US2273857A - Calculating machine - Google PatentsCalculating machine Download PDF
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- US2273857A US2273857A US2273857DA US2273857A US 2273857 A US2273857 A US 2273857A US 2273857D A US2273857D A US 2273857DA US 2273857 A US2273857 A US 2273857A
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- 238000010276 construction Methods 0.000 description 5
- 230000000994 depressed Effects 0.000 description 2
- 230000000694 effects Effects 0.000 description 2
- 230000037250 Clearance Effects 0.000 description 1
- 230000035512 clearance Effects 0.000 description 1
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- G06—COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
- G06C—DIGITAL COMPUTERS IN WHICH ALL THE COMPUTATION IS EFFECTED MECHANICALLY
- G06C23/00—Driving mechanisms for functional elements
- G06C23/04—Driving mechanisms for functional elements of pin carriage, e.g. for step-by-step movement
Feb. 24, 194Z.- c, FRIDEN 2,273,857
CALCULATING MACHINE Filed April 20, 1936 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR.
far/ M f. Fr/den 6%? 7/ 4444M A TTORNEY 1942. c. M. F. FRIDEN- CALCULATING MACHINE 4 Shee ts-Sheet 2 Filed April 20, 1936 v INVENTOR. Car/ M f. Fr/oen BY @Zx z/flm ATTORNEY mu muurl nfll Feb. 24, 1942. c. M. F. FRIDEN CALCULATING MACHINE Filed April 20, 1936 4 Sheets-Sheet 5 INVENTOR. Car/ M F Fr/oen WXV X/K/m ATTORNEY Feb. 24, 1942. I c. M. F. FRIDEN 2,273,857
CALCULATING MACHINE Fild April 20, 1936 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 INVENTOR. Car/ M Fr/Oen A TTORNEY Patented Feb. 24, 1942 2,273,857 CALCULATING MACHINE cm M. r. Frlden, Oakland, Calif assignor to Friden Calculating Machine 00., Inc., a corporation of California Application April 20, 1936, Serial No. 75,307
. 2 Claims.
The present invention relates to calculating .machines and more particularly to an improved calculating machine of the Thomas type, such as shown in Felt et al., Serial No. 1,612,969, dated January 4, 1927, in which special. transfer and actuating, mechanism is provided to enable reduced width of the machine. This application is a continuation. in part of my co-pending application, Serial No. 724,482, filed May 8, 1934.
In previous machines of this type as illustrated by the Felt et a1. structure, it has been customary to place the actuating cylinders on an equal number of longitudinally extending actuating shafts which are spaced apart transversely of the machine to provide clearance between adjacent cylinders. As a result, machines of this type have been very wide. and consequently,
, cumbersome to handle. This large size has also caused considerable sales resistance.
I have found that the width of machines of this type can be reduced to a convenient, desirable size by placing a plurality of the actuatin cylinders on the same actuating shaft, and by associating therewith a transfer mechanism in which the transfer actuators are mount'ed similarly. The actuating and transfer mechanisms are mounted preferably in angularly offset relation to enable a complete ordinal transfer in succession from the lowest through the highest order, and have the associated selecting mechanism grouped with respect thereto to accommodate the special arrangement thereof.
It is an object of the invention, therefore, to Q provide a-calculating machine of the character referred to, in which the actuating and transfer mechanisms are constructed. to enable reduced width of the machine.
Another object of the invention is to providea calculating machine of the character referred to, which is compact and easy to handle.
A further object of the invention is to provide actuating mechanism for a calculating machine in which the actuating mechanism of adjacent orders are over-lapped to enable reduced width of the machine.
. Another object of the invention is to provide an improved transfer mechanism for calculating machines of the, character referred to, which contributes to reduced machine width, and enables a full ordinal transfer.
other objects will appear as the description progresses with reference to the accompanying drawings in which the various parts are shown full size.
In the drawings:
Figure 1 is a partial vertical longitudinal section taken through the axis of an actuating shaft as indicated by the line i-l in Figure 3 with certain parts shown in elevation.
Figure 2 is a bottom view of an end of the shiftable accumulator carriage, certain of the parts being shown in section to illustrate details of construction,
Figure 3 is a fragmentary plan view of the actuating and transfer mechanisms, with the numeral keys and accumulator carriage omitted for better illustration of the construction.
Portions of the selecting and actuating mechanism are omitted in certain orders to illustrate various details of construction.
Figure 4,is= a transverse vertical section of the actuating and transfer mechanisms taken in a plane indicated by the line 4-4 in Figure 1.
Figure 5 is a section similar to Figure 4 through two orders of the machine, and shows one of the transfer actuators in active position.
Figure 6 is a transverse vertical section illustrating another portion of the transfer and actuating mechanisms and is taken in a plane indicated by the line 6-4 in Figure 1.
Figure 7 is a vertical transverse section illustrating the actuating and transfer mechanisms and is taken in a plane indicated by the line 1-1 in Figure l.
Figure 8 is a schematic view similar to Figure '1 and illustrates the angularly staggered relation of the various ordersof the actuating mechanism and the transfer actuators.
As stated above, the present invention is concerned primarily with calculating machines of the Thomas type which generally include a body in which the selecting, actuating and transfer mechanisms are mounted and a shiftable register carriage, which also supports apart of the transfer mechanism. In the preferred em-- bodiment of my invention disclosed herein, the body of the calculating machine includes base l0 (Fig. 1) having casing II and a, plurality of similar side frame members l2 (Figs. 1 and 3) mounted thereon, only one of frame members I! is seen in the drawings. Between respective side members If, a plurality of transverse frame members II, ll, l5, 18 (Fig. 1) are provided to support various parts of the calculating mechanism referred to hereinafter.
Shiftable register carriage 2| (Fig. l) is mounted for endwise shifting movement by suitiournaled. At its upper end each shaft 24 carries numeral wheel 28 having the digits from zero to 9 inscribed thereon in the conventional manner, and at its lower and carries ten tooth numeral wheel gear 21. Intermediate its ends, each shaft 24 carries ten tooth ratchet gear 28 with which spring urged ball 29 cooperates to maintain numerai wheel 28 in adjusted position. Shaft 24 also carries resetting gear 38 for cooperation with suitable resetting means not shown.
Numeral wheels 28 are rotatable in either direction to register positive and negative values and for this purpose gear 21 has associated therewith a pair of opposed bevel gears 3|, 32 formed at the ends of spool 33. The shifted positions of gears 3|, 32 are controlled by transversely extending strap 34 positioned between each pair of gears 3|, 32 of the various orders of the machine. Strap 34 may be mounted in a convenient manner for movement forwardly and rearwardly of its central neutral position shown in Figs. 1 and 3 to engage gears 3| or 32 with numeral wheel gears 21. Thus, if gears 3| are engaged with gears 21, positive actuation of the associated numeral wheels 28 will occur, and, conversely, if gears 32 are engaged with gears 21, negative actuation of .numeral wheels 28 is determined.
From the above description, it is seen that any increment of movement of a spool 33 will be transmitted to the associated numeral wheel 28 if either of gears 3| or 32 is placed in active position. Means are provided in the various orders of the machine to determine the number of increments of such movement. For this purpose a. bank of numeral keys 4| is provided for each order of the machine, only a part of one of such banks is shown in Figure 1. The numeral keys 4| of each order of the machine cooperate with a pair of differential value selecting slides 42, 43 (Figs. 1, 3, and '1) which are mounted for endwise shifting movement and are provided with cam surfaces of varying inclination so that slides 42, 43 are set differentially in accordance with the value of the depressed numeral key. Slide 42 is associated with numeral keys 4| determining values from six to nine, and slide 43 is associated with numeral keys 4| determining values from one to five. At their rearward ends, slides 42, 43 (Fig. 1) carry respective ten tooth gears 48, 41 which cooperate respectively with the two sets of stepped teeth 48, 49 on an actuating cylinder of the digitation actuating mechanism. Gears 45, 41 are mounted for sliding movement on square shaft 52 having its front end journaled in frame member l5 and extending rearwardly through frame member l4 and spool 33, and having its rear end journaled in frame member I3. Teeth 48 cooperate with gear 48 in their relatively adjusted positions to determine movement of shaft 52 for from six to nine increments, while teeth 45 and gear 41 cooperate to determine movement of shaft 52 for from one to five increments. The provision of two sets of teeth 45, 49 on each cylinder 5| and two value selecting slides 42, 43 enables short endwise movement of slides 42, 43 and provides for a light. substantially uniform key action.
In order to provide for reduced width of the machine, a plurality of actuating cylinders 5| (Figs. 1 and 3) for adjacent orders of the machine are mounted in longitudinal alignment on each actuating shaft 58. In the embodiment shown, a pair of cylinders 5|, 5|A are mounted on each shaft 55 for a pair of adjacent orders, the respective selecting shafts 52 of such adjacent orders being spaced to either side and above the associated actuating shaft 58 as clearly seen in Figures 3 and 7. Referring to Figure 1, it will be noted that teeth 48A, 49A of the lower order cylinder 5|A are offset angulariy with respect to teeth 48, 49 of higher order cylinder 5|. Each actuating shaft 58 is journaled in frame members l4 and I5 and at its front end has a bevel gear connection 51 (Figs. 1 and 3),with transverse shaft 58. Shaft 58 has its ends journaled in respective side members I2 and is driven cyclically from a suitable source of power such as an electric motor, or a hand crank. In the embodiment shown, one" cycle of operation is effected by one rotation of shaft 58. Thus, for. each rotation of shaft 58, shafts 58 and cylinders 5| also have a single rotation to cause registration of the number selected by the depressed numeral keys 4| on the associated numeral wheels 28. Certain of shafts 58 (Figs. 1 and 3) are extended rearwardly to provide drive connections for machine functions which are not necessary to an understanding of the instant invention.
From the above description it will be noted that for each adjacent pair of the transversely spaced orders of the selecting mechanism there is provided a single longitudinal actuating shaft having the pair of actuating cylinders for the respective orders of the selecting mechanism mounted thereon in longitudinal alignment. and for rotation about the same axis. In order to distribute the driving load more evenly throughout the digitation part of a-cycle of operation, the stepped teeth 48, 49 of the respective actuating cylinders 5| are mounted in angularly offset relation as seen in Figure '1, and as indicated diagrammatically in Figure 8. The arrangement is such that the teeth in the units and tens orders become active first and the others in succession thereafter.
Means are provided for preventing over-throw of the numeral wheels at the end of an actuation thereof and for this purpose the two sets of stepped teeth 48, 49 (Fig. 1) of each cylinder 5| are located with their last active teeth in alignment and there is associated with each shaft 52. a Geneva wheel having a locking disk cooperating therewith and mounted on the associated actuating shaft 58. As seen in Figs. 1 and 6. each shaft 52 has Geneva wheel 5| mounted thereon for rotation therewith, hub 82 of such wheel 8| being Journaled in frame member H to support shaft 52. Associated with each Geneva wheel 8| is a locking disk 83, having a recessed portion 84 extending around its periphery for a distance corresponding to the distance occupied by teeth 48 on the associated cylinder 5|. Each Geneva wheel 5| has ten concave faces 88 for cooperation with the associated disk 83 so that for each increment of movement imparted to shaft 52 and Geneva wheel 81 by one of teeth 49 or 49, one of faces 88 is positioned for cooperation with associated disk 53. The trailing edge 55 of recessed portion 84 moves into engagement with Geneva wheel 8| immediately after the last active tooth of teeth 48, 49 has actuated one of gears 48 or 41 so that the associated shaft 52 and, consequently, the associated numeralwheel 28, are positively locked againstfurther rotation. To center shaft 52 and Geneva wheel 8| in position after movement thereof, shaft 52 carries ten tooth ratchet gear 81 (Figs. 1 and 4) adjacent frame member |3 which has spring-pressed ball 88 mounted therein for cooperation with gear 81.
Transfer mechanism of special construction is provided for cooperation with the actuating cylinders described above in enabling reduced width of the machine. Generally such transfer mechanism comprises tripping means associated with each numeral wheel, except that of highest order,
for enabling a drive connection from a transfer actuator to the numeral wheel of next higher order, so that such next higher order numeral wheel receives oneincrement of movement when second annular flange 88 which extends between spaced annular flanges 81 of shaft 88, which is slidably mounted in transverse member 89 secured on frame member I4 and spaced therefrom, and transverse member 9| spaced from member 89 and suitably supported on the frame of the machine. Shaft 88 (Fig. 1) is provided with spaced annular grooves 92 for cooperation with spring urged ball 98 mounted in member 9|. Thus, shaft 88 and transfer gear .8| are maintained resiliently in either shifted position thereof. It will be noted that when gear 8| is moved to operative position the forward end of shaft 88 will project beyond member 89 and into the path of restoringcam 98 (Figs. 1 and 4) preferably formed integrally with actuator 82A of each pair of associated transfer actuators 82,
. 82A. As seen in Figure 4, each pair of shafts the numeral wheel of lower order passes from 9 to 0 or 0 to 9. The sign character of the transferred increment is determined in the same manner as the sign character of the digitation.
To effect the tripping of a transfer, each numeral wheel shaft 24 (Figs. 1 and 2) is provided with single tooth gear II immediately below carriage frame 23 for cooperation with tripping lever I2, pivoted at I3 in frame 23 and yieldably held in frame 23 by spring-pressed ball 14 engaging a transverse notch in pivot I3. Lever I2 has. extension I5 (Fig. 2) positioned in the path of single tooth gear 'II of one order, so that when the numeral wheel passes from 9 to 0 or 0 to 9, extension I5 is engaged by the tooth of gear II and lever I2 is rocked in a clockwise direction as viewed in Figure 2, the limit of such movement being determined by the engagement of face 15A of extension IS with the next adjacent tripping lever I2. Lever I2 is also provided with arm 18 extending into the next higher order of the .machine and normally engaging lever I2 of such order adjacent to its pivot 13., Arm "I8 has bent end 11' (Fig. 1) which extends downwardly and engages rearwardly of annular flange 18 of gear hub 19. Hub I8 carries transfer gear 8| and is slidably mounted on shaft 52 so that rocking movement of tripping lever I2 results in shifting hub I9 and gear 8| forwardly of the machine to position gear 8| in operative relation with respect to the transfer actuator therefor. Single tooth actuator 82 (Figs. 1 and 4) for gear 8| is mounted with actuator 82A of the adjacent lower order by studs 88 on looking disks 88,88A, the actuators 82 and 82A being spaced apart by integral flanges of studs 88 indicated in dotted lines at 88 in Fig. 4. Actuators 82, 82A and locking discs 88, 83A are assembled as a unit and thereafter placed on shaft 88 and pinned in po-' sition thereon. To enable movement of shaft '52 by operation of actuator 82 and'to prevent over-throw thereafter, each locking disk 83 is provided with a transfer notch 84 (Fig. 6) spaced from recessed portion 88 by an interposed solid portion 85 of disk 83.-
From the above description it is seen that each time a transfer is determined in one order of the machine, gear 8| of the next higher order is moved into active position to be subsequently operated by the associated transfer actuator 82. Means are provided for resiliently maintaining gear 8| in either shifted position thereof and associated with such maintaining means is a restoring cam, which operates with each pair of adjacent gears 8|. Gear hub I9 (F18. 1) has 88 for adjacent orders'of the machine are spaced closer together than the spacing between the pairs so that both shafts of each pair lie in the path of a single restoring cam 98. Cams 98 operate successively after a transfer to restore any enabled order of the transfer mechanism to disabled condition.
It will be noted in Figure 4 that while two transfer actuators B2, 82A are shown on shaft 58 at the right of the view only one of such transfer across the machine.
transfer actuators is necessary as no transfer occurs in the units order. However, the same transfer actuator construction is provided in such order as in the higher orders because restoring cam 98 must be provided for the second highest order of the machine. It will also be seen that the successive pairs of actuators 82, 82A on the remaining actuating shafts 5| are spaced apart an angular distance to provide for successive operation of the transfer actuators from the lowest to the highest order.
Referring to Figure 5, the respective actuators 82 and 82A for an associated pair of orders in the machine, are shown in the position just beforethe transfer is effected in the lowest of the orders, and as clearly seen in such view, the transfer actuator 82, which is in leading position in the direction of rotation thereof, is effective after transfer actuator 82A for the lower of the two orders. This arrangement of the transfer actuators is important in enabling the grouping of various pairs of the orders of the selecting mechanism with respect to a single actuating shaft and to enable the completion of a full Briefly, assuming that a transfer has been determined by shifting both of gears 8|,- (Fig. 5) to active position, transfer actuators 82 and 82A will have rotated from their full cycle position shown in Fig. 4 to the position shown in Fig. 5 where actuator 82A is positioned to move its associated gear 8| for 1/10-rotation to introduce the transferred increment. into the associated plete the transfer in the associated numeral wheel. Actuator 82 in effect trails behind actuator 82A for a sufficient angular distance to accommodate the setting of the transfer mechanism in the higher order by movement of gear 8| to active position if the transferred increment placed in the lower order numeral wheel associated with gear 8| determines a transfer into the next higher numeral wheel.
In Figure 8, the respective digitation and transfer actuators and the associated orders of'selecting mechanism are illustrated schematically, the lowest order of the machine being shown at the left of the figure. In each pair of associated selecting and actuating mechanisms the lower order is shaded with vertical lines and the higher order is shaded with horizontal lines, the digitation actuators being represented by segments of a circle and the transfer actuators being indicated by the small circles spaced about the digitation actuators. The staggered relation of teeth 48, 49 of cylinders II extends for approximately 230 of the cycle while the transfer actuators I extend for approximately 190 of the cycle and it will be noted that while a digitation is in process in one of the higher orders of the machine, a transfer can occur in a lower order if such has been determined. The actuating shaft 58 at the right of Figure 8 is shown without digitatlon actuators and only has transfer actuators to provide for a transfer through two higher orders of the machine than those having selecting mechanism associated therewith. If desired, the number of orders having selecting mechanism can be varied to meet individual requirements, in the embodiment shown ten orders are provided with selecting mechanism and two additional orders provided with transfer actuators. The arrangement of the transfer mechanism referred to above provides for a complete transfer through the number of orders noted in a single rotation of the transfer actuators. At
the same time, the novel actuating and transfer mechanisms disclosed herein provide a compact machine of convenient size.
While I have described my invention in a preferred'embodiment thereof, it is to be understood that such invention may be embodied in other forms and, therefore, I desire that my invention be limited only by the scope of the appended claims. 7
I, therefore, claim as my invention:
1. In a calculating machine, a single register comprising a plurality of qrdinally arranged numeral wheels, said numeral wheels being substantially aligned and spaced apart an equal distance from each other and forming a series extending transversely of the machine, a plurality of differential toothed actuators for said numeral wheels arranged in pairs with the actuators of each pair having the same axis of rotation and the teeth of one actuator of each pair being angularly displaced with relation to the teeth of the I other actuator of the pair, the axes of said actuators being spaced apart an equal distance from each other and the spacing of said actuator axes being twice the spacing of said numeral wheels, in combination with ordinally arranged differentially operable toothed elements for trans- ,mitting selected increments of movement from the actuators of said pairs respectively to ad- Jacent order numeral wheels.
2. In a calculating machine having a single register extending transversely of the machine,
' said register comprising a plurality of ordinally arranged numeral wheels disposed substantially in line with each other for registering an individual calculated item, a plurality of ordinally arranged differentially operable toothed elements, each said element being adapted to operate one of said numeral wheels, and a plurality of differential actuators in pairs, the actuators of each pair being mounted for rotation about a common axis extending longitudinally of the machine and being cooperable respectively with the -diiferentially operable elements of adjacent order nu- 'meral wheels to enter different ordinal values of the individual item in said single register, said differentially operable elements being spaced from each other transversely of the machine, and said differential actuators having operating teeth, the teeth on one actuator being angularly displaced with relation to the teeth of the other actuator on said common axis.
CARL M. F. FRIDEN.
|Publication Number||Publication Date|
|US2273857A true US2273857A (en)||1942-02-24|
Family Applications (1)
|Application Number||Title||Priority Date||Filing Date|
|US2273857D Expired - Lifetime US2273857A (en)||Calculating machine|
Country Status (1)
|US (1)||US2273857A (en)|
Cited By (3)
|Publication number||Priority date||Publication date||Assignee||Title|
|US2530515A (en) *||1950-11-21||Value selecting and entering|
|US2648498A (en) *||1953-08-11||Calculating machine|
|US3036768A (en) *||1962-05-29||moody|
- US US2273857D patent/US2273857A/en not_active Expired - Lifetime
Cited By (3)
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|US2530515A (en) *||1950-11-21||Value selecting and entering|
|US2648498A (en) *||1953-08-11||Calculating machine|
|US3036768A (en) *||1962-05-29||moody|
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