the upper end of pipe I, and it is removed for the escape of products of combustion, and the air-blast is admitted at pipe Y, and passed through the heated refractory material in chamber 0 up through flues M and L into the ash-pit, and thence into the body of fuel, where, on account of the highly-heated air, the fuel is quickly heated to the incandescent state. The products of combustion escape through passage G or through the outlet at the top of pipe 1. The fuel being properly heated, the airblast is shut off and the escape-passage for products of combuston is closed. Steam is now superheated and decomposed, as before, by passage down through the fuel, and the resulting hot gas is passed down through chamber 0, where its heat is stored in the contained brick-Work, to be subsequently utilized for heating the air-blast, as before explained.
In order to completely consume the gaseous products arising from the lower portion of the fuel body while the air-blast is being supplied to theash-pit, one or more blasts of air may be admitted near the top of the fuel-chamber, whereby the upper portion of the fuel is more highly heated, and thus serves better for superheating steam preparatory to its decomposition in the incandescent fuel below.
Having described our invention, what we claim, and desire to secure by Letters Patent,
1. The combination of the steam superheating and decomposing chamber, a steamsupply pipe connecting with the top thereof, the fixing-chamber, and a pipe or pipe and flues connecting the two, and provided with a shutting-oft valve, for the purpose described.
2. The combination of the steam superheating and decomposing chamber, the superheating or fixing chamber, a pipe or flue connecting the two, provided with a controllingvalve, and a steam-pipe connecting with such pipe or flue for supplying steam to the top of the decomposing-chamber, as and forthe purpose described.
3. The combination of the steam-decomposing chamber, the superheating or fixing chamber, a pipe or flue connecting the top of such decomposing-chamber with the fixing-chamber, and provided with a controlling-valve and a steam-pipe connecting with such pipe or fine between the valve and the top of the decomposing-chamber, for the purpose de' scribed. r
4. The combination of the steanrdecomposing chamber, the superheating or fixing chamber, a pipe or flue connecting the top of such decomposing-chamber with the fixing-chamber, and provided with a controlling-valve and connecting steam-supply pipe, arranged as described, and a flue or flues connecting the base of the decomposing-chamber with the fixing-cham her, as and for the purpose described.
5. The combination of the fuel and decomposing-chamber, a steam-supply pipe connecting with the top thereof, the superheating or fixing chamber, a flue or flues provided with a controlling-valve connecting the base of the decomposingohamber with the top of the fixing-chamber, for the purposedescribed.
6. In combination with the superheating or fixing chamber, an inlet gas pipe or flue, an oil-injector opening into a port, and a circulating-gas flue, also opening into such port or injector passage and the body of refractory material, as and for the purpose described.
7. In combination with the fuel and steam decomposing chamber having an ash-pit and a blast-pipe connected therewith, the annular flue in the wall a short distance above the grate, a blast-pipe connecting therewith, and the converging passages intersecting the annular flue and opening into the fuel-chamber, and having stoppers in their outer ends, as and for the purpose described.
8. In apparatus for the manufacture of gas, the combination, with a fuel and steam decomposing chamber having a steam-supply pipe connecting with its top, of a superheating or fixing chamber and flues or passages connecting opposite parts of the fuel and decomposing chamber with said fixing-chamber, substantially as described.
9. In apparatus for manufacturing gas, the combination, with a fuel and decomposing chamber, of a fixing-chamber located directly beneath the decomposing-chamber and flues or passages connecting opposite parts of the decomposing-chamber with the fixing-chamber, substantially as described.
10. In apparatus for the manufacture of gas, the combination, with the fuel and generating chamber, of afiXing-chamber located directly beneath the same, a passage for gases leading from the lower part of the generating-chamber to the fixing-chamber, and a flue or passage leading from the upper part of the generator to the fixing-chamber, for the purpose described.
11. In combination with a gas-generator and a connecting gas-outlet pipe and valve and seat in such pipe, inlet and outlet waterpipes connecting with such pipe above the valve, for the purpose of cooling the valve and maintaining a tight joint when the valve is closed.
12. In combination with a gas-conducting pipe of a generator, a valvebox connected therewith and having a water-chamber. a valve having a stem passing through the wall of the box, and inlet and outlet water-pipes connecting with the gas-pipe above the valve-seat, as and for the purpose described.
, 13. In combination with the gas-conducting pipe, the connected valve-box, valve, and operating'- stein, water-supply pipe h, discharge-pipe it, connected as described, and overflowpipe h, as and for the purpose de scribed.
14. In combination with the fuel-chamber and ash-pit, the grate journaled at one end, and adapted to be let down at the opposite end, as described, the annular flue above the grate, a blast-pipe connecting therewith, and the converging passages intersecting such flue and opening into the fuel-chamber, and having removable stoppers or caps closing their outer ends, whereby false grate-bars may be inserted for supporting the fuel when the lower grate is dumped to be cleaned.
15. The fuel and steam decomposing chamber having an outlet-passage,and a stearn-supply pipe connecting at its top, in combination with the superheating or fixing chamber placed below,and having a gas-outlet pipe and an air-inlet pipe connecting with its base, and a flue connecting the adjacent ends of the two chambers, for the purpose described.
16. A gas-generating apparatus having the fuelchamber at the top and the superheating or fixing chamber at the bottom, in combinawith air-inlet pipe a, connecting with the ashpit, flues L M, connecting the ash-pit with the top of the fixing-chamber, and a gas flue or pipe connecting the top of the fuel-chamber with the top of the fixing-chamber.
17. The combination of the steam'decomposing chamber, the fixing-chamber, the connecting gas-flue, and the oil-vaporizing pipe or coil located in such flue for vaporizing the oil.
18. In combination with a gas-generating furnace and a gas-conducting flue in the wall thereof, an oil-vaporizing coil or pipe located in such flue, as described, whereby oil is vapor ized by hot gas passed through the flue, for the purpose described.
19. The combination of the steam superheating and decomposing chamber and the fixing-chamber, arranged one above the other, and connected, as described, by two separate pipes or flues, each having a controllingvalve or shutting-off device.
20. A steam superheating and decomposing chamber having a steam and air pipe, a fixing-chamber having an air pipe or flue, and a gas-outlet pipe, the steam superheating and decomposing chamber and the fixingchamher being connected by two separate pipes or flues, each having a controlling valve or damper for opening and closing them.
In testimony whereof we affix our signatures in presence of two witnesses.
THEODORE G. SPRINGER. GEORGE V. JEREMY. Witnesses:
J OHN D. CRONIN, K. G. STEWERT.
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