US2808072A - Loop-pile-forming wires for looms - Google Patents

Loop-pile-forming wires for looms Download PDF

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US2808072A
US2808072A US483067A US48306755A US2808072A US 2808072 A US2808072 A US 2808072A US 483067 A US483067 A US 483067A US 48306755 A US48306755 A US 48306755A US 2808072 A US2808072 A US 2808072A
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pile
loop
loops
forming
wires
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US483067A
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Stovall George Thomas
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JOHN H BAILE
NEW YORK TRUST Co
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JOHN H BAILE
NEW YORK TRUST Co
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    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D03WEAVING
    • D03DWOVEN FABRICS; METHODS OF WEAVING; LOOMS
    • D03D39/00Pile-fabric looms
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D03WEAVING
    • D03DWOVEN FABRICS; METHODS OF WEAVING; LOOMS
    • D03D2700/00Woven fabrics; Methods of weaving; Looms
    • D03D2700/50Pile-fabric looms; Pile fabrics
    • D03D2700/54Wire-tapestry looms for warp pile fabrics

Description

Oct. 1, 195? cs. T. STOVALL LOOP-PILE-FORMING WIRES FOR LOOMS I5 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Jan. 20,1955

INVENTORI amaza ATTORNEYS.

1957 G. T. STOVALL LOOP- -PILE-F0RMING WIRES FOR LOOMS Filed Jan 20, 1955 3 Sheets- Sheet 2 1 Q m I 7- I lNViE'INTOR: GEORGE THOMAS $TOVALL."

WARPWISE REPEAT WEFTWISE ATTORNEYS.

REPEAT Oct. 1, 1957 e. T. STOVALL LOOP-PILE- -FORMING WIRES FOR LOOMS 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed Jan.. 20, 1955 INVENTORI GEORGE THOMAS STOVALL.

.WARPWISE WARPWIS s WEFTWISE REPEAT ATTORNEYS.

United States Patent LOOP-PILE-FORMING WIRES FOR LOOMS George Thomas Stovali, Spray, N. C., assignonby mesne assignments, to The New York 'h'ust Company, a corporation of New York, and John H. Baile, Saddle River, N. J., as trustees Application January 20, 1955, Serial No. 483,067

18 Claims. (Cl. 139-46) This invention. relates to looms for weaving loop pile fabrics and, more especially, to an improved method utilizing improved longitudinal gauge wires or fingers adapted to extend through the dents of a loom reed for producing loops of varying heights.

There are various types of pile-forming wires or gauges currently in use on various types of looms for weaving loop and/or cut pile fabrics, such as frieze, chenille and velvet plush fabrics, rugs and the like. In some instances, weftwise extending Wires or gauges are used which may be of uniform or variable heights throughout their lengths and which are withdrawn from loops formed thereover as the fabric is woven. In other instances, longitudinal or warp'wise extending wires or gauges are used which extend through the reed dents and weft yarns are passed over and under the wires in succession. The

warpwise wires may be of uniform height throughout their lengths and drawn forwardly with the fabric as it is woven and periodically moved rearwardly relative to the fabric to free them from the pile loops at the free ends thereof.

The warpwise or longitudinal wires or gauges may also be of the type which are movable warpwise of the fabric individually, in groups, or in their entirety, and which have a plurality of variant-height weaving stages adjacent the loop-forming ends thereof over which pileloop-supporting weft yarns are cast.

The latter type of pile-forming wires or gauges as developed heretofore have either had an inclined portion forming the weaving stages or the wires have been graduated in steps of different increasing heights toward the rear of the loom. However, the latter type of gauges or wires have necessarily had to be advanced at or less than the weaving rate of the fabric or drawn forwardly by the fabric itself as the fabric was drawn forwardly in weaving. This has necessitated the formation of loops of gradually increasing heights between the terminus of a short-loop area and the forward end of a long-loop area having loops of a substantially greater length than those in the short-loop area, so that it has been impossible to produce a loop pile fabric having a distinct line of demarcation between the trailing end of a short-loop area and the leading end of a long-loop area.

It is therefore an object of this invention to provide improved loop pile wires, fingers or gauges for use in a loom and a novel method of using said wires wherein the wires are capable of being shifted quickly longitudinally through the dents of the loom reed in both directions during the looping of pile yarn thereover to produce loops of varying height in any desired succession and wherein the pile wires may be so shifted at a speed independently of the speed at which the ground fabric is taken up by the loom so that all of the loops formed in any given area may be of uniform height relative to adjacent areas having loops of different height. This provides distinct lines of demarcation between loop pile areas' of different heights whereas, heretofore, it

has been necessary to advance the usual type of pile ice wires at or less than the rate of speed at which the ground fabric was taken up by the looni which would result in indistinct lines of demarcation.

It is another object of this invention to provide im' proved pile wires of the character described each having loop forming stages formed by two or more vertically spaced prongs or projections on the free pile-forming end thereof fo'rming'a slot or slots therebetween through which pile yarn may extend. When the pile wires are shifted longitudinally of the fabric, the, lowermost prong projects forwardly beyond the front end of the prong th'ereabove or, in other words, the free front ends of the prongs terminate increasing distances from, the front end of the pile wire, so loops may be formed over any prong selectively'presented to the loop-forming zone of the loom. Thus, upon a pile loo'p or'loops being formed over a prong other than the uppermost prong on a selected pile wire, the selected pile wire may be advanced at a speed faster than the weaving rate to immediately present a higher weaving stage or prong to the loop forming zone, since the prong over which shorter loops were previously formed will advance through loops which had previously moved off the free end thereof and the bights of a few of the shorter loops could then extend through the slot between the prong over which the shorter loops were formed and the next succeeding prong thereabove. Thus, the loops formed on-the prong or projection at the higher elevation will be formed at a uniform height, as were the loops which were formed on the lower prong or projection, thereby obviating thenecessity of providing loops of graduated heights at the juncture of groups of loops of two predeterminedly different levels. This enables the production of loop pile fabrics having loop pile areas of varying height and wherein each of the areas may be of any desired configuration and definite lines of demarcation would thus be formed between adjacent low pile and high pile areas, for example, and so that ad jacent areas are sharply defined.

Some of the objects of the invention having been stated, other objects will appear as the description proceeds when taken in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which- Figure 1 is a somewhat schematic view showing some of the improved loop-forming fingers, Wires or gauges in association with means for controlling the forward and rearward movement thereof on a loom;

Figure l-A is a view of a form of cam such as may be used in lieu of the cam in the lower right-hand portion of Figure 1 for controlling loop-forming fingers of the type shown in Figure 7;

Figure 2 is a fragmentary isometric view of a portion of an Axminster type of loom showing the manner in which loops of varying'heights are formed over the prongs of one form of the improved pile wires or gauges;

Figure 3 is an enlarged fragmentary longitudinal or warpwise vertical sectional view through a portion of fabric showing the pile loops as formed by the form of the improved pile wire or gauge shown in Figure 6;

Figure 4 is a fragmentary transverse or weftwise sectional view through the fabric also showing the pile loops as formed over the form of the improved loop-forming wire or gauge shown in Figure 6;

Figure 5 is a schematic illustration of a portion of fabric showing adjacent recessed and embossed areas of two different heights, respectively formed from relatively short and relatively long loops, but wherein said areas are shown in block form to clarify the relative shape or configurationof adjacent areas;

Figure 6 is a view showing one form of improved pile wire or gauge removed from the loom;

Figure 7 is a view similar to Figure 6 showing another form of improved pile wire or gauge; b

Figures 8 and 9 are views similar to the respective Figures 3 and 4 showing loops of three different heights suchas may be formed with wires of the type shown in Figure 7; I

Figure 10 is a view similar to Figure 5, but showing embossed and recessed pile loop areas of three different heights.

Referring more specifically to the drawings, in Figures 1 and 2 portions of a loom are illustrated, which loom is preferably of the Axminster type equipped with pile wire or gauge controlling mechanism substantially of the type disclosed in the pending application of Ivar 0. Moberg, Serial Number 398,287, filed December 15, 1953, and entitled Method of and Apparatus for Weaving High and Low Pile Fabrics.

Generally, the apparatus disclosed in said pending application includes means for weaving a base or ground fabric from warp yarns and weft yarns in the usual manner and is provided with pile yarn guides through which respective continuous pile yarns pass and which move downwardly from a position spaced above the fabric, following the insertion of alternate double weft yarns through the open shed formed of the warp yarns and over the strands of pile yarn. Upon intervening double weft yarns being inserted, the pile yarn guides move upwardly from a position within the shed and are then shifted laterally substantially simultaneously with the beat-up stroke of the reed and then again moved downwardly preparatory to another double weft yarn being inserted over the strands of pile yarn. In so doing, the pile yarns are looped over respective loop-forming fingers, pile wires .or pile gauges provided with stepped loop-forming stages or free end portions of varying height and having pattern controlled means for shifting selected fingers longitudinalciation with other types of looms and other types of pattern controlled means may be provided therefor, without departing from the spirit of the invention.

Referring particularly to Figure 2, the portion of a loom illustrated includes a reed or beating-up means broadly designated at 10 and comprising a reed box or lay 11 having a plurality of closely spaced reed splits 12 mounted thereon with openings therebetween, which are commonly known as reed dents, and through which ground warps 13 and 13a are threaded. The ground warps 13 and 13a are controlled in the usual manner by any suitable means, not shown, for forming a shed therewith and a suitable weft inserting means necessarily cooperates with the shed forming means in forming the fabric, the weft inserting means being shown in the form of a weftwise reciprocable weft carrying needle 14, in this instance, since the portion of the particular loom shown is that of an Axminster type of loom. I

It might be stated that the weft carrying needle functions in the usual manner to insert a double shot of weft yarn W in the shed following each successive beat-up stroke of the reed 10 as is clearlydisclosed in said pending application and in various patents, such as Patents Nos. 2,437,378 and 2,437,379 issued to Eugene F. Clark on March 9, 1948. Of course, the usual type of shuttle and bobbin may be used with equal facility for inserting a single weft yarn between successive beat-up strokes of the reed 10, if desired. A

Referring to Figures 3 and 4, one form of loop pile fabric F is shown embodying pile loops formed in accordance with the present method. As heretofore stated, the pile fabric base or ground is woven in the usual manner; that is, the warp yarns 13 are spaced fillerwise or weftwise of the loom and serve as stuffer warp yarns adjacent each of which one of the warp yarns 13a is disposed. Thus, the warp yarns 13a, which are preferably maintained under lesser tension than the yarns l3, serve as binder warp yarns.

The fabric base shown in Figures 3 and 4 is woven by the so-called two-shot cycle, method. Considering the fabric in Figure 3 as being produced from the left-hand side of the drawing toward the right, the warps are opened with 13 up and 13a down, the filler or double weft yarn W would be placed through the warp and beat up. Since the stuffer warp 13 is preferably taut as compared to the binder warp 13a and the stuffer warp 13 is above the filler W and the binder warp 13a is below the filler W, when this shot of filler is beat up, it goes into the base fabric at a lower level than the next shot of filler.

In the next step the warp 13 is shedded down and the binder warp 13a is shedded up. The pile yarn is inserted into the shed by the guides 22, to be later described, and a shot of filler W placed over the strands of pile yarn, below the binder warp 13a and above the stutfcr warp 13. As the yarn guidesdescend into the shed, the pile yarn is looped over the corresponding portions of the improved loop-forming fingers, to be later described, and is held in this condition until the shot of filler is made and the needle 14 withdrawn from the shed, whereupon the guides 22 ascend, drawing the shot of filler previously inserted over the pile yarn against the under side of the loop-forming fingers.

The filler or weft and pile loops are then beat up with the filler at a high level and the pile loops at a low level in the fabric, with the filler against the base of the pile loops and the pile loops beat snugly against the first-mentioned shot of filler. For the next step, the binder. warp 13a is shedded down and the stuifer warp 13 is shedded upward and the cycle of operation repeated as the fabric is woven, the improved loop-forming fingers being provided with upper edge portions of different heights .for forming different lengths or heights of loops such as short loops S and long loops L.

The loom also includes a conventional transversely extending and downwardly and forwardly inclined breast plate 16 for the support of the fabric, generally designated at F, after it has been woven.

The woven fabric passes from the breast plate and is taken up by a suitable take-up means shown schematically at 17 in Figure 2 and which serves in the usual manner to maintain the fabric under constant predetermined tension and which takes up the fabric as it is woven.

Pile yarns P extend downwardly from a point substantially above the reed 10, under predetermined tension, and pass through respective eyes 21 in the free lower ends of respective loop-forming pile yarn guides 22, there being a plurality of such pile yarn guides 22 disposed in closely spaced relationship to form a row of said pile yarn guides'extending transversely of the loom.

The loop-forming pile yarnguides 22 may be of substantially the same construction as, and operated by the same means as, disclosed in said Clark Patents Nos. 2,437,378 and 2,437,379. As disclosed in said patents, the movement of the pile yarn guides 22 into and out of the warp shed and the movement of these guides laterally over the loop-forming fingers, wires or gauges to be presently described, thereby shogging the pile yarn over said fingers, is controlled by the operating parts for the pile guides in relation to the operation of the needle 14 as it places the filler or weft into the warp. Thus, a further detailed description of the beating-up means 10, the shed forming means, the weft or filler inserting means and the pile yarn guides 22 is deemed unnecessary.

Improved pile loop-forming fingers, gauges or wires In Figures 6 and 7, two forms of improved loop-formmg fingers, guides or wires are shown which are respectively designated at 25 and 26. Each of the-loop-forming fingers 25 and 26 is formed of a flat incompressible strip sufficiently thin to pass betweenadjacentreed splits of loop-forming finger 25 is shown in association with v the loom in Figures 1 and 2 wherein it will be noted that the pile yarn guides 22 are adapted to pass between the corresponding loop-forming fingers 25 in front of-the reed to carry the corresponding pile yarns below the fingers and into the shed of the loom so that the needle 14 passes through the loops of pile yarn thus formed and positions double weft yarns between the warp yarns, over the strands of pile yarn and below the fingers 25 and/or 26 in the usual manner substantially as disclosed in said Clark patents.

Referring again to Figures 6 and 7, it will be observed that the fingers 25 and 26 have respective elongated shanl s-27 and 28 and the forward or operating ends of the fingers 25 and 26 are each provided with a plurality of vertically spaced prongs or projections thereon. There are two such prongs or projections 31 and 32 shown on the finger 25. The modified or second form of loopforming finger 26 is quite similar to the first form of finger 25 with the exception that it is provided with three or more than two elongated prongs or projections thereon indicated at 33, 34 and 35.

It is particularly important to note that the rounded front or free ends of the upper prongs in each instance terminate substantially short of the rounded free ends of the next succeeding prong immediately therebeneath. For example, it will be noted that the free end of the prong 32 terminates substantially short of the free end of the lower prong 31 on the loop-forming finger 25 and, in the loop-forming finger 26, the uppermost prong 35 terminates substantially short of the free end of the intermediate prong 34 and the free end of the intermediate prong 34 terminates substantially short of the free front end of the lowermost prong 33. g

It is also particularly important to note that the prongs in each instance are disposed in vertically spaced relationship thus forming a slot 36 between the proximal surfaces of the prongs 31 and 32 of the loop-forming finger 25 and forming slots 40 and 41 between the lower and intermediate prongs 33 and 34 and the intermediate and upper prongs 34 and 35 respectively, of the loopforrning finger 26. For purpose of description, the portions of any of the prongs in either form of loop-forming finger which extend forwardly beyond the free end of a prong immediately thereabove will be termed as the exposed portion of the corresponding prong or projection, and the exposed portions of the prongs of each wire may also be termed as loop-forming stages of different heights. The loop-forming stages are preferably of greater height than the width or thickness of the wires.

The loop-forming fingers 25 and/or 26 may be controlled by any suitable means, such as that disclosed in said pending application Serial Number 398,287, as will be more fully described hereinafter, to selectively shift the loop-forming, fingers forwardly and rearwardly predetermined distances so that, in the instance of using the loop-forming fingers 25, loops may be formed either over the exposed portion of the lower prong 31 or over the prong 32 and, in the instance of the finger 26 being used, loops may be formed over the exposed portions of either of the prongs 33 and 34 or over the prong 35. It is preferred, but not necessary, that the upper surfaces of the upper prongs 32 and 35 coincide with the upper surfaces of the shanks 27 and 28 of the respective loopforming fingers 25 and 26.

Now, assumingthat certain selected loop-forming fingers'25 are in a rearward position relative to the'fell of the fabric being woven, to the extent that relatively short loops are formed from a pile yarn P over the lowermost or bottom prong or projection 31, it follows that the corresponding finger 25 may be advanced at a rate substantially exceeding the speed at which the fabric is taken up, in the course of which the bottom prong 31 will merely move through loops which were previously formed thereover so that the bights of a few of the loops which were formed over the bottom prong 31 immediately preceding the forward movement of the loop-forming finger 25 will then be disposed in the slot 36.

It is apparent that the free ends of the prongs or projections on both forms of fingers are rounded or otherwise shaped so they will not ensnare any of the previously formed pile loops as the prongs move forwardly relative to the fabric. Thus, succeeding relatively long loops will be formed over the upper prong 32 of each of the fingers 25 which were so advanced or moved forwardly, thus insuring a clear line of demarcation between the area of the fabric having the short loops S thereon andthe area of the fabric having the long loops L thereon.

Of course, it is apparent that any fingers 25 which were advanced to where the loops are formed over the upper prong 32 thereof may be selectively retracted or moved rearwardly, when desired, for again forming relatively short loops over the bottom prongs or projections 31. It is apparent that, when any of the fingers 26 are used, loops may be successively formed from the corresponding pile yarns P over any one of the prongs 33, 34 or 35 of any desired fingers 26 in any desired sequence. For example, if short loops are formed over the lowermost prong 33, the slot 40 is of such depth that the corresponding finger 26 may be advanced to where succeeding long or intermediate loops may be formed over either the uppermost or intermediate prongs 35 or 34, respectively, to produce a fabric such as that shown in Figures 8, 9 and 10.

In Figure 5 there is shown one of many different types of pile loop patterns which may be produced by the improved method, using either of the types of loop-forming fingers shown in Figures 6 and 7 in association with a loom of substantially the character described. The fabric F in Figure 5 includes a plurality of Warpwise spaced transversely or weftwise extending and recessed zig-Zag lines or rows R formed thereon from relatively short pile loops, said solid or embossed areas B being formed between adjacent transverse rows or recessed design areas R and being formed from relatively long pile loops. It will be noted that each weftwise repeat includes a stepped recessed area which is substantially V-shaped, the stepped portions in each repeat being indicated at a, b, c, d, e and f.

In weaving the particular pile loop area shown in'Figure 5, one or more pile yarns may be used in forming each of the short-loop or recessed areas a, b, c, d, e and y in each repeat, in this instance. Of course, the same number of pile yarns are used in forming the corresponding solid, raised or embossed long-loop areas extending warpwise between adjacent rows R. Thus,- the loop-forming fingers 25 and/or 26 are divided into sets, each including spaced groups of one or more adjacent fingers. The gauge wires weftwise across the loom may be of different shapes, and the wires in each set may vary in length, height or design from each other and/or from the wires of other sets, if irregular designs or designs other 'than'as shown in Figures 5 and 10 are desired, such selection being a matter of choice.

Now, in order to control the fingers, it is preferable, but not necessary, that a control mechanism substantially of the type disclosed in said pending application Serial No. 398,287 be used and, as stated in said pending application, the loop-forming fingers in each set are attached to a corresponding finger holding and guiding bar, there being four such finger holding and guiding bars shown in Figure 1 each designated at 45. For this purpose, each pile wire may be provided with a keyreceiving notch, such as indicated at 44 in Figure 2, or the rear end of each wire may be suitably apertured for connecting a controlling cord or cable thereto, if desired.

It will be noted that the finger holding and guiding bars 45 are disposed in spaced parallel relationship and extend transversely of the loom or weftwise of the loom and the shanks 27 or 28 of the loop-forming fingers 25 or 26, as the case may be, each slidably penetrate all but one of the finger holding and guiding bars and are secured to the corresponding finger holding and guiding bars so that those fingers whose shanks are secured to a particular finger holding and guiding bar 45 will be moved forwardly and rearwardly with only that. finger holding and guiding bar 45 to which they are secured.

A separate pattern controlled means should be provided for each of the finger holding and guiding bars 45, as shown in said pending application and, since the pat tern controlled means for shifting each of the finger holding and guiding bars may be substantially the same, there is shown in Figure 1, means for controlling only one of the finger holding and guiding bars and it shall be understood that the same type of means may be utilized for controlling each of the finger holding and guiding bars independently of the others.

Each of the finger holding and guiding bars 45 has a guide block 46 fixed thereon mounted for forward and rearward angular movement on a guide rod 47 suitably supported on the loom preferably at an angle conforming substantially to the angle of the breast beam 16. It is also preferable that the front portions of the shanks 27 or 28 of the corresponding loop-forming fingers 25 or 26, as the case may be, are guided in a guide bar 50 suitably supported in fixed relation to the loom frame in back of the reed 10.

Although only one end of each of the finger holding and guiding bars 45 is shown in Figure 1, it is to be understood that the, opposite ends thereof may be constructed and supported in the identical manner and opposite ends of each of the finger holding and guiding bars 45 have the front ends of respective pairs of links 53 pivotally connected thereto whose rear ends are pivotally connected to the lower ends of respective crank arms 54. Only one of the crank arms 54 is shown in Figure l, but it is to be understood that the controls to be hereinafter described for each of the pairs of crank arms corresponding to each of the finger holding and guiding bars 45 may be identical.

It will be observed in Figure 1 that the crank arm 54 is fixed on a rocker shaft 55 suitably journaled in fixed frame members 56 and 57 which may be parts of the loom frame or may be suitably attached to the conventional loom frame. Another crank arm 60 is fixed on the rocker shaft 55 and extends forwardly and is normally urged downwardly by a tension spring 61. The front free end of the crank arm 60 has the upper end of a link or connecting rod 62 pivotally connected thereto whose lower end is pivotally connected to the front end of a cam lever 63 having a follower 64 thereon which is urged against the periphery of a cam wheel 65 by the tension spring 61. The cam wheel 65, as shown, is particularly formed for controlling the two-stepped or pronged fingers 25. Figure l-A shows a similar cam for controlling a three-pronged or three-stepped finger 26.

The cam lever 63 is pivoted on a shaft 66 suitably supported by the loom frame. Formed integral with or fixed to one side of the cam wheel 65 is a ratchet wheel 67 and the cam wheel 65 and ratchet wheel 67 are rotatably vertically reciprocable ratchet pawl 71 which may be driven by any suitable means, not shown in the present drawings, but such as is clearly shown in said pending application.

The ratchet pawl 71 is normally urged into engagement with the corresponding ratchet wheel 67 by a suitable spring 72 and one end of a control cable, strand or pliable element 73 is connected to the ratchet pawl 71 and extends rearwardly through a pair of spaced eyeboards or yarn guide boards 74 and 75 which may be parts of, or carried by, the conventional loom frame. The cable or cord 73 extends upwardly from the eyeboard 75 and is connected to a corresponding vibrator lever or pattern jack 76 which is a part of a suitable pattern mechanism, such as a dobby mechanism, broadly designated at 77 and which includes a driven pattern chain 80. It is to be understood that there is a separate one of the vibrator levers or pattern jacks 76 for controlling the operation of each of the finger holding and guiding bars 45.

The pattern chain is of the usual type having high places or rollers 82 thereon defining low places therebetween, which high places or rollers 82 are spaced according to a predetermined pattern whereby, upon each successive roller or high place 82 engaging the corresponding vibrator lever or pattern jack 76, the pattern jack 76 is raised to thereby move the ratchet pawl 71 out of engagement with the ratchet wheel 67 to prevent further rotation of the ratchet wheel 67 and the cam wheel 65 until the roller 82 again moves out of engagement with the vibrator lever or pattern jack 76.

It will be noted that the cam wheel 65 in Figure 1 differs from that shown in said pending application, to the extent that it is provided with spaced high portions 65a thereon defining low portions or recesses 65b therebetween. It follows, therefore, that when any one of the low surfaces 65b is in engagement with the follower 64 as shown in Figure 1, the bottom prongs 31 of the corresponding loop-forming fingers 25 would then be in loopforming position such as that occupied by the three loopforming fingers shown in the extreme lower right-hand portion of Figure 2. On the other hand, upon engagement of the cam follower 64 by any one of the high surfaces 65a on the cam wheel 65, it is apparent that the fingers 25 corresponding to the finger holding and guiding bar controlled by the cam wheel 65 would then occupy advanced position in which the loops would be formed over the upper prongs or projections 32 on the corresponding loop-forming fingers 25, such as that shown by the fingers in the lower left-hand portion of Figure 2.

Now, it is apparent that any of the finger holding and guiding bars to which the fingers 26 of the type shown in Figure 7 may be attached could be controlled by a cam 81 (Figure l-A) which is similar to the cam but has surfaces of three different heights thereon namely, high, medium and low, and indicated at 81a, 81b and 310, respectively, instead of surfaces of two different heights thereon as shown in Figure 1. These three surfaces of different heights may be arranged in any predetermined order according to the heights of the loops to be formed n a given sequence. Of course, the cam 65, as it is shown n Figure i, could be used for controlling the finger holdmg and guiding bars to which loop-forming fingers 26 may be attached, but in this instance, only any two of the prongs could be used for forming loops of two different heights, such as prongs 33 and 34 or 33 and 35 or 34 and 35.

Although the loop-forming finger 26 is shown as being provided with three prongs 33, 34 and 35 thereon of varying length, it is to be understood that more than three prongs may be provided, if desired, in the event that more than three different lengths or heights of loops are to be formed in forming a particular pattern.

In Figures 8, 9 and 10, there is shown one of many different types of pile loop patterns which may be produced by the improved method, using the type of loopforrning finger or pile wire shown in Figure 7 in association with a loom of substantially the character described. The fabric in Figure 10 is broadly designated at F-l and includes a plurality of warpwise spaced transversely or weftwise extending and recessed double zig-zag lines or rows R-l, R2 formed thereon from relatively short pile loops and pile loops of intermediate length, respectively, with solid or embossed areas E-l being formed between adjacent or double transverse rows or stepped recessed design areas Rl, R2, and being formed from relatively long pile loops.

As is the case with the fabric shown in Figure 5, it will be noted that each warpwise repeat includes a pair of stepped recessed areas which are substantially V- shaped, the stepped portions in each repeat and in each row Rl being indicated at a to f, inclusive, and the stepped portions in each repeat in each row R2 being indicated at a" to f", inclusive. Also, as is the case with the fabric shown in Figure 5, in weaving the particular pile loop area shown in Figure 10, one or more pile yarns may be used in forming each of the short-loop or first recessed areas a to f, in each repeat, .and these same yarns may be used in forming the corresponding intermediate-loop orsecond recessed areas a" to f" in each repeat, in this instance. Of course, the same number of pile yarns are used in forming the corresponding solid or raised long loop areas extending warpwise between adjacent rows R-l, R2. Thus, the loop-forming fingers 26.are divided into sets, each including spaced groups of one or more adjacent fingers. 1

Assuming that the fabric F-1 is formed from left to right in Figure 10, it is apparent that the corresponding fingers 26 would assume a forward position in forming the long-loop area E-1 in the lower left-hand portion of Figure 10, in which long loops would be formed over the uppermost prongs 35 of the loop-forming fingers or pile wires 26 shown in Figure 7. The fingers 26 corresponding to the areas a would then be withdrawn to their rearmost positions so relatively short loops would then be formed over the lowermost of the corresponding prongs 33. It follows that, as the areas b, and c, e and d are formed, the corresponding fingers 26 would also be withdrawn to rearmost positions so short loops are formed in the corresponding areas.

Of course, as the corresponding portions of the areas b, c, d, e and are formed, it is apparent that selected fingers 26 would also move forwardly to intermediate positions, in the course of which previously formed short loops in the corresponding row R-l would be penetrated by the lowermost prongs 33 on the corresponding loopforming fingers or pile wires 26 so the bights of the last few loops successively formed in the areas a and b, f and c, eand I) would successively extend through the slots '40 between the corresponding intermediate prongs 34 and the lowermost prongs 33. Thus, intermediate loops would be formed over the intermediate prongs 34 to successively form'the areas a" and b", 1" and c", d" and b" in the next succeeding row R2.

Of course, as each of the last-named areas in the row R-2 is completed, the corresponding loop-forming fingers 26 are again advanced to their foremost positions so the bights of the last few loops formed over the intermediate prongs 34 will then extend through the'slots 41 between the corresponding uppermost prongs 35 and the intermediate prongs 34; Thus, relativelylong loops will be formed overthe then active high prongs 35 to form the second high loop area E-l to complete one warpwise repeat in the forming of the loop pile fabric F-l.

'Referringnowto Figures 8 and-9, it is shown more in detail just how the loops of three diflerent-heights are formed on the fabric base. As is the case in weaving the fabric base or ground shown in Figures 3 and 4, warp yarns 13 are spaced fillerwise or weftwise of the loom and serve as stuifer warp yarns adjacent each of which one of the binder warp .yarns 13a is disposed, each of the binder warpyarns 13a. preferably being maintained under lesser tension than the yarns 1 3. I i

The fabric base shown in Figures 8 and 9 is also woven by the so-called two-shot cycle method and, considering the fabric in Figure 9 as being produced from left to right, the warps are open with 13 up and 1311' down, the filler or double-weft yarns W would then be placed through the warp and beat up. The stuffer warp 13 being taut as compared to the binder warp 13a, when this shot of filler is beat up, it goes into the base fabric at a lower level than the next shot of filler. In the next step, as is the case in the fabric shown in Figure 3, the warp 13' is shedded down and the binder warp 13a is shedded up. The pile yarn is inserted into the shed by the guides 22 and a shot of filler W placed over the strands of pile yarn, below the binder warp 13a and above the stufier warp 13.

As the yarn guides descend into the shed, the pile yarn is looped over the corresponding portions of the loop-forming fingers, which portions, in this instance, are the lowermost prongs 33 of the fingers 26, and is held in this conditions until the next shot of filler is made and the needle 14 withdrawn from the shed, whereupon the guides 22 ascend, drawing the shot of filler previously inserted over the pile yarn against the under side of the loop-forming fingers. It is apparent that this is successively repeated and, while the fingers 26 are in rearward position, relatively short loops 8-1 are formed thereover and, when the corresponding loop-forming fingers 26 are in the intermediate position, intermediate loops I are formed as are present in the rows R2 in Figure 10.

It is apparent, by a comparison of the intermediate loops I and the short loops 8-1 in Figures 8 and 9, that the lower prongs 33 may readily enter or move longitudinally in the loops S1 as the intermediate prong 34 passes over the last few loops S-l adjacent the intermediate loops I, thereby insuring that the intermediate loops I are subsequently formed over the intermediate prongs 34 on the corrseponding pile wires 26. Referring again to Figure 9, relatively high loops L-1 are illustrated and it is apparent that these loops are formed by advancing the corresponding loop-forming fingers 26 to a fully forward position so both the intermediate and lower prongs 34, 33 advance within the intermediate loops I and the upper prong 35 advances above the loops I to thereby insure that the upper prong 35 is positioned for the formation of the long loops L-l thereover, forming areas such as the area E-1 in the fabric F.

It is thus seen that I have provided an improved loopforming method utilizing improved loop-forming fingers adapted to be associated with a loom for weaving loop pile fabrics such as rugs, carpets and the like and wherein the loom is provided with means for selectively shifting the loop-forming fingers longitudinally of the warp and wherein the improved loop-forming fingers are provided with elongated vertically spaced prongs thereon of varying length over whose free end portions loops of corresponding heights may be respectively formed and whereby, upon loops being formed over any one of the prongs of a particular finger having a prong thereabove, the finger may be moved forwardly, quickly, relative to the loops previously formed thereover to cause the bights of the previously formed loops to extend through the slot defined between the corresponding prong and the prong immediately thereabove so that succeeding loops of any accurately predetermined greater height than the previously formed loops may then be formed over the prong above said corresponding prong or over any prong which may be disposed on a higher level than'said cor responding prong.

It is apparent that this provides means whereby the major portion of a fabric, for example, may be formed with relatively ion-g pile loops with variantly-shaped design areas formed from loops of an intermediate height and other variantly-shaped design areas being formed with loops of still another height and wherein each of the areas formed from any one of the heights of loops will stand out sharply and thereby providing a definite and dis tinct line of demarcation between areas formed from different height loops.

The appearance of the loop pile fabric thus produced is particularly enhanced because it is no longer necessary to provide loops of graduated heights at opposite ends of a given area having loops of one given height and wherein other areas having loops of another height are disposed at opposite ends of said given area.

It is contemplated that the principles of the present invention; that is, pile wires having a plurality of prongs or loop-forming stages on theirfree ends with slots therebetwcen and means for shifting the wires forwardly, at a speed faster than the fabric is woven, and rearwardly to present different height surfaces to the loop-forming zone, may be applied to many different types of looms in addition to the type of loom heretofore described. Such pile wires may be used in a doup heddlc loom, a needle motion doup heddle loom, a double-shuttle loom wherein two fabrics are woven simultaneously, a Warner-Swasey projectile loom, an Ashofi leno reed loom of the type manufactured by Steel Heddle Manufacturing Company of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and other types of looms.

Of course, pile loops are usually formed directly over or under the pile wires when using a loom of the type disclosed in the present drawings or when using a doup heddle loom or a Warner-Swasey projectile loom. However, in a double-shuttle loom, for example, the different prongs or loop-forming stages may support weft shots which, in turn, support the pile loops as they are formed between adjacent pile wires and whereby the loop-supporting weft shots may subsequently be removed for separating the fabrics.

Also, if desired, selected loop-forming fingers or 26, as the case may be, may be entirely withdrawn from the loop-forming zone so the pile yarn would then bear against the fabric base rather than being formed into loops and, thereafter, these fingers may be advanced to present any one of the prongs thereon to the loop-forming zone to produce a novel loop fabric.

Inoperation, it has been found that, when the prongs on the pile-forming fingers are relatively long, loops may initially be formed directly over selected prongs as the corresponding pile yarn guides 22 move across and above the level of the loop-forming fingers and then downwardly into the shed, after which a shot of filler is placed through the warp and over the strands of pile yarn. The pile yarn guides then move upwardly as the latter shot of filler is heat up by the reed 1 As each shot of filler is heat up, the loops are slid forwardly on the corresponding prongs toward the fell of the ground fabric. Since the pile yarn guides do not move forwardly with the reed, the loops are then drawn tightly over the corresponding loop-forming stages or prongs.

On the other hand, when the prongs on the pile-forming fingers are relatively short, regardless of the position of any of these loop-forming fingers which are not completely withdrawn from the loop-forming zone, loops may initially be formed over the body portions or shanks of those fingers in the loop-forming zone so that each successive loop formed on each finger is subsequently slid along the corresponding shank with the succeeding beatup stroke of the reed 10 and is tightened or drawn taut as it passes off the shank and onto the corresponding loop-forming stage. Thus, the height of each successive loop is finally determined by the height of that prong disposed in active or operative position.

In either instance, there are usually approximately four loops present on the free front end portion of each of those loop-forming stages or prongs which is in active or loop'height-determining position. The last formed or rear'rnost of these four loops is pulled taut while the immediately preceding three loops, which were previously pulled taut, serve to guide and steady the free front ends of the corresponding loop-forming fingers.

In the drawings and specification there have been set forth preferred embodiments of the invention and, although specific terms are employed, they aroused in .a

of limitation, the scope of the invention being defined in the claims.

I claim:

1. In a loom having a reed and other means for making cloth, longitudinal pile gauge wires having free end portions extending through the reed dents, individual wires of said pile wires having a plurality of loop-formingstages of different heights which may be predeterminedly positioned above the cloth during weaving, said individual gauge wires each having slots therein between adjacent loop-forming stages, and means for quickly moving said individual gauge wires forwardly relative to the cloth, to position different loop-forming stages of different heights to the fell of the cloth at predetermined intervals.

2. .A structure according to claim 1 wherein the lower slots in each instance terminate rearwardly of all loopforming stages thereabove.

3. In a loom having a reed and other means for making cloth, and also having means for looping pile yarn over longitudinal pile gauge wires; the combination therewith of longitudinal pile gauge wires extending through the reed dents, individual wires of said pile wires having a plurality of loop-forming stages of different heights which may be predeterminedly positioned above the cloth during weaving, said individual gauge wires each having slots therein between adjacent loop-forming stages, and means for moving said individual gauge wires forwardly relative to the cloth and rearwardly of the cloth to position different loop-forming stages of different heights to the fell of the cloth at predetermined intervals.

4. An'improved pile loop-forming finger for use with a loom for weaving loop pile fabric and wherein said loom is provided with means for looping pile yarn over each loop-forming finger and means for shifting the loopforming finger longitudinally of the warp, said improved loop-forming finger comprising an elongated relatively thin strip of incompressible material having at least two vertically spaced elongated projections on its free forward end defining a slot therebetween, and the forward end of the uppermost projection being spaced substantially rearwardly of the forward end of the lowermost projection.

5. A structure according to claim 4 wherein at least the lowermost projection is shaped at its free forward end to permit forward movement of the latter projection relative to and within previously formed pilc loops.

6. In a loom having a reed and other means for making fabric and also having means for looping pile yarn over longitudinal pile gauge wires; the combination therewith of longitudinal pile gauge wires extending through the reed dents, individual'wires of said pile gauge wires hav' ing a plurality of loop-forming stages of different heights which may be predeterminedly positioned at that position where pile loops are tightened in the fabric during weaving, means for moving said individual gauge wires longitudinally of the fabric to position different stages of different heights at that position where pile loops are tightened in the fabric at predetermined times, and said individual gauge wires each having longitudinally extending slots therein extending rearwardly between adjacent stages of different heights whereby said individual gauge wires maybe moved forwardly, upon pile loops being formed over any of said stages of different heights, at a rate exceeding the' rate at which the fabric is woven and the bights of any loops formed over any of the stages of different heights other than the uppermost of said stages may extend through the corresponding slots as the corresponding individual gauge wires are so moved forwardly.

7. In a loom having a reed and other means for making cloth and also having means for looping pile yarn over longitudinal pile gauge wires; the combination therewith of longitudinal pile gauge wires extending through the reed dents, individual wires of said pile gauge wires havingtwo or n 1 ore elongated vertically spaced prongs on the free forward end ,t l re rej4:vf, the prongs above the lower.- Inost of said prongs terminating progressively increasing distances from the free forward end of the lowermost g ss to orm st ps at 'difistem a. isht whic m b predeterminedly positioned adjacent the fell of the cloth, n means f r m v n sa ind vidua s u wires -itiudinal y o the lot i i h r di ect n ndep ndent y of the rate at which the cloth is woven whereby upon loops being formed over any prongs other than the uppermost prong, said individual gauge wires may be advanced within previously formed loops so the bights of some of the previously formed loops may extend through the corres ending space between adjacent prongs as loops are subsequently formed over another prong thereof to permit the formation of loop pile areas having a distinct line of demarcation betweenloops of different heights.

;8 In a loom having a reed and other means for making cloth, longitudinal pile gauge wires having free end portions extending through the reed dents, individual wires of said pile wires having a plurality of loop-forming stages of different heights which may be determinedly positioned in the cloth during weaving, said individual gauge wires having slots therein between adjacent loop-forming stages, and means for quickly moving said individual gauge wires forwardly relative to the cloth to position different loop-forming stages of dilferent heights adjacent the fell of the cloth at predetermined intervals.

9. In a loom having a reed and other means for making cloth, longitudinal pile gauge wires having free end portions extending through the reed dents, means for laying pile-supporting weft shots past said gauge wires, said loom also having means for looping pile yarn over said pile-supporting weft shots, individual wires of said pile wires having a plurality of loop-forming stages of different heights which may be predeterminedly positioned longitudinally of the cloth during weaving, said individual gauge wires having slots therein between adjacent loopforming stages, and means for quickly moving said individual gauge wires forwardly relative to the cloth to position different loop-forming stages of different heights adjacent the fell of the cloth at predetermined intervals.

10. In a loom having a reed and other means for making cloth, means for laying pile-supporting weft shots beneath longitudinal pile gauge wires, and also having means for looping pile yarn over said pile-supporting weft shots; the combination therewith of longitudinal pile gauge wires extending through the reed dents, individual wires of said pile wires having a plurality of loop-forming stages of different heights which may be predeterminedly positioned above the cloth during weaving, said individual gauge wires each having slots therein between adjacent loop-forming stages, and means for moving said individual gauge wires forwardly relative to the cloth and rearwardly of the cloth to position different loop-forming stages of different heights to the fell of the cloth at predetermined intervals.

11. In a loom having a reed and other means for making cloth, longitudinal pile gauge wires having free end portions extending through the reed dents, individual wires of said pile wires having a plurality of loop-forming stages of different heights which may be completely withdrawn from, and predeterminedly positioned in, the cloth during weaving, said individual gauge wires having slots therein between adjacent loop-forming stages, and means for quickly moving said individual gauge wires forwardly relative to the cloth to position different loopforming stages of different heights adjacent the fell of the cloth at predetermined intervals.

12. In a loom having a reed and other means for making cloth and means for forming loops from pile yarns, longitudinal pile gauge wires having free end portions extending through the reed dents, individual wires of said pile wires having a plurality of loop-forming stages of different heights which may be predeterminedly positioned at and completely withdrawn from active position relative to the loopeforming ,rnean s during weaving, saidindividual sense r s ea h-ha in slots t i t ee adi ea loop-forming stages, and means for quickly moving said individual gauge wires forwardly predetermined distances relative tothe cloth to selectively position looprforming stages of difierent heights in active relation to the loop.- forming means at predetermined intervals.

13. A .structure according .to claim 12 wherein the lower slots in each instance tenninate rearwardly of all loop-forming stages thereabove.

1 4. In a loom having a reed andother means for making clot-h from ground warp and weft yarns, and also means for looping pile yarn over warp and weft yarns; the combination therewith of longitudinal pile .gauge wires extending through the reed dents, individual wires of said pile Wires having a plurality of loop-forming stages of different heights which may be predeterminedly positioned above and rearwardly of the cloth during weaving, said individual gauge wires each having slots therein between adjacent loop-forming stages, and means for moving said individual gauge wires forwardly relative to the cloth and rearwardly of the cloth to, at times, position different loop-forming stages of different heights to the fell of the cloth at predetermined intervals.

15. In a loom having a reed and other means for making fabric from warp and weft yarns and also having means for looping pile yarns over warp yarns and beneath weft yarns; the combination therewith of longitudinal pile gauge Wires extending through the reed dents, individual wires of said pile gauge wires having a plurality of loop-forming stages of different heights, means for moving said individual gauge wires longitudinally of the fabric to, at times, predeterminedly position different stages of different heights at that position where pile loops are tightened in the fabric, and said individual gauge wires each having longitudinally extending slots therein extending rearwardly between adjacent stages of different heights whereby said individual gauge wires may be moved forwardly, upon pile loops being formed over any of said stages of different heights, at a rate exceeding the rate at which the fabric is woven and the bights of any loops formed over any of the stages of different heights other than the uppermost of said stages may extend through the corresponding slots as the corresponding individual gauge wires are so moved forwardly.

16. In a loom for weaving pile fabrics, said loom having means for making a base fabric from warp and weft yarns including a reed and additional means for forming loops from pile yarns in which the pile yarns are shogged across warp yarns and anchored to weft yarns of the base fabric; the combination of longitudinal pile wires having free end portions movable through the reed dents, individual wires of said pile wires having a plurality of loopforming stages of different heights, said individual wires having slots therein between adjacent stages, and means to move said individual wires warpwise in either direction relative to the base fabric to selectively position wires entirely away from the point at which said pile yarns are shogged and to selectively position different loopforming stages of different heights at said point.

17. In a loom having a reed and other means for making cloth, longitudinal pile gauge wires having free end portions extending through the reed dents, means for laying pile-supporting weft shots past said gauge wires, said loom also having means for looping pile yarn over said pile-supporting weft shots, individual Wires of said pile wires having a plurality of loop-forming stages of different heights which may be completely withdrawn from and predeterminedly positioned in the cloth during weaving, said individual gauge wires having slots therein 0 between adjacent loop-forming stages, and means for quickly moving said individual gauge wires forwardly relative to the cloth to selectively position certain wires so that different loop-forming stages thereof of different heights are positioned in the vertical plane of correspond- 5 ing pile-supporting weft shots at predetermined intervals.

18. In a loom having a reed and other means for making cloth from warp and Weft yarns and also having means for looping pile yarns over warp yarns and under weft yarns; the combination therewith of longitudinal pile gauge wires extending through the reed dents, individual wires of said pile gauge wires having two or more elongated vertically spaced prongs on the free forward end thereof, the prongs above the lowermost of said prongs terminating progressively increasing distances from the free forward end of the lowermost prong to form steps of different heights which may be predeterminedly positioned adjacent the fell of the cloth, and means for moving said individual gauge wires forwardly and rearwardly relative to the fell of the cloth independently of the rate at which the cloth is woven whereby loops may be formed against the cloth and over selected prongs and upon loops being formed over any prongs other than the uppermost prong of any of the wires, the latter such wires may be advanced within previously formed loops so the bights of some previously formed loops may extend through the corresponding space between adjacent prongs as loops are subsequently formed over another prong of the latter wires to permit the formation of loop pile areas having distinct lines of demarcation between loops of different heights.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,790,832 OLena Feb. 3, 1931 2,318,080 Keen May 4, 1943 2,437,378 Clark Mar. 9, 1948 FOREIGN PATENTS 36,870 Germany Sept. 16, 1886

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Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2860669A (en) * 1956-10-04 1958-11-18 New York Trust Company High and low pile fabric and method of making same
US2868231A (en) * 1955-01-27 1959-01-13 Crompton & Knowles Loom Works Pile fabric loom and pile wire therefor
US2874724A (en) * 1957-01-24 1959-02-24 Lees & Sons Co James Method and device for inserting loom pile wires
US3042081A (en) * 1959-08-27 1962-07-03 Fieldcrest Mills Inc High speed carpet loom and method of weaving
US3140592A (en) * 1960-11-02 1964-07-14 Fielderest Mills Inc Apparatus for knitting variant height pile fabrics
US3349812A (en) * 1966-01-12 1967-10-31 Fieldcrest Mills Inc Shaggy cut pile fabric
EP0458400A1 (en) * 1990-05-21 1991-11-27 N.V. Michel Van de Wiele Lancet holder
DE4031728A1 (en) * 1990-10-06 1992-04-09 Wilhelm Mang Looped matting material to retain earthworks etc. - is of natural biodegradable twisted fibres in wefts and warps with additional weft for the loops

Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE36870C (en) *
US1790832A (en) * 1931-02-03 o-lena
US2318080A (en) * 1941-04-17 1943-05-04 Collins & Aikman Corp Loop pile fabric and method and apparatus for weaving same
US2437378A (en) * 1944-12-06 1948-03-09 Marshall Field And Company Method of and apparatus for weaving

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE36870C (en) *
US1790832A (en) * 1931-02-03 o-lena
US2318080A (en) * 1941-04-17 1943-05-04 Collins & Aikman Corp Loop pile fabric and method and apparatus for weaving same
US2437378A (en) * 1944-12-06 1948-03-09 Marshall Field And Company Method of and apparatus for weaving

Cited By (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2868231A (en) * 1955-01-27 1959-01-13 Crompton & Knowles Loom Works Pile fabric loom and pile wire therefor
US2860669A (en) * 1956-10-04 1958-11-18 New York Trust Company High and low pile fabric and method of making same
US2874724A (en) * 1957-01-24 1959-02-24 Lees & Sons Co James Method and device for inserting loom pile wires
US3042081A (en) * 1959-08-27 1962-07-03 Fieldcrest Mills Inc High speed carpet loom and method of weaving
US3140592A (en) * 1960-11-02 1964-07-14 Fielderest Mills Inc Apparatus for knitting variant height pile fabrics
US3349812A (en) * 1966-01-12 1967-10-31 Fieldcrest Mills Inc Shaggy cut pile fabric
EP0458400A1 (en) * 1990-05-21 1991-11-27 N.V. Michel Van de Wiele Lancet holder
BE1003628A5 (en) * 1990-05-21 1992-05-05 Wiele Michel Van De Nv Lancettenhouder.
US5154208A (en) * 1990-05-21 1992-10-13 N.V. Michel Van De Wiele Lancet holder for face to face loom
DE4031728A1 (en) * 1990-10-06 1992-04-09 Wilhelm Mang Looped matting material to retain earthworks etc. - is of natural biodegradable twisted fibres in wefts and warps with additional weft for the loops

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