US2553303A - Method of making pile fabrics - Google Patents

Method of making pile fabrics Download PDF

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US2553303A
US2553303A US129303A US12930349A US2553303A US 2553303 A US2553303 A US 2553303A US 129303 A US129303 A US 129303A US 12930349 A US12930349 A US 12930349A US 2553303 A US2553303 A US 2553303A
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warps
pile
shed
loops
fabric
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US129303A
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Crawford John
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Mohawk Carpet Mills Inc
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Mohawk Carpet Mills Inc
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    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D03WEAVING
    • D03DWOVEN FABRICS; METHODS OF WEAVING; LOOMS
    • D03D27/00Woven pile fabrics
    • D03D27/02Woven pile fabrics wherein the pile is formed by warp or weft
    • D03D27/06Warp pile fabrics

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  • This invention relatesito pile-fabrics and their manufacture' byA weaving opera-tions, in whichy pile'wiresare inserted int'oithe warp shed and pile warp yarns .are raised over'the wires toformpile elements; More particularly, the invention is concerned with a novel methodA of weaving al pile fabric; in one form ofv which-*the-pile elementsiare arranged in transverse rowsand each row includes pile* elements in the' form of' both pile tufts and pile loops, while, in' another form, the fabric includes pile loops of' two different' heightsk in the same transverse row.
  • warps raised over leach wire are all elevated' tol the sameheight.
  • the wires used may be either plain, non-cutting wires or cutting wires providedwith knives and, when a. pla-in wire is withdrawnfrom the rowA of loops of' pile yarn raised over it, it leaves a transverse row of" pile loops, all of the same height.
  • the loops ofthe pile warps raised over the wire are severed to form tuftsA lying na transverse row, all of the tufts being ofthe same height and each having two legs.
  • the set of wires used in a loom includes wires of two or more heights, in which event, the elementsof the pile surface are-of different heights determined by the height of the wires, over which they are formed, but all the g elements lying in a single transverse row are all of the samekind and all of thesame height.
  • pile fabricsv woven heretofore on looms in which pile Wires are used, have had a pile surface made upvof. both tufts and loops, and one such fabric, known as ⁇ cut-and uncut, is woven by the-use of a set of .pilewires consisting of cutting and non-cutting wires arranged in alternation.
  • all the pile elements in a single transverse row areof the same kind, either tufts or loops, and, in order to give the pile surface the appearance of having both tufts and loops in the same row, successive rows of pileV elements may be left incomplete andv with thev gapsA in one row opposite the'illed spaces in the next.
  • PileA fabrics in which both; tufts andl loopsl are combined in the sametransverserow, haveA been produced heretofore*- by' operations, in which the pilel war-ps are ⁇ raised over-cutting and non-cutting wirest a-rrangedf in alternation, and the'- tufts and loops produced' onwithdrawal" of theV wires are forced intoa single rowf duringt-he beatiup.
  • Such fabrics are" subject to ⁇ anumberl off objec'- tions,l in that', i'n one variety, the weft yarns are not .as tightly beaten up-asV in conventional fabrics, while, in another, stufffer warpsca-nnot-be used? andthe weft yarns arev not-boundasetightly inI place as in conventionaly fabrics. In both; varieties lastdescribed, twosets offpilewarps must be used. I
  • The4r fabric produced? by the method ofthe invention' is oneL having apile surfacemade up'of pile elements. ofA twokind's, that is, either loops andtufts -or loops of' two -diierent heights.
  • the fabricdiffers from and' ⁇ iss superior to prior similar fabrics, in that each transverse rowof' pile elements i'nthe fabric includes a fullcomplement off pile.
  • Fig. 1 is an expanded view in perspective of one form of the fabric, which can be produced by the method of the invention
  • Fig. 2 is an expanded view in perspective of another form of the fabric
  • Fig. 3 is a diagrammatic longitudinal View through a loom at one stage in the weaving of the fabric
  • Fig. 4 is a fragmentary plan view showing the mounting of the supplies of pile yarn in the loom of Fig.,3; Y
  • Fig. 5 is a fragmentary end view of a tensioning element used in the loom
  • Fig. 6' is an enlargement of part of Fig. 3;
  • Figs. 7-10, inclusive are diagrammatic views illustrating the sheds in the fourstages of the cycle of weaving the-fabric of Fig. 1; andA Figs.,11-15, inclusive are diagrammatic views showing the manipulation of the warps at different stages in the beat-up of a weft yarn inserte into the shed shown in Fig. 9.
  • the fabric in the form shown in Fig. 1 comprises a backing made upof stuffer warps 2
  • the binder warps are arrangedrin pairs, consisting of a warp of each set, lying close together at one side of av group of stuifer warps, ⁇ shown as four in number, and the adjacent pair or binder warps lies at the other side of the group of stuffer warps, this arrangement continuing across the fabric.
  • the stuffer warps are stiff yarns of jute orY paper
  • the binder warps are light cotton yarns
  • the weft yarns are of cotton and heavier than the binder warps.
  • the backing illustrated is merely one form of conventional backing and the fabric may have any desired backing, as, for example, one in which the chr warps lie in two levels, the weft yarns lie above, between, and below the stuifer warps, and a single set of binder warps is used.
  • adjacent weft yarns in the top level are separated by binder warps passing from one level to the other and, in the fabric illustrated, binder warps of both sets pass between adjacent weft yarns in the top level and cross at about the level of the stuffer warps.
  • the fabric includes a single set of pile warps 2S, which are ordinarily plied wool yarns,v and each space in the fabric above a group of stuffer warps and between spaced binder warps contains a single pile warp.
  • Each pile warp is bound in place by portions lying beneath weft yarns and, in the fabric illustrated, each pile warp is bound beneath ⁇ each weft yarn in the top level. Between each two adjacent weft yarns in the top level, a portion of each pile warp is raised to form a pile element, which may be a loop 21 or artuft 28 made up of two tuft legs 28a, 28b of equal length.
  • the tufts are substantially higher than the loops and, ordinarily, this relationship will prevail, since the loops are always relatively low.
  • the tufts may be somewhat lower than is shown, although the tufts will always be sufficiently higher than the loops to permit the ends of the tufts to be sheared in the finishing operation without cutting the bights of the loops.
  • the fabric differs from prior generally similar fabrics in that there is a full complement of pile elements in each row across the fabric and each such row includes the same number of pile elements, since there is one .element in each space defined by adjacent top weft yarns and adjacent pairs of binder warps.
  • Each transverse row may include both tufts and loops and each top weft yarn is bound in place by binder warps passing over that yarn and then from one face of the backing to the other between that yarn and the next adjacent yarn. Because of its construction, the fabric may be tightly beaten up,- and it is characterized Vby having a dense uniform pile without gaps.
  • the fabric shown in Fig. 2 is similar in construction to that of Fig. 1, except that the pile elements comprise both high loops 2s and low loops Blying in the same transverse row.
  • that of Fig. -2 may include any conventional backing but has been illustrated, for convenience, as having the ⁇ same backing as the Fig. 1 fabric.
  • the weaving of the fabric in accordance with the method of the invention may be carried out on a conventional loom provided with Va frame 3l for supportingrsupplies of pile warps in the form of spools 32 mounted onspindles 33 having their ends received in slots 31% in the walls of the frame.
  • Va frame 3l for supportingrsupplies of pile warps in the form of spools 32 mounted onspindles 33 having their ends received in slots 31% in the walls of the frame.
  • the pile warp 26 on each spool passes around a guide 35 and then over the top ofthe spool and beneathanother guide 36.
  • va weight 3l of U-shape rests upon the warp to tension'it.
  • the tension weights employed are much lighter than those ordinarily used and each spool runs freely on its spindle, instead of with its flanges resting on a felt pad, as is usual.
  • each pile Warp passes through the eye of a cord 33 weighted by a lingo 39 and controlled by a Jacquard mechanism indicated at 40.
  • the stuifer warps 2l areV supplied from a beam di and the two sets of binder warps 24, 25 from respectiveY beams 412, 43.
  • the stuffer warps pass from their beam through heddle eyes in a harness frame i4 and binder warps '24, 25 pass from their beams 2, 33 through heddle eyes in respective harness frames 35, im
  • the harness frames are cam-actuated and the stuifer and binder warps are maintained under the usual relatively heavy tension.
  • the loom includes the usual reed 4l mounted on a lay V(not shown) and mechanism for inserting pile wires 48.
  • the ,wiresl are of conventional 5. form and may be plain non-cutting wires or knife wires.
  • each cycle consists of four different sheds and', in each shed in a cycle, into which a pile wire isinserted, the pile warps may all lie in the upper line in the' shed, so as to be raised over the wire', some of the pile warps may bei raised over the wire and others not, or none of the pile warpsl may be raised over the wire.
  • pile warps 2da which have been selected by the Jacquard mechanism, lie in the upper line of. the shed, and all the other pile warps 26h lie in the central line of the shed.
  • also lie in the central line ofthe shed and binder warps 25 lie in the lower line.
  • Wire i8 has been inserted into the upper part of the shed between the upper and central lines and a weft yarn 23, which is to lie in thelower level of the fabric, has been inserted into the lower part of the shed between the central and lower lines.
  • lIhe third shed Fig.y 9
  • binder warps 25 lie in the central line of the shed and binder warps 24 lie in the lower line.
  • the fourth shed is the same as the second, except that binder warps 25 lie in the central line of the shed and binder warps 24 lie in the lower line.
  • the harness cams and the Jacquard mechanism are so timed that the harnesses and the Jacquard cords begin to change their positions to close the shed at a time, when the reed is about 1" away from the fell of the fabric', and the warps reach parallelism and begin to forml the new shed, when the reed is about A, away from the fell.
  • the timing of the shedding motion is advanced, so that the harnesses and Jacquard cords begin to close the shed, when the 6'.
  • the low pile loops are formed; in the first and third sheds in the cycle and the successive stages of the beat-up ⁇ of the weft: yarn inserted into the third shed are illustrated in Figs. 11-15, inc., the elements of the fabric being ⁇ somewhat separated for ciearness.
  • the binder warps 25 lie. in the central. line of. the shed. and all the other warpsY lie inthe lower' line.
  • - Pile warps 26a which wereraised over the wire 48 inserted into thel second shed, lie slightly higher in frontY of the weft yarn 2.2 than pile warps 26h, which. were not raised over that wire.
  • the harnesses and Jacquard cords have moved. the; ⁇ pile warps 25a, '2th and the stuffer warps 2
  • the height of the loops 21 formed by the action ofthe weft yarns on the pile warps during the beat-up depends on the timing of the shedding motion and theseV loops may be given increased height by advancing the timing, so that the pile and stuffer warps reach parallelism with the binder warps in the central line of the shed, when the weft yarn is farther from the fell. Similarly, the height' of loops 21 may be decreased by'retarding the timing.
  • a 4pile wire 48 is inserted into each of these sheds between the top and central lines of the shed and a weft yarn is inserted between the central and lower lines of the shed.
  • the wire is held at one end, so that it slopes slightly upwardly toward its free end.
  • the binder warps lying in the central line of the shed are slightly higher than the pile warps 26h lying in the same line and the stuier warps lie slightly below the pile warps in the central line of the shed.
  • top and bottom surfaces of the wire are both smooth and, as a result of the positioning of the .warps and the smoothness of the surfaces of the wire, the wire does not act during the beat-up to push portions of the pile warps ahead of it. Similarly, the weft yarn travels in contact with the stuffer warps above it and the binder warps below it during the beat-up, so it cannot act on the pile warps.
  • a method of weaving on a pile wire loom a pile fabric made up of chr warps, weft yarns crossing the stuer warps above and below, binder warps crossing the weft yarns above and below and binding them against the stuffer warps, and pile warps held in place by portions thereof lying beneath weft yarns, which comprises maintaining the pile warps under slack tension and the remaining warps under relatively heavy tension, manipulating the warps to form arseries of sheds, in which the warps lie in upper, central, and lower lines in different arrangements according to a cycle, the pile warps being displaced upwardly above the other warps in the lower line of a shed, inserting aweft yarn into each shed and simultaneously inserting a pile wire into each shed of the cycle in which there are pile warps in the upper line of the shed, beatn ing up each inserted weft yarn together with Ythe pile wire, when present, closing each shed when the weftV yarn being beaten
  • a method of weaving on a pile wire loom a pile fabric made up of stuffer warps, weft yarns crossing the stuifer warps above and below, two sets of binder warps crossing the weft yarns above and below and binding them against the stuier warps, and pile warps held in place by portions thereof lying beneath weft yarns, adjacent pile yarns being separated by a pair of binder warps, one from each set, which comprises maintaining the pile warps under slack tension and the remaining warps under relatively heavy tension, manipulating the warps to forni a series of sheds in a cycle consisting of (l) a first shed, in which the binder warps of the rst set are in a central line and all the other warps are in a lower line, (2) a second shed, in which certain pile warps are in an upper line, the remaining pile warps, the stuifer warps, and the binder warps of the rst set are in a
  • binder warps crossing the weft yarns above and below and binding them against the stuifer warps, and pile warps held in place by portions thereof lying beneath weft yarns which comprises maintaining the pile warps under slack tension and the remaining warps'under relatively heavy tension, manipulating the warps to form a series of sheds, in which the warps lie in different lines according to a cycle, pile warps selected in accordance with a pattern lying in the upper line of certain sheds and the lower line of certain sheds containing pile, stuffer, and binder warps with the pile warps displaced upwardly from the stuffer and binder warps in said line, inserting a weft yarn into each shed below the central line thereof, inserting a pile wire into each shed containing pile warps in the upper line, the wire being inserted above the central line of the shed, beating up each inserted weft yarn together with the inserted pile wire, when present, closing each shed containing pile warps in the lower line when the we
  • a method of weaving a pile fabric made up of a backing and pile warps having portions bound in the backing and other portions rising from the backing to forni elements of a pile surface, the backing including interwoven filling yarns and binder warps which comprises maintaining the pile warps under slack tension and the binder warps under relatively heavy tension, forming the warps into a series of sheds, certain of which contain binder warps and all the pile warps in the lower line with the pile warps displaced upwardly from the binder warps, inserting a weft yarn in each shed, beating up each inserted weft yarn, and closing each shed when the weft yarn being beaten up is a substantial distance from the fell, whereby, in the beating of a weft yarn in a shed initially7 containing pile warps in the lower line, the contact of the weft yarn being beaten up with such pile warps causes portions of said warps to be pushed ahead of the yarn to form pile loops.
  • a method of weaving on a pile wire loom a pile fabric made up of a backing formed of interwoven binder warps and lling yarns and pile warps having portions bound in the backing and other portions rising from the backing to form elements of a pile surface which comprises maintaining the pile warps under slack tension and the binder warps under relatively heavy tension, forming the warps into a series of sheds, certain of which contain pile warps selected in accordance with a pattern in the upper line and others of which contain binder warps and all the pile warps in a lower line with the pile warps displaced upwardly above the binder warps, inserting a weft yarn in each shed and also inserting a pile wire in each shed containing pile warps in the upper line, beating up each inserted weft yarn together with the pile wire, when present, closing each shed when the weft yarn being beaten up is a substantial distance from the fell of the fabric, whereby, in the beating up of a weft yarn in a
  • a method of weaving a pile fabric made up of a backing containing interwoven filling and binder warps and a pile surface formed of pile warps having'portions anchored in the backing and other portions raised above the backing which comprises maintaining the pile warps under slack tension and the binder warps under relatively heavy tension, forming the warps into a series of sheds in a cycle, at least one shed of the cycle containing all of the pile warps and at least part of the binder warps in the lower line of the shed with the pile warps displaced upwardly from the binder warps, inserting a weft yarn in said shed, beating up the inserted weft yarn, andclosing said shed when the weft yarn being beaten up is farther than normal from the fell of the fabric, whereby the contact of the weft yarn being beaten up with the slack pile warps beneath it causes portions of said pile warps to be pushed ahead of the yarn to form pile loops.

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  • Textile Engineering (AREA)
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Description

May 15, 1951 J. CRAWFORD METHOD 0F MAKING PILE FABRICS 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Nov. 25, 1949 May l5, 1951 .1. CRAWFORD METHOD OF' MAKING PILE FABRICS I 4 sheets-sheet 2 Filed Nov. 25, 1949 ATTORNEY May l5, 195,1 J. CRAWFORD l 2,553,303
mamon oF MAKING PILE mames l Filed Nov. 25, 1949 4 sheets-sheet 3 ATTORN EYS May 15, 1951 .1.cRAwFoRD- 2,553,303
Hamon oF MAKING PILE FABRICS Filed Nov. 25, 1949 4 sheets-sheet 4 al MM M ATTORNEYS Patented May 15, 1951 UNITED'- STAT ES PATENT OFFICE John Crawford; Amsterdam, N.y Y. assignor, to Mohawk Carpetl Mills; Inc.-Amsterdam; N. Y... a .corporation of.New York Application'November. 25, 1949; SeriaPNo;v 129,303
(Cl..139-39) v 6 Claims.. 1.
This invention relatesito pile-fabrics and their manufacture' byA weaving opera-tions, in whichy pile'wiresare inserted int'oithe warp shed and pile warp yarns .are raised over'the wires toformpile elements; More particularly, the invention is concerned with a novel methodA of weaving al pile fabric; in one form ofv which-*the-pile elementsiare arranged in transverse rowsand each row includes pile* elements in the' form of' both pile tufts and pile loops, while, in' another form, the fabric includes pile loops of' two different' heightsk in the same transverse row.
TheY weaving of pilel fabrics" on looms' provided with pile wires' andmechanism forinserting such wires into the shed to elevate pile warp` yarnsA and form pile elements therefrom has been prac'- tic'ed for-'many years.V In conventional looms, in whichY pile wires are` used, the wires areA of uniform height fromH end to end, so` that the pile.
warps raised over leach wire are all elevated' tol the sameheight. The wires used may be either plain, non-cutting wires or cutting wires providedwith knives and, when a. pla-in wire is withdrawnfrom the rowA of loops of' pile yarn raised over it, it leaves a transverse row of" pile loops, all of the same height. Upon withdrawal of a cutting wire, the loops ofthe pile warps raised over the wire are severed to form tuftsA lying na transverse row, all of the tufts being ofthe same height and each having two legs. In some weaving operations, the set of wires used in a loom includes wires of two or more heights, in which event, the elementsof the pile surface are-of different heights determined by the height of the wires, over which they are formed, but all the g elements lying in a single transverse row are all of the samekind and all of thesame height.
Some pile fabricsv woven heretofore on looms, in which pile Wires are used, have had a pile surface made upvof. both tufts and loops, and one such fabric, known as` cut-and uncut, is woven by the-use of a set of .pilewires consisting of cutting and non-cutting wires arranged in alternation. In such afabric, all the pile elements in a single transverse row areof the same kind, either tufts or loops, and, in order to give the pile surface the appearance of having both tufts and loops in the same row, successive rows of pileV elements may be left incomplete andv with thev gapsA in one row opposite the'illed spaces in the next. When the wires are withdrawn, the tufts and loops expand somewhat, so that the tufts and loopsappear to lie in the same row .andl the desired effect is approximated'. However, the pile in' such a fabric lacks the density of one,
pile elements, and thecostofproductionisi-higher, since aV largerv number ofi' loomoperations i`srequired to produce a unit length of goods.I
PileA fabrics, in which both; tufts andl loopsl are combined in the sametransverserow, haveA been produced heretofore*- by' operations, in which the pilel war-ps are` raised over-cutting and non-cutting wirest a-rrangedf in alternation, and the'- tufts and loops produced' onwithdrawal" of theV wires are forced intoa single rowf duringt-he beatiup. Such fabrics are" subject to` anumberl off objec'- tions,l in that', i'n one variety, the weft yarns are not .as tightly beaten up-asV in conventional fabrics, while, in another, stufffer warpsca-nnot-be used? andthe weft yarns arev not-boundasetightly inI place as in conventionaly fabrics. In both; varieties lastdescribed, twosets offpilewarps must be used. I
The4r fabric produced? by the method ofthe invention'is oneL having apile surfacemade up'of pile elements. ofA twokind's, that is, either loops andtufts -or loops of' two -diierent heights. The fabricdiffers from and'` iss superior to prior similar fabrics, in that each transverse rowof' pile elements i'nthe fabric includes a fullcomplement off pile. elements, sothat the pile densityL is' a maximum and the loom operates at' greatestefl- 'cienc'y, only a single setof pilewarps is re# quired, so thatsetting up the loom isisimplie'd, and, in the' wea-ving ofthe fabric, asingle wireis insertedbetween each two adjacent weft yarns in theupper level, so that the fabric can be tightly beatenup. In the production ofthe fab'- ric` in accordance with the new method; the formation ofy the tufts4 or highloops in anyftransverse row lis carried out by-'raisin-g the desiredpile-warps overa pilelwire in theusualway. Thefcrrnation of'thelow loops in the same rowv as the tufts or liig-h:l loops is then effectedI` without the use off a Wire.- In orderr to produce the fabric,V theY pile warpsvare maintained; under sla'ck't'ension, while the remaining Warps are underk relatively'heavy tens-ion'. The shedding operation is then modified in such manner that, whena weft yarn, in-` serted into the shed immediately'following`r that, into which a pile wire was inserted, is beaten up, the weft'. yarn engages all' the pilewarps andi-'pushes tliewarps: aheadof it toform relative- 1y low loops. When the wef-tyarn-isf-ullybeaten up', thereed engages thepreviously insertediwire; which has bent rearwardly und'er torsion; andl causesl it"V to stand erect, sothat the pilewarps raised over the' wire-tighten upto'forrn loops vof theA height of the wireand the` low loops formed by the action of the weft yarn on all the rest of the pile warps remain in position ahead of the yarn as low loops. Ultimately, when the wire is Withdrawn, the loops of the pile warps raised over it are either severed to form tufts or remain las high loops and the low loops of all the other pile warps shift slightly forward. As the tufts or high loops and the low loops all rise between the same two weft yarns, that row contains a full complement of pile elements.
For a better understanding of the invention, refererence may be made to the accompanying drawings, in which:
Fig. 1 is an expanded view in perspective of one form of the fabric, which can be produced by the method of the invention;
Fig. 2 is an expanded view in perspective of another form of the fabric;
Fig. 3 is a diagrammatic longitudinal View through a loom at one stage in the weaving of the fabric; v
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary plan view showing the mounting of the supplies of pile yarn in the loom of Fig.,3; Y
Fig. 5 is a fragmentary end view of a tensioning element used in the loom;
Fig. 6'is an enlargement of part of Fig. 3;
Figs. 7-10, inclusive are diagrammatic views illustrating the sheds in the fourstages of the cycle of weaving the-fabric of Fig. 1; andA Figs.,11-15, inclusive are diagrammatic views showing the manipulation of the warps at different stages in the beat-up of a weft yarn inserte into the shed shown in Fig. 9. i The fabric in the form shown in Fig. 1 comprises a backing made upof stuffer warps 2|, weft yarns 22, 23 lying, respectively, above and below the stuifer warps, and binder warps 24, 25 in two sets crossing the weft yarns above and below and binding them against they stuffer warps. The binder warps are arrangedrin pairs, consisting of a warp of each set, lying close together at one side of av group of stuifer warps,` shown as four in number, and the adjacent pair or binder warps lies at the other side of the group of stuffer warps, this arrangement continuing across the fabric. Ordinarily, the stuffer warps are stiff yarns of jute orY paper, the binder warps are light cotton yarns, and the weft yarns are of cotton and heavier than the binder warps. It is to b e understood, however, that the backing illustrated is merely one form of conventional backing and the fabric may have any desired backing, as, for example, one in which the stufer warps lie in two levels, the weft yarns lie above, between, and below the stuifer warps, and a single set of binder warps is used. In both such backings, adjacent weft yarns in the top level are separated by binder warps passing from one level to the other and, in the fabric illustrated, binder warps of both sets pass between adjacent weft yarns in the top level and cross at about the level of the stuffer warps.
The fabric includes a single set of pile warps 2S, which are ordinarily plied wool yarns,v and each space in the fabric above a group of stuffer warps and between spaced binder warps contains a single pile warp. Each pile warp is bound in place by portions lying beneath weft yarns and, in the fabric illustrated, each pile warp is bound beneath` each weft yarn in the top level. Between each two adjacent weft yarns in the top level, a portion of each pile warp is raised to form a pile element, which may be a loop 21 or artuft 28 made up of two tuft legs 28a, 28b of equal length. In the fabric illustrated, the tufts are substantially higher than the loops and, ordinarily, this relationship will prevail, since the loops are always relatively low. However, the tufts may be somewhat lower than is shown, although the tufts will always be sufficiently higher than the loops to permit the ends of the tufts to be sheared in the finishing operation without cutting the bights of the loops.
With the construction described, the fabric differs from prior generally similar fabrics in that there is a full complement of pile elements in each row across the fabric and each such row includes the same number of pile elements, since there is one .element in each space defined by adjacent top weft yarns and adjacent pairs of binder warps. Each transverse row may include both tufts and loops and each top weft yarn is bound in place by binder warps passing over that yarn and then from one face of the backing to the other between that yarn and the next adjacent yarn. Because of its construction, the fabric may be tightly beaten up,- and it is characterized Vby having a dense uniform pile without gaps. As the effect of having both tufts and loops in the same transverse row between a pair of top weft yarns is not obtained by omitting tufts from one row and loops from the nextr and depending upon the beat-up to make it appear that the tufts and loops lie in the same row, the fabric can be made with the loom operating at top efficiency.
The fabric shown in Fig. 2 is similar in construction to that of Fig. 1, except that the pile elements comprise both high loops 2s and low loops Blying in the same transverse row. As in the case of the Fig. 1 fabric, that of Fig. -2 may include any conventional backing but has been illustrated, for convenience, as having the `same backing as the Fig. 1 fabric.
The weaving of the fabric in accordance with the method of the invention may be carried out on a conventional loom provided with Va frame 3l for supportingrsupplies of pile warps in the form of spools 32 mounted onspindles 33 having their ends received in slots 31% in the walls of the frame. lThe pile warp 26 on each spool passes around a guide 35 and then over the top ofthe spool and beneathanother guide 36. Between the spool and guide, va weight 3l of U-shape rests upon the warp to tension'it. In practice of the new method, the tension weights employed are much lighter than those ordinarily used and each spool runs freely on its spindle, instead of with its flanges resting on a felt pad, as is usual. As a result of the use of the lighter weights and the omission of the pads, the pile warps are under relatively light tension. From the guide 36, each pile Warp passes through the eye of a cord 33 weighted by a lingo 39 and controlled by a Jacquard mechanism indicated at 40.
The stuifer warps 2l areV supplied from a beam di and the two sets of binder warps 24, 25 from respectiveY beams 412, 43. The stuffer warps pass from their beam through heddle eyes in a harness frame i4 and binder warps '24, 25 pass from their beams 2, 33 through heddle eyes in respective harness frames 35, im The harness frames are cam-actuated and the stuifer and binder warps are maintained under the usual relatively heavy tension.
The loom includes the usual reed 4l mounted on a lay V(not shown) and mechanism for inserting pile wires 48. The ,wiresl are of conventional 5. form and may be plain non-cutting wires or knife wires.
In the weaving of; a; fabric by the new method, the warps are formed into a succession of sheds in. a cycle repeatingY itself, and the number of diiferent shedsin a cycle depends on the construction of the backing. In. the weaving of the fabrics of Figs. 1 and 2, each cycle consists of four different sheds and', in each shed in a cycle, into which a pile wire isinserted, the pile warps may all lie in the upper line in the' shed, so as to be raised over the wire', some of the pile warps may bei raised over the wire and others not, or none of the pile warpsl may be raised over the wire.
I-n the' first shed ofthe cycle; shown in Fig. '.1, the stufier warps 2|- and binder warps 25 lie inthe lower line of the shed and binder warps 2d lie in the central line' of the shed. Pile warps. 2da, which were raised over wire 48 last inserted, and pile warps 25h, which were not raised over the wire, lie in theI lower line of the' shed. The wire, which was erect when fully' beaten up, has twisted rearwardly after the beat-up to an inclined position by torsion applied thereto by the pile yarns raised. over it. The weft yarn 22 has been inserted into the shed and is shown as partially beaten up. In this and other sheds, in. which stuffer' warps lie. in the. same line as pile warps, the stuffer warps are displaced slightly downwardly from the pile warps. As a consequence, the weft yarn beingY beaten up is advanced along the pile warps in contact. therewith to the fell of the fabric and it is this contact of the weft yarn with the slack. pile warps, which produces the low pile loops 2l,v as will be presently explained.. When. the: weft yarn has been fully beaten up in. the first shed, the previously inserted wire f3 becomes erect, as: shown in Fig. 8, so that the pile yarns 26a raised over it form high loops 29. At the same time, the remaining pile yarns 26o, that were not raised over the wire, have been caused to form low loops 2l.
Inthe second shed, Fig. 8, pile warps 2da, which have been selected by the Jacquard mechanism, lie in the upper line of. the shed, and all the other pile warps 26h lie in the central line of the shed. Binder warps 2G and stuffer warps 2| also lie in the central line ofthe shed and binder warps 25 lie in the lower line. Wire i8 has been inserted into the upper part of the shed between the upper and central lines and a weft yarn 23, which is to lie in thelower level of the fabric, has been inserted into the lower part of the shed between the central and lower lines.
lIhe third shed, Fig.y 9, is similar to the irst, except that binder warps 25 lie in the central line of the shed and binder warps 24 lie in the lower line. Similarly, the fourth shed is the same as the second, except that binder warps 25 lie in the central line of the shed and binder warps 24 lie in the lower line.
In the beat-up of an inserted weft yarn or such a yarn plus a pile wire in a loom equipped with a conventional shedding motion, the harness cams and the Jacquard mechanism are so timed that the harnesses and the Jacquard cords begin to change their positions to close the shed at a time, when the reed is about 1" away from the fell of the fabric', and the warps reach parallelism and begin to forml the new shed, when the reed is about A, away from the fell. In the practice of the new method, the timing of the shedding motion is advanced, so that the harnesses and Jacquard cords begin to close the shed, when the 6'. reed is, for examplaaboutZ" away` from the fell and the warps. reach parallelism, when. the reed is. about` 1" from the fell. This change in the timing of the shedding motion, together with the slack tension'. maintained on the pile warps, results in. the formation of. low pile. loops in the following manner.
The low pile loops are formed; in the first and third sheds in the cycle and the successive stages of the beat-up` of the weft: yarn inserted into the third shed are illustrated in Figs. 11-15, inc., the elements of the fabric being` somewhat separated for ciearness. At the first stage of the beat-up of the third shed (Fig. 11)', the binder warps 25 lie. in the central. line of. the shed. and all the other warpsY lie inthe lower' line.- Pile warps 26a, which wereraised over the wire 48 inserted into thel second shed, lie slightly higher in frontY of the weft yarn 2.2 than pile warps 26h, which. were not raised over that wire. Pile warps 26a and 2% bothlie slightly above stuffer warps 2| and binder warps 24 in the lower line. and the.: inserted weft yarn 22, accordingly, lies in light contact withl pile warps 26a. When the weft yarn is about 2. from the. fell of the fabric, the harnesses and Jacquard cords have moved. the;` pile warps 25a, '2th and the stuffer warps 2| into approximate parallelism, as shown in Fig. l2, with binder warps 25,. which have not moved. immediately, after thisl stage, the'Y pile warps 25a, which have been selected by the Jacquard mechamsm, begin to move into the upper line of. the shed.
From the time that the pile warps 26a, 26h and the stuier warps 2| reach parallelism with the binder warps 25, the weft yarn is caused to pressA against the pile warps and, as. the beat-up continues, the rubbing of the yarn against the pile warps forces portions of those warps ahead of the yarn, as indicated at 26e, 26d, Fig. 13. The `portions of the pile warps thus being pushed ahead of the weft yarn rise into loops, as the yarn approaches the fell', Fig. 14, and, when. the reed has reached its full forward position, it strikes wire d@ and causes it to stand' erect, as shown in Fig. 15. As a result of the straightening up of the wire, the loops of pile warps 26a raised over the wire, which were produced by the action of the weft yarn, become taut, so thatv these warps engage the wire relatively tightly. The portions of the remaining pile warps 25h, which were raised by the action of the weftA yarn, are then held in the formof low loops 21 against' the rear face of wire so by the weft yarn, now fully beaten up.
It will be observed that the loops 2l and 29 rise between the same adjacent weft yarns 22 in the upper level of the fabric and, when the wire is withdrawn, loops 21 shift forward, so that they come into full alignment with` loops 29, as thus shown in Fig. 2. As each of the pile warps is formed into either a high loop 29 or a low loop 2l between each two adjacent weft yarns in the upper level, in the manner described, each transverse row of loops across the fabric is complete and without blank spaces. Each space in the pile surface deined by two adjacent weft yarns iny the upper level and adjacent pairs of binder warps is lled by a single loop, either high or low, rising from the backing inthat space. The -pile is, accordingly, dense and uniform, and, since a full row of pile elements is inserted in each operation of the loom, the loom works at top elficiency.
The height of the loops 21 formed by the action ofthe weft yarns on the pile warps during the beat-up depends on the timing of the shedding motion and theseV loops may be given increased height by advancing the timing, so that the pile and stuffer warps reach parallelism with the binder warps in the central line of the shed, when the weft yarn is farther from the fell. Similarly, the height' of loops 21 may be decreased by'retarding the timing.
The formation of loops 21 by the action of the weft yarns on the pile warps does not occur in the second and fourth sheds of the cycle for the following reasons. A 4pile wire 48 is inserted into each of these sheds between the top and central lines of the shed and a weft yarn is inserted between the central and lower lines of the shed. During the insertion and beat-up of each wire, the wire is held at one end, so that it slopes slightly upwardly toward its free end. The binder warps lying in the central line of the shed are slightly higher than the pile warps 26h lying in the same line and the stuier warps lie slightly below the pile warps in the central line of the shed. The top and bottom surfaces of the wire are both smooth and, as a result of the positioning of the .warps and the smoothness of the surfaces of the wire, the wire does not act during the beat-up to push portions of the pile warps ahead of it. Similarly, the weft yarn travels in contact with the stuffer warps above it and the binder warps below it during the beat-up, so it cannot act on the pile warps.
In the foregoing, a form of the new method for weaving a fabric of simple construction has been described, but it will be apparent that the invention may be employed in the production of fabrics of more complex form, the construction of such fabrics being well-known.
claim:
Y1. A method of weaving on a pile wire loom a pile fabric made up of stufer warps, weft yarns crossing the stuer warps above and below, binder warps crossing the weft yarns above and below and binding them against the stuffer warps, and pile warps held in place by portions thereof lying beneath weft yarns, which comprises maintaining the pile warps under slack tension and the remaining warps under relatively heavy tension, manipulating the warps to form arseries of sheds, in which the warps lie in upper, central, and lower lines in different arrangements according to a cycle, the pile warps being displaced upwardly above the other warps in the lower line of a shed, inserting aweft yarn into each shed and simultaneously inserting a pile wire into each shed of the cycle in which there are pile warps in the upper line of the shed, beatn ing up each inserted weft yarn together with Ythe pile wire, when present, closing each shed when the weftV yarn being beaten up is a substantial distance from the fell of the fabric, whereby, in the beating up of a weft yarn in a shed, in which pile warps are initially present in the lower line, the contact of the weft yarn being beaten up with such pile warps causes portions of such warps to be pushed up ahead of the yarn to form pile loops, and, after a plurality of Wires have been inserted, withdrawing the inserted wires successively.
2. A method of weaving on a pile wire loom a pile fabric made up of stuffer warps, weft yarns crossing the stuifer warps above and below, two sets of binder warps crossing the weft yarns above and below and binding them against the stuier warps, and pile warps held in place by portions thereof lying beneath weft yarns, adjacent pile yarns being separated by a pair of binder warps, one from each set, which comprises maintaining the pile warps under slack tension and the remaining warps under relatively heavy tension, manipulating the warps to forni a series of sheds in a cycle consisting of (l) a first shed, in which the binder warps of the rst set are in a central line and all the other warps are in a lower line, (2) a second shed, in which certain pile warps are in an upper line, the remaining pile warps, the stuifer warps, and the binder warps of the rst set are in a central line, and the binder warps of the second set are in a lower line, (3) a third shed, in which the binder warps of the second set are in a central line and all the other warps are in a lower line, and (4) a fourth shed, in which certain pile warps are in an upper line, the remaining pile warps, the stuifer warps, and the binder warps of the second set are in a central line, and the binder warps of the rst set are in a lower line, the pile warps being displaced upwardly above the other warps in the lower line of the first and third sheds of the cycle, inserting a weft yarn into each shed, the yarn being inserted between the central and lower llines in each shed of each cycle, inserting a pile wire between the upper and central lines in the second and fourth sheds oi each cycle, beating up each inserted weft yarn and the pile wire, when present in a shed, closing each shed when the weft yarn being beaten up is a substantial distance from the fell of the fabric, whereby, in the beating uprof a weft yarn in the first and third sheds, the contact of the weft yarn being beaten up with the pile warps in the lower line of the shed causes portions of the pile warps to be pushed up ahead of the weft yarn to form pile loops, and, after a plurality of wires have been inserted, withdrawing the inserted wires successively.
3. A method of weaving on a pile wire loom a pile fabric including stuffer warps, weft yarns crossing the stuffer warps in a plurality of levels,
binder warps crossing the weft yarns above and below and binding them against the stuifer warps, and pile warps held in place by portions thereof lying beneath weft yarns, which comprises maintaining the pile warps under slack tension and the remaining warps'under relatively heavy tension, manipulating the warps to form a series of sheds, in which the warps lie in different lines according to a cycle, pile warps selected in accordance with a pattern lying in the upper line of certain sheds and the lower line of certain sheds containing pile, stuffer, and binder warps with the pile warps displaced upwardly from the stuffer and binder warps in said line, inserting a weft yarn into each shed below the central line thereof, inserting a pile wire into each shed containing pile warps in the upper line, the wire being inserted above the central line of the shed, beating up each inserted weft yarn together with the inserted pile wire, when present, closing each shed containing pile warps in the lower line when the weft yarn being beaten up is a substantial distance from the fell of the fabric, whereby, in the beating up of a weft yarn in a shed initially containing pile warps in the lower line, the contact of the weft yarn being beaten up with such pile warps causes portions of said warps to be pushed up ahead of the yarn to form pile loops, and, after a plurality of wires have been inserted, withdrawing the wires suc:`
cessively in the order in which they were inserted. 1
4. A method of weaving a pile fabric made up of a backing and pile warps having portions bound in the backing and other portions rising from the backing to forni elements of a pile surface, the backing including interwoven filling yarns and binder warps, which comprises maintaining the pile warps under slack tension and the binder warps under relatively heavy tension, forming the warps into a series of sheds, certain of which contain binder warps and all the pile warps in the lower line with the pile warps displaced upwardly from the binder warps, inserting a weft yarn in each shed, beating up each inserted weft yarn, and closing each shed when the weft yarn being beaten up is a substantial distance from the fell, whereby, in the beating of a weft yarn in a shed initially7 containing pile warps in the lower line, the contact of the weft yarn being beaten up with such pile warps causes portions of said warps to be pushed ahead of the yarn to form pile loops.
5. A method of weaving on a pile wire loom a pile fabric made up of a backing formed of interwoven binder warps and lling yarns and pile warps having portions bound in the backing and other portions rising from the backing to form elements of a pile surface, which comprises maintaining the pile warps under slack tension and the binder warps under relatively heavy tension, forming the warps into a series of sheds, certain of which contain pile warps selected in accordance with a pattern in the upper line and others of which contain binder warps and all the pile warps in a lower line with the pile warps displaced upwardly above the binder warps, inserting a weft yarn in each shed and also inserting a pile wire in each shed containing pile warps in the upper line, beating up each inserted weft yarn together with the pile wire, when present, closing each shed when the weft yarn being beaten up is a substantial distance from the fell of the fabric, whereby, in the beating up of a weft yarn in a shed, in which pile warps are initially present in the lower line, the contact of the weft yarn being beaten up with suoli pile warps causes portions of said warps to be pushed ahead of the yarn to form pile loops, and, after a plurality of wires have been inserted, withdrawing the wires successively in the order of their insertion.
6. A method of weaving a pile fabric made up of a backing containing interwoven filling and binder warps and a pile surface formed of pile warps having'portions anchored in the backing and other portions raised above the backing, which comprises maintaining the pile warps under slack tension and the binder warps under relatively heavy tension, forming the warps into a series of sheds in a cycle, at least one shed of the cycle containing all of the pile warps and at least part of the binder warps in the lower line of the shed with the pile warps displaced upwardly from the binder warps, inserting a weft yarn in said shed, beating up the inserted weft yarn, andclosing said shed when the weft yarn being beaten up is farther than normal from the fell of the fabric, whereby the contact of the weft yarn being beaten up with the slack pile warps beneath it causes portions of said pile warps to be pushed ahead of the yarn to form pile loops.
JOHN CRAWFORD.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the iile of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 690,912 McCollum Jan. 7, 1902 2,430,559 Dacey Nov. 11, 1947 2,477,248 Harding July 26, 1949 2,516,465 Jackson July 25, 1950 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 55,087 Holland Aug. 16, 1943 186,773 Germany June 27, 1907 273,409 Great Britain July 6, 1927
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Cited By (20)

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US2650621A (en) * 1951-07-27 1953-09-01 Mohawk Carpet Mills Inc Pile fabric and method of manufacture
US2709460A (en) * 1950-10-24 1955-05-31 Masland C H & Sons Pile fabric having high and low loops
US2713356A (en) * 1950-10-24 1955-07-19 Masland C H & Sons Apparatus for weaving pile fabrics
US2714399A (en) * 1952-05-29 1955-08-02 Masland C H & Sons Terry pile weaving
US2714902A (en) * 1950-10-16 1955-08-09 Masland C H & Sons Multiple pile staggered w-weaving
US2715918A (en) * 1952-02-20 1955-08-23 Lees & Sons Co James Modified axminster loom and method
US2719541A (en) * 1949-12-28 1955-10-04 Magee Carpet Co Pile fabrics
US2720222A (en) * 1952-10-23 1955-10-11 Masland C H & Sons Pile fabric method
US2750969A (en) * 1952-05-29 1956-06-19 Masland C H & Sons Terry pile weave
US2750964A (en) * 1954-04-16 1956-06-19 Masland C H & Sons Weaving with hook engagement of selected pile ends
US2758613A (en) * 1952-05-29 1956-08-14 Paul J Schmitz Wire loom manufacture of pattern pile fabrics
US2814314A (en) * 1953-09-14 1957-11-26 Masland C H & Sons Terry pile weave
US2853103A (en) * 1954-10-20 1958-09-23 Hardwick & Magee Company Method of making pile fabric
US2879805A (en) * 1953-01-30 1959-03-31 C H Masland And Sons Jacquard mechanism carrying pile to the back
US2905203A (en) * 1956-01-11 1959-09-22 Masland C H & Sons Terry weaving
US2988113A (en) * 1957-08-15 1961-06-13 Lees & Sons Co James Method and apparatus for weaving wireless pile fabric
US3009485A (en) * 1959-03-16 1961-11-21 Bigelow Sanford Inc Method and apparatus for making patterned rough textured pile fabric floor covering
WO2006051556A1 (en) * 2004-11-10 2006-05-18 Suseelan Sanjeev Koncherry Jute ribbed loop with cut pile on rugs and carpets
US20080236700A1 (en) * 2007-03-30 2008-10-02 Staubli Faverges Loom and a method for weaving single-web loop velvet
US20130019987A1 (en) * 2010-01-15 2013-01-24 N.V. Michel Van De Wiele Method and Device for the Manufacturing of Fabrics With at Least Two Different Pile Heights in a Same Pile Row

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Cited By (23)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2719541A (en) * 1949-12-28 1955-10-04 Magee Carpet Co Pile fabrics
US2714902A (en) * 1950-10-16 1955-08-09 Masland C H & Sons Multiple pile staggered w-weaving
US2709460A (en) * 1950-10-24 1955-05-31 Masland C H & Sons Pile fabric having high and low loops
US2713356A (en) * 1950-10-24 1955-07-19 Masland C H & Sons Apparatus for weaving pile fabrics
US2650621A (en) * 1951-07-27 1953-09-01 Mohawk Carpet Mills Inc Pile fabric and method of manufacture
US2715918A (en) * 1952-02-20 1955-08-23 Lees & Sons Co James Modified axminster loom and method
US2758613A (en) * 1952-05-29 1956-08-14 Paul J Schmitz Wire loom manufacture of pattern pile fabrics
US2750969A (en) * 1952-05-29 1956-06-19 Masland C H & Sons Terry pile weave
US2714399A (en) * 1952-05-29 1955-08-02 Masland C H & Sons Terry pile weaving
US2720222A (en) * 1952-10-23 1955-10-11 Masland C H & Sons Pile fabric method
US2879805A (en) * 1953-01-30 1959-03-31 C H Masland And Sons Jacquard mechanism carrying pile to the back
US2814314A (en) * 1953-09-14 1957-11-26 Masland C H & Sons Terry pile weave
US2750964A (en) * 1954-04-16 1956-06-19 Masland C H & Sons Weaving with hook engagement of selected pile ends
US2853103A (en) * 1954-10-20 1958-09-23 Hardwick & Magee Company Method of making pile fabric
US2905203A (en) * 1956-01-11 1959-09-22 Masland C H & Sons Terry weaving
US2988113A (en) * 1957-08-15 1961-06-13 Lees & Sons Co James Method and apparatus for weaving wireless pile fabric
US3009485A (en) * 1959-03-16 1961-11-21 Bigelow Sanford Inc Method and apparatus for making patterned rough textured pile fabric floor covering
WO2006051556A1 (en) * 2004-11-10 2006-05-18 Suseelan Sanjeev Koncherry Jute ribbed loop with cut pile on rugs and carpets
US20080236700A1 (en) * 2007-03-30 2008-10-02 Staubli Faverges Loom and a method for weaving single-web loop velvet
US7721768B2 (en) * 2007-03-30 2010-05-25 Staubli Faverges Loom and a method for weaving single-web loop velvet
CN101275331B (en) * 2007-03-30 2011-08-24 施托布利法韦日公司 Loom and method for weaving single cloth uncut velvet
US20130019987A1 (en) * 2010-01-15 2013-01-24 N.V. Michel Van De Wiele Method and Device for the Manufacturing of Fabrics With at Least Two Different Pile Heights in a Same Pile Row
US8944115B2 (en) * 2010-01-15 2015-02-03 N.V. Michel Van De Wiele Method and device for the manufacturing of fabrics with at least two different pile heights in a same pile row

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