US311125A - hanlon - Google Patents

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US311125A
US311125A US311125DA US311125A US 311125 A US311125 A US 311125A US 311125D A US311125D A US 311125DA US 311125 A US311125 A US 311125A
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C01INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C01BNON-METALLIC ELEMENTS; COMPOUNDS THEREOF; METALLOIDS OR COMPOUNDS THEREOF NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASS C01C
    • C01B3/00Hydrogen; Gaseous mixtures containing hydrogen; Separation of hydrogen from mixtures containing it; Purification of hydrogen
    • C01B3/02Production of hydrogen or of gaseous mixtures containing a substantial proportion of hydrogen
    • C01B3/32Production of hydrogen or of gaseous mixtures containing a substantial proportion of hydrogen by reaction of gaseous or liquid organic compounds with gasifying agents, e.g. water, carbon dioxide, air
    • C01B3/34Production of hydrogen or of gaseous mixtures containing a substantial proportion of hydrogen by reaction of gaseous or liquid organic compounds with gasifying agents, e.g. water, carbon dioxide, air by reaction of hydrocarbons with gasifying agents
    • C01B3/38Production of hydrogen or of gaseous mixtures containing a substantial proportion of hydrogen by reaction of gaseous or liquid organic compounds with gasifying agents, e.g. water, carbon dioxide, air by reaction of hydrocarbons with gasifying agents using catalysts
    • C01B3/384Production of hydrogen or of gaseous mixtures containing a substantial proportion of hydrogen by reaction of gaseous or liquid organic compounds with gasifying agents, e.g. water, carbon dioxide, air by reaction of hydrocarbons with gasifying agents using catalysts the catalyst being continuously externally heated

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  • WITNESSES A l/Vl/E/VTOI? N. PD'ERS Phohirflmgmphcr. Washinglcn, D. C
  • This invention relates to the manufacture of a fixed illuminating-gas of high candlepower, by a continuous process, from hydrocarbon aud other oil and a small portion of steam to supply sufficient hydrogen to act as a carrier for the rich carbureted hydrogen, whereby deposits of lamp-black or hard carbon in the gas-producer are prevented and all the oil fed to the apparatus is converted into valuable illuminating-gas, and whereby better combustion and a whiter light are secured at the burners.
  • the object of the invention is to provide a compact, very efficient, easily-operated, and economical apparatus adapted for making a rich gas for factories, hotels, and lighthouses, for compression in tanks to supply railwaycars and steamboats, and for towns, 810.
  • the steam-decomposin g and oil-vaporizing retorts, the steam-superheaters, and the gas-fixing chambers are heated by the combustion of hot gaseous products from a gas-producer forming part of the apparatus.
  • the retorts and superheaters are heated continuously, and one of two fixing-chamber is always being heated while the other is being used for fixing gas, so that one chamber is always in operation for fixing gas.
  • the fixing-chambers are filled with refractory brick-work loosely laid up in the form of regenerator furnaces, and are heated by internal combustion.
  • the connecting-pipes between the generatingretorts and the fixing-chambers are fitted up with conveniently-operated reciprocating water-cooled valves, whereby illuminating-gas is shut 011' from No. 1 and admitted to No. 2 chamber, and heating-gas is admitted to the former and shut off from the latter by one movement of a valve-lever for each operation.
  • Figure 1 represents a vertical longitudinal section of the producer-furnace, the retort-chan1ber and retorts, and the fixing-chamber in elevation on line :0 m
  • Figure. 7 represents a horizontal section of the apparatus on line 00 00
  • Fig. ,6 represents a vertical transverse section through one of the retorts on line Y Y and looking to the left in Fig. 7.
  • Fig. 4 represents the pair of fixing-chambers in elevation, and a view in cross section of the watercooled valve and connecting-pipes on line y Fig. 7.
  • Fig. 5 represents a transverse vertical section through the fixing-chambers on the line z .6, Fig. 7.
  • Fig. 6 represents a side elevation of the apparatus.
  • Fig. 7 represents a plan or top view of the apparatus.
  • the gas-producer furnace A for generating heating-gas used inheating the retorts and fixing-chamber, and the retort-chamber B, are built in one fire-brick structure covered by a tight jacket of boiler-iron, and the connected fixing-chambers H H, containing loosely-laid brick-work, are built as separate structures, each having an iron jacket, as shown; or they may be built in a single structure surrounded by one iron jacket and separated from each other by a brick partition-wall,through which extends a tight iron plate'riveted to the top plate of the chamber. This latter construction, it is thought, will often be found preferable, as by it heat will be saved and utilized.
  • the fuehchamber of producer A is erected upright, as shown, and either round or rectangular in cross-section,and is separated from retort-chamber B by vertical partition u, having passage a in its upper part leading into chamber B.
  • a short stack or mouth-piece, (Z, having a tight-fitting cap, is fitted to the top of chamber A, and the lower end of such chamber is provided with an ash-pit, 00, having the usual openings, Z, and tight-fitting door Z, and separated from the fuel-chamber by the usual grate-bars.
  • Two retorts, G are set vertically in chamber B, resting at their lower ends on brick supports 0, and secured by flanges and screw-bolts to the mouth-pieces c and top plate of the chamber at their upper ends.
  • the mouth-pieces are closed by tight fitting lids secured by yokes and screws.
  • a horizontal passage, 0, projects through the front wall of chamber B, where to itsflanged end is secured, by screw-bolts, mouth-piece f, closed by atightfitting lid, f.
  • the main body of the retort is divided by partition 0 into two chambers,
  • Figs. 2 and 3- a large fuel and steanrdecomposing chamber, 0, for containing charcoal,and a small oil-vaporizing chamber, 6, into which extends oil-supply pipe 9.
  • the partition 0 has an opening, 0, in its lower end, forming a communicating passage from one chamber to the other.
  • An iron plate forms the extension of partition 0 through mouth-piece 0.
  • Steamsuperheating coils of pipe I I are located in the base of chamber B, as shown, or in other convenient part thereof, and receive steam from a boiler through inlet-pipe t, and dis charge superheated steam through pipes t, which connect with the upper end of fuelchambers c of the retorts, preferably entering the i'nouth-picces, as shown.
  • Partitions may be placed in chamberB, for suitably deflecting the hot gases and products of combustion, so as to uniformly heat the retorts.
  • An airblast pipe, K having valve 7;, connects with the base of gas-producer A, and air-blast pipes K, having valves k, connect with the upper part of retort-chamber B, for supporting combustion of hot gases from the producer.
  • the gaseduction pipe N connects, and extends to fiX lug-chamber H, and a branch pipe, N, connects with chamber H.
  • Each pipe has a water-cooled gate-valve, P P.
  • Pipes R R for products of combustion, connect with the base of chamber 13 and the base of fixing-chambers H H, and each has awater-cooled gate-valve, QQ. These two sets of valves are operated in pairs, and each pair is connected so as to reciprocate. Valves P P are-pivotally connected by rods 1) p to lever or beam E, which is pivoted at m to standard G and its bracket Z). The extended end of beam E has pivotally connected to it the pendent rod m, which is linked to arm m of crank-lever m, pivoted in frame a.
  • Valves Q; Q are in like manner pivotally connected by rods q q to beam F, which is pivoted at 0 to standard G and its bracket 6, and the extended end of the beam has pivotally connected or linked to it the pendent rod 0, which is linked to arm 0 of crank-lever 0, also pivoted in frame a.
  • the water-cooled valve here shown has proved very efficient in practical operation, and forms the subject of a patent granted me June 17. 1884, No. 800,602.
  • FiXingchambers H H are filled with fire brick loosely laid in the form of regenerator-furnaces. They are provided with short stacks M M, opening below connected by bars 8.
  • Stacks M M are pro vided with a pair of reciprocating weight valves or stoppers, S S, having ground faces and sliding on guides s s, the stoppers being The gate and rod t are pivotally connected to stopper Sand to lever t, which latter is pivoted at r to bracket 1-, forming the mechanism for operating stoppers S.
  • Blast-pipes L L having valves Z 1, connect, respectively, with the bases of superheaters H H, for supplying air to support combustion of gaseous products when heating up the chambers.
  • Gas-eduction pipes T T connect the bases of chambers H H with the hydraulic seal box or main U, and pipe V leads from such box to the service-pipe, or first to a washer, if desired.
  • a fire is first kindled in gas-producer A, and when a sufficient bed of fuel is formed the valves Q Q on pipes connecting with the bases of the superheater and stoppers S S on the stacks are opened as far as possible, and the ainblastis admitted to chamber A by pipe K for making heatinggas, and such gas, containing a large per cent. of carbonic oxide, is partially burned in retort-chamber B by admission of air blast through pipes K K, and the combustion of such gas is completed in the fixing-chambers H H by air-blasts admitted through pipes L L.
  • valve Q and stopper S are closed and valve Q and stopper S are fully opened, as shown in Figs. 4 and 5, and valvelon air-blast pipe L is closed, and the combustion of heating-gas is continued in chamber H till it is heated to the proper temperature for fixing gas to be generated in the retort.
  • valves P P and Q Q and stoppers S S are reversed by the proper movement of the connecting-levers, so that valve P on pipe N, conducting illuminating-gas to chamber H, shall be open, and'valve Q and stopper S on connections of said chamberH shall be closed, and so that valve P shall be closed, and valve admitting heating-gas to chamber H, and the stopper S in the stack of chamber H shall be open.
  • air-valve Z is closed and air-valveZ is open.
  • superheated steam is admitted in small quantities into the tops of the retorts and passed down through the heated charcoal, where it is decomposed, and the resulting gas is passed through opening 0 into chamber 0, where it mixes with and carries forward the hydro carbon vapor generated from oil admitted by pipe the mixed gases being passed into the heated fixing-chamber H, where a fixed gas is produced, which is passed to the main by pipe T.
  • WVhile gas is being fixed in chamber H the chamber H is being heated up by the combustion of heating-gas therein, as above described, and as soon as chamber H is reduced too low in temperature to properly fix the gas the valves and stoppers are again re versed, so that illuminatinggas is passed into chamber H to be fixed, and heating-gas is passed into chamber H for heating it up.
  • Gas is generated continuously in the retorts and continuously fixed in one or other of the fixing-chan1 bers, and the fixing'chambers are readily heated by gaseous products from the retortchamber, which would otherwise be wasted.
  • the air-blasts are applied continuously to producer A and retort-chamber B.
  • charcoal in the decomposingretorts is advantageous, for the reason that the gas produced with it is not contaminated with sulphur impurities, and therefore requires little or no purification by lime.
  • the waste ash and cinders are removed through passage 0 by removal of lid f at the base of retort 0.
  • Oil is supplied to the vaporizing-chamber through pipe g from an elevated tank, or from a tank below, by air or water pressure, and in let-pipe g is projected into chamber 0 a greater or less distance, as required for vaporizing the oil.
  • the superheated steam by being passed down through the charcoal, is better spread out through the entire area of the retorts and brought into.
  • the illuminating-gas also being passed down through the fixing chambers, is better brought in contact with heated brick, and therefore uniformly and completely fixed.
  • the handles of the valve-levers are brought together in a convenient position on one side of the fixingehambers, as shown in Fig. 4, so that the valves may be quickly shifted.
  • two inlet-pipes for heating-gas eonnectingwith the bottom thereof, and having a pair of connected reciprocating valves two inlet-pipes for illuminating-gas connecting near the top of such chamber, also having a pair of connected reciprocating gas-outlet pipes connecting near the bottoms of the fixing chamber, and valves or stoppers in the stacks of such chambers.

Description

(No ModeL') 7 Sheets-Sheet 1-.
. 1111111111011. PROCESS OF AND APPARATUS FOR MANUFACTURING GAS.
No. 311,125. "Patnte'd Jan. 20, 1885.
WITNESSES (No Model.) 7 Sheets-Sheet 2;
J. HANLON.
PROCESS OF .AND'APPARATUS FOR MANUFACTURING GAS.
No. 311,125. Patented Jam-20 1885;
WITNESSES A l/Vl/E/VTOI? N. PD'ERS Phohirflmgmphcr. Washinglcn, D. C
(No Model.) v A 7 Sheets-Sheet 3.
. J. HAN LON. PROCESS OF AND APPARATUS FOR MANUFACTURING GAS, N0. 311,1 2 5. PatentedJan. 20, 1885.1
WITNESSES I/VI/E/VTOI? ATTORNEY N PETERS. Fbxoumo m m Washington. a c.
o Model.) 7 Sheets'Sheet 4. A J. HANLON.
PROCESS OF AND APPARATUSVFOR MANUFACTURING GAS.
No. 311,125. Patented Jan. 20, 1885.
WITNESSES N4 PETER'S. Fmvulhdgm hu, wnhin l 0.1;
(No-Model.) 7 Sheets-Sheet; 5.
J. HANLON. PROCESS OF AND APPARATUS FOR MANUFACTURING GAS.
No. 311,125. Patented Jan} 20,1885.
N. PETERS, Plumzrlhhogmp mr, Wmhinglm, n.c.
(No Model.) 7 Sheets-Sheet 6.
J. HANLON. PROCESS OF. AND APPARATUS FOR MANUFACTURING GAS. No. 311,125. Patented Jan. 20, 1885.
WITNESSES v W/W (No Model.) 7 Sheets-Sheet 7.
A J-FHANL ON. I PROCESS OF AND APPARATUS FOR MANUFACTURING GAS. No. 311,125. Patented Jan. 20, 1885.
u B u a o o a v o u v u WITNESSES UNTTED STATES PATENT @rricn.
JOHN HANLON, or new YORK, N. Y.
PROCESS OF AND APPARATUS FOR MANUFACTURING GAS.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 311,125, dated January 20, 1885.
T aZZwhom it 12mg, concern:
Be it known that 1, JOHN HANLON, of New York, in the county of New York and State of New York, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Processes of and Apparatus for Manufacturing Gas and I do hereby declare that the following is a full, clear, and exact description of the invention, which will enable other skilled in the art to which it appertains to make and use the same, reference being had to the accompanying drawings, and to the letters of reference marked thereon, which form-part of this specification.
This invention relates to the manufacture of a fixed illuminating-gas of high candlepower, by a continuous process, from hydrocarbon aud other oil and a small portion of steam to supply sufficient hydrogen to act as a carrier for the rich carbureted hydrogen, whereby deposits of lamp-black or hard carbon in the gas-producer are prevented and all the oil fed to the apparatus is converted into valuable illuminating-gas, and whereby better combustion and a whiter light are secured at the burners.
The object of the invention is to provide a compact, very efficient, easily-operated, and economical apparatus adapted for making a rich gas for factories, hotels, and lighthouses, for compression in tanks to supply railwaycars and steamboats, and for towns, 810. The steam-decomposin g and oil-vaporizing retorts, the steam-superheaters, and the gas-fixing chambers are heated by the combustion of hot gaseous products from a gas-producer forming part of the apparatus. The retorts and superheaters are heated continuously, and one of two fixing-chamber is always being heated while the other is being used for fixing gas, so that one chamber is always in operation for fixing gas. The fixing-chambers are filled with refractory brick-work loosely laid up in the form of regenerator furnaces, and are heated by internal combustion. The connecting-pipes between the generatingretorts and the fixing-chambers are fitted up with conveniently-operated reciprocating water-cooled valves, whereby illuminating-gas is shut 011' from No. 1 and admitted to No. 2 chamber, and heating-gas is admitted to the former and shut off from the latter by one movement of a valve-lever for each operation.
Application filed May 3, 1884. (N0 model.)
The process of producing gas and the parts and combination of parts constituting my invention will be pointed out in the claims.
The apparatus is illustrated in the accompanying drawings, in which Figure 1 represents a vertical longitudinal section of the producer-furnace, the retort-chan1ber and retorts, and the fixing-chamber in elevation on line :0 m, Fig. 7. Fig. 2 represents a horizontal section of the apparatus on line 00 00, Fig. ,6. Fig.3 represents a vertical transverse section through one of the retorts on line Y Y and looking to the left in Fig. 7. Fig. 4 represents the pair of fixing-chambers in elevation, and a view in cross section of the watercooled valve and connecting-pipes on line y Fig. 7. Fig. 5 represents a transverse vertical section through the fixing-chambers on the line z .6, Fig. 7. Fig. 6 represents a side elevation of the apparatus. Fig. 7 represents a plan or top view of the apparatus.
Inthe following description the same letters designate like parts on all figures of the drawings.
The gas-producer furnace A, for generating heating-gas used inheating the retorts and fixing-chamber, and the retort-chamber B, are built in one fire-brick structure covered by a tight jacket of boiler-iron, and the connected fixing-chambers H H, containing loosely-laid brick-work, are built as separate structures, each having an iron jacket, as shown; or they may be built in a single structure surrounded by one iron jacket and separated from each other by a brick partition-wall,through which extends a tight iron plate'riveted to the top plate of the chamber. This latter construction, it is thought, will often be found preferable, as by it heat will be saved and utilized. The fuehchamber of producer A is erected upright, as shown, and either round or rectangular in cross-section,and is separated from retort-chamber B by vertical partition u, having passage a in its upper part leading into chamber B. A short stack or mouth-piece, (Z, having a tight-fitting cap, is fitted to the top of chamber A, and the lower end of such chamber is provided with an ash-pit, 00, having the usual openings, Z, and tight-fitting door Z, and separated from the fuel-chamber by the usual grate-bars. Two retorts, G, as shown, or other desired number, are set vertically in chamber B, resting at their lower ends on brick supports 0, and secured by flanges and screw-bolts to the mouth-pieces c and top plate of the chamber at their upper ends. The mouth-pieces are closed by tight fitting lids secured by yokes and screws. At the lower end of the retort a horizontal passage, 0, projects through the front wall of chamber B, where to itsflanged end is secured, by screw-bolts, mouth-piece f, closed by atightfitting lid, f. The main body of the retort is divided by partition 0 into two chambers,
Figs. 2 and 3-a large fuel and steanrdecomposing chamber, 0, for containing charcoal,and a small oil-vaporizing chamber, 6, into which extends oil-supply pipe 9. The partition 0 has an opening, 0, in its lower end, forming a communicating passage from one chamber to the other. An iron plate forms the extension of partition 0 through mouth-piece 0. Steamsuperheating coils of pipe I I are located in the base of chamber B, as shown, or in other convenient part thereof, and receive steam from a boiler through inlet-pipe t, and dis charge superheated steam through pipes t, which connect with the upper end of fuelchambers c of the retorts, preferably entering the i'nouth-picces, as shown. Partitions may be placed in chamberB, for suitably deflecting the hot gases and products of combustion, so as to uniformly heat the retorts. An airblast pipe, K, having valve 7;, connects with the base of gas-producer A, and air-blast pipes K, having valves k, connect with the upper part of retort-chamber B, for supporting combustion of hot gases from the producer. To the outlet 12, at top of oil. -va porizing chamber 0 of each retort, the gaseduction pipe N connects, and extends to fiX lug-chamber H, and a branch pipe, N, connects with chamber H. Each pipe has a water-cooled gate-valve, P P. Pipes R R, for products of combustion, connect with the base of chamber 13 and the base of fixing-chambers H H, and each has awater-cooled gate-valve, QQ. These two sets of valves are operated in pairs, and each pair is connected so as to reciprocate. Valves P P are-pivotally connected by rods 1) p to lever or beam E, which is pivoted at m to standard G and its bracket Z). The extended end of beam E has pivotally connected to it the pendent rod m, which is linked to arm m of crank-lever m, pivoted in frame a. Valves Q; Q are in like manner pivotally connected by rods q q to beam F, which is pivoted at 0 to standard G and its bracket 6, and the extended end of the beam has pivotally connected or linked to it the pendent rod 0, which is linked to arm 0 of crank-lever 0, also pivoted in frame a. The water-cooled valve here shown has proved very efficient in practical operation, and forms the subject of a patent granted me June 17. 1884, No. 800,602. FiXingchambers H H are filled with fire brick loosely laid in the form of regenerator-furnaces. They are provided with short stacks M M, opening below connected by bars 8.
smoke-funnels above. Stacks M M are pro vided with a pair of reciprocating weight valves or stoppers, S S, having ground faces and sliding on guides s s, the stoppers being The gate and rod t are pivotally connected to stopper Sand to lever t, which latter is pivoted at r to bracket 1-, forming the mechanism for operating stoppers S. Blast-pipes L L, having valves Z 1, connect, respectively, with the bases of superheaters H H, for supplying air to support combustion of gaseous products when heating up the chambers. Gas-eduction pipes T T connect the bases of chambers H H with the hydraulic seal box or main U, and pipe V leads from such box to the service-pipe, or first to a washer, if desired.
Having described the construction of my improved gas apparatus, I will now describe its operation as follows: A fire is first kindled in gas-producer A, and when a sufficient bed of fuel is formed the valves Q Q on pipes connecting with the bases of the superheater and stoppers S S on the stacks are opened as far as possible, and the ainblastis admitted to chamber A by pipe K for making heatinggas, and such gas, containing a large per cent. of carbonic oxide, is partially burned in retort-chamber B by admission of air blast through pipes K K, and the combustion of such gas is completed in the fixing-chambers H H by air-blasts admitted through pipes L L. As the heating up proceeds valve Q and stopper S are closed and valve Q and stopper S are fully opened, as shown in Figs. 4 and 5, and valvelon air-blast pipe L is closed, and the combustion of heating-gas is continued in chamber H till it is heated to the proper temperature for fixing gas to be generated in the retort. As soon as the retorts and steam-superbeating coils are heated to the proper temperature the generating of il1uminatinggas is commenced, and at the same time valves P P and Q Q and stoppers S S are reversed by the proper movement of the connecting-levers, so that valve P on pipe N, conducting illuminating-gas to chamber H, shall be open, and'valve Q and stopper S on connections of said chamberH shall be closed, and so that valve P shall be closed, and valve admitting heating-gas to chamber H, and the stopper S in the stack of chamber H shall be open. At the same time air-valve Z is closed and air-valveZ is open.
For generating illuminating gas, superheated steam is admitted in small quantities into the tops of the retorts and passed down through the heated charcoal, where it is decomposed, and the resulting gas is passed through opening 0 into chamber 0, where it mixes with and carries forward the hydro carbon vapor generated from oil admitted by pipe the mixed gases being passed into the heated fixing-chamber H, where a fixed gas is produced, which is passed to the main by pipe T. WVhile gas is being fixed in chamber H the chamber H is being heated up by the combustion of heating-gas therein, as above described, and as soon as chamber H is reduced too low in temperature to properly fix the gas the valves and stoppers are again re versed, so that illuminatinggas is passed into chamber H to be fixed, and heating-gas is passed into chamber H for heating it up. Gas is generated continuously in the retorts and continuously fixed in one or other of the fixing-chan1 bers, and the fixing'chambers are readily heated by gaseous products from the retortchamber, which would otherwise be wasted. The air-blasts are applied continuously to producer A and retort-chamber B.
The use of charcoal in the decomposingretorts is advantageous, for the reason that the gas produced with it is not contaminated with sulphur impurities, and therefore requires little or no purification by lime. The waste ash and cinders are removed through passage 0 by removal of lid f at the base of retort 0. Oil is supplied to the vaporizing-chamber through pipe g from an elevated tank, or from a tank below, by air or water pressure, and in let-pipe g is projected into chamber 0 a greater or less distance, as required for vaporizing the oil. The superheated steam, by being passed down through the charcoal, is better spread out through the entire area of the retorts and brought into. contact with all the carbon surfaces, whereby it is thoroughly decomposed, and the resulting hydrogen mixes with and carries forward the oil-vapors, preventing formation of soot or hard carbon. The illuminating-gas, also being passed down through the fixing chambers, is better brought in contact with heated brick, and therefore uniformly and completely fixed. The handles of the valve-levers are brought together in a convenient position on one side of the fixingehambers, as shown in Fig. 4, so that the valves may be quickly shifted.
Having described my invention, what I claim, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, 1s
1. The process of manufacturing illuminatinggas which consists in continuously heat ing the generating-retorts, and by means of the waste or partially-burned gaseous products alternately heating internally two fixing-chambers, first one and then the other, generating gas continuouslyin the retorts and fixing it continuously in the fixing-chambers, alternating the heating up of one chamber with fixing gas in the other chamber, as described.
2. The process of generating gas continu= ously which consists in superheating steam, passing it down through abody of charcoal continuously maintained at a decomposing temperaturawhere it is decomposed, passing the'resulting gas up through the vaporizingchamber, into which oil is admitted, thereby intimately mingling gas and oil-vapor and carrying the latter from the retort, and then forming a fixed gas by passing the mixture of gas and vapor through a heated chamber.
3. The combination of the producer A and the connected retort-chamber, built in one structure, the dividing-wall between them having a passage near its top, an air-blast pipe connecting with the top of the retort chamber, an escape-pipe for products of combustion, connecting near the bottom thereo, and thecontained vertical retorts.
4. The combination of the heating-gas producer, the connected retort-chamber and re torts, an air-blast pipe connected with such chamber, a gas-fixing chamber, a pipe for products of combustion connecting the bases of the retort-chamber and fixing-chamber, and a pipe connecting the retorts with the top of such fixing-chamber, whereby gas to be fixed may be passed down through the fixing-chamber.
5. The combination of the retort-chamber and contained retorts, means for heating them, a fixing-chamber connected both with the retort-chamber and the retorts, and a valve on each connecting-pipe, whereby hot gaseous products may be passed from the retort-chamber to the fixing-chamber for heating the latter, and when such products are shut off illuminating-gas may be passed into such chamber to be fixed, as described.
G. The combination of the retort-chamber and one or more contained retorts with two fixing-chambers, connecting-pipes from the retort'chamber and from the retorts to both fixing-chambers, and reciprocating valves on all the pipes, whereby heatinggas may be conducted to one chamber, while illuminating-gas to be fixed may be conducted to the other-chamber, and the flow of each kind of gas changed from one chamber to the other, as desired.
7. In combination with a continuous gasgenerator, two fixing-chambers, and pipes having connected reciprocating valves connecting the generator with such chambers, and means for admitting heating-gas to each fixing-chamber.
8. In combination with a continuous gasgenerator, two fixing-chambers, and pipes having valves connecting the generator with such chambers, and means for admitting heating-gas to each fixing-chamber, whereby the chambers may be used alternately for fixing gas, one chamber being heated up while gas is being fixed in the other chamber, as de scribed. V
9. In combination with the two fixing-chambers, two inlet-pipes for heating-gas eonnectingwith the bottom thereof, and having a pair of connected reciprocating valves, two inlet-pipes for illuminating-gas connecting near the top of such chamber, also having a pair of connected reciprocating gas-outlet pipes connecting near the bottoms of the fixing chamber, and valves or stoppers in the stacks of such chambers.
10. In combination with two fixing-chambers, two inlet-pipes for heating-gas, having a pair of connected reciprocating valves, two
..ing,.an opening at its lower end, a steam-inlet pipe connecting with the top of the decomposing-chamber, an oil-supply pipe extending into the vaporizing-chamber, and a gasoutlet pipe leading from the top of such vaporizing-chamber, for the purpose described.
In testimony that I claim the foregoing as my own I aifiX my signature in presence of two Witnesses.
JOHN HANLON.
' Vitnesses:
JOHN C. PENNIE, F. O. MOCLEARY.
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