US2533443A - Computing device - Google Patents

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US2533443A
US2533443A US2533443DA US2533443A US 2533443 A US2533443 A US 2533443A US 2533443D A US2533443D A US 2533443DA US 2533443 A US2533443 A US 2533443A
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wheel
wheels
teeth
column
answer
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06CDIGITAL COMPUTERS IN WHICH ALL THE COMPUTATION IS EFFECTED MECHANICALLY
    • G06C1/00Computing aids in which the computing members form at least part of the displayed result and manipulated directly by hand, e.g. abacus, pocket adding device

Description

Dec. 12, 1950 w. FARBMAN 2,533,443
COMPUTING DEVICE 7 Filed April 5, 1947 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 QNEY.
VEN OR 6 72 4 ATTORNEY.
2 Sheets-Sheet 2 m 2 mi 3, 3w 9 iii. rvvfrfllllliiflflfitlll rllrlltdllllltll Eql:
W FARBMAN COMPUTING DEVICE Dec. 12, 1950 Filed April 5, 1947 Patented Dec. 12, 1950 UNITED STATES PATENT Q FFI CE' e 5 canteens WilliainFai-binan, n Aii liescidaa riis, 1947, Serial No. 739,676
inventiohrelates to computingjdevicesfand: more particularly toanadding machine or the like,,.0f;the type that may be carried about in a pocket such as of a vest, or s coat, .etc.
.One of the obj ects of ,1 thisinvention is to providesuch an adding machine which is extremely small .in.size,. thin, lightweight, and tecQnQmical to;manufacture. The device i s. iconstructed of minimum ofipa-rts and a series of numbering wheels is provided eachof which. actuatesa succeeding wheel so as toeliminate transmission gears or like. components.
Another object .or this. assets is 'ito i pisses a series. of numbering wheels arranged to e, per-u form operations of Iaddition;@multiplicationvor division and/wherein each: wheel directly actue' ate 'fai succeeding wheel and is arranged to. effec: tively by-passa precedingwheel without inter:
feringitherewith. i This. objective is accomplished, moreover,- by a minimum of. component parts in- .v
suring cheap'ness of manufacture as well as ease of operation. V
Still another object of this invention is tosprovide a numbering wheel for such an adding machine which is constructed of a substantially single component but which is so formed as to form multiple functions. Thus, the numbering wheel incorporates not only a driving member,
but w ten-and wa ti ev n ?l ;W Ql rfi i qim sip fi ii l b e t from. the followingv description, I it being k understoodthat'the above general statements ofthe objects of my invention-are intend'edto describe and jn ot ,limit it in any mann er.
Referring" to the drawings:
Figal isa topplan viewfof instantinvention H a v g 4 I Fig- 2 is a view similar to Fig. 1 with the top cover removed.
,Eig.,.3"is ,a rear view of k the device with the bottom cover removed. 7 1 V H li'g. 4 isja cross section taken along the lines of 'Fig. 1 .1
H l o .e mm e es]- machine or the like constructed pursuant to the device comprises a case having the top ,I Ui'and the bottom cover l I which, tele.- scopeto" form an enclosure for the numbering wheels. In order .to maintain the assembly of the'ca'sel'there' 'is provided aseries of studs 12' 8' claims? (01. 235 745" Rotatably mounted on the studs are the num; bering wheels l5 [6,, l, l8,, l9 and 20. .Wheel 15 represents the units wheel or column, wheel v [6 represents the tens, wheels I! represents the hundreds, and so forth .to the last. Wheel 20. ,It is to be understqoi. of ,c0urse,.that many r et or less wheels may be added depending upon the desired capacity of the device.
Wheelj 5, as are the other wheels,.is formed oils ne ece is of meta l r eterial, or the like having a central opening to receive, studs1.2-..and
hit-ell W in at t yi are uck downwar y;-
hei' irom sby u t bl die-s T h; 23 are preferably, but notnecessarily, formed arcuately,.
as illustrated inFig, lso that they do, not. extend i exactly perpendicularly to the surface of. .Wheel 1 b1 but they curve lightly toward the circum fer;-V
i e It i fu t e t be snotedf hat the strike emd wn of t e h. i rmsiholesfl which make 25 possible the director primary actuation Qf $1 8.;
e sbymean o anoi te in t ment applied e e t vel the e ;-ei Without r quirin any additions to the wheel. I,
hee i lsi'l ps'e c e w l wh le t erlaps or passes over theface of apreceding wheel.
are so sarran'ged that' "the driving arm of p a, pres-r ceding wheel will. engagebut; one tooth of .a .sucseeding wheel in any complete revolution of the preceding wheelflsoi as to transmit one step to se pese n whe ii A n rder to. hs dsen Wheelie a se positioniach w e l e u rins clips rew unq; i m ifsies s. an are f rme w p pie so s 32 and 33 adapted to engage adjacent teeth. of, the wheels and toproduce fclicks; as the; wheels are turned. ,Thus, if a wheel is turned only sl cTientIy to au e the spring to traverse a, tooth, it twill click 'Lbetween the. next v two teeth: and "insure the proper setting of r the wheel, the
arc f o'f.eachtootHpreventihg disengagement of the spring.
Referring .to Fig. 3, it will be observed that the driving arm 2| describes a circle partially represented by the dotted are 35 which cuts across the succeeding wheel H5. The teeth 23a of wheel l6 have their bases arranged along a circle partially represented by the are 36. It will be appreciated, therefore, that the arm 2| only makes driving contact with one tooth of the succeeding wheel and it avoids actuating either tooth adjacent thereto. This will move wheel l6 one digit and the number series 38 embodying the numbers -9 which are stamped on the top side of the wheel adjacent to the circumference 22 will be increased one digit when doing an addition, to show an increase of one digit in the answer. The proper number will then be observed by the user in the opening 31a formed in the cover I0 of the device. In like manner, a reverse movement of the driving arm 2|, as when performing subtraction or division, will show as a decrease by one digit of the succeeding wheel.
The units wheel has the driving arm centered between the sixth and seventh driving holes 24 so that it is adjacent the number 7 of the number series 38.
The driving arm 2|a of the wheel l6 isdisposed adjacent to the number 2 of its number series 38. This results because of the fact that the wheels turn each other directly so that a clockwise-motion of a driving wheel produces a counterclockwise movement of the succeeding wheel. The number series 38 on each wheel is further arranged in reverse order, that of wheel l5 running from 1 through zero, while that of wheel |B- runs reversely from zero to 1. Thus, when wheel I6 is turned a sufficient number of digits-to bring its arm Zla across wheel |5, it will pass over wheel l5 so as to avoid the teeth 23. f The arm 2m, therefore, can only actuate wheel through its teeth 23b and can in no way produce a movement of the wheel l5. The action of the device is thus unidirectional and progressive in a forward direction.
The overlapping disposition of the wheels is illustrated in the enlarged cross section of Fig. 4 although it will be understood that in the completed device the tilted arrangement of each wheelis'not noticeable. The wheels are of thin sheet metal or the like so that to all appearances allthe wheels are on a single plane. In order to maintain the teeth of each wheel spaced from the floor of the bottom cover, the studs |2 are formed with bosses l2c which rotatably support the wheels.
The top cover IU of the device has arcuate slots 40' formed therein through which the openings 24 are rendered accessible.- The closed portion of the slots serves as stop means for a stylus, as
will be hereinafter described. Associated with each wheelare two sets of numerals running from 0-9, but in opposite directions. The inner radius set 4| is used in addition and multiplication functions while the outer radius set 42 is used for subtraction and division functions. An arrow 43 appearing centrally of each numeral set 4| indicates the direction that the wheel should be turned for the addition an multiplication functions. a
The adding machine is operated as follows: The operator will insert a pointed stylus into a desired opening 24 appearing through the slot 7 40' so that he may actuate the wheel l5. It is first desirable that all the wheels be .cleared so that all the answer openings 31 will show 4 zeros. Assume now that it is desired to perforhi the following addition:
Answer=2423 The stylus will be inserted in the opening ad jacent the number 7 in the hundreds column represented by the wheel H. For purposes of better illustration, the particular opening is designated in'Fig. 1 by the numeral 24b. The stylus will then be forced around the arcuate slot 4% until the stylus strikes the point S of slot 4012 serving as the stop means. In this manner, wheel l7 will have been turned the equivalent of seven digits and the number 7 of the number series 38 will appearin the answer opening 37b. The number 8 is then turned in the direction of the arrow in the tens column as represented by the wheel It. The number 8 will then appear in the answer opening 31a.
The same operation is performed for the units column in respect to the number 4 and the num-' her 4 will then appear in the answer opening At this point, the answer spaces will show 784. Then the stylus is inserted into the opening adjacent the number 9 in the inner series of the hundreds column and the direction of the arrow is followed until the stylus strikes the stop S. This operation will be continued for the numbers 6 and 2 in the tens and units column respectively. At this point, the answer spaces will show 1746 which is an accumulation of the two quantities thus far added. The number ,677 is then applied in the same manner, following the direction of the arrows and the sum total 2423 will be seen in the answer openings.
For the function of subtraction, assume the problem The machine is first cleared to show zeros inthe answer openings. First the numbers 732 are placed in the hundreds, tens and units columns respectively in the same manner as for the addition heretofore described and following the direction of the arrows. At this point, the answer openings show 732. It is then necessary to subtract {l26 fro-mthe total. For such subtraction, the outer radius numerals 42 are used, and the direction of the movement is opposite to that shown by the arrows. Thus, a stylus is inserted in the opening adjacent the outer numeral 4 and the wheel is rotated until the stylus strikes the end SI of the slot 401). In this manner, 4 is reduced from the hundreds column, similarly 2 is thereafter reduced from the tens column, and ,6 is reduced from the units column. At this point, the answer 306 appears in the answer openings 3'! etc.
For the function of multiplication, assume the problem of 5.. First clearing the machine, the number 257v is added six times in the device; This is accome pllshed by repeating the placing of number 2 in the hundreds column for six successive times, repeating the number in'the tens column for six successive timesand then repeating the number 7 in the units column for six successive times. At this point, 1542 appears in the answer openings since it. the Sum. total of 257 six times. Next, 257 is multiplied by i. However,- just as in normal multiplication operations, the next figures are all moved one space tothe left. Therefore, on the adding machine, we repeat the number2 on the thousands column four successive times, then the number 5 in the hundreds column four successive times, then the number 7 in the tens column four successive times. At this point, the total 11822 appears in the answer spaces.
For the function of division, assume the problem o After clearing the machine, we place 1 in the ten-thousands column, 1 in the thousands column,
8 in the hundreds column,
2 in the tens column,
2 in the units column.
The inner radius numerals are used and the direction of the arrows is followed. Division is, however, a subtraction function so that for the next operation the outer radius numerals are used and the direction of the movement is opposite to that shown by the arrows. Now, in looking at the answer space from right to left, the first group of numbers higher than 257, the divisor, is 1182. We then reduce 2 from the thousands column, 5 from the hundreds column and 7 from the tens column, at which point we find the number 925 in the answer space. Thereafter, we keep reducing 257 in the same way until after the fourth time we find the answer space number shows 154. This figure 4 is then written down or remembered as this number is the first one of the answer of quotient. Now, as required in subtraction, we move one space to the right and keep subtracting 257 from the figure 1542 appearing in the answer openings until the total in such answer openings is less than 257. Accordingly, we reduce 2 from the hundreds column, 5 from the tens column and 7 from the units column and continue this procedure until the answer spaces all show zeros. This requires six such reductions and our quotient is, therefore, 46.
It can be seen from the foregoing that an adding machine has been produced which consists essentially of wheels only, formed to produce such multiple functions as to dispense with many conventional components. Each driving arm rotates a succeeding wheel the equivalent of one digit after making a complete revolution. It will be appreciated, therefore, that at some times, a single movement of the first wheel will be transmitted to every succeeding wheel as when the answer column of the device is changing from 99,999 to 100,000. In this instance, every driving arm save the last actuates a succeeding wheel.
While there has been described what at pres- Wheels beingarranged in overlapping relationship with adjacent wheels, a driving arm integrally formed on each of said wheels and laterally exending therefrom and in substantially the same plane thereof and so as to overlap adjacent wheels, each of said wheels having struck-out teeth formed on the surfaces thereof and so as to be engaged by the driving arm of a preceding wheel, said teeth and driving arms being arranged to prevent engagement of the teeth of one wheel by the driving arm of a rotating succeeding wheel, said struck-out teeth forming externally accessible surface openings in said wheels whereby said wheels may be driven through primary actuation utilizing said openings.
2. A computing device according to claim 1 and wherein said means to prevent engagement comprises the arrangement of said wheels so as to underlap a succeeding wheel while overlapping a preceding wheel so that the driving arms pass under succeeding wheels and pass over preceding wheels, said teeth being formed in a radial pattern on the undersides of the wheels to produce engagement thereof by a driving arm of a preceding wheel.
3. A computing device according to claim 2 and wherein said teeth are spaced inwardly from the periphery of a wheel while the driving arms are formed outwardly whereby the teeth describe a circle of smaller diameter than the driving arms, the driving arm being thereby operative to cut across the underside of a succeeding wheel so as to engage only one tooth thereof while avoiding teeth adjacent to said one tooth.
4. A computing device comprising a support, a
- series of planar, numbered and externally visible computing wheels each rotatably mounted in lateral relationship on said support and arranged for successive inter-actuation, a plurality of teeth on each of said wheels, a driving arm integral with each wheel and on substantially the same plane therewith for engaging teeth of a succeeding wheel so as to produce said inter-actuation, said driving arms being arranged to pass by the teeth of a preceding wheel without actuating the preceding wheel whereby a continuous and direct drive may be established among said series of wheels in a forward direction, said teeth being formed on the undersides of the wheels and said wheels being mutually arranged in overlapping relationship so that said driving arms pass over the faces of preceding wheels and on the undersides of succeeding wheels, said driving arms extending laterally from each wheel.
5. A computing device comprising a support, a series of planar, numbered and externally visible computing wheels each rotatably mounted in lateral relationship on said support and arranged for successive inter-actuation, a plurality of teeth on each of said wheels, a driving arm integral with each wheel and on substantially the same plane therewith for engaging teeth of a succeeding wheel so as to produce said inter-actuation, said .driving arms being arranged to pass by the teeth of a preceding wheel without actuating the preceding wheel whereby a continuous and direct drive may be established among said series of wheels in a forward direction, said teeth being integral with the wheels and struck-out'downwardly therefrom, said driving arms extending laterally from each wheel. I
6. A computing .device according to claim 5 wherein said teeth are struck-out downwardly from the undersides of the wheels andsaid driving arms pass over said undersides of succeeding wheels and over the faces of preceding wheels. 7. A computing device according to claim 5 and wherein said struck-out teeth form upper surface and externally accessible openings in the wheels whereby each wheel may be physically actuated by a pointed instrument inserted into one of its openings.
8. In a computing device, the sub-combination of a planar computing wheel, said wheel comprising a series of radially arranged teeth struck-out 2o in'gs'corresponding thereto, and a driving arm laterally disposed on the wheel and integral therewith, said teeth being arrangedrinwardly of the periphery of said wheel and said arm being arranged outwardly thereof.
WILLIAM FARBMAN.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record 'in the file of thispatent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number I Name Date 1,214,262 Bannihr Jan. 30, 1917 1,482,539 Bair Feb. 5, 1924 1,764,915 Vethe June 17, 1930 2,166,081 Thompson July 11, 1939 2,450,668 Kesling Oct. 5, 1948 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 572,579 France Feb. 23, 1924
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Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2797047A (en) * 1957-06-25 Lehre
US2935257A (en) * 1960-05-03 kesling
US3030016A (en) * 1958-05-26 1962-04-17 Rudduck Earl Golf score register
US3129880A (en) * 1964-04-21 mcginn
US4218609A (en) * 1978-05-01 1980-08-19 Yi Chin Educational mechanical calculator
US20060223036A1 (en) * 2005-03-31 2006-10-05 Mickey D S Educational math toy

Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1214262A (en) * 1914-09-12 1917-01-30 Caesar R Bannihr Computing device.
US1482539A (en) * 1924-02-05 Joseph h
US1764915A (en) * 1930-06-17 vethe
US2166081A (en) * 1939-07-11 Dial adding machine
US2450668A (en) * 1948-10-05 Calculator

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1482539A (en) * 1924-02-05 Joseph h
US1764915A (en) * 1930-06-17 vethe
US2166081A (en) * 1939-07-11 Dial adding machine
US2450668A (en) * 1948-10-05 Calculator
US1214262A (en) * 1914-09-12 1917-01-30 Caesar R Bannihr Computing device.

Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2797047A (en) * 1957-06-25 Lehre
US2935257A (en) * 1960-05-03 kesling
US3129880A (en) * 1964-04-21 mcginn
US3030016A (en) * 1958-05-26 1962-04-17 Rudduck Earl Golf score register
US4218609A (en) * 1978-05-01 1980-08-19 Yi Chin Educational mechanical calculator
US20060223036A1 (en) * 2005-03-31 2006-10-05 Mickey D S Educational math toy
US7491061B2 (en) 2005-03-31 2009-02-17 Mickey D Scott Educational math toy

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