US2434575A - Heating system - Google Patents

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US2434575A
US2434575A US668270A US66827046A US2434575A US 2434575 A US2434575 A US 2434575A US 668270 A US668270 A US 668270A US 66827046 A US66827046 A US 66827046A US 2434575 A US2434575 A US 2434575A
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fluid
heat
heating
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boiler
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Richard B Marshall
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Electromaster Inc
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24HFLUID HEATERS, e.g. WATER OR AIR HEATERS, HAVING HEAT GENERATING MEANS, IN GENERAL
    • F24H7/00Storage heaters, i.e. heaters in which energy is stored as heat in masses for subsequent release
    • F24H7/02Storage heaters, i.e. heaters in which energy is stored as heat in masses for subsequent release the released heat being conveyed to a transfer fluid, e.g. air, water
    • F24H7/04Storage heaters, i.e. heaters in which energy is stored as heat in masses for subsequent release the released heat being conveyed to a transfer fluid, e.g. air, water with forced circulation of the transfer fluid
    • F24H7/0408Storage heaters, i.e. heaters in which energy is stored as heat in masses for subsequent release the released heat being conveyed to a transfer fluid, e.g. air, water with forced circulation of the transfer fluid with electrical energy supply
    • F24H7/0416Storage heaters, i.e. heaters in which energy is stored as heat in masses for subsequent release the released heat being conveyed to a transfer fluid, e.g. air, water with forced circulation of the transfer fluid with electrical energy supply the transfer fluid being air

Description

Jan. 13, 1948.`

- R. B. MARSHALL HEATING SYSTEM vFilled May 8, i946 COLD Alfa Patented Jan. 13, 1948 HEATING SYSTEM Richard" B. Marshall, Detroit;` Mich., i, assignnt. Electromaster, Inc., -Detro it,l.-lVIich;, a1.- corpora@4 tion of Michigan 1 rll-his invention relates to a heating system and particularly to an improved method and apparatus for heating homes or buildings of similar size by electricity.

The use of' electricity fordomestic heatingpurposes has been widely advocated due to thel cleanliness andf susceptibility of control of electrical heating apparatus, but to date, large-scale heating ofv homes andvother small buildings has been a practical impossibility dueto the fact that the additional power requirements for domestic electric heating, despite the obvious attract-ion of' the unity power factor load inherent in electric heating.

In-accordance-with thisinventi-on, an improved methodfan'djapparatus for heating by electricity is provided' which draws electric power onlyduring certain predetermined periodsl of each dayr and hence the power demand periods ofthe heating apparatus may be timed-to coincide with the oli peak power periods ofthe conventional poweru demands upon the generating system. For example, a heating system in accordance with this invention may be adjustedto draw power only between the hours of 10:00 p. m. and 7:00 am., which is a wellirec'o'gnized off peak power period in` all electrical generating systemsv There is a large amount offgenerating capacity available for use during. such rolT peak power Vperiods and a 'heating system embodying this invention providesa very desirable unity power` factor load.

for the available generating capacity throughout the entirecff peak power period.

The heating system contemplated by tliisvin-A vention comprisesan insulated boiler element delining a fluid storagev chamber inwhich a fixed;l quantity' ot highboiling point, heat storing-iiuid"v is disposed. While several typesfo` uidsof' theseproperties areknown in the art, this` invention preferably utilizesaiiuid known as diphenyl oxide or mixtures thereof; such as that described:

in Ui S. Patent No. 13882,809,issued October 18,v 1932, to John J. Grebe. Thetotal heat input yto the high temperature, heat: storing iiuid. during. the energization period ofv the electric heaterproevided for heatingE such duid, is.proportioned.:to-4

lili@ s r2.. exceed the expected heatdemand'sfoff the room area toi-.be2 heatedfduring the entirey daily period, orinother words,'overfthe` entire twenty-four hours elapsing rbetwe'en the beginning of the suce.

In my/copenfding app'lications,y Serialy Nos.A

668,52691 and 668,271,` filedV onevenl dateV herewith,

there arefdescrlibedfand clalmed various formsv of. heating apparatus operating according to the aioredescribe'df" principles. This invention proP Vides! an improved.heatingimethod andn apparatus;` by which: heatv isi. storedv over -an entire daily period by the electricalheatingf'offalixed'quantit f of high temperature, heat storing 'uid during o'ipeakjpower??periodsfand`V` the transfer of'hea-t'.

iromthe-heat storing fluid tothe room heatingapparatus f is.1 accomplish-ed bywithdrawingvsuccessive!small-portions 'of th'e-fhot, 'electrically heated fluidx` from-fthe main body Voi" hot ui'd" in response totheiheatvdemands ofthe room-` area.

to be heated; The withdrawn portions of hot iiuid-v` are-utilizedfyto energize heat transfer. lapparatusy 'which-in turn heat's'the heating medium appliedto the` room-area. This arrangement is in.

contrastf to t those of "my f above' identified copende ing! applications I'viflierein thev electrically: heated fluid remains ina fixed-physical location vbut heat is withdrawn fromf's'uchfluid by heat transfer apparatus disposedr in heat conducting relation totheentire bodyfofrfthe'electrically heated fluidi Accordingly, it isa'n objectl of 'this invention" to provide an improved method and apparatus forelectrically heating hom'esfan'd other buildings of corresponding-size.

vrAfurtherobjectfof f this invention 'isv` to 1 provide an improved f method .andi apparatus for electric heating' which is 'operable' only duringf 01T' peak po'vverpe'riodsofEA theegeneratingl system to which its is connected, thereby assuring that the peak-v power generating rcapacityr ofy such generating.

system need' notn be.'r increased`- to *accommodate thefiadditionalf. l'oadf represented bythe electrical l'ieatin'gz system;`

Ar -stillfurtherl object:y of? this )invention is to provide leans improved l'ieating.A system wherein. fixed?y quantity.- 'of' high boiling. point, heat storingv` liquid fiswheate'dfto 'aisufli'cient degree during off:

peak power periods to insure that the heat stored therein will exceed'. the expectedl heat,l demands of: the room area tobeheatednover'an entiredai'ly' period;

Anothenf. ob'ject-..of,1 this .f inventionV isf to v provide any improved heatingrfapparatus; for; heatingandVv heat@storingA liquid? and; providing for` theflcircu:

lation of the heated liquid through a heat transfer apparatus to transfer the heat stored therein to a room heating medium in response to the heat demands of the room area to be heated.

The specific nature of the invention as well as other objects and advantages thereof will become apparent to those skilled in the art from the detailed description of the annexed sheet of drawings which, by way of preferred example only, illustrates two specic embodiments of the invention,

In the drawings:

Figure 1 is a schematic perspective View of an electrical heating system embodying this invention which provides for the heating of a room area by a stream of heated air; and

Figure 2 is an elevational View, partly in section, of a modified electrical heating system embodying this invention wherein the room area to be heated is heated by steam.

As shown on the drawings: i

In accordance with this invention, a boiler 2 of any convenient shape is provided which defines a fiuid heating and storing chamber 4 therein. The chamber 4 is surrounded by suitable insulation 6 to insure that the heat losses from such chamber will be minimized, and particularly that the reduction in temperature of the fluid contents of said chamber 4 due to heat loss through the walls of the boiler 2 will be substantially negligible over a twenty-four hour period. A iixed quantity of high boiling point, heat storing liquid 8 is inserted in the chamber 4 of boiler 2.

To heat the fluid 8, a plurality of conventional electrical heating elements l are provided which are energized from main power terminals l2 through a line switch i4 and the contacts (not shown) of a heater relay I6. The operation of heater relay l is controlled by a low voltage control circuit |8 which includes the contacts (not shown) of a timer unit 20 and an adjustable thermostat unit 22. Timer unit 20 may comprise any one of several well-known forms of cyclically operating, timing switches, and the timer unit 20 is adjusted so as to close its control contacts only during a predetermined portion of the cyclic period which corresponds to the occurrence of off peak power periods of the generating system. For purposes of example, it may be assumed that timer unit 20 closes its control contacts once each day, throughout the period of :00 p. m. to '7:00 a. m.

Adjustable thermostat unit 22 may likewise comprise any one of several well-known forms which will open its contacts upon the fluid 8 in the chamber 4 of the boiler obtaining a predetermined temperature or pressure. For example, adjustable thermostat 22 may include a switch actuating bellows 24 which is in turn energized by the expansion of a suitable fluid disposed in a bulb 26 located in the interior of the chamber 4. Preferably an adjustment of thermostat 22 is provided to control the temperature at which it will close its control contacts over a substantial range. Such adjusting mechanism may be manually operated by a knob 28. As will be seen, the adjustable thermostat in effect may be operated as a weather selector.

From the foregoing description, it will be apparent that the fluid 8 in boiler 2 is electrically heated only during olf peak power periods of the generating system and, furthermore, the extent of heating of the fluid 8 is controlled by the particular setting of the adjustab'e thermostat 22. Accordingly, the total heat input to fluid 8 may 4 be selected in accordance with the amount of heat output which it is expected that the boiler 2 will be required to supply during the next twentyfour hour period.

While there are several different types of materials that may be utilized as the electrically heated fluid 8, this invention preferably contemplates the use of a diphenyl oxide fluid or mixtures thereof in view of the markedly superior heat properties of this fluid. Commercially available forms of diphenyl oxide mixtures have a boiling point of 500 F. at atmospheric pressure and at the elevated temperature of '725 F. produce a vapor pressure on the order of pounds per square inch gauge. In addition, the specific heat of diphenyl oxide iiuid is quite large and more nearly approaches that of water than other known forms of high boiling point, low vapor pressure fluid. The low vapor pressure of diphenyl oxide fluid at temperatures above its boiling point are of particular value in the described construction wherein the fluid 8 is electrically heated in a substantially closed chamber. In a domestic heating system, the loss of the electrically heated uid and the attendant difficulties of replacement of such fluid in the heating system must obviously be avoided and accordingly the low vapor pressure properties of diphenyl oxide iiuid which permits the heating of such fiuid to high temperatures without requiring an elaborate arrangement of pressure relief valves involving continuous small losses of the fluid, has obvious advantages. In the construction embodied in this invention, when the fluid 8 comprises diphenyl oxide fluid, it is preferably heated by the electrical heater I0 to a selected point in the range from 500 to 700 F. as determined by the particular setting of adjustable thermostat 22. Y

To effect the transfer of heat from the electrically heated fluid 8 to the room area to be heat ed, a closed, heat dissipating iiuid circulation system is provided, comprising in the modification of Figure 1, an air stream heat exchanger 30, a condensate collector 32, a condensate return pump 34, and a condensate return conduit 36. A suitable conduit 38 is provided communicating between iiuid storage chamber 4 and the heat exchanger 3D to supply hot fluid 8 to such heat exchanger. A solenoid operated valve 40 of any conventional type is provided to control the flow of hot fluid from chamber 4 into heat exchanger 30 in accordance with the heat demands of the room area being heated, as determined by a room thermostat 42. Thus room thermostat 42 permits the admission of successive portions of the hot fluid 8 stored in fluid storage chamber 4 to the heat exchanger 30 in accordance with the heat demands of the room area in which room thermostat 42 is located. Heat exchanger 30 is disposed within an air supply conduit 44 having an inlet end 46 through which cold air is supplied and an outlet end 48 from which the heated air is supplied to the room area to be heated.

After circulating through the air heat exchanger 30, the fluid 8 which is thus cooled and probably liquefied, is withdrawn from heat exchanger 30 to a condensate collector 32 through a suitable pipe 50. Condensate collector 32 comprises merely a storage tank and is preferably enclosed by insulating material 52 to minimize heat losses from the collected condensate therein.

A pipe connects condensate collector 32 with the condensate return pump 34 through a pressure controlled switch 56. Pump 34 is driven by a suitable electric motor 58 which is energized Varefaire through conductors'SO in parallel'with the electrieal heater "elements f I (l yand in series '-withth'e #contacts (not shownl of pressure vswitchi. It is therefore apparent that thefpump'd willl'be operated to 'return the collected cold'condensate fluid 54 back to the main `body of hot iluidin the fluid storing chamber 4 only when the heater elements llare also energized. lSuch arrangement insures against the lowering of the tem perature of the high temperature uid 8 stored within chamber-4 throughout the heat dissipating-period. Furthermore, vpressure switch 55 in sures that motor 58 is energized only so longas there `is-con'clensatefin' collector 32.

'-In operation vof the described heating system, the timer unit 20 will, of course, be initially adjusted' to limit the energizationfof the electric heaters Il] to the off' peak power-period of the particular generating system from which the heating system is supplied. The usercf` the system need only adjust the settingoi adiustable thermostat 22, by operation of adjusting'knob 28, in accordance with the severity of weather conditions expected during the 'next twenty-'four hour period. During mild-weather, the heat input to the electrically heat-ed iluid'8, as represented by the maximum temperature to which such iluid is heated, need not be as great asA the heat input during severe cold weather, as the demand for heat from the room area being heat ed will be substantially reduced.

In any event, the heating system is safe and foolproof, inasmuch as theadjustable thermostat 22, even when set for its highest temperature, will effectively interrupt Vthe heating of theelectrically heated'liquid iluid'a at a temperature of the fluid corresponding to a safe valueof vapor pressure. The'system is preferably designed by correlation of the amount of electrically heated uid il, the maximum temperature thereof, and the duration of the oiT peak power period "during which the electrical yheaters are energized, so that theA total input to the electrically heated fluid in any one energization period' will be in excess of the expected heat demands of the room area for the most severe cold Iweather conditions. lProper correlation of the above mentioned variable design*` factors can-also result in 'adesign wherein .the total current :drawn by the electrical heaters may in certain instances'be maintained ata Value less'thanthe maximum current capacity ofxexisting wiring' in the'hous'e being heated.

vThe describedv heating.A system obviously operatesl by'withdrawal of successive' quantities of the electrically heated, high temperature, fluid "8V into the air heat exchanger 30 'as controlled bythe heat demandsv of room'thermostatAZ. It should be particularly noted that `there is no substantial heat loss from thealoody of electrically heated fluid-8 remaining inthe chamber 4 and raccordingly,.the hot fluid .V8 will be supplied to the'heat exchanger 30 at substantially the same elevated temperature .throughoutthe heat supplying period whenthe Aelectricalzheaters-Illare deener gized. `This arrangement greatly facilitates'the design of thee-ir streamheat exchanger l.tilinasmuchas thetemperature differential between the hot huid!! and the` cold air passing through theheat exchanger 30 will be substantially constant. Accordingly,.thedesign of theairstream heat yexchanger- BUmaylreadily be accomplished to .yieldatemperature of the heated air oi proper valuefor. supply to thefroom rarea tube-heated.

In themodiflcation of .this invention shownin 6 Figurei 2; all elements l of the?heatingV4 V"systemi are identical ywithftl'iosei'of Figure 1f except 'Iforl-'the substit'utio'nlof'v afs't'ean tylpe -heat ltransferapparatus for eiecting thevrtran'sfer of heat rr/om the heated 'fluid Ai ifto' the'f'roelnv area "to be lheated; Accordingly the output lsidef of solenoid valve '49 ls'flco'nn'ectedito the Vcoils"of-aheat exchanger B2 and the cold iiuid 8-is conducted lirom heat -exchanger .".iZtov condensate collector-32 by apipe Ell.

Heat-exchangerEZ isdisposed in heat transfer relationship 'linka tsteamboilerl 64. atei-ris y'supplied' to steambciler B4 fronia suitable taille-'66 and thesteam generatedin boiler 54is conducted to suitable radiators '(not shown) inthe room area to beheated by the steam pipe 68. The control circuitl forthe solenoid'valved is modified to include the contacts (not shown) of apressure switch l'in series `ivitli'the contacts (not shown) of the roomV thermostat 42. v Pressure switch '50 is a conventional type which 'will' close its contacts upon 'the steam pressure Vin the outputvpipel falling below a predetermined safe value. "Accordingly solenoid valve 40 will be operated-'fte admit hot fluid 8 to heat eXchangerBZ only-in response to the rjoint action of room thermostat @.2- and pressure switch 10.

The operation oi the modication of Figure'2 is identical to that already described-in connection' with Figure 1 with the exception that steam is generatedin boiler llbylheat transfer from Vthe hot fluid 8 and supplied to the room area toI be heated'through output pipe 68. As `in the'modiiication of Figure 1, the condensate return pump 34 is operated by its vmotor 58 only during the energization periodici the electrical heaters' lil. Thus'thefcold condensate 54 collected in condensate collector 32 is effectively Iprevented 'from returning t0 the hot uid -8 in thef'uid storage chamber# except during the energization period o the electrical heater I0.

It is therefore apparent thatlthe described invention provides an improved method and`A apparatus for electrical heating ofr homes or similar building structures, and has the particular-advantage of permitting such electrical heating' 'to be accomplished during normally oli peak power periods of the generating system. Hence domestic electric `heating can be immediately'. available to the public lwithout requiring a'n increasey 'in available peak power generatingcapacity. Furthermore the apparatus embodying this invention hasthe desirable featureofA facilitating an efficient design of the heat exchanger for transferring heat vfrom the electrically heated fluid to the room heating medium inasmuch as the electrically heated fluid is always' supplied to the heat exchanger at substantially the same elevated temperature.

It will, of course, be understood that various details of construction may be varied throufghfa wide range without departing from the principles of lthis invention and it is, therefore, not the purpose to limit' thepatent granted hereon otherwise than necessitated by the scopeof the/appended claims.

I claim as my invention:

`1. An electrical heating system comprising'a heat insulated boiler defining a fluid storing chamber,` a heat dissipating fluid circulationsys- 'tem supplied by said boiler and including ar heat exchanger connected to receive hot fluid in vapor form from said boiler, a condensate collector, and a return conduit to said iluid` storing chamber, valve means disposed in said circulation system intermediate'lsaid fluidstoririg chamber'and said heat exchanger, means controlling the return of condensate to said fluid storing chamber to return such only during predetermined periods, room heating means heated by said heat exchanger, means responsive to room temperature for controlling said valve means, a fixed quantity of high boiling point, heat storing fluid disposed in said uid circulation system, and electric heater means in said boiler for heating said fluid.

2. An electrical heating system comprising a heat insulated boiler defining a fluid storing chamber, a heat dissipating fluid circulation system supplied by said boiler and including a heat exchanger connected to receive hot fluid from said boiler, a collector connected to receive cold fluid from said heat exchanger, and a return conduit to said fluid storing chamber, valve means disposed in said circulation system intermediate said fluid storing chamber and said heat exchanger, room heating means heated by said heat exchanger, means responsive to room temperature for controlling said valve means, a fixed quantity of high boiling point, heat storing fluid disposed in said fluid circulation system, electric heater means in said boiler for heating said fluid, electric circuit means for energizing said heater means including a cyclically operating timing switch permitting energization of said heater means only during a predetermined portion of the cyclic period of said timing switch, the heat input to said fluid during said predetermined portion of the cyclic period being proportioned to exceed the expected heat demands of said room heating means over the entire cyclic period, and means controlling the return of cold fluid from said collector to said chamber to return such only during predetermined periods.

3. An electrical heating system comprising a heat insulated boiler defining a fluid storing chamber, a heat dissipating fluid circulation system supplied by said boiler and including a heat exchanger connected to receive hot fluid from said boiler, a condensate collector, and a return conduit to said fluid storing chamber, valve means imposed in said circulation system intermediate said fluid storing chamber and said heat exchanger, room heating means heated by said heat exchanger, means responsive to room temperature for controlling said valve means, a fixed quantity of high boiling point heat storing fluid disposed in said fluid circulation system, electric heater means in said boiler for heating said fluid, electric circuit means for energizing said heater means including a cyclically operating timing switch permitting energization of said heater means only during a predetermined portion of the cyclic period of said timing switch, means for interrupting energization of said heating means when said fluid reaches a predetermined temperature, the heat input to said fluid during said predetermined portion o the cyclic period being proportioned to exceed the expected heat demand of said room heating means over the entire cyclic period, and means for returning cold fluid from said condensate collector only when said electric heaters are energized.

4. An electrical heating system comprising a heat insulated boiler defining a fluid storing chamber, a heat dissipating fluid circulation system supplied by said boiler and including -a heat exchanger connected to receive hot fluid from said boiler, a condensate collector, and a return conduit to said fluid storing chamber, valve means disposed in said circulation system intermediate said fluid storing chamber and said heat exchanger, room heating means heated by said heat exchanger, means responsive to room temperature for controlling said valve means, and a fixed quantity of diphenyl oxide fluid disposed in said fluid circulation system, electric heater means in said boiler for heating said diphenyl oxide fluid, electric circuit means for energizing said heater means including a cyclically operating timing switch permitting energization of said heater means only during a predetermined portion of the cyclic period of said timing switch, the heat input to said diphenyl oxide fluid during said predetermined portion of the cyclic period being proportioned to exceed the expected heat demands of said room heating means over the entire cyclic period.

5. An electrical heating system comprising a heat insulated boiler defining a fluid storing chamber, a heat dissipating fluid circulation system supplied by said boiler and including a heat exchanger connected to receive hot uid from said boiler, a condensate collector, and a return conduit to said fluid storing chamber, valve means disposed in said circulation system intermediate said fluid storing chamber and said heat exchanger, room heating means heated by said heat exchanger, means responsive to room temperature for controlling said valve means, a flxed quantity of diphenyl oxide fluid disposed in said fluid circulation system, electric heater means in said boiler for heating said diphenyl oxide fluid, electric circuit means for energizing said heater means including a cyclically operating timing switch permitting energization of said heater means only during a predetermined portion of the cyclic period of said timing switch, means for interrupting the energization of said heating means when said diphenyl oxide fluid reaches a predetermined temperature, and means for returning cold diphenyl oxide fluid from said condensate collector only when said electric heaters are energized, the heat input to said diphenyl oxide fluid during said predetermined portion of the cyclic period being proportioned to exceed the expected heat demands of said room heating means over the entire cyclic period.

6. An electrical heating system comprising a heat insulated boiler defining a fluid storing chamber, a heat dissipating, closed fluid circulation system supplied by said boiler and including a heat exchanger connected to receive hot fluid from said fluid storing chamber, a condensate collector arranged to receive cold fluid from said heat exchanger, and a pump for returning cold fluid from said condensate collector to said fluid storing chamber, room heating means energized by said heat exchanger, a fixed quantity of high boiling point, heat storing fluid disposed in said fluid circulation system, electric heater means in said boiler for heating said fluid in said fluid storing chamber, electric circuit means for energizing said heater means including a cyclically operating timing switch means permitting energization of said heater means only during a predetermined portion of the cyclic period of Said timing switch means, the heat input to said fluid during said predetermined portion of the cyclic period being proportioned to exceed the expected heat demands of the room heating means over the entire cyclic period, means for energizing said pump concurrently with said electric heater means to.

return cold fluid from said condensate collector to said fluid storing chamber, a. solenoid valve disposed between said fluid storing chamber and said heat exchanger, and means responsive to room temperature for Aoperating said solenoid valve to control the hot iluid input to said heat exchanger.

7. An electrical heating system comprising a heat insulated boiler dening a iluid storing chamber, a heat dissipating, closed, fluid circulation system supplied by said boiler and including a h-eat exchanger connected to receive hot fluid from said iluid storing chamber, a condensate collector arranged to receive cold fluid from said heat exchanger, and a pump for returning cold fluid from said condensate collector to said iluid storing chamber, room heating means energized by said heat exchanger, a xed quantity of high boiling point, heat storing iluid disposed in said iluid circulation system, electric heater means in said boiler for heating said fluid in said fluid storing chamber, means for energizing said pump concurrently with said electric heater means to return uid from said condensate collector to said boiler, a solenoid valve disposed between said boiler and said heat exchanger, and means responsive to room temperature for operating said solenoid valve to control the hot fluid input to said heat exchanger according to the heat de mands of the room area to be heated.

8. An electrical heating system comprising a heat insulated boiler dening a fluid storing chamber, a heat dissipating, closed, fluid circulation system supplied by said boiler and including a heat exchanger connected to receive hot fluid from said iluid storing chamber, a condensate collector arranged to receive cold fluid from said heat exchanger, and a pump for returning cold uid from said condensate collector to said iluid storing chamber, room heating means energized by said heat exchanger, a xed quantity of high boiling point, heat storing iluid disposed in said lluid circulation system, electric heater means in said boiler for heating said Iluid in said fluid storing chamber, electric circuit means for energizing said heater means including a cyclical` ly operating timing switch permitting energization of said heater means only during a predetermined portion of the cyclic period of said timing switch and means for interrupting the energization of said electric heater means when said iluid reaches a predetermined temperature, the heat input to said duid during said predetermined portion of the cyclic period being proportioned to exceed the expected heat demands of the room heating means over the entire cyclic period, means for energizing said pump concurrently with said electric heater means to return nuid from said condensate collector to said boiler, a solenoid valve disposed between said boiler and said heat exchanger, and means responsive to room tem- Derature for operating said solenoid valve to control the hot fluid input to said heat exchanger according to the heat demands of the room area to be heated.

9. The method of room heating by electricity which comprises electrically heating a lixed quantity of highl boiling point, heat storing liquid during predetermined off peak power periods of each day, storing said heated liquid in a heat insulated enclosure, withdrawing successive portions of said heated liquid in response to room temperature, transferring the heat of the withdrawn portions to a room heating medium, collecting,r the cold withdrawn portions separately of the hot stored liquid, and returning the collected cold liquid portions to the remaining liquid only during the said periods of heating the heat storing liquid.

l0. The method of room heating by electricity which comprises electrically heating a Ilxed quantity of diphenyl oxide fluid during predetermined oli peak power periods of each day, storing said heated diphenyl oxide iluid in a. heat insulated enclosure, withdrawing successive portions of said heated diphenyl oxide fluid in response to room temperature, transferring the heat of the withdrawn portions to a room heating medium, collecting the cold Withdrawn portions of the diphenyl oxide fluid separately of the hot stored diphenyl oxide fluid, and returning the collected cold portions of the diphenyl oxide iluid to the remaining portion only during the said periods of heating the diphenyl oxide uid.

RICHARD B. MARSHALL.

REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,907,357 Kovesdy May 2, 1933 1,985,215 shivers Dec. 18, 1934 2,259,401 Tucker et al. Oct. 14, 1941 2,266,257 Osterheld Dec. 16, 1941

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Cited By (14)

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US2692732A (en) * 1951-08-14 1954-10-26 Lillian B Lieberman Heating system
US2734989A (en) * 1956-02-14 hoffman
US2825791A (en) * 1956-06-28 1958-03-04 Combustion Eng House heating unit using electrical heating elements novelly organized and controlled
US3140824A (en) * 1958-08-25 1964-07-14 Everett W Moore Steam heating system
US3249303A (en) * 1964-07-13 1966-05-03 Esley L Townsend Combination gas and electric hot water heating system
US3620450A (en) * 1968-10-21 1971-11-16 Paul Leuenberger Electrically heated central hot water heating system
US4037779A (en) * 1976-01-30 1977-07-26 Joseph Jean Roy Heating system having high-low temperature limit controlled auxiliary boiler
WO1979000440A1 (en) * 1977-12-27 1979-07-12 Sunhouse Inc Heat transfer system
US4253427A (en) * 1979-10-15 1981-03-03 Freidrich Weinert Heat exchanging system
US4410135A (en) * 1980-11-04 1983-10-18 Skyinskus Robert L Controller for a room heating system
EP0711962A1 (en) * 1994-11-09 1996-05-15 KKW Kulmbacher Klimageräte-Werk GmbH Electric storage heating apparatus
US5533669A (en) * 1994-11-03 1996-07-09 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Heat transfer apparatus
US20090173294A1 (en) * 2008-01-07 2009-07-09 Azrikam Bernard H Gas and electric heating system
US20090173291A1 (en) * 2008-01-07 2009-07-09 Azrikam Bernard H Gas and electric heating system

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US1907357A (en) * 1932-03-05 1933-05-02 Kovesdy Martin Electric hot air furnace
US1985215A (en) * 1930-03-31 1934-12-18 Honeywell Regulator Co Apparatus for heating fluid
US2259401A (en) * 1939-08-31 1941-10-14 Hydraulic Dev Corp Inc Fluid heat transfer unit
US2266257A (en) * 1941-09-06 1941-12-16 Mcgraw Electric Co Heat storage control system

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US1985215A (en) * 1930-03-31 1934-12-18 Honeywell Regulator Co Apparatus for heating fluid
US1907357A (en) * 1932-03-05 1933-05-02 Kovesdy Martin Electric hot air furnace
US2259401A (en) * 1939-08-31 1941-10-14 Hydraulic Dev Corp Inc Fluid heat transfer unit
US2266257A (en) * 1941-09-06 1941-12-16 Mcgraw Electric Co Heat storage control system

Cited By (14)

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