US2328779A - Wall construction - Google Patents

Wall construction Download PDF

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Publication number
US2328779A
US2328779A US362328A US36232840A US2328779A US 2328779 A US2328779 A US 2328779A US 362328 A US362328 A US 362328A US 36232840 A US36232840 A US 36232840A US 2328779 A US2328779 A US 2328779A
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United States
Prior art keywords
wall
construction
blocks
facing
pillars
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Expired - Lifetime
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US362328A
Inventor
Ralph A Bonnell
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NORTHWESTERN TERRA COTTA Corp
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NORTHWESTERN TERRA COTTA CORP
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Priority to US362328A priority Critical patent/US2328779A/en
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04FFINISHING WORK ON BUILDINGS, e.g. STAIRS, FLOORS
    • E04F13/00Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings
    • E04F13/07Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings composed of covering or lining elements; Sub-structures therefor; Fastening means therefor
    • E04F13/08Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings composed of covering or lining elements; Sub-structures therefor; Fastening means therefor composed of a plurality of similar covering or lining elements
    • E04F13/0869Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings composed of covering or lining elements; Sub-structures therefor; Fastening means therefor composed of a plurality of similar covering or lining elements having conduits for fluids

Description

Sept. v7, 1943. R. A. BoNNELL VWAHI.' CONSTRUCTION Filed oct. 2s, 1940 2 sheets-sheet i INVENTOR.

uw l? N Sept. 7, 1943. R. A. BoNNl-:LL

WALL CONSTRUCTION Filed Oct. 25, 1940 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR. Mp/Y/@Bom/ze gy Vf:

Patented Sept. 7, 1943 YC(NS'IRUCTION `,Ralph A. ,BonncllrChicagm Ill., assignorto Northwestern `TerraCotta Corporation, Chicago, -Ill. a corporation of Illinois Application canberra, 1940, ,serial No. 362,328

2 claims; (o1. 7241s) l `The present invention relates to improvements in wall construction.

`More particularly the present invention relates to wall construction lof the post-slab type.

In wall :structures having .more .or A:less thermalv communication with the earth there is considerable llikelihood, ,that unsightly .andundes-irable condensation will .collect Vupon wall surfaces which may be ,exposed to moist and humid air and undesirable condensation may also occur upon ,any surfacing material .applied to said exposed wall .surfaces Should thermal communication lexist between the base wall and the :surfacing lmaterial.I This `conditi-,on 4may occur `in such structures as tunnels, underpasses, subways, basements and all similar subisurface structures. Moreover, it ,is often desired to provide va Wall facing ,of ceramic material, which should presont a surface free from irregularities, and dimculties are frequently encountered in construction when the ceramic material ismo-unted upon a foundation structure which is irregular.

As immediately above suggested, one o f the applications of the present invention is in su-bway constructions, where the wall V,construction at the stations ,is often faced with ceramic material. Such ceramic material is usually mounted upon a concrete surface in contact with the earth. The result is that under :certain conditions the ilondensation occurs llPOn thefacing material, producing an undesirable dampness.

An object of the present invention is to provide a wall construction which is free from this undesirable surface dampness.

A further object is to provide a wall structure which may be provided with a smooth face even' though the concrete foundation thereof presents a wavy or uneven surface.

A further object is to provide an improved wall structure which is substantial and provides eflicient ventilation between the facing wall and the foundation wall.

A further object is to provide a wall construction well adapted to meet the needs of commercial service.

Further objects will appear as the description proceeds.

Referring to the drawings- Figure 1 is a transverse sectional View of a tube of a subway construction or the like at a station thereof;

Figure 2 is a sectional view taken along the plane indicated by the arrows 2-2 of Figure 1, certain facing blocks being broken away to illustrate the posts therebeneath;

.along :the VplaneV Figure `3 is an enlarged sectional View taken indicated by the yarrowsfS-S` of -F-igure2; Y Y Figure Llis a fragmentary view taken versely of a subway tube or the like;

Figure 5 is a sectional view taken along the plane indicated by the arrows 5 5 of- Figure 4; and l Figure 6 is fan lenlargedfsectional view taken along the pla-ne indicated by the `arrows `l---l' of Figure 5.. The numeral l indicates a oor construction which may be o`f'conc1`fete,and the numeral l'l indicates a wall and roof construction whichV may also be of concrete, enclosing a space l2, which may be thestation` of a 4subway tube, the' wall construction l-I being provided with the opening i3 for providing exit and discharge of passengers from the trains (not shown) in the subwaytube. Said floor Aconstruction and said -wa1l and roof construction will be referred to lcollectively as substructure. Said floor and wall constructions constitute a foundation member for facing blocks, to :be ydescribed presently. The floor constructranstionv It) may be covered with ooring materiali I4 formed to provide a gutter I5. Lining the surface of the concrete wall .I I are a plurality of facing blocks lS-l, which for the purpose of providing a prop-er appearance should present a smooth surface tothe space I 2.

A Said facing blocks llif6 are mounted upon the posts Ill-ll' spaced longitudinally of the subway tube, the posts being spaced so that the center lines of the posts are separated by a distance approximately equal to the length of the facing blocks lli-i6. Said posts Il' are built up out of a plurality of post blocks IB--IS, which should be perforated, preferably longitudinally of the subway tube, as indicated by the numerals IS-l 9. As indicated in Figure 3, the post blocks, which should have unglazed surfaces, are secured to the foundation wall l l by means of mortar or the like, indicated by the numeral 20. The facing blocks lli-I6, which preferably should have an unglazed rear surface, are secured to the post blocks I8-l8 by means of mortar, indicated by the numeral 2l. To the end that the face surfaces of the facing .blocks lli- I6 may be smooth and even, either the thickness of the mortar pad 20, the thickness of the mortar pad 2 I, or the thickness of the post blocks l 8-I 8, or all three, may be varied to compensate for unevenness in the surface of the foundation wall 'I l.

The spaced posts ll-l l provide between them klocated between the posts Il-II.

reason of the perforations |9-I9 in the blocks In the construction illustrated in Figures 1,. 2 and 3, it will be noted that the facing blocks II-IS are of relatively thick construction at the regions thereof indicated by the numeral 25 Inl other words, the ends of said blocks, indicated by the numerals 26-26, are of reduced thickness where they contact with the mortar pads 2I. 2I of adjacent posts. This reduced thickness at the point of contact with the mortar pads 2I-'2I may or may not be required, depending upon the distance allowed between the face of the founda- `tion Ywall and the face of the ceramic-facing material. However, the portion 25 of each block I6 is sufficiently narrow so as not to provide an objectionable restriction of 'the' passageway 22. The circulation of air in rear of the facingv blocks Iii-I6 is thereforev unobstructed, whereby condensation of moisture within the space I2 will be minimized. Any moisture which does collect within the Ventilating spaces 22-22 will drain out through the openings 23 into the gutter I5.

-In View of the discussion hereinabove of the structure disclosed in Figures 1, 2 and 3, it will not be necessary to proceed with an extended discussion of the structure illustrated in Figures 4, and 6. Aswill be noted particularly from Figures 5 and 6, the facing blocks 26, which correspond to the facing blocks I6 of Figures 1, 2 and 3,.y are of substantially uniform thickness throughout their length, whereby to provide increased dimensions for the Ventilating spaces 21, which correspond to the Ventilating spaces y22 of Figures 1, 2 and 3.

Y The construction illustrated in Figures 1, 2 and 3 may be preferred by some by reason of the fact that it presents a more substantial wall construction while providing adequate ventilating space. Others may prefer the construction shown in Figures 4, 5 and 6, which provides a wall construction which is adequately substantial while providing greater dimensions for the Ventilating spaces in rear of the facing blocks.

Both forms of the invention present the advantage that unevenness in the foundation wall structure may be compensated for by Varying the thickness of the mortar pad 2D, the mortar pad 2I, or the post blocks I8. Both forms of the invention provide a substantial construction with adequate ventilation in rear of the facing blocks, whereby condensation will be minimized. Though preferred embodiments of the present invention have been described in detail, many 4modifications will occur to those skilled in the art. It is intended to cover all such modications that fall within the scope of the appended claims.

' What is claimed is:

1. Wall construction for subearthsurface structures including, in combination, a substructure portion including a vertical wall, vertical pillars spaced alongsaid wall, said pillars being apertured transversely parallel to said wall, said pillars beingfaced on their inner and outer surfaces with mortar, said pillars being secured to said substructure by the mortar on one side of said pillars, and facing blocks, said facing blocks being secured to said pillars by the mortar upon the other side of said pillars, the regions intermediate of said pillars between said substructure and said facing blocks being open to the atmosphere adjacent to their extremities,

said facing blocks being spaced from said sub-l structure to permit vertical circulation of air.

2. Wall construction for a subearthsurface enclosure having a vertical side-Wall and a rounded roof, said wall construction including a substructure, Apillars spaced along said substructure 'and extending vertically along said vertical wall and across at least a portion of said rounded roof, facing blocks secured to said pillars, said facing blocks being spaced from said substructure, said l pillars'lbeing apertured transversely in a direction parallel to the axis of said rounded roof,

the spaces bounded by said pillars, said substructure and said facing blocks being open to the atmosphere at different levels whereby vertical circulation of air may occur through said spaces.

' RALPH A. BONNELL.

US362328A 1940-10-23 1940-10-23 Wall construction Expired - Lifetime US2328779A (en)

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3138933A (en) * 1957-08-19 1964-06-30 Kemper Maxwell Fisher Method of and apparatus for driving a tunnel through and supporting earth structure
US3656268A (en) * 1970-06-23 1972-04-18 Efrahim Murati Drainage wall system and method of erecting same
US3750407A (en) * 1970-06-12 1973-08-07 W Heierli Tunnel construction method

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3138933A (en) * 1957-08-19 1964-06-30 Kemper Maxwell Fisher Method of and apparatus for driving a tunnel through and supporting earth structure
US3750407A (en) * 1970-06-12 1973-08-07 W Heierli Tunnel construction method
US3656268A (en) * 1970-06-23 1972-04-18 Efrahim Murati Drainage wall system and method of erecting same

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