US2291853A - Calculating machine - Google Patents

Calculating machine Download PDF

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US2291853A
US2291853A US2291853DA US2291853A US 2291853 A US2291853 A US 2291853A US 2291853D A US2291853D A US 2291853DA US 2291853 A US2291853 A US 2291853A
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wheel
spring
transfer
order
arm
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06CDIGITAL COMPUTERS IN WHICH ALL THE COMPUTATION IS EFFECTED MECHANICALLY
    • G06C15/00Computing mechanisms; Actuating devices therefor
    • G06C15/26Devices for transfer between orders, e.g. tens transfer device
    • G06C15/28Devices for transfer between orders, e.g. tens transfer device where transfer is effected in one step
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06MCOUNTING MECHANISMS; COUNTING OF OBJECTS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G06M1/00Design features of general application
    • G06M1/04Design features of general application for driving the stage of lowest order
    • G06M1/045Design features of general application for driving the stage of lowest order for dial, pointer, or similar type indicating means

Description

Aug. 4, 1942. c. F. WEBB 2,291,853
CALCULATING MACHINE Filed June 15, 1939 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 Fig. 1.
Aug. 4, 1942. c. F. WEBB 2,291,853
CALCULATING MACHINE Fi led June 15, 1959 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 it" I Alto neys Aug. 4, 1942. c, F, WEBB CALCULATING MACHINE Filed June 15, 1959 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 In venlor Patented Aug. 4; 1942 CALCULATING MACHINE Christopher Frederick Webb, Uxbridge, England,
it (1, Lonassignor to Bell Punch Company Lim e don, England, a British company Application June 15, 1939, Serial N0. 279,257
In Great Britain June 25, 1938 7 Claims. (Cl. 235-144) This invention relates to calculating machines of the key controlled multiple bank kind comprising a plurality of wheels or drums which are caused to rotate on actuation of the machine through angles dependent on the values of the figures impressed on the machine in such actuation, the said wheels or drums bearing figures visible from the exterior of the machine or alternatively forming part of so-called totalizing mechanism.
In machines of this kind hitherto proposed a transfer from one wheel to the adJacent wheel of higher order produces a rapid partial rotation of the latter wheel, the said/latter wheel moving into its final position atcomparatively high speed. With such an arrangement special means are necessary for effecting a sudden arrest of the wheel in its final position and it is as a consequence of this sudden arrest that the well known fault of wheel overthrow sometimes occurs. Also in prior machines of the kind with which the invention is concerned, the operation of zeroising the wheels often necessitates the provision of complicated mechanism and the movement from their normal positions of a relatively. large number of parts.
One object of the present invention is to provide improved means for effecting a transfer from one wheel to the adjacent wheel of higher order without the use of special arresting means and also without the possibility of overthrow occurring; a further object of the invention is to provide improved and simplified mechanism for zeroising' the wheels.
The invention comprises a calculating machine in which a transfer from one wheel to the adjacent wheel of higher order is effected through the intermediary of a pin or pins engageable in a slotted wheel, the arrangement being such that the slotted wheel is brought to rest by a pin immediately before the latter disengages the slotted wheel whereby the wheel of higher order is brought to rest in its correct position at the end of the transfer operation.
Also the invention comprises the combination "of a wheel spring urged in the direction opposite tothat in which it is rotated during normal operation of the machine, a detent serving to hold the wheel against movement in said reverse direction when the wheel is at rest out of zero position, and a stop member or members so, arranged that when the detent is withdrawn from'the wheel with ,the latter at rest out of the zero position the wheel is rotated by the until it spring in the said reverse direction reaches the zero position whereupon its movement is arrested, the act of withdrawing the detent representing the sole operation necessary to initiate the zeroising of the wheel.
The accompanying drawings illustrate one manner of applying the. invention to a calculating machine of the kind comprising figure bearing wheels the figures on which are directly visible from the exterior of the machine.
In the drawings:
Fig. l is a front elevation showing a pair of ure wheels associated with transfer mechanism constructed in accordance with this invention.
Fig. 2 is a cross section on the line 11-11 Fig. 1 with certain parts broken away.
Fig. 3 is a cross section on the line HII1I Fig. 1.
Fig. 4 is a cross section on the line IV-IV Fig. 1 showing also part of the outer casing of the machine.
Fig. 5 is a cross section on the line VV Fig. 1
with certain parts omitted showing the so-called duplexing arrangement.
Fig. 6 is a detail plan view showing the arrangement associated with each figure wheel for enabling the machine to be used for the purpose of subtraction.
Fig. '7 is a side elevation showing the arrangement for zeroising the figure wheels.
It will be understood that the following description applies to the mechanism associated with one figure wheel, the parts being reproduced exactly for each of the other figure wheels with the possible exception'of the wheel of highest order.
Referring to the drawings each wheel i0 is constructed in the form of a disc having a peripheral flange on the outer side of which are provided the figures, the wheel being rotatably mounted on a fixed spindle ll extending transversely the entire width of the machine. Associated with each wheel is a pinion 12 also rotatable on the spindle ll, this pinion being provided with as many teeth as there are figures on the wheel l0 and being arranged for engagement by a movable rack l5 (Fig. 2) serving to revolve the figure wheel. The rack I3 may be actuated in any convenient manner but preferably in the manner described in my co-pendilrsiggapplication Serial No. 275,375, filed May 24,
Rotatably mounted on a spindle l4 arranged parallel to the spindle H is a toothed wheel I, the latter being in mesh with the pinion l2 as the pinion so as to form a 2:1 reduction gearing. The toothed wheel It carries on the side facing the figure wheel I8 a cam plate It having a riser I1 and a fall I3 situated .opposite each other, and pivotally mounted on spindles I8, 23 arranged on diametrically opposite sides of the spindle I4 is a pair 01 double-armed levers 2I, 22 and 23, 24, the said levers being subjected to the influence of a spring 25 serving to hold the ends the arms 2i and 23 against the periphery of the cam plate I8. Rotatably mounted on a further spindle 28 is a toothed wheel 21 in mesh with the toothed wheel I! and having as many teeth as the latter and this wheel 21 is connected by means of a coil spring 28 to a further toothed wheel 28 also rotatably mounted on the spindle 28, the spring 28 being coiled around cylindrical parts 38, 3! carried respectively by the wheels 21, 28 and having its ends connected as best shown in Fig. 1 to pins 32, 33 on the said wheels. The arrangement described is such that rotation of the pinion I2 causes rotation of the toothed wheel 21 and this in turn through the intermediary of the spring 28 tends to cause rotation of the wheel 28. Also the spring is arranged to have a certain minimum torsion whenthe figure wheel is in the zero position.
In mesh with the toothed wheel 28 is a further toothed wheel 34, the latter being rotatably mounted on the spindle I4 and carrying on the side facing the figure wheel III 0! lower order a stop plate 38 having a nose 38 arranged for engagement by the ends of the arms 22, 24 of the double-armed levers aforementioned under the conditions described below. On the side of the wheel 34 opposite that on which the plate 38 is situated is a pair of pins 31 arranged on diametrically opposite sides of the spindle I4, these pins being adapted to engage in the slots of a slotted wheel 33 which is connected to the pinion I2 associated with the adjacent figure wheel of higher order and is provided with as many slots as there are figures on that wheel. The wheels 28, 34 are provided with the same number of teeth and for simplicity in manufacture these wheels may be identical with the wheels I 8 and 21.
lhch pinion I2 is associated with a detent 38 pivotally mounted on the spindle 20 and acted upon by a spring 48 serving to hold the detent 38 in engagement with the teeth of the pinion.
Each detent is also provided with an upwardly extending projection 4| arranged as shown in Fig. 'l to extend through a slot in a common yoke 42, the latter being pivotally mounted at 43 to the machine and being connected by a link 44 to a handle (not shown) at the exterior of the machine. Thus when the handle is actuated to swing the yoke 42 in a counterclockwise direction as viewed in Fig. 7 every detent 38 is lifted from engagement with its corresponding pinion.
The operation of the mechanism above described is as follows:
Figs. l-4 show the figure wheel in the zero position with the arm 23 held by the cam plate I4 in a position wherein the arm 24 obstructs the nose 33 as shown in full lines in Fig. 3. The train of gear wheels 34, 28. 21, It and I2 is thus held stationary at one end of the train by the engagement of the arm 24 with the nose 38 and at the other end of the train by the engagement of the detent 38 with the pinion I2, the aforementioned minimum torsion of the spring 28 serving to 2391,1303 and being provided with twice as many teeth urge the nose 33 into contact with the arm 24 and the teeth of the pinion I2 against the end of the detent 38. Also the arm 2i has Just passed the fall I8 and the free end of the arm 22 is situated at its greatest distance from the spindle I4. If now the rack I3 is actuated to rotate the pinion I2 clockwise in the direction of the arrow in'Fig. 2 the wheels II and 21 will be rotated in the directions of their respective arrows thus serving to increase the torsion oi the spring 28, the wheel 28 still being held stationary as a result of the engagement of the arm 24 with the nose 38. Also during such rotation of the pinion I2 the high part of the cam plate I8, i. e. the upper semicircular portion as viewed in Fig. 2, will move in contact with the arm 23 and will thus maintain the arm 24 in engagement with the nose 36 while the rising part of the cam will move past the arm 2i and cause the end of the arm 22 to move in a direction towards the spindle l4. After a single actuation of the rack I3 which will not be sufiicient to rotate the pinion I2 through a complete revolution the parts will thus come to rest with the end of the arm 23 located on the high part of the cam plate at a point between the riser I1 and the fall I8 while the end of the arm 2| will be located on the low part of the cam plate between the said riser and fall. It now the rack is actuated a second time to an extent which will complete one revolution of the pinion the cam plate l8 will be rotated to move the fall I8 Just past the end of the arm 28, the latter then moving sharply under the influence of the spring 28 in a direction towards the spindle I4 and causing the arm 24 to he withdrawn from the nose 38 into the position shown in interrupted lines in Fig. 3. The release of the nose 38 will then permit the wheels 34 and 28 to be rotated sharply by the spring 28 in the direction of the arrows in Fig. 3, rotation of the wheels being arrested by abutment of the nose 38 against the end of the arm 22 which is now situated in the path of the nose. The figure wheel of lowest order is thus once more in the zero position but each of the toothed wheels I8, 21, 28, 34 is now by virtue of the 2:1 reduction gearing between the pinion I2 and the wheel I! in a position removed from the positions illustrated in Figs. l-4.
Rotation of the wheel 34 as above described through 180 will cause the lowermost pin 31 to enter a slot in the slotted wheel 38 and rotate the same in the direction of the relative arrow in Fig. 4, the figure wheel associated with the slotted wheel being thereby advanced through one digit and the pins 31 interchanging positions. with such an arrangement the slotted wheel is rapidly decelerated towards the end of its partial rotation and is eventually brought to rest positively by the pin before the latter completely releases the wheel. Hence the figure wheel to which the transfer is made is brought to rest in its correct position at the end of the transfer by the operation of the parts which are directly responsible for effecting the transfer and all possibility of overthrow of the figure wheel is avoided.
If the second actuation of the rack I3 is sumcient to rotate the figure wheel of the lower order past the zero position the transfer will take place during rotation of the figure wheel.
It now the rack I3 is actuated iurther tocomplete two revolutions of the figure wheel the arm 22 will be released from the nose 38 and the wheel 34 will be permitted to rotate through a half-revolution until arrested by abutment of the nose 86 against the arm 24, the parts now assuming once again the positions shown in Fi s. 1-4.
The operation of zeroizing the figure wheel when it is located out of zero position is effected by withdrawing the detent 39 from engagement with the pinion l2, withdrawal being effected as previously described by manipulation of the handle at the exterior of the machine. As the train of gearwheels 34, 29, 21, i and i2 is held sta= tionary at one end by .abutment of the nose 86 against either the arm 24 or the arm 22 and at the other end by engagement of the detent 39 with the pinion l2 withdrawal of the detent will cause the pinion i2 and the toothed wheels it, 2'8 to be rotated by the spring 28 in directions opposite to the arrows in Fig. 2, such rotation being ulti= mately limited by abutment of the fall it against either the arm 29 or the arm 28. Ii the arm 24 happens to be arresting the nose 38 then movement oi the wheel IE will be arrested by the fall it striking the arm 26 whereas it the arm 22 is arresting the nose at the time of zeroising it will be the arm 23 which engages the fall it. in either case the figure wheel will be in zero posi tion at the instant the wheel i5 is arrested and hence when the detent is withdrawn the ilgure wheel will move in the reverse direction to that in which it is rotated by the rack it, such reverse movement being arrested when the figure wheel reaches zero position. Fig. '7 shows the two posi= tions of arrest of the fall l8 although it will be obvious that both arms 2i and 3 cannot be engaging the fall at the same time.
The construction above described thus permits the wheel to be zeroised in an extremely simple and convenient manner, the only operation necessary to initiate such zeroising being the act of withdrawing the detent from the pinion.
As is well known it is necessary in machines of the kind with which the invention is concerned to provide special so-called duplexing means to prevent a transfer to a figure wheel while the latter is being independently rotated, for ex 45 ample by its own rack or equivalent mechanism, the transfer being withheld until the said wheel has come to rest. In the example shown I provide a so-called duplex lever 45 (Fig. 5) pivotally mounted on a fixed spindle 48, the lower end of the lever being arranged adjacent the'lower transfer pin 31 and the lever being formed at its upper end with an upwardly extending projection 41 arranged, when the parts of the machine are at rest to abut against a member 48 form= ing part of a system of linkages associated with the figure wheel the transfer to which is controlled by the duplex lever. The member 48 is. caused to move in a vertical plane during operation of the said linkages and it may, for example, constitute the driving bar described in my aforesaid co-pending application. Also the duplex lever 45 is acted upon by a spring tending to rotate the lever in a clockwise direction as viewed in Fig. 5 and preferably the spring 48 aiorementioned is used for this purpose.
When no movement is being communicated to the figure wheel the parts occupy the positions shown in full lines in Fig. 5, the lever 48 being held with its projection 41 in contact with the member 48 and its lower end out of the path of movement of the lower transfer pin 31. Under such conditions any desired number of transfers may be communicated to the figure wheel. when however the figure wheel is rotated as a result of the actuation of a key or other member associated therewith the member 48 is moved out of the full line position shown in Fig. 5 into for example the interrupted line position thus allowing the spring 48 to rotate the duplex lever 45 in a clockwise direction into the interrupted line position wherein the lower end oi the lever is situated directly in the path of the movement of the lower pin 87!. Hence if the wheel 34 is released while the duplex lever is in the interrupted line position the lower pin 3? will engage the lower end of the leverand be held against movement until. the said lever is restored to initial position, such restoration only occurring when the member it returns to its uppermost position and the figure wheel comes to rest. Hence the transfer is withheld until the figure wheel is proper condition to receive such transfer.
Rotation of the duplex lever on movement of the part 3% is limited by abutment oi the lever against a fixed pin 39.
Also means are provided for enabling prevention of a transfer from one wheel to the next when the machine is to he used for the purpose of subtraction. In the example shown the pinion i2 and slotted wheel associated with each figure wheel are secured together to form a unit slidable on the spindle it, said unit being provdied with a radial arm til (Figs. 2 and 6) cm gageable at its outer end in an open ended slot iii in the peripheral flange of the figure wheel. Also a spring 5% is provided around the spindle it between the inner side of the figure wheel and the aforesaid slidable unit,-this spring serving normally to hold the slotted wheel in a position wherein it can be engaged by its corresponding pins til.
Associated with each figure wheel is a button or other finger piece 53 (Figs. 4 and 6) arranged to extend through the casing 54 of the machine so as to be operable from the exterior of the latter, said button being carried on a pivotal arm 55 engaging at its upper end the front end of a longitudinally slidable bar 56. The rear end of the bar 58 is shaped to the form shown in Fig. 6 so as to provide an inclined bearing surface 5'! and this end of the bar is arranged in contact with the slotted wheel 38 and between the latter and a frame plate 58 with the bearing surface 51 in contact with an edge 59 of the frame plate.
During a normal transfer operation the slotted wheel is rotated by the pins 31 to revolve the figure wheel through the intermediary of the arm 50. When however the button 53 is pressed inwardly of the casing 54 the bar 56 is moved rearwardly to slide the surface 51 over the edge 58, such movement causing the rear end of the bar to be displaced to move the pinion I2 and slotted wheel 38' along the spindle ll towards the figure wheel and against the action of the spring 52. Movement of the bar in the manner described is limited by the abutment of a fixed pin 88 against the front end of a slot 5| in the bar and in this limiting position of the bar the slotted wheel is held out of the path of movement of the transfer pins 31. Hence when the button 58 is held depressed no transfer can be transmitted to the figure wheel, the pins 31 moving idly when the wheel 34 is rotated. In the limiting position of the bar 56 the pinion i2 is still however .in a position to be engagedand rotated by the rack l3.
When the button 83 is released the parts are returned to initial position by the action of the spring 82.
The invention is not limited to the example above described as subordinate details of construction may be varied to meet diiferent requireployed. In all cases however at least two of such levers are necessary.
I claim:
1. In a calculating machine of the kind referred to the combination of a figure or totalizing wheel spring urged in the direction opposite to that in which it is rotated during normal operation of the machine, a detent associated with said wheel and serving to hold the same against movement in said reverse direction when the wheel is at rest out of zero position, a camhaving a fall thereon and rotated by rotation of the wheel, .a rotatable stop member, and at least two levers controlled by the cam for arresting the stop member, the arrangement being such that normally the spring serves to urge the stop member into engagement with one of the levers and also to urge the wheel or a part associated therewith against the detent when the wheel is out of zero position, withdrawal of the detent from the wheel or part associated therewith when the wheel is out of zero position permitting the spring to revolve the cam and the wheel in directions opposite to that in which they are rotated during normal operation of the machine, the stop member remaining in engagement with the lever aforementioned and the cam being finally arrested in a position wherein the wheel is in the zero position by engagement of the fall with a lever other than that which is arresting the stop member.
2. A calculating machine including a pair of numeral wheels of successive orders, means for imparting advancing movements to the wheel of lower order, and means for effecting a transfer from said wheel to the wheel of higher order, said transfer means comprising a rotary member operatively associated with the wheel of lower order to make a complete rotation only during a plurality of rotations of said wheel of lower order, spring means arranged to be tensioned when said rotary member is rotated, escapement means maintaining tension in said spring means, and means through which said spring means is arranged to impart transfer movements to the wheel of higher order, said rotary member tripping said escapement means to effect transfer to the wheel of higher order through said spring means and the last mentioned means.
3. A calculating machine including a pair of numeral wheels of successive orders, means for imparting advancing movements to the wheel of lower order, and means for effecting a transfer from said wheel to the wheel of higher order, said transfer means comprising a rotary member operatively associated with the wheel of lower order to make a complete rotation only during a plurality of rotations of said wheel of lower order, spring means arranged to be tensioned when said rotary member is rotated, escapement means maintaining tension in said spring means, and means through which said spring means is arranged to impart transfer movements to the wheel of higher order, said rotary member tripping said escapement means to effect transfer to the wheel of higher order through said spring means and the last mentioned means, said last mentioned means comprising a slotted member movable with the wheel of higher order and a rotary element provided with a plurality of pins arranged to enter the slots of the slotted member to drive the same.
4. A calculating machine including a pair of numeral wheels of successive orders, means for imparting advancing movements to the wheel of lower order, and means for effecting a transfer from said wheel to the wheel of higher order, said transfer means comprising a rotary member operatively associated with the wheel of lower order to make a complete rotation only during a plurality of rotations of said wheel of lower order, spring means arranged to be tensioned when said rotary member is rotated, escapement means maintaining tension in said spring means, and means through which said spring means is arranged to impart transfer movements to the wheel of higher order, said rotary member tripping said escapement means to effect transfer to the wheel of higher order through said spring means and the last mentioned means, said last mentioned means comprising a slotted member movable with the wh'eel of higher order and a retary element provided with a plurality of pins arranged to enter the slots of the slotted memher to drive the same, said pins and slots being fitted and related to each other so that at the completion of a driving movement the pins prevent any substantial overrun of the slotted member.
5. A calculating machine including a pair of numeral wheels of successive orders, means for imparting advancing movements to the wheel of lower order, and means for effecting a transfer from said wheel to the wheel of higher order, said transfer means comprising a rotary member operatively associated with the wheel of lower order to make a complete rotation only during a plurality of rotations of said wheel of lower order, spring means arranged to be tensioned when said rotary member is rotated, escapement means maintaining tension in said spring means, and means through which said spring means is arranged to impart transfer movements to the wheel of higher order, said rotary member tripping said escapement means to chest transfer to the wheel of higher order through said spring means and the last mentioned means, said last mentioned means comprising a slotted member I movable with the wheel of higher order and a rotary element provided with a plurality'of pins arranged to enter the slots of the slotted member to drive the same, said pins and slots being fitted and related to each other so that at the completion of a driving movement the pins leave said slots in a direction corresponding to a substantially stationary condition of said slotted member.
6. A calculating machine including a pair of numeral wheels of successive orders, means for imparting advancing movements to the wheel of lower order, and means for efiecting a transfer from said wheel to the wheel of higher order, the last mentioned means including a driving member provided with a plurality of pins and a driven member provided with slots arranged to receive said pins, the driven member being normally rotatable independently of said driving member, and said pins and slots being fitted and related to each other so that at the completion of driving movements the pins prevent any substantial overrun of the driven member.
'7. A calculating machine including a pair of numeral wheels of successive orders, means for imparting advancing movements to the wheel of to receive said pins, the driven member being,
normally rotatable independently of said drivin member, and said pins and slots being fitted and related to each other so that at the completion of driving movements the pins bring said driven member substantially to rest before leaving the 5 slots.
CHRISTOPHER FREDERICK WEBB.
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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2729393A (en) * 1956-01-03 heitlinger
US2778569A (en) * 1957-01-22 Split clearing mechanism
US3766366A (en) * 1972-01-24 1973-10-16 Elmeg Axial guide for transfer pinions and digit drums in counters

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2729393A (en) * 1956-01-03 heitlinger
US2778569A (en) * 1957-01-22 Split clearing mechanism
US3766366A (en) * 1972-01-24 1973-10-16 Elmeg Axial guide for transfer pinions and digit drums in counters

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