US20170283632A1 - Pattern forming method as well as production methods for processed substrate, optical component, circuit board, electronic component and imprint mold - Google Patents

Pattern forming method as well as production methods for processed substrate, optical component, circuit board, electronic component and imprint mold Download PDF

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US20170283632A1
US20170283632A1 US15/426,282 US201715426282A US2017283632A1 US 20170283632 A1 US20170283632 A1 US 20170283632A1 US 201715426282 A US201715426282 A US 201715426282A US 2017283632 A1 US2017283632 A1 US 2017283632A1
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Prior art keywords
curable composition
a1
a2
component
substrate
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US15/426,282
Inventor
Keiko Chiba
Toshiki Ito
Timothy Brian Stachowiak
Niyaz Khusnatdinov
Weijun Liu
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Canon Inc
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Canon Inc
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Priority to US15/426,282 priority patent/US20170283632A1/en
Publication of US20170283632A1 publication Critical patent/US20170283632A1/en
Assigned to CANON KABUSHIKI KAISHA reassignment CANON KABUSHIKI KAISHA ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: KHUSNATDINOV, NIYAZ, LIU, WEIJUN, STACHOWIAK, TIMOTHY BRIAN, ITO, TOSHIKI, CHIBA, KEIKO
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09DCOATING COMPOSITIONS, e.g. PAINTS, VARNISHES OR LACQUERS; FILLING PASTES; CHEMICAL PAINT OR INK REMOVERS; INKS; CORRECTING FLUIDS; WOODSTAINS; PASTES OR SOLIDS FOR COLOURING OR PRINTING; USE OF MATERIALS THEREFOR
    • C09D11/00Inks
    • C09D11/02Printing inks
    • C09D11/10Printing inks based on artificial resins
    • C09D11/101Inks specially adapted for printing processes involving curing by wave energy or particle radiation, e.g. with UV-curing following the printing
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B05SPRAYING OR ATOMISING IN GENERAL; APPLYING LIQUIDS OR OTHER FLUENT MATERIALS TO SURFACES, IN GENERAL
    • B05DPROCESSES FOR APPLYING LIQUIDS OR OTHER FLUENT MATERIALS TO SURFACES, IN GENERAL
    • B05D1/00Processes for applying liquids or other fluent materials
    • B05D1/30Processes for applying liquids or other fluent materials performed by gravity only, i.e. flow coating
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B05SPRAYING OR ATOMISING IN GENERAL; APPLYING LIQUIDS OR OTHER FLUENT MATERIALS TO SURFACES, IN GENERAL
    • B05DPROCESSES FOR APPLYING LIQUIDS OR OTHER FLUENT MATERIALS TO SURFACES, IN GENERAL
    • B05D3/00Pretreatment of surfaces to which liquids or other fluent materials are to be applied; After-treatment of applied coatings, e.g. intermediate treating of an applied coating preparatory to subsequent applications of liquids or other fluent materials
    • B05D3/04Pretreatment of surfaces to which liquids or other fluent materials are to be applied; After-treatment of applied coatings, e.g. intermediate treating of an applied coating preparatory to subsequent applications of liquids or other fluent materials by exposure to gases
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B05SPRAYING OR ATOMISING IN GENERAL; APPLYING LIQUIDS OR OTHER FLUENT MATERIALS TO SURFACES, IN GENERAL
    • B05DPROCESSES FOR APPLYING LIQUIDS OR OTHER FLUENT MATERIALS TO SURFACES, IN GENERAL
    • B05D3/00Pretreatment of surfaces to which liquids or other fluent materials are to be applied; After-treatment of applied coatings, e.g. intermediate treating of an applied coating preparatory to subsequent applications of liquids or other fluent materials
    • B05D3/12Pretreatment of surfaces to which liquids or other fluent materials are to be applied; After-treatment of applied coatings, e.g. intermediate treating of an applied coating preparatory to subsequent applications of liquids or other fluent materials by mechanical means
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C35/00Heating, cooling or curing, e.g. crosslinking or vulcanising; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C35/02Heating or curing, e.g. crosslinking or vulcanizing during moulding, e.g. in a mould
    • B29C35/08Heating or curing, e.g. crosslinking or vulcanizing during moulding, e.g. in a mould by wave energy or particle radiation
    • B29C35/0805Heating or curing, e.g. crosslinking or vulcanizing during moulding, e.g. in a mould by wave energy or particle radiation using electromagnetic radiation
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C59/00Surface shaping of articles, e.g. embossing; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C59/02Surface shaping of articles, e.g. embossing; Apparatus therefor by mechanical means, e.g. pressing
    • B29C59/026Surface shaping of articles, e.g. embossing; Apparatus therefor by mechanical means, e.g. pressing of layered or coated substantially flat surfaces
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09DCOATING COMPOSITIONS, e.g. PAINTS, VARNISHES OR LACQUERS; FILLING PASTES; CHEMICAL PAINT OR INK REMOVERS; INKS; CORRECTING FLUIDS; WOODSTAINS; PASTES OR SOLIDS FOR COLOURING OR PRINTING; USE OF MATERIALS THEREFOR
    • C09D11/00Inks
    • C09D11/02Printing inks
    • C09D11/10Printing inks based on artificial resins
    • C09D11/106Printing inks based on artificial resins containing macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds
    • C09D11/107Printing inks based on artificial resins containing macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds from unsaturated acids or derivatives thereof
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09DCOATING COMPOSITIONS, e.g. PAINTS, VARNISHES OR LACQUERS; FILLING PASTES; CHEMICAL PAINT OR INK REMOVERS; INKS; CORRECTING FLUIDS; WOODSTAINS; PASTES OR SOLIDS FOR COLOURING OR PRINTING; USE OF MATERIALS THEREFOR
    • C09D11/00Inks
    • C09D11/30Inkjet printing inks
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09DCOATING COMPOSITIONS, e.g. PAINTS, VARNISHES OR LACQUERS; FILLING PASTES; CHEMICAL PAINT OR INK REMOVERS; INKS; CORRECTING FLUIDS; WOODSTAINS; PASTES OR SOLIDS FOR COLOURING OR PRINTING; USE OF MATERIALS THEREFOR
    • C09D133/00Coating compositions based on homopolymers or copolymers of compounds having one or more unsaturated aliphatic radicals, each having only one carbon-to-carbon double bond, and at least one being terminated by only one carboxyl radical, or of salts, anhydrides, esters, amides, imides, or nitriles thereof; Coating compositions based on derivatives of such polymers
    • C09D133/04Homopolymers or copolymers of esters
    • C09D133/06Homopolymers or copolymers of esters of esters containing only carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, the oxygen atom being present only as part of the carboxyl radical
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09DCOATING COMPOSITIONS, e.g. PAINTS, VARNISHES OR LACQUERS; FILLING PASTES; CHEMICAL PAINT OR INK REMOVERS; INKS; CORRECTING FLUIDS; WOODSTAINS; PASTES OR SOLIDS FOR COLOURING OR PRINTING; USE OF MATERIALS THEREFOR
    • C09D133/00Coating compositions based on homopolymers or copolymers of compounds having one or more unsaturated aliphatic radicals, each having only one carbon-to-carbon double bond, and at least one being terminated by only one carboxyl radical, or of salts, anhydrides, esters, amides, imides, or nitriles thereof; Coating compositions based on derivatives of such polymers
    • C09D133/04Homopolymers or copolymers of esters
    • C09D133/06Homopolymers or copolymers of esters of esters containing only carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, the oxygen atom being present only as part of the carboxyl radical
    • C09D133/08Homopolymers or copolymers of acrylic acid esters
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09DCOATING COMPOSITIONS, e.g. PAINTS, VARNISHES OR LACQUERS; FILLING PASTES; CHEMICAL PAINT OR INK REMOVERS; INKS; CORRECTING FLUIDS; WOODSTAINS; PASTES OR SOLIDS FOR COLOURING OR PRINTING; USE OF MATERIALS THEREFOR
    • C09D135/00Coating compositions based on homopolymers or copolymers of compounds having one or more unsaturated aliphatic radicals, each having only one carbon-to-carbon double bond, and at least one being terminated by a carboxyl radical, and containing at least another carboxyl radical in the molecule, or of salts, anhydrides, esters, amides, imides or nitriles thereof; Coating compositions based on derivatives of such polymers
    • C09D135/02Homopolymers or copolymers of esters
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03FPHOTOMECHANICAL PRODUCTION OF TEXTURED OR PATTERNED SURFACES, e.g. FOR PRINTING, FOR PROCESSING OF SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; MATERIALS THEREFOR; ORIGINALS THEREFOR; APPARATUS SPECIALLY ADAPTED THEREFOR
    • G03F7/00Photomechanical, e.g. photolithographic, production of textured or patterned surfaces, e.g. printing surfaces; Materials therefor, e.g. comprising photoresists; Apparatus specially adapted therefor
    • G03F7/0002Lithographic processes using patterning methods other than those involving the exposure to radiation, e.g. by stamping
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03FPHOTOMECHANICAL PRODUCTION OF TEXTURED OR PATTERNED SURFACES, e.g. FOR PRINTING, FOR PROCESSING OF SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; MATERIALS THEREFOR; ORIGINALS THEREFOR; APPARATUS SPECIALLY ADAPTED THEREFOR
    • G03F7/00Photomechanical, e.g. photolithographic, production of textured or patterned surfaces, e.g. printing surfaces; Materials therefor, e.g. comprising photoresists; Apparatus specially adapted therefor
    • G03F7/16Coating processes; Apparatus therefor
    • G03F7/161Coating processes; Apparatus therefor using a previously coated surface, e.g. by stamping or by transfer lamination
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C35/00Heating, cooling or curing, e.g. crosslinking or vulcanising; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C35/02Heating or curing, e.g. crosslinking or vulcanizing during moulding, e.g. in a mould
    • B29C35/08Heating or curing, e.g. crosslinking or vulcanizing during moulding, e.g. in a mould by wave energy or particle radiation
    • B29C35/0805Heating or curing, e.g. crosslinking or vulcanizing during moulding, e.g. in a mould by wave energy or particle radiation using electromagnetic radiation
    • B29C2035/0833Heating or curing, e.g. crosslinking or vulcanizing during moulding, e.g. in a mould by wave energy or particle radiation using electromagnetic radiation using actinic light
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29KINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASSES B29B, B29C OR B29D, RELATING TO MOULDING MATERIALS OR TO MATERIALS FOR MOULDS, REINFORCEMENTS, FILLERS OR PREFORMED PARTS, e.g. INSERTS
    • B29K2033/00Use of polymers of unsaturated acids or derivatives thereof as moulding material B29K2035/00 takes precedence
    • B29K2033/04Polymers of esters
    • B29K2033/08Polymers of acrylic acid esters, e.g. PMA, i.e. polymethylacrylate
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29LINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASS B29C, RELATING TO PARTICULAR ARTICLES
    • B29L2011/00Optical elements, e.g. lenses, prisms
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29LINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASS B29C, RELATING TO PARTICULAR ARTICLES
    • B29L2031/00Other particular articles
    • B29L2031/34Electrical apparatus, e.g. sparking plugs or parts thereof

Abstract

A pattern is formed on a substrate with forming a layer of a curable composition (A1) containing a polymerizable compound (a1) on a surface of the substrate, then dispensing droplets of a curable composition (A2) containing a polymerizable compound (a2) dropwise discretely onto the curable composition (A1) layer, subsequently sandwiching a mixture layer of the curable composition (A1) and the curable composition (A2) between a mold and the substrate, then irradiating the mixture layer with light to cure the mixture layer, and releasing the mold from the mixture layer after the curing. The curable composition (A1) except a solvent has a viscosity at 25° C. of 40 mPa·s or more and less than 500 mPa·s. The curable composition (A2) except a solvent has a viscosity at 25° C. of 1 mPa·s or more and less than 40 mPa·s.

Description

    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Field of the Invention
  • The present invention relates to a pattern forming method, a method of producing a processed substrate, a method of producing an optical component, a method of producing a circuit board, a method of producing an electronic component, and a method of producing an imprint mold.
  • Description of the Related Art
  • There has been a growing requirement for miniaturization in a semiconductor device, a MEMS, or the like, and hence a photo-nanoimprint technology has been attracting attention as a microfabrication technology.
  • In the photo-nanoimprint technology, a photocurable composition (resist) is cured in a state in which a mold having a fine groove/land pattern formed on its surface is pressed against a substrate (wafer) having applied thereto the photocurable composition. Thus, the groove/land pattern of the mold is transferred onto the cured film of the photocurable composition and hence the pattern is formed on the substrate. According to the photo-nanoimprint technology, a fine structural body of the order of several nanometers can be formed on the substrate.
  • A photo-nanoimprint technology disclosed in Japanese Patent No. 4791357 is described with reference to FIGS. 1A through 1F (including FIGS. 1DA and 1FA). First, a liquid resist 102 is dispensed dropwise discretely onto a pattern formation region on a substrate 101 by using an inkjet method (arranging step (1), FIGS. 1A and 1B). Droplets of the resist dispensed dropwise spread on the substrate as indicated by arrows 104, and the phenomenon is called prespread (FIG. 1C). Next, the resist is molded with a mold 105 that has a pattern formed thereon and is transparent to irradiation light to be described later (mold contacting step (2), FIG. 1D). In the mold contacting step, the droplets of the resist spread over the entire region of a gap between the substrate and the mold by virtue of a capillary phenomenon as indicated by the arrows 104 (FIG. 1DA). The phenomenon is called spread. In addition, in the mold contacting step, the resist is filled into a groove portion on the mold as indicated by the arrows 104 by the capillary phenomenon (FIG. 1DA). The filling phenomenon is called fill. A time period required for the spread and the fill to be completed is called a filling time. After the completion of the filling of the resist, the resist is cured by being irradiated with light 106 (light irradiating step (3), FIG. 1E), and then the substrate is released from the mold (releasing step (4), FIG. 1F). The performance of those steps results in the formation of a photocured film 107 having a predetermined pattern shape (FIG. 1FA) on the substrate.
  • In the photo-nanoimprint technology, a fine pattern having higher accuracy can be formed not by forming the resist in advance as a uniform film on the substrate before its introduction into an imprint apparatus but by arranging the resist discretely in the imprint apparatus in accordance with the density of a desired pattern.
  • The photo-nanoimprint technology disclosed in Japanese Patent No. 4791357 has involved a problem in that a time period (filling time) from the initiation of the contact of the mold to the completion of the spread and the fill is long, and hence throughput is low.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • In view of the foregoing, the inventors of the present invention have devised a photo-nanoimprint technology having a short filling time, in other words, high throughput (short spread time nanoimprint lithography, hereinafter referred to as “SST-NIL”). As illustrated in the schematic sectional views of FIGS. 2A through 2G, the SST-NIL includes:
  • a first laying step (1) of uniformly laying a liquid curable composition (A1) 202 on a substrate 201 (FIGS. 2A and 2B);
  • a second laying step (2) of laying droplets of a curable composition (A2) 203 discretely on the layer of the curable composition (A1) 202 in the imprint apparatus (FIGS. 2C and 2D);
  • a mold contacting step (3) of sandwiching a mixture layer obtained by partially mixing the curable composition (A1) 202 and the curable composition (A2) 203 between a mold 205 and the substrate 201 (FIG. 2E);
  • a light irradiating step (4) of irradiating the mixture layer obtained by partially mixing the two kinds of curable compositions with light from the outside of the mold to cure the layer (FIG. 2F); and
  • a releasing step (5) of releasing the mold 205 from a layer formed of the curable compositions after the curing (a cured film 207 having a pattern shape) (FIG. 2G).
  • In the SST-NIL, a series of steps ranging from the second laying step (2) to the releasing step (5) is referred to as “shot”, and a region where the mold is in contact with the curable compositions (A1) and (A2), in other words, a region where a pattern is formed on the substrate is referred to as “shot region”.
  • In the SST-NIL, the droplets of the curable composition (A2) dispensed dropwise discretely expand quickly on the liquid film of the curable composition (A1) as indicated by arrows 204, and hence a filling time is short and throughput is high. A detailed mechanism for the SST-NIL is described later.
  • The step of laying the curable composition (A1) is performed outside an imprint apparatus, or in another chamber in the imprint apparatus, and hence does not affect the throughput of the imprint apparatus.
  • In addition, in each of Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 2011-159924, Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 2011-168003, Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 2011-187824 and Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 2011-235571, there is a proposal of a step in which two kinds of curable compositions are used, but there is no disclosure of the following approach: in the step of laying the second curable composition (the second laying step described above) to be performed in an imprint apparatus, a high-accuracy pattern is produced by arranging the second composition discretely on the layer of the first composition, which has been uniformly laid in advance outside the imprint apparatus, through the use of an inkjet system in accordance with the density of a pattern.
  • In other words, the SST-NIL is a new approach to photo-nanoimprint that achieves both high pattern accuracy and high throughput performance through the use of two kinds of curable compositions.
  • An example of pattern formation in the SST-NIL is described in more detail with reference to the schematic sectional views of FIGS. 3A through 3D.
  • A curable composition (A1) 302 is laid on a substrate 301 by using, for example, a spin coating method so as to occupy a region wider than a desired (first) shot region 304, e.g., the entire surface of the substrate. Meanwhile, a curable composition (A2) 303 is laid discretely only in the shot region 304 by using, for example, an inkjet method (step (1), FIG. 3A).
  • A mold 308 and the shot region 304 on the substrate 301 are brought close to each other, and a space therebetween is replaced with a gas 307 for atmosphere control, such as helium or nitrogen. Thus, oxygen, moisture, or the like that inhibits curing is expelled. After the mold contacting step of sandwiching a mixture layer obtained by partially mixing the curable composition (A1) and the curable composition (A2) between the mold and the substrate, irradiation light 306 is applied from the back surface of the mold 308 (side out of contact with the curable composition (A2)). Not only inert gases, such as nitrogen, carbon dioxide, helium, argon, and various chlorofluorocarbon gases that prevent oxygen inhibition, but also H2, which is a small molecule that easily permeates an object from a closed space, may be used as the gas for atmosphere control. Further, a condensable gas (e.g., 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane) may be used (step (2), FIG. 3B).
  • Here, a change in thickness or composition of the curable composition (A1) due to the airflow of the gas for atmosphere control may occur in a partial region 309 of a peripheral (second) shot region 305 (step (3), FIG. 3C). It has been found that in such case, the expansion of a droplet 310 of the curable composition (A2) to be dispensed dropwise onto the region 309 becomes slower (step (4), FIG. 3D). That is, the inventors of the present invention have found the following problem: when the expansion of part of the droplets is slow, a non-filling defect occurs in the second shot region 305, or there arises a need for lengthening a filling time so that the non-filling defect may be prevented from occurring, with the result that productivity reduces.
  • Meanwhile, in order that the change in thickness or composition of the curable composition (A1) due to the gas for atmosphere control may be reduced, an approach involving reducing the angle at which the gas is jetted, or the pressure or flow rate of the gas has been adopted. However, in that case, oxygen or moisture cannot be sufficiently replaced with the gas, and hence such a problem as described below occurs: the curing takes a long time period or the filling time lengthens. In addition, when the atmosphere control of the entirety of an apparatus is performed, a problem, such as an increase in cost for the apparatus or a reduction in workability, occurs.
  • An object of the present invention is to provide a SST-NIL technology which is improved in throughput and reduced in cost, and by which a plurality of shot regions of a substrate can be processed with uniform accuracy.
  • A cured product forming method according to one embodiment of the present invention includes in this order:
  • a first laying step (1) of laying a layer formed of a curable composition (A1) containing at least a polymerizable compound (a1) on a surface of a substrate;
  • a second laying step (2) of dispensing droplets of a curable composition (A2) containing at least a polymerizable compound (a2) dropwise discretely onto the layer formed of the curable composition (A1) to lay the droplets;
  • a mold contacting step (3) of sandwiching a mixture layer obtained by partially mixing the curable composition (A1) and the curable composition (A2) between a mold and the substrate;
  • a light irradiating step (4) of irradiating the mixture layer with light from the outside of the mold to cure the layer; and
  • a releasing step (5) of releasing the mold from the mixture layer after the curing,
  • the curable composition (A1) except a solvent having a viscosity at 25° C. of 40 mPa·s or more and less than 500 mPa·s, the first laying step (1) including forming a liquid film of the curable composition (A1),
  • the curable composition (A2) except a solvent having a viscosity at 25° C. of 1 mPa·s or more and less than 40 mPa·s, the second laying step (2) including forming droplets that are arranged discretely.
  • According to the present invention, there is provided the pattern forming method which is improved in throughput and reduced in cost, and by which a plurality of shot regions of a substrate can be processed with uniform accuracy.
  • Further features of the present invention will become apparent from the following description of exemplary embodiments with reference to the attached drawings.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIGS. 1A, 1B, 1C, 1D, 1DA, 1E, 1F and 1FA are schematic sectional views for illustrating a precedent for a photo-nanoimprint technology.
  • FIGS. 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F and 2G are schematic sectional views for illustrating a SST-NIL technology.
  • FIGS. 3A, 3B, 3C and 3D are schematic sectional views for illustrating a problem to be solved by the invention.
  • FIG. 4 is a schematic illustration of collecting volatile components of liquid film in an embodiment of the invention.
  • DESCRIPTION OF THE EMBODIMENTS
  • An embodiment of the present invention is described in detail below with reference to the drawings as appropriate. However, the present invention is not limited to the embodiment to be described below. Appropriate modifications, improvements, and the like of the embodiment to be described below that do not deviate from the gist of the present invention and are based on the ordinary knowledge of a person skilled in the art are also included in the scope of the present invention.
  • [Curable Composition]
  • Curable compositions (A1) and (A2) according to this embodiment are each a compound containing at least a component (a) serving as a polymerizable compound. The curable compositions according to this embodiment may each further contain a component (b) serving as a photopolymerization initiator, a non-polymerizable compound (c), and a component (d) serving as a solvent.
  • In addition, the term “cured film” as used herein means a film obtained by polymerizing and curing a curable composition on a substrate. The shape of the cured film is not particularly limited, and the film may have a pattern shape on its surface.
  • Each component is hereinafter described in detail.
  • <Component (a): Polymerizable Compound>
  • The component (a) is a polymerizable compound. The polymerizable compound as used herein is a compound that reacts with a polymerizing factor (such as a radical) generated from the photopolymerization initiator (component (b)) to form a film formed of a polymer compound by a chain reaction (polymerization reaction).
  • As such polymerizable compound, there is given, for example, a radical polymerizable compound. The polymerizable compound serving as the component (a) may be formed of only one kind of polymerizable compound or a plurality of kinds of polymerizable compounds.
  • It is preferred that the radical polymerizable compound be a compound having one or more acryloyl groups or methacryloyl groups, that is, a (meth)acrylic compound. Therefore, it is preferred that the curable compositions according to this embodiment each contain the (meth)acrylic compound as the component (a), it is more preferred that a main component for the component (a) be the (meth)acrylic compound, and it is most preferred that the entirety of the component (a) be the (meth)acrylic compound. The phrase “a main component for the component (a) is the (meth)acrylic compound” described herein means that the (meth)acrylic compound accounts for 90 wt % or more of the component (a).
  • When the radical polymerizable compound includes a plurality of kinds of compounds each having one or more acryloyl groups or methacryloyl groups, the compound preferably contains a monofunctional (meth)acrylic monomer and a polyfunctional (meth)acrylic monomer. This is because the combination of the monofunctional (meth)acrylic monomer and the polyfunctional (meth)acrylic monomer provides a cured film having a high mechanical strength.
  • Monofunctional (meth)acrylic compounds having one acryloyl group or methacryloyl group are exemplified by, but not limited to, phenoxyethyl (meth)acrylate, phenoxy-2-methylethyl (meth)acrylate, phenoxyethoxyethyl (meth)acrylate, 3-phenoxy-2-hydroxypropyl (meth)acrylate, 2-phenylphenoxyethyl (meth)acrylate, 4-phenylphenoxyethyl (meth)acrylate, 3-(2-phenylphenyl)-2-hydroxypropyl (meth)acrylate, EO-modified p-cumylphenyl (meth)acrylate, 2-bromophenoxyethyl (meth)acrylate, 2,4-dibromophenoxyethyl (meth)acrylate, 2,4,6-tribromophenoxyethyl (meth)acrylate, EO-modified phenoxy (meth)acrylate, PO-modified phenoxy (meth)acrylate, polyoxyethylene nonylphenyl ether (meth)acrylate, isobornyl (meth)acrylate, 1-adamantyl (meth)acrylate, 2-methyl-2-adamantyl (meth)acrylate, 2-ethyl-2-adamantyl (meth)acrylate, bornyl (meth)acrylate, tricyclodecanyl (meth)acrylate, dicyclopentanyl (meth)acrylate, dicyclopentenyl (meth)acrylate, cyclohexyl (meth)acrylate, 4-butylcyclohexyl (meth)acrylate, acryloyl morpholine, 2-hydroxyethyl (meth)acrylate, 2-hydroxypropyl (meth)acrylate, 2-hydroxybutyl (meth)acrylate, methyl (meth)acrylate, ethyl (meth)acrylate, propyl (meth)acrylate, isopropyl (meth)acrylate, butyl (meth)acrylate, amyl (meth)acrylate, isobutyl (meth)acrylate, t-butyl (meth)acrylate, pentyl (meth)acrylate, isoamyl (meth)acrylate, hexyl (meth)acrylate, heptyl (meth)acrylate, octyl (meth)acrylate, isooctyl (meth)acrylate, 2-ethylhexyl (meth)acrylate, nonyl (meth)acrylate, decyl (meth)acrylate, isodecyl (meth)acrylate, undecyl (meth)acrylate, dodecyl (meth)acrylate, lauryl (meth)acrylate, stearyl (meth)acrylate, isostearyl (meth)acrylate, benzyl (meth)acrylate, tetrahydrofurfuryl (meth)acrylate, butoxyethyl (meth)acrylate, ethoxy diethylene glycol (meth)acrylate, polyethylene glycol mono(meth)acrylate, polypropylene glycol mono(meth)acrylate, methoxy ethylene glycol (meth)acrylate, ethoxyethyl (meth)acrylate, methoxy polyethylene glycol (meth)acrylate, methoxy polypropylene glycol (meth)acrylate, diacetone (meth)acrylamide, isobutoxymethyl (meth)acrylamide, N,N-dimethyl (meth)acrylamide, t-octyl (meth)acrylamide, dimethylaminoethyl (meth)acrylate, diethylaminoethyl (meth)acrylate, 7-amino-3,7-dimethyloctyl (meth)acrylate, N,N-diethyl (meth)acrylamide, and N,N-dimethylaminopropyl (meth)acrylamide.
  • Examples of commercial products corresponding to the monofunctional (meth)acrylic compounds include, but not limited to: Aronix (trademark) M101, M102, M110, M111, M113, M117, M5700, TO-1317, M120, M150, and M156 (all of which are manufactured by Toagosei Co., Ltd); MEDOL10, MIBDOL10, CHDOL10, MMDOL30, MEDOL30, MIBDOL30, CHDOL30, LA, IBXA, 2-MTA, HPA, and Viscoat #150, #155, #158, #190, #192, #193, #220, #2000, #2100, and #2150 (all of which are manufactured by Osaka Organic Chemical Industry Ltd.); Light Acrylate BO-A, EC-A, DMP-A, THF-A, HOP-A, HOA-MPE, HOA-MPL, PO-A, P-200A, NP-4EA, and NP-8EA, and Epoxy Ester M-600A (all of which are manufactured by Kyoeisha Chemical Co., Ltd.); KAYARAD (trademark) TC110S, R-564, and R-128H (all of which are manufactured by Nippon Kayaku Co., Ltd.); NK Ester AMP-10G and AMP-20G (both of which are manufactured by Shin-Nakamura Chemical Co., Ltd.); FA-511A, 512A, and 513A (all of which are manufactured by Hitachi Chemical Co., Ltd.); PHE, CEA, PHE-2, PHE-4, BR-31, BR-31M, and BR-32 (all of which are manufactured by Dai-ichi Kogyo Seiyaku Co., Ltd.); VP (manufactured by BASF); and ACMO, DMAA, and DMAPAA (all of which are manufactured by Kohjin Co., Ltd.).
  • In addition, polyfunctional (meth)acrylic compounds having two or more acryloyl groups or methacryloyl groups are exemplified by, but not limited to, trimethylolpropane di(meth)acrylate, trimethylolpropane tri(meth)acrylate, EO-modified trimethylolpropane tri(meth)acrylate, PO-modified trimethylolpropane tri(meth)acrylate, EO,PO-modified trimethylolpropane tri(meth)acrylate, dimethyloltricyclodecane di(meth)acrylate, pentaerythritol tri(meth)acrylate, pentaerythritol tetra(meth)acrylate, ethylene glycol di(meth)acrylate, tetraethylene glycol di(meth)acrylate, polyethylene glycol di(meth)acrylate, polypropylene glycol di(meth)acrylate, 1,4-butanediol di(meth)acrylate, 1,6-hexanediol di(meth)acrylate, neopentyl glycol di(meth)acrylate, 1,9-nonanediol di(meth)acrylate, 1,10-decanediol di(meth)acrylate, 1,3-adamantane dimethanol di(meth)acrylate, tris(2-hydroxyethyl)isocyanurate tri(meth)acrylate, tris(acryloyloxy)isocyanurate, bis(hydroxymethyl)tricyclodecane di(meth)acrylate, dipentaerythritol penta(meth)acrylate, dipentaerythritol hexa(meth)acrylate, EO-modified 2,2-bis(4-((meth)acryloxy)phenyl)propane, PO-modified 2,2-bis(4-((meth)acryloxy)phenyl)propane, and EO,PO-modified 2,2-bis(4-((meth)acryloxy)phenyl)propane.
  • Examples of commercial products corresponding to the polyfunctional (meth)acrylic compounds include, but not limited to: Upimer (trademark) UV SA1002 and SA2007 (both of which are manufactured by Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation); Viscoat #195, #230, #215, #260, #335HP, #295, #300, #360, #700, GPT, and 3PA (all of which are manufactured by Osaka Organic Chemical Industry Ltd.); Light Acrylate 4EG-A, 9EG-A, NP-A, DCP-A, BP-4EA, BP-4PA, TMP-A, PE-3A, PE-4A, and DPE-6A (all of which are manufactured by Kyoeisha Chemical Co., Ltd.); KAYARAD (trademark) PET-30, TMPTA, R-604, DPHA, DPCA-20, -30, -60, and -120, and HX-620, D-310, and D-330 (all of which are manufactured by Nippon Kayaku Co., Ltd.); Aronix (trademark) M208, M210, M215, M220, M240, M305, M309, M310, M315, M325, and M400 (all of which are manufactured by Toagosei Co., Ltd); and Lipoxy (trademark) VR-77, VR-60, and VR-90 (all of which are manufactured by Showa Highpolymer Co., Ltd.).
  • In the above-mentioned compound group, the term “(meth)acrylate” means an acrylate or a methacrylate having an alcohol residue equal to the acrylate. The term “(meth)acryloyl group” means an acryloyl group or a methacryloyl group having an alcohol residue equal to the acryloyl group. The abbreviation “EO” refers to ethylene oxide, and the term “EO-modified compound A” means a compound in which a (meth)acrylic acid residue and an alcohol residue of the compound A are bonded to each other through a block structure of an ethylene oxide group. Further, the abbreviation “PO” refers to propylene oxide, and the term “PO-modified compound B” means a compound in which a (meth)acrylic acid residue and an alcohol residue of the compound B are bonded to each other through a block structure of a propylene oxide group.
  • The polymerizable compound (a) to be used in the curable composition (A1) is preferably, for example, trimethylolpropane triacrylate (manufactured by Sigma-Aldrich), dimethyloltricyclodecane diacrylate (manufactured by Kyoeisha Chemical Co., Ltd.), 1,3-adamantane dimethanol diacrylate (manufactured by Idemitsu Kosan Co., Ltd.), trimethylolpropane EO (3.5 mol) adduct triacrylate (manufactured by Idemitsu Kosan Co., Ltd.), poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (manufactured by Sigma-Aldrich), 2-hydroxy-3-phenoxypropyl acrylate (manufactured by Osaka Organic Chemical Industry Ltd.), nonylphenol EO adduct acrylate (manufactured by Kyoeisha Chemical Co., Ltd.), 2-acryloyloxyethyl succinate (manufactured by Kyoeisha Chemical Co., Ltd.), 2-hydroxy-3-acryloyloxypropyl acrylate (manufactured by Kyoeisha Chemical Co., Ltd.), polyethylene glycol #600 diacrylate (manufactured by Kyoeisha Chemical Co., Ltd.), tris(2-acryloyloxyethyl) phosphate (manufactured by Osaka Organic Chemical Industry Ltd.), pentaerythritol tetraacrylate (manufactured by Osaka Organic Chemical Industry Ltd.), glycerol propylene oxide triacrylate (manufactured by Osaka Organic Chemical Industry Ltd.), or tetraethylene glycol diacrylate (manufactured by Osaka Organic Chemical Industry Ltd.).
  • The polymerizable compound (a) to be used in the curable composition (A2) is preferably, for example, isobornyl acrylate (manufactured by Kyoeisha Chemical Co., Ltd.), benzyl acrylate (manufactured by Osaka Organic Chemical Industry Ltd.), neopentyl glycol diacrylate (manufactured by Kyoeisha Chemical Co., Ltd.), (2-methyl-2-ethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl)methyl acrylate (manufactured by Osaka Organic Chemical Industry Ltd.), 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate (manufactured by Shin-Nakamura Chemical Co., Ltd.), 1,9-nonanediol diacrylate (manufactured by Shin-Nakamura Chemical Co., Ltd.), 1,10-decanediol diacrylate (manufactured by Shin-Nakamura Chemical Co., Ltd.), 2-methyl-2-adamantyl acrylate (manufactured by Osaka Organic Chemical Industry Ltd.), 2-ethyl-2-adamantyl acrylate (manufactured by Osaka Organic Chemical Industry Ltd.), dicyclopentanyl acrylate (manufactured by Osaka Organic Chemical Industry Ltd.), phenoxyethyl acrylate (manufactured by Osaka Organic Chemical Industry Ltd.), isostearyl acrylate (manufactured by Osaka Organic Chemical Industry Ltd.), hydroxyethyl acrylate (manufactured by Osaka Organic Chemical Industry Ltd.), cyclohexyl acrylate (manufactured by Osaka Organic Chemical Industry Ltd.), tripropylene glycol diacrylate (manufactured by Toyo Gosei Co., Ltd.), or m-phenoxybenzyl acrylate (manufactured by Kyoeisha Chemical Co., Ltd.).
  • <Component (b): Photopolymerization Initiator>
  • The component (b) is a photopolymerization initiator.
  • The photopolymerization initiator as used herein is a compound that detects light having a predetermined wavelength to generate the above-mentioned polymerizing factor (radical). Specifically, the photopolymerization initiator is a polymerization initiator (radical generator) that generates a radical with light (a radiation, e.g., an infrared ray, a visible ray, an ultraviolet ray, a far ultraviolet ray, an X-ray, or a charged particle ray, such as an electron beam).
  • The component (b) may be formed of one kind of photopolymerization initiator or a plurality of kinds of photopolymerization initiators.
  • Examples of the radical generator include, but not limited to: 2,4,5-triarylimidazole dimers that may have a substituent, such as a 2-(o-chlorophenyl)-4,5-diphenylimidazole dimer, a 2-(o-chlorophenyl)-4,5-di(methoxyphenyl)imidazole dimer, a 2-(o-fluorophenyl)-4,5-diphenylimidazole dimer, and a 2-(o- or p-methoxyphenyl)-4,5-diphenylimidazole dimer; benzophenone and benzophenone derivatives, such as N,N′-tetramethyl-4,4′-diaminobenzophenone (Michler's ketone), N,N′-tetraethyl-4,4′-diaminobenzophenone, 4-methoxy-4′-dimethylaminobenzophenone, 4-chlorobenzophenone, 4,4′-dimethoxybenzophenone, and 4,4′-diaminobenzophenone; α-amino aromatic ketone derivatives, such as 2-benzyl-2-dimethylamino-1-(4-morpholinophenyl)-butanone-1,2-methyl-1-[4-(methylthio)phenyl]-2-morpholino-propan-1-one; quinones, such as 2-ethylanthraquinone, phenanthrenequinone, 2-t-butylanthraquinone, octamethylanthraquinone, 1,2-benzanthraquinone, 2,3-benzanthraquinone, 2-phenylanthraquinone, 2,3-diphenylanthraquinone, chloroanthraquinone, 2-methylanthraquinone, 1,4-naphthoquinone, 9,10-phenanthraquinone, 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, and 2,3-dimethylanthraquinone; benzoin ether derivatives, such as benzoin methyl ether, benzoin ethyl ether, and benzoin phenyl ether; benzoin and benzoin derivatives, such as methylbenzoin, ethylbenzoin, and propylbenzoin; benzyl derivatives, such as benzyl dimethyl ketal; acridine derivatives, such as 9-phenylacridine and 1,7-bis(9,9′-acridinyl)heptane; N-phenylglycine derivatives, such as N-phenylglycine; acetophenone and acetophenone derivatives, such as 3-methylacetophenone, acetophenone benzyl ketal, 1-hydroxycyclohexyl phenyl ketone, and 2,2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone; thioxanthone and thioxanthone derivatives, such as diethylthioxanthone, 2-isopropylthioxanthone, and 2-chlorothioxanthone; acylphosphine oxide derivatives, such as 2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl diphenyl phosphine oxide, bis(2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl) phenyl phosphine oxide, and bis(2,6-dimethoxybenzoyl)-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphine oxide; oxime ester derivatives, such as 1,2-octanedione, 1-[4-(phenylthio)-, 2-(o-benzoyloxime)] and ethanone, 1-[9-ethyl-6-(2-methylbenzoyl)-9H-carbazol-3-yl]-, 1-(o-acetyloxime); xantone; fluorenone; benzaldehyde; fluorene; anthraquinone; triphenylamine; carbazole; 1-(4-isopropylphenyl)-2-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-1-one; and 2-hydroxy-2-methyl-1-phenylpropan-1-one.
  • Examples of commercial products corresponding to the radical generator include, but not limited to, Irgacure 184, 369, 651, 500, 819, 907, 784, and 2959, CGI-1700, -1750, and -1850, CG24-61, Darocur 1116 and 1173, Lucirin (trademark) TPO, LR8893, and LR8970 (all of which are manufactured by BASF), and Ubecryl P36 (manufactured by UCB).
  • Of those, the component (b) is preferably an acylphosphine oxide-based polymerization initiator. The acylphosphine oxide-based polymerization initiator is, of the examples described above, an acylphosphine oxide compound, such as 2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl diphenyl phosphine oxide, bis(2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl) phenyl phosphine oxide, or bis(2,6-dimethoxybenzoyl)-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphine oxide.
  • The blending ratio of the component (b) serving as a photopolymerization initiator in the curable composition (A2) is desirably 0.1 wt % or more and 50 wt % or less with respect to the total of the component (a), the component (b), and the component (c) to be described later, i.e., the total weight of all components except the solvent component (d). In addition, the blending ratio is preferably 0.1 wt % or more and 20 wt % or less, more preferably more than 10 wt % and 20 wt % or less.
  • When the blending ratio of the component (b) in the curable composition (A2) is set to 0.1 wt % or more with respect to the total of the component (a), the component (b), and the component (c), the curing rate of the composition increases and hence reaction efficiency can be improved. In addition, when the blending ratio of the component (b) is set to 50 wt % or less with respect to the total of the component (a), the component (b), and the component (c), a cured film to be obtained can be turned into a cured film having some degree of mechanical strength.
  • <Component (c): Non-Polymerizable Compound>
  • The curable compositions (A1) and (A2) according to this embodiment can each further contain a non-polymerizable compound as the component (c) in addition to the component (a) and the component (b) described in the foregoing in accordance with various purposes to the extent that the effects of the present invention are not impaired. Such component (c) is, for example, a compound that is free of a polymerizable functional group, such as a (meth)acryloyl group, and is free of an ability to sense light having a predetermined wavelength to generate the polymerizing factor (radical). Examples thereof include a sensitizer, a hydrogen donor, an internal addition-type release agent, a surfactant, an antioxidant, a polymer component, and other additives. Two or more kinds of the compounds may be incorporated as the component (c).
  • The sensitizer is a compound to be appropriately added for the purpose of accelerating a polymerization reaction or enhancing a reaction conversion ratio. As the sensitizer, there is given, for example, a sensitizing dye.
  • The sensitizing dye is a compound that is excited by absorbing light having a specific wavelength to interact with the polymerization initiator serving as the component (b). The term “interaction” described herein refers to, for example, the transfer of energy or an electron from the sensitizing dye in an excited state to the photopolymerization initiator serving as the component (b).
  • Specific examples of the sensitizing dye include, but not limited to, an anthracene derivative, an anthraquinone derivative, a pyrene derivative, a perylene derivative, a carbazole derivative, a benzophenone derivative, a thioxanthone derivative, a xanthone derivative, a coumarin derivative, a phenothiazine derivative, a camphorquinone derivative, an acridine-based dye, a thiopyrylium salt-based dye, a merocyanine-based dye, a quinoline-based dye, a styrylquinoline-based dye, a ketocoumarin-based dye, a thioxanthene-based dye, a xanthene-based dye, an oxonol-based dye, a cyanine-based dye, a rhodamine-based dye, and a pyrylium salt-based dye.
  • One kind of the sensitizers may be used alone, or two or more kinds thereof may be used as a mixture.
  • The hydrogen donor is a compound capable of reacting with an initiation radical generated from the photopolymerization initiator serving as the component (b) or the radical of a polymerization growth terminal to generate a more reactive radical. The hydrogen donor is preferably added when the photopolymerization initiator serving as the component (b) is a photoradical generator.
  • Specific examples of such hydrogen donor include, but not limited to, amine compounds, such as n-butylamine, di-n-butylamine, tri-n-butylphosphine, allylthiourea, s-benzylisothiuronium-p-toluenesulfinate, triethylamine, diethylaminoethyl methacrylate, triethylenetetramine, a 4,4′-bis(dialkylamino)benzophenone, N,N-dimethylaminobenzoic acid ethyl ester, N,N-dimethylaminobenzoic acid isoamyl ester, pentyl-4-dimethylaminobenzoate, triethanolamine, and N-phenylglycine, and mercapto compounds, such as 2-mercapto-N-phenylbenzimidazole and a mercaptopropionic acid ester.
  • One kind of the hydrogen donors may be used alone, or two or more kinds thereof may be used as a mixture. In addition, the hydrogen donor may have a function as a sensitizer.
  • The internal addition-type release agent can be added to each of the curable compositions for the purpose of reducing an interfacial bonding force between a mold and a resist, i.e., reducing a release force in a releasing step to be described later. The term “internal addition-type” as used herein means that the release agent is added to the curable composition prior to the step of arranging the curable composition.
  • For example, surfactants, such as a silicone-based surfactant, a fluorine-based surfactant, and a hydrocarbon-based surfactant, can each be used as the internal addition-type release agent. In the present invention, the internal addition-type release agent is free of polymerizability.
  • Examples of the fluorine-based surfactant include a polyalkylene oxide (such as polyethylene oxide or polypropylene oxide) adduct of an alcohol having a perfluoroalkyl group, and a polyalkylene oxide (such as polyethylene oxide or polypropylene oxide) adduct of perfluoropolyether. The fluorine-based surfactant may have, for example, a hydroxyl group, an alkoxy group, an alkyl group, an amino group, or a thiol group on part (for example, as a terminal group) of its molecular structure.
  • As the fluorine-based surfactant, a commercial product may be used. Examples of the commercial product include MEGAFAC (trademark) F-444, TF-2066, TF-2067, and TF-2068 (all of which are manufactured by DIC Corporation), Fluorad FC-430 and FC-431 (both of which are manufactured by Sumitomo 3M Limited), Surflon (trademark) S-382 (manufactured by AGC), EFTOP EF-122A, 122B, and 122C, EF-121, EF-126, EF-127, and MF-100 (all of which are manufactured by Tohkem Products Corp.), PF-636, PF-6320, PF-656, and PF-6520 (all of which are manufactured by OMNOVA Solutions), UNIDYNE (trademark) DS-401, DS-403, and DS-451 (all of which are manufactured by Daikin Industries, Ltd.), and Ftergent (trademark) 250, 251, 222F, and 208G (all of which are manufactured by Neos Corporation).
  • In addition, the internal addition-type release agent may be the hydrocarbon-based surfactant.
  • The hydrocarbon-based surfactant includes, for example, an alkyl alcohol polyalkylene oxide adduct, in which an alkylene oxide having 2 to 4 carbon atoms is added to an alkyl alcohol having 1 to 50 carbon atoms.
  • Examples of the alkyl alcohol polyalkylene oxide adduct include a methyl alcohol ethylene oxide adduct, a decyl alcohol ethylene oxide adduct, a lauryl alcohol ethylene oxide adduct, a cetyl alcohol ethylene oxide adduct, a stearyl alcohol ethylene oxide adduct, and a stearyl alcohol ethylene oxide/propylene oxide adduct. The terminal group of the alkyl alcohol polyalkylene oxide adduct is not limited to a hydroxyl group, which is simply produced by adding a polyalkylene oxide to an alkyl alcohol. The hydroxyl group may be substituted with another substituent, for example, a polar functional group, such as a carboxyl group, an amino group, a pyridyl group, a thiol group, or a silanol group, or a hydrophobic functional group, such as an alkyl group or an alkoxy group.
  • As the alkyl alcohol polyalkylene oxide adduct, a commercial product may be used. Examples of the commercial product include polyoxyethylene methyl ether (methyl alcohol ethylene oxide adduct) (BLAUNON MP-400, MP-550, and MP-1000) manufactured by Aoki Oil Industrial Co., Ltd., polyoxyethylene decyl ether (decyl alcohol ethylene oxide adduct) (FINESURF D-1303, D-1305, D-1307, and D-1310) manufactured by Aoki Oil Industrial Co., Ltd., polyoxyethylene lauryl ether (lauryl alcohol ethylene oxide adduct) (BLAUNON EL-1505) manufactured by Aoki Oil Industrial Co., Ltd., polyoxyethylene cetyl ether (cetyl alcohol ethylene oxide adduct) (BLAUNON CH-305 and CH-310) manufactured by Aoki Oil Industrial Co., Ltd., polyoxyethylene stearyl ether (stearyl alcohol ethylene oxide adduct) (BLAUNON SR-705, SR-707, SR-715, SR-720, SR-730, and SR-750) manufactured by Aoki Oil Industrial Co., Ltd., random polymerization-type polyoxyethylene polyoxypropylene stearyl ether (BLAUNON SA-50/50 1000R and SA-30/70 2000R) manufactured by Aoki Oil Industrial Co., Ltd., polyoxyethylene methyl ether (Pluriol (trademark) A760E) manufactured by BASF, and polyoxyethylene alkyl ethers (EMULGEN Series) manufactured by Kao Corporation.
  • Of those hydrocarbon-based surfactants, the alkyl alcohol polyalkylene oxide adduct is preferred as the internal addition-type release agent, and a long-chain alkyl alcohol polyalkylene oxide adduct is more preferred.
  • One kind of the internal addition-type release agents may be used alone, or two or more kinds thereof may be used as a mixture.
  • The blending ratio of the component (c) serving as a non-polymerizable compound in each of the curable compositions is desirably 0 wt % or more and 50 wt % or less with respect to the total of the component (a), the component (b), and the component (c) to be described later, i.e., the total weight of all components except the solvent. In addition, the blending ratio is preferably 0.1 wt % or more and 50 wt % or less, more preferably 0.1 wt % or more and 20 wt % or less.
  • When the blending ratio of the component (c) is set to 50 wt % or less with respect to the total of the component (a), the component (b), and the component (c), a cured film to be obtained can be turned into a cured film having some degree of mechanical strength.
  • <Component (d): Solvent>
  • The curable compositions according to this embodiment may each contain a solvent as the component (d). The component (d) is not particularly limited as long as the component is a solvent that dissolves the component (a), the component (b), and the component (c). The solvent is preferably a solvent having a boiling point at normal pressure of 80° C. or more and 200° C. or less. The solvent is more preferably a solvent having at least one of an ester structure, a ketone structure, a hydroxyl group, or an ether structure. The solvent is specifically, for example, a single solvent selected from propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate, propylene glycol monomethyl ether, cyclohexanone, 2-heptanone, γ-butyrolactone, and ethyl lactate, or a mixed solvent of two or more kinds thereof.
  • The curable composition (A1) according to this embodiment preferably contains the component (d). This is because, as described later, a spin coating method is preferred as a method of applying the curable composition (A1) onto the Substrate.
  • <Temperature at Time of Blending of Curable Composition>
  • When the curable compositions (A1) and (A2) of this embodiment are prepared, at least the component (a) and the component (b) are mixed and dissolved under a predetermined temperature condition. Specifically, the preparation is performed in a range of from 0° C. or more to 100° C. or less. The same holds true for the case where the component (c) or the component (d) is incorporated.
  • <Viscosity of Curable Composition>
  • A composition except the solvent (component (d)) of each of the curable compositions (A1) and (A2) according to this embodiment is preferably a liquid. This is because in a mold contacting step to be described later, the spread and fill of the composition except the solvent (component (d)) of the curable composition (A1) and/or the curable composition (A2) are quickly completed, in other words, a filling time is short.
  • However, the viscosity of the mixture of the components except the solvent (component (d)) of the curable composition (A1) according to this embodiment at 25° C. is preferably 40 mPa·s or more and less than 500 mPa·s. In addition, the viscosity is more preferably 40 mPa·s or more and less than 100 mPa·s. In order to shorten the filling time, the mixture is preferably a liquid. However, a liquid having a viscosity as low as 40 mPa·s or less is affected by the airflow of the gas 307 for atmosphere control, and hence the distribution of the thickness or composition of the curable composition (A1) is liable to occur. In the worst case, such a problem as described below occurs: the curable composition (A1) is not present only in an affected region owing to its vaporization or movement. In addition, the curable composition (A1) having a viscosity as high as 500 mPa·s or more causes a problem in that a shortening effect on the filling time serving as the original object reduces.
  • On the other hand, however, when the volatile amount of the mixture of the components except the solvent (component (d)) of the curable composition (A1) is 10 μg/m3 or less, the viscosity thereof at 25° C. may be 20 mPa·s or more and less than 500 mPa·s. This is because a liquid film having a volatile amount of 10 μg/m3 or less is not affected so significantly by the flow of the gas 307 for atmosphere control as to cause a remarkable distribution of thickness or composition in the liquid film.
  • The value of “volatile amount” of a liquid film can be determined, as shown in FIG. 4, by forming a coating of the liquid film on a substrate 401 of 300 mmφ under the same conditions as used in the laying step, then putting it into a container 402 having a volume of 0.8 m3, subsequently forcing air having passed through a filter 403 and showing a dew point of −40° C. or lower to flow through the container at a rate of 0.3 L/min, then collecting the air having flowed through the container by using a collection tube for 30 minutes (i.e. collecting 9 L of air), and measuring the total amount of volatile components volatilized from the liquid film of the curable composition (A1) by gas chromatography.
  • The viscosity of the mixture of the components except the solvent (component (d)) of the curable composition (A2) according to this embodiment at 25° C. is preferably 1 mPa·s or more and less than 40 mPa·s. In addition, the viscosity is more preferably 1 mPa·s or more and less than 20 mPa·s. When the viscosity of the curable composition (A2) is higher than 40 mPa·s, the composition cannot be applied by the inkjet system in which droplets are arranged discretely in accordance with the density of a desired pattern to uniformize the thickness of a remaining film, and hence a high-accuracy pattern can be formed. In addition, the case where the viscosity is lower than 1 mPa·s is not preferred because application unevenness may occur owing to the flow of the composition at the time of its application (arrangement), or the composition may flow out of an end portion of the mold in the contacting step to be described later. In Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 2015-99899, there is a disclosure of a viscosity at the time of the use of the inkjet system, but there is only a disclosure of the case where one kind of curable composition is used.
  • When the viscosity of the curable composition (A1) except the solvent (component (d)) is set to 40 mPa·s or more and less than 500 mPa·s, or the curable composition (A1) except the solvent is set to have a volatile amount of 10 μg/m3 and a viscosity of 20 mPa·s or more and less than 500 mPa·s, and the viscosity of the curable composition (A2) is set to 1 mPa·s or more and less than 40 mPa·s, the spread and the fill are quickly completed substantially without being affected by the gas for atmosphere control. In other words, when the curable compositions according to this embodiment are used, a photo-nanoimprint method can be performed at high throughput. In addition, a pattern defect due to a filling failure hardly occurs.
  • <Surface Tension of Curable Composition>
  • With regard to the surface tension of each of the curable compositions (A1) and (A2) according to this embodiment, the surface tension of the composition formed of the components except the solvent (component (d)) at 23° C. is preferably 5 mN/m or more and 70 mN/m or less. In addition, the surface tension is more preferably 7 mN/m or more and 50 mN/m or less, still more preferably 10 mN/m or more and 40 mN/m or less. In this case, as the surface tension becomes higher, e.g., 5 mN/m or more, a stronger capillary force acts, and hence filling (the spread and the fill) is completed within a shorter time period at the time of the bringing of the curable composition (A1) and/or the curable composition (A2) into contact with the mold (S. Reddy, R. T. Bonnecaze/Microelectronic Engineering, 82 (2005) 60-70).
  • In addition, when the surface tension is set to mN/m or less, a cured film obtained by curing the curable compositions becomes a cured film having surface smoothness.
  • In this embodiment, the surface tension of the curable composition (A1) except the solvent (component (d)) is preferably higher than the surface tension of the curable composition (A2) except the solvent (component (d)). This is because of the following reason. Before the mold contacting step, the prespread of the curable composition (A2) is accelerated (droplets spread over a wide range) by a Marangoni effect to be described later, and hence a time period required for spread in the mold contacting step to be described later is shortened. As a result, a filling time is shortened.
  • The Marangoni effect is a free surface movement phenomenon resulting from a local difference in surface tension between liquids (N. Imaishi/Int. J. Microgravity Sci. No. 31 Supplement 2014 (S5-S12)). The difference in surface tension, in other words, surface energy serves as a driving force to cause such diffusion that a liquid having a low surface tension covers a wider surface. In other words, when the curable composition (A1) having a high surface tension is applied to the entire surface of the substrate and the curable composition (A2) having a low surface tension is dispensed dropwise, the prespread of the curable composition (A2) is accelerated.
  • <Contact Angle of Curable Composition>
  • With regard to the contact angle of each of the curable compositions (A1) and (A2) according to this embodiment, the contact angle of the composition formed of the components except the solvent (component (d)) is preferably 0° or more and 90° or less with respect to each of both the surface of the substrate and the surface of the mold. When the contact angle is more than 90°, a capillary force acts in a negative direction (direction in which a contact interface between the mold and the curable composition is shrunk) in a mold pattern or in a gap between the substrate and the mold, and hence the composition is not filled. The contact angle is particularly preferably 0° or more and 30° or less. As the contact angle becomes lower, a stronger capillary force acts and hence a filling rate increases (S. Reddy, R. T. Bonnecaze/Microelectronic Engineering, 82 (2005) 60-70).
  • <Impurities Mixed in Curable Composition>
  • It is preferred that the curable compositions (A1) and (A2) according to this embodiment each be free of impurities to the extent possible. The term “impurities” as used herein refers to components except the component (a), the component (b), the component (c), and the component (d) described above.
  • Thus, it is preferred that the curable compositions according to this embodiment each be obtained through a purification step. The purification step is preferably filtration using a filter or the like.
  • When the filtration using a filter is performed, specifically, it is preferred that the component (a) and the component (b) described in the foregoing and additive components to be added as required be mixed, and then the mixture be filtered with a filter having a pore diameter of, for example, 0.001 μm or more and 5.0 μm or less. It is more preferred that the filtration using a filter be performed in a plurality of stages or be repeated a plurality of times. In addition, the filtered liquid may be filtered again. A plurality of filters having different pore diameters may be used to perform the filtration. A filter made of, for example, a polyethylene resin, a polypropylene resin, a fluororesin, or a nylon resin can be used as the filter to be used in the filtration. However, the filter is not particularly limited thereto.
  • Impurities, such as particles, which are mixed in the curable compositions, can be removed through such purification step. Thus, the impurities, such as the particles, can be prevented from forming unexpected unevenness in the cured film to be obtained after the curable compositions are cured to cause a pattern defect.
  • When the curable compositions according to this embodiment are used for the manufacture of a semiconductor integrated circuit, it is preferred to avoid the mixing of metal atom-containing impurities (metal impurities) in the curable compositions to the extent possible in order to prevent the operation of a product from being inhibited. In this case, the concentration of the metal impurities in the curable compositions is preferably 10 ppm or less, more preferably 100 ppb or less.
  • [Pattern Forming Method]
  • Next, a pattern forming method according to this embodiment is described with reference to the schematic sectional views of FIGS. 2A through 2G.
  • The pattern forming method according to this embodiment is one mode of the photo-nanoimprint method. The pattern forming method of this embodiment includes:
  • the first laying step (1) of laying the curable composition (A1) 202 of this embodiment described in the foregoing on the substrate 201;
  • the second laying step (2) of laying the curable composition (A2) 203 on the layer of the curable composition (A1) 202;
  • the mold contacting step (3) of sandwiching the mixture layer obtained by partially mixing the curable composition (A1) 202 and the curable composition (A2) 203 between the mold 205 and the substrate 201;
  • the light irradiating step (4) of irradiating the mixture layer from the outside of the mold to cure the layer; and
  • the releasing step (5) of releasing the mold 205 from the layer 207 formed of the curable compositions after the curing.
  • A cured film obtained by the method of producing a cured film having a pattern shape according to this embodiment is preferably a film having a pattern having a size of 1 nm or more and 10 mm or less. In addition, the cured film is more preferably a film having a pattern having a size of 10 nm or more and 100 μm or less. In general, a pattern forming technology for producing a film having a pattern (uneven structure) of a nanosize (1 nm or more and 100 nm or less) through the use of light is called a photo-nanoimprint method. The pattern forming method according to this embodiment uses the photo-nanoimprint method.
  • Each step is hereinafter described.
  • <First Laying Step (1)>
  • In this step (first laying step), as illustrated in FIGS. 2A and 2B, the curable composition (A1) 202 according to this embodiment described in the foregoing is laid (applied) onto the substrate 201 to form an applied film.
  • The substrate 201 on which the curable composition (A1) 202 is to be arranged is a substrate to be processed, and a silicon wafer is typically used. A layer to be processed may be formed on the substrate 201. Another layer may be further formed between the substrate 201 and the layer to be processed. In addition, when a quartz substrate is used as the substrate 201, a replica of a quartz imprint mold (mold replica) can be produced.
  • In the present invention, however, the substrate 201 is not limited to the silicon wafer and the quartz substrate. The substrate 201 can be arbitrarily selected from substrates known as substrates for semiconductor devices, such as aluminum, a titanium-tungsten alloy, an aluminum-silicon alloy, an aluminum-copper-silicon alloy, silicon oxide, and silicon nitride.
  • The adhesiveness of the surface of the substrate 201 (substrate to be processed) to be used or of the layer to be processed with each of the curable compositions (A1) and (A2) may be improved by a surface treatment, such as a silane coupling treatment, a silazane treatment, or the formation of an organic thin film.
  • In this embodiment, as a method of arranging the curable composition (A1) 202 on the substrate 201 or the layer to be processed, there may be used, for example, an ink jet method, a dip coating method, an air knife coating method, a curtain coating method, a wire bar coating method, a gravure coating method, an extrusion coating method, a spin coating method, or a slit scan method. In the present invention, a spin coating method is particularly preferred, a uniform film can be formed by the spin coating method.
  • When the curable composition (A1) 202 is arranged on the substrate 201 or the layer to be processed by using the spin coating method, the solvent component (d) may be volatilized by performing a baking step as required. Such a baking step can be performed by using a known device such as a hotplate, an oven or the like. The baking step can be performed at temperatures between 40° C. and 200° C., preferably between 60° C. and 150° C., more preferably between 60° C. and 120° C.
  • The average thickness of the curable composition (A1) 202, which varies depending on applications where the composition is used, is, for example, 0.1 nm or more and 10,000 nm or less, preferably 1 nm or more and 20 nm or less, particularly preferably 1 nm or more and 10 nm or less.
  • <Second Laying Step (2)>
  • In this step (second laying step), as illustrated in FIGS. 2C and 2D, droplets of the curable composition (A2) 203 are preferably dispensed dropwise discretely and arranged on the layer of the curable composition (A1). The viscosity of the curable composition (A2) of the present invention is 1 mPa·s or more and less than 40 mPa·s, and hence the inkjet method can be most preferably used as a method for the discrete arrangement. The droplets of the curable composition (A2) 203 are densely arranged on a substrate facing a region where groove portions are densely present on the mold, and are sparsely arranged on a substrate facing a region where groove portions are sparsely present. Thus, the thickness of a remaining film to be described later can be controlled to a uniform value irrespective of the density of a pattern on the mold. The difference in viscosity between the curable composition (A1) except the solvent component and the curable composition (A2) except the solvent component is preferably 20 mPa·s or more, more preferably 30 mPa·s or more, so that a stable process can be performed in the production of each of the compositions on the substrate. For example, the droplets of the curable composition (A2) can be arranged discretely on a film obtained by applying the curable composition (A1) with a spin coater by using an inkjet method. A droplet amount is set to, such an amount that the average thickness of a cured film becomes about 50 nm.
  • In the present invention, the droplets of the curable composition (A2) 203 arranged in this step (second laying step) are quickly spread by the Marangoni effect using a difference in surface energy (surface tension) as a driving force as described in the foregoing (prespread) (FIGS. 2C and 2D). The inventors of the present invention have found that in the course of the prespread, the curable composition (A1) and the curable composition (A2) partially mix with each other. As a result of the partial mixing of the curable composition (A1) and the curable composition (A2), the photopolymerization initiator component (b) of the curable composition (A2) migrates to the curable composition (A1), and hence the curable composition (A1) obtains photosensitivity for the first time.
  • <Mold Contacting Step (3)>
  • Next, as illustrated in FIG. 2E, the mold 205 having a template pattern for transferring a pattern shape is brought into contact with a liquid obtained by partially mixing the curable composition (A1) and the curable composition (A2), the liquid being formed in the previous steps (first and second laying steps). Thus, a groove portion of a fine pattern on the surface of the mold 205 is filled with the liquid obtained by partially mixing the curable composition (A1) and the curable composition (A2), and hence a liquid film filled into the fine pattern of the mold is obtained.
  • The mold 205 that is formed of an optically transparent material is desirably used as the mold 205 considering the next step (light irradiating step). Preferred specific examples of the material for forming the mold 205 include: glass, quartz, an optically transparent resin, such as PMMA or a polycarbonate resin, a transparent metal-deposited film, a flexible film made of polydimethylsiloxane or the like, a photocured film, and a metal film. In the case of using the optically transparent resin as the material for forming the mold 205, it is necessary to select a resin that does not dissolve in a component contained in the curable composition. Quartz is particularly preferred as the material for forming the mold 205 because of its small thermal expansion coefficient and small pattern deformation.
  • The fine pattern on the surface of the mold 205 preferably has a pattern height of 4 nm or more and 200 nm or less.
  • As the pattern height becomes lower, the force by which the mold is peeled from the photocured film of a resist in the releasing step, i.e., a release force reduces, and the number of release defects remaining on a mask side owing to the tearing-off of a resist pattern in association with the release reduces. Adjacent resist patterns are brought into contact with each other by the elastic deformation of the resist patterns due to an impact at the time of the peeling of the mold, and hence the resist patterns adhere to each other or are damaged in some cases. However, when the pattern height is about twice or less as large as a pattern width (an aspect ratio is 2 or less), there is a high possibility that such inconveniences can be avoided. Meanwhile, when the pattern height is excessively low, the processing accuracy of the substrate to be processed is low.
  • The mold 205 may be subjected to a surface treatment before this step, which is a mold contacting step of the curable compositions (A1) and (A2) and the mold 205, so as to enhance the releasability between the curable compositions (A1) and (A2) and the surface of the mold 205. As a method for the surface treatment, there is given a method involving forming a release agent layer by applying a release agent onto the surface of the mold 205. In this case, examples of the release agent to be applied onto the surface of the mold 205 include a silicon-based release agent, a fluorine-based release agent, a hydrocarbon-based release agent, a polyethylene-based release agent, a polypropylene-based release agent, a paraffin-based release agent, a montan-based release agent, and a carnauba-based release agent. For example, a commercially available application-type release agent such as OPTOOL (trademark) DSX manufactured by Daikin Industries, Ltd. can be suitably used. One kind of the release agents may be used alone, or two or more kinds thereof may be used in combination. Of those, fluorine-based and hydrocarbon-based release agents are particularly preferred.
  • A pressure to be applied to the curable compositions (A1) and (A2) when the mold 205 and the curable compositions (A1) and (A2) are brought into contact with each other in this step (mold contacting step) as illustrated in FIG. 2E is not particularly limited. The pressure is desirably set to 0 MPa or more and 100 MPa or less. In addition, the pressure is preferably 0 MPa or more and 50 MPa or less, more preferably 0 MPa or more and 30 MPa or less, still more preferably 0 MPa or more and 20 MPa or less.
  • In the present invention, the prespread of the droplets of the curable composition (A2) 203 has progressed in the previous step (second laying step), and hence the spread of the curable composition (A2) 203 in this step is quickly completed. In a boundary region between the droplets of the curable composition (A2) 203, the spread is finally completed and the concentration of the curable composition (A1) is high. However, as described in the foregoing, the contact angle of the curable composition (A1) is low and hence the fill is quickly completed in the region as well.
  • As described above, the spread and fill of the curable compositions (A1) and (A2) are quickly completed in this step, and hence the time period for which the mold 205, and the curable compositions (A1) and (A2) are brought into contact with each other can be set to be short. In other words, one of the effects of the present invention is as follows: many pattern forming steps can be completed within a short time period, and hence high productivity is obtained. The time period for which the mold and the compositions are brought into contact with each other, which is not particularly limited, is desirably set to, for example, 0.1 second or more and 600 seconds or less. In addition, the time period is preferably 0.1 second or more and 3 seconds or less, particularly preferably 0.1 second or more and 1 second or less. When the time period is shorter than 0.1 second, the following tendency is observed: the spread and the fill become insufficient, and hence many defects called non-filling defects occur.
  • This step can be preferably performed under the atmosphere control in order that an influence of the oxygen and the moisture on the curing reaction can be prevented. When this step is performed under an inert gas atmosphere, specific examples of the inert gas that can be used include nitrogen, carbon dioxide, helium, argon, various fluorocarbon gases, and a mixed gas thereof. A preferred pressure when this step is performed under a particular gas atmosphere including an air atmosphere is 0.0001 atm or more and 10 atm or less. The inert gas is blown from the periphery of the mold into a gap between the mold and the substrate.
  • The mold contacting step may be performed under an atmosphere containing a condensable gas (hereinafter referred to as “condensable gas atmosphere”). The term “condensable gas” as used herein refers to the following gas: when the gas in the atmosphere is filled into a groove portion of the fine pattern formed on the mold 205, and the gap between the mold and the substrate together with the curable compositions (A1) and (A2), the gas is condensed by a capillary pressure generated at the time of the filling to liquefy. The condensable gas is present as a gas in the atmosphere before the curable compositions (A1) and (A2), and the mold 205 are brought into contact with each other in the mold contacting step (FIG. 1D).
  • When the mold contacting step is performed under the condensable gas atmosphere, the gas filled into a groove portion of the fine pattern is liquefied by a capillary pressure generated by the curable compositions (A1) and (A2), and hence air bubbles disappear. Accordingly, a filling property becomes excellent. The condensable gas may dissolve in the curable composition (A1) and/or the curable composition (A2).
  • The boiling point of the condensable gas, which is not limited as long as the boiling point is equal to or less than the ambient temperature of the mold contacting step, is preferably from −10° C. to 23° C., more preferably from 10° C. to 23° C. When the boiling point falls within the range, the filling property is more excellent.
  • The vapor pressure of the condensable gas at the ambient temperature in the mold contacting step, which is not limited as long as the vapor pressure is equal to or less than a mold pressure when impression is performed in the mold contacting step, is preferably from 0.1 MPa to 0.4 MPa. When the vapor pressure falls within the range, the filling property is more excellent. When the vapor pressure at the ambient temperature is more than 0.4 MPa, the following tendency is observed: an air bubble disappearing effect cannot be sufficiently obtained. On the other hand, when the vapor pressure at the ambient temperature is less than 0.1 MPa, the following tendency is observed: decompression is needed and hence an apparatus becomes complicated.
  • The ambient temperature in the mold contacting step, which is not particularly limited, is preferably from 20° C. to 25° C.
  • Specific examples of the condensable gas include fluorocarbons, such as: a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), such as trichlorofluoromethane; a fluorocarbon (FC); a hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC); a hydrofluorocarbon (HFC), such as 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane (CHF2CH2CF3, HFC-245fa, PFP); and a hydrofluoroether (HFE), such as pentafluoroethyl methyl ether (CF3CF2OCH3, HFE-245mc).
  • Of those, 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane (vapor pressure at 23° C.: 0.14 MPa, boiling point: 15° C.), trichlorofluoromethane (vapor pressure at 23° C.: 0.1056 MPa, boiling point: 24° C.), and pentafluoroethyl methyl ether are preferred from such a viewpoint that when the ambient temperature in the mold contacting step is from 20° C. to 25° C., the filling property is excellent. Further, 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane is particularly preferred from the viewpoint of being excellent in safety.
  • One kind of the condensable gases may be used alone, or two or more kinds thereof may be used as a mixture. In addition, any such condensable gas may be mixed with a non-condensable gas, such as air, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, helium, or argon, before use. The non-condensable gas with which the condensable gas is mixed is preferably helium from the viewpoint of the filling property. Helium can permeate the mold 205. Accordingly, when the gases (the condensable gas and helium) in the atmosphere are filled into a groove portion of the fine pattern formed on the mold 205 in the mold contacting step together with the curable composition (A1) and/or the curable composition (A2), the condensable gas liquefies and helium permeates the mold.
  • In the present invention, the viscosity of a component except the solvent (component (d)) of the curable composition (A1) at 25° C. is 40 mPa·s or more and less than 500 mPa·s. Accordingly, the distribution of the thickness or composition of the uniformly formed liquid film of the curable composition (A1) due to an influence of the airflow of the gas for atmosphere control hardly occurs in a peripheral shot region. In addition, such a problem as described below does not occur: in the worst case, the curable composition (A1) is not present only in an affected region owing to its vaporization or movement.
  • <Light Irradiating Step (4)>
  • Next, as illustrated in FIG. 2F, a mixture layer obtained by partially mixing the curable composition (A1) and the curable composition (A2) is irradiated with light through the mold 205. In more detail, the curable composition (A1) and/or the curable composition (A2) filled into the fine pattern of the mold are/is irradiated with the light through the mold 205. Thus, the curable composition (A1) and/or the curable composition (A2) filled into the fine pattern of the mold 205 are/is cured by the irradiation light to become the cured film 207 having a pattern shape.
  • In this case, the light 206 with which the curable composition (A1) and/or the curable composition (A2) filled into the fine pattern of the mold 205 are/is irradiated is selected depending on the sensitive wavelengths of the curable compositions (A1) and (A2). Specifically, it is preferred that UV light having a wavelength of 150 nm or more and 400 nm or less, an X-ray, an electron beam, or the like be appropriately selected and used.
  • Of those, the irradiation light 206 is particularly preferably UV light. This is because many of the compounds commercially available as curing aids (photopolymerization initiators) have sensitivity to UV light. In this case, examples of the light source of UV light include a high-pressure mercury lamp, an ultra-high pressure mercury lamp, a low-pressure mercury lamp, a Deep-UV lamp, a carbon arc lamp, a chemical lamp, a metal halide lamp, a xenon lamp, a KrF excimer laser, an ArF excimer laser, and a F2 excimer laser. Of those, an ultra-high pressure mercury lamp is particularly preferred. In addition, the number of the light sources to be used may be one or two or more. Further, the entire surface of the curable composition (A1) and/or the curable composition (A2) filled into the fine pattern of the mold may be irradiated with light, or a part of the surface thereof may be irradiated with light.
  • In addition, the light irradiation may be performed on an entire region on the substrate intermittently a plurality of times, or may be continuously performed on the entire region. Further, the following may be performed: a partial region A is irradiated with the light in a first irradiating process, and a region B different from the region A is irradiated with the light in a second irradiating process.
  • <Releasing Step (5)>
  • Next, the cured film 207 having a pattern shape and the mold 205 are released from each other. In this step (releasing step), as illustrated in FIG. 2G, the cured film 207 having a pattern shape and the mold 205 are released from each other, and hence the cured film 207 having a pattern shape serving as the reverse pattern of the fine pattern formed on the mold 205, the film being formed in the step (4) (light irradiating step), is obtained in an independent state. A cured film remains in a groove portion of the grove/land pattern of the cured film 207 having a pattern shape, and the film is called a remaining film 108 (see FIGS. 1A through 1F (including FIGS. 1DA and 1FA)).
  • When the mold contacting step is performed under the condensable gas atmosphere, the condensable gas vaporizes in association with a reduction in pressure of the interface at which the cured film 207 and the mold 205 are in contact with each other at the time of the release of the cured film 207 and the mold 205 in the releasing step. Thus, a reducing effect on the release force serving as a force needed for releasing the cured film 207 and the mold 205 from each other tends to be exhibited.
  • A method of releasing the cured film 207 having a pattern shape and the mold 205 from each other is not particularly limited as long as part of the cured film 207 having a pattern shape is not physically damaged at the time of the release, and various conditions and the like are also not particularly limited. For example, the following may be performed: the substrate 201 (substrate to be processed) is fixed and the mold 205 is peeled by being moved so as to recede from the substrate 201. Alternatively, the following may be performed: the mold 205 is fixed and the substrate 201 is peeled by being moved so as to recede from the mold. Alternatively, both the substrate and the mold may be peeled from each other by being pulled in directions diametrically opposite to each other.
  • A cured film having a desired groove/land pattern shape (pattern shape associated with the groove/land shape of the mold 205) at a desired position can be obtained by a series of steps (production process) including the step (1) to the step (5).
  • The method of producing a film having a pattern shape of this embodiment enables the following: the curable composition (A1) is collectively laid on most of the surface of the substrate in the step (1), and a repeating unit (shot) including the step (2) to the step (5) is repeatedly performed on the same substrate a plurality of times. When the repeating unit (shot) including the step (2) to the step (5) is repeated a plurality of times, a cured film having a plurality of desired groove/land pattern shapes (pattern shapes associated with the groove/land shape of the mold 205) at desired positions of the substrate to be processed can be obtained.
  • The substrate to be processed or the layer to be processed on the substrate to be processed can be processed into a pattern shape by using: the cured film 207 having a pattern shape obtained through the step (1) to the step (5), the film serving as a mask; and a processing method, such as etching. In addition, after the layer to be processed has been further formed on the cured film 207 having a pattern shape, pattern transfer may be performed by using a processing method, such as etching. Thus, a circuit structure based on the pattern shape of the cured film 207 having the pattern shape can be formed on the substrate 201. Thus, a circuit board to be utilized in a semiconductor element or the like can be produced. In addition, an electronic instrument, such as a display, a camera, or a medical apparatus, can be formed by connecting the circuit board and, for example, a circuit control mechanism for a circuit board. Examples of the semiconductor element as used herein include a LSI, a system LSI, a DRAM, a SDRAM, a RDRAM, a D-RDRAM, and a NAND flash.
  • An optical component can also be obtained by utilizing the cured film 207 having a pattern shape obtained through the step (1) to the step (5) as an optical member, such as a diffraction grating or a polarizing plate (the case where the film is used as one member of the optical member is included). In such case, an optical component having at least the substrate 201 and the cured film 207 having a pattern shape on the substrate 201 can be obtained.
  • In addition, a quartz replica of a quartz imprint mold (mold replica) can be produced by: producing the cured film 207 having a pattern shape through the use of a quartz substrate as the substrate 201 and through the step (1) to the step (5); and performing pattern transfer through the use of a processing method, such as etching.
  • [Set of Pretreatment Coating Material and Imprint Resist]
  • Another aspect of the present invention than described above is to provide an imprint pretreatment coating material which forms a liquid film as pretreatment coating on a substrate and promotes spreading of components of liquid droplets in the plane of the substrate when the liquid droplets are dispensed onto the liquid film.
  • Such a pretreatment coating material contains a polymerizable component and has a property of giving an interface energy between liquid droplets to be dispensed and air which is smaller than the interface energy between the pretreatment coating material and air. Due to the above property, spreading of the components of the liquid droplets is promoted to thereby realize favorable imprint.
  • Preferably, such a pretreatment coating material is provided as a set with an imprint resist. That is, such a set fulfills the relation that the interface energy between the imprint resist to be dispensed as liquid droplets and air is smaller than the interface energy between the pretreatment coating material and air, for realizing favorable imprint.
  • Particularly, as mentioned above, it is more preferable that the set fulfills the relation that the interface energy between the pretreatment coating material and air is larger than the interface energy between the imprint resist and air by a difference of 1 mN/m to 25 mN/m.
  • A further aspect of the present invention is to provide a method of pretreating a substrate for favorable imprint, the method comprising coating the substrate with the pretreatment coating material.
  • In addition, the present invention further includes a method for forming a pattern on a substrate. In the pattern forming method of the present invention, a resist is dispensed dropwise discretely onto a substrate coated with the pretreatment coating material to thereby promote spreading of components of the resist in the plane of the substrate, whereby the time required for imprint processing can be reduced.
  • EXAMPLES
  • The present invention is hereinafter described in more detail by way of Examples, but the technical scope of the present invention is not limited to Examples to be described below. The terms “part(s)” and “%” to be used below are by weight in all cases unless otherwise stated.
  • Example 1
  • (1) Preparation of Curable Composition (A1-1)
  • A component (a1), a component (b1), a component (c1), and a component (d1) described below were blended, and the blend was filtered with a 0.2-micrometer filter made of ultrahigh-molecular weight polyethylene to prepare a curable composition (A1-1) of Example 1.
  • (1-1) Component (a1): 100 Parts by Weight in Total
  • Trimethylolpropane triacrylate (manufactured by Sigma-Aldrich, abbreviation: TMPTA): 100 parts by weight
  • (1-2) Component (b1): 0 Parts by Weight in Total
  • The component (b1) was not added.
  • (1-3) Component (c1): 0 Parts by Weight in Total
  • The component (c1) was not added.
  • (1-4) Component (d1): 33,000 Parts by Weight in Total
  • Propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (manufactured by Tokyo Chemical Industry Co., Ltd., abbreviation: PGMEA): 33,000 parts by weight
  • (2) Evaluation of Viscosity of Curable Composition (A1-1)
  • The viscosity of a composition except the solvent component (d1) of the curable composition (A1-1) at 25° C. was measured with a cone-plane-type rotary viscometer RE-85L (manufactured by Toki Sangyo Co., Ltd.). As a result, the viscosity was 84.7 mPa·s. The first measured value was excluded, and the average of the second to fifth measured values was defined as the viscosity.
  • (3) Measurement of Surface Tension of Curable Composition (A1-1)
  • The surface tension of a composition except the solvent component (d1) of the curable composition (A1-1) at 25° C. was measured with an automatic surface tension meter DY-300 (manufactured by Kyowa Interface Science Co., Ltd.) by a plate method involving using a platinum plate. As a result, the surface tension was 35.5 mN/m. The measurement was performed under the conditions of a number of times of the measurement of 5 and a prewet immersion distance of the platinum plate of 0.35 mm. The first measured value was excluded, and the average of the second to fifth measured values was defined as the surface tension.
  • (4) Preparation of Curable Composition (A2-1)
  • A component (a2), a component (b2), a component (c2), and a component (d2) described below were blended, and the blend was filtered with a 0.2-micrometer filter made of ultrahigh-molecular weight polyethylene to prepare a curable composition (A2-1) of Example 1.
  • (4-1) Component (a2): 94 Parts by Weight in Total
  • Isobornyl acrylate (manufactured by Kyoeisha Chemical Co., Ltd., trade name: IB-XA): 9 parts by weight
  • Benzyl acrylate (manufactured by Osaka Organic Chemical Industry Ltd., trade name: V#160): 38 parts by weight
  • Neopentyl glycol diacrylate (manufactured by Kyoeisha Chemical Co., Ltd., trade name: NP-A): 47 parts by weight
  • (4-2) Component (b2): 3 Parts by Weight in Total
  • Irgacure 369 (manufactured by BASF, abbreviation: I.369): 3 parts by weight
  • (4-3) Component (c2): 1.1 Parts by Weight in Total
  • Pentadecaethyleneglycol mono 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyl ether (F(CF2)6CH2CH2(OCH2CH2)15OH) (manufactured by DIC Corporation, abbreviation: DE0-15):
  • 1.1 parts by weight
  • (4-4) Component (d2): 0 Parts by Weight in Total
  • The component (d) was not added.
  • (5) Evaluation of Viscosity of Curable Composition (A2-1)
  • The viscosity of a composition except the solvent component (d2) of the curable composition (A2-1) at 25° C. was evaluated by the same method as that of the curable composition (A1-1). As a result, the viscosity was 4.02 mPa·s. A difference in viscosity between the curable composition (A1-1) except the solvent component (d1) and the curable composition (A2-1) except the solvent component (d2) was 80.68 mPa·s.
  • (6) Measurement of Surface Tension of Curable Composition (A2-1)
  • The surface tension of a composition except the solvent component (d2) of the curable composition (A2-1) was measured by the same method as that of the curable composition (A1-1). As a result, the surface tension was 29.1 mN/m.
  • (7) Photo-Nanoimprint Process
  • A film of the curable composition (A1-1) having a thickness of from about 5 nm to about 10 nm can be obtained by applying the curable composition (A1-1) onto a silicon substrate with a spin coater. One-picoliter droplets of the curable composition (A2-1) can be arranged discretely on the film of the curable composition (A1-1) by using an inkjet method. A droplet amount is set to, for example, such an amount that the average thickness of a cured film becomes about 50 nm. The difference in viscosity between the curable composition (A1-1) except the solvent component (d1) and the curable composition (A2-1) except the solvent component (d2) is 30 mPa·s or more, and hence a stable process can be performed in the production of each of the compositions on the substrate. At this time, the surface tension of the curable composition (A1-1) arranged in the lower layer is higher than the surface tension of the curable composition (A2-1) dispensed dropwise to form the upper layer, and hence the Marangoni effect is expressed and the expansion (prespread) of the droplets of the curable composition (A2-1) is quick.
  • In the second laying step and the mold contacting step, the curable composition (A1-1) and the curable composition (A2-1) mix with each other, and the photopolymerization initiator component (b2) migrates from the curable composition (A2-1) to the curable composition (A1-1). Accordingly, the curable composition (A1-1) obtains photopolymerizability. In addition, in the light irradiating step, the mixture of the curable composition (A1-1) and the curable composition (A2-1) satisfactorily cures.
  • In addition, the viscosity of the component except the solvent (component (d)) of the curable composition (A1-1) at 25° C. is 40 mPa·s or more and less than 500 mPa·s. Accordingly, the distribution of the thickness or composition of the uniformly formed liquid film of the curable composition (A1-1) due to an influence of the airflow of a gas for atmosphere control hardly occurs in a peripheral shot region. In addition, such a problem as described below does not occur: in the worst case, the curable composition (A1-1) is not present only in an affected region owing to its vaporization or movement. In addition, the viscosity of the curable composition (A2-1) is 1 mPa·s or more and less than 40 mPa·s, and hence the inkjet method most preferred as a method for the discrete arrangement can be used. The droplets of the curable composition (A2-1) are densely arranged on a substrate facing a region where groove portions are densely present on a mold, and are sparsely arranged on a substrate facing a region where groove portions are sparsely present. Thus, the thickness of a remaining film to be described later can be controlled to a uniform value irrespective of the density of a pattern on the mold. That is, there can be provided a photo-nanoimprint process which is improved in throughput and by which a plurality of shot regions of a substrate can be processed with uniform accuracy.
  • Example 2
  • (1) to (3) Curable Composition (A1-2)
  • The same composition as that of Example 1 was used as a curable composition (A1-2).
  • (4) Preparation of Curable Composition (A2-2)
  • A component (a2), a component (b2), a component (c2), and a component (d2) described below were blended, and the blend was filtered with a 0.2-micrometer filter made of ultrahigh-molecular weight polyethylene to prepare a curable composition (A2-2) of Example 2.
  • (4-1) Component (a2): 94 Parts by Weight in Total
  • Isobornyl acrylate (manufactured by Kyoeisha Chemical Co., Ltd., trade name: IB-XA): 61.6 parts by weight
  • (2-methyl-2-ethyl-1,3-dioxolane-4-yl)methyl acrylate (manufactured by Osaka Organic Chemical Industry Ltd., trade name: MEDOL-10): 10 parts by weight
  • 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate (manufactured by Osaka Organic Chemical Industry Ltd., abbreviation: HDODA): 22.4 parts by weight
  • (4-2) Component (b2): 3 Parts by Weight in Total
  • Lucirin TPO (manufactured by BASF, abbreviation: L.TPO): 3 parts by weight
  • (4-3) Component (c2): 1.1 Parts by Weight in Total
  • The same formulation as that of Example 1 was adopted.
  • (4-4) Component (d2): 0 Parts by Weight in Total
  • The component (d2) was not added in the same manner as in Example 1.
  • (5) Evaluation of Viscosity of Curable Composition (A2-2)
  • The viscosity of a composition except the solvent component (d2) of the curable composition (A2-2) at 25° C. was evaluated in the same manner as in Example 1. As a result, the viscosity was 6.81 mPa·s. A difference in viscosity between the curable composition (A1-2) except the solvent component (d1) and the curable composition (A2-2) except the solvent component (d2) was 77.89 mPa·s.
  • (6) Measurement of Surface Tension of Curable Composition (A2-2)
  • The surface tension of a composition except the solvent component (d2) of the curable composition (A2-2) was measured in the same manner as in Example 1. As a result, the surface tension was 26.1 mN/m.
  • (7) Photo-Nanoimprint Process
  • As in Example 1, the surface tension of the curable composition (A1-2) arranged in the lower layer is higher than the surface tension of the curable composition (A2-2) dispensed dropwise to form the upper layer, and hence the Marangoni effect is expressed and the expansion (prespread) of the droplets of the curable composition (A2-2) is quick.
  • As in Example 1, in the light irradiating step, the mixture of the curable composition (A1-2) and the curable composition (A2-2) satisfactorily cures.
  • As in Example 1, the distribution of the thickness or the composition due to an influence of the airflow of a gas for atmosphere control hardly occurs. Thus, the thickness of a remaining film to be described later can be controlled to a uniform value irrespective of the density of a pattern on the mold. That is, there can be provided a photo-nanoimprint process which is improved in throughput and by which a plurality of shot regions of a substrate can be processed with uniform accuracy.
  • Example 3
  • (1) Preparation of Curable Composition (A1-3)
  • A component (a1), a component (b1), a component (c1), and a component (d1) described below were blended, and the blend was filtered with a 0.2-micrometer filter made of ultrahigh-molecular weight polyethylene to prepare a curable composition (A1-3) of Example 3.
  • (1-1) Component (a1): 100 Parts by Weight in Total
  • Dimethyloltricyclodecane diacrylate (manufactured by Kyoeisha Chemical Co., Ltd., abbreviation: DCPDA): 100 parts by weight
  • (1-2) Component (b1): 0 Parts by Weight in Total
  • The component (b1) was not added.
  • (1-3) Component (c1): 0 Parts by Weight in Total
  • The component (c1) was not added.
  • (1-4) Component (d1): 33,000 Parts by Weight in Total
  • Propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (manufactured by Tokyo Chemical Industry Co., Ltd., abbreviation: PGMEA): 33,000 parts by weight
  • (2) Evaluation of Viscosity of Curable Composition (A1-3)
  • The viscosity of a composition except the solvent component (d1) of the composition (A1-3) at 25° C. was evaluated in the same manner as in Example 1. As a result, the viscosity was 126.1 mPa·s.
  • (3) Measurement of Surface Tension of Curable Composition (A1-3)
  • The surface tension of a composition except the solvent component (d1) of the curable composition (A1-3) at 25° C. was measured in the same manner as in Example 1. As a result, the surface tension was 39.2 mN/m.
  • (4) To (6) Curable Composition (A2-3)
  • The same composition as that of Example 1 was used as a curable composition (A2-3).
  • A difference in viscosity between the curable composition (A1-3) except the solvent component (d1) and the curable composition (A2-3) except the solvent component (d2) was 122.08 mPa·s.
  • (7) Photo-Nanoimprint Process
  • As in Example 1, the surface tension of the curable composition (A1-3) arranged in the lower layer is higher than the surface tension of the curable composition (A2-3) dispensed dropwise to form the upper layer, and hence the Marangoni effect is expressed and the expansion (prespread) of the droplets of the curable composition (A2-3) is quick.
  • As in Example 1, in the light irradiating step, the mixture of the curable composition (A1-3) and the curable composition (A2-3) satisfactorily cures.
  • As in Example 1, the distribution of the thickness or the composition due to an influence of the airflow of a gas for atmosphere control hardly occurs. Thus, the thickness of a remaining film to be described later can be controlled to a uniform value irrespective of the density of a pattern on the mold. That is, there can be provided a photo-nanoimprint process which is improved in throughput and by which a plurality of shot regions of a substrate can be processed with uniform accuracy.
  • Example 4
  • (1) Preparation of Curable Composition (A1-4)
  • A component (a1), a component (b1), a component (c1), and a component (d1) described below were blended, and the blend was filtered with a 0.2-micrometer filter made of ultrahigh-molecular weight polyethylene to prepare a curable composition (A1-4) of Example 4.
  • (1-1) Component (a1): 100 Parts by Weight in Total
  • 1,3-Adamantane dimethanol diacrylate (manufactured by Idemitsu Kosan Co., Ltd., abbreviation: ADDA): 100 parts by weight
  • (1-2) Component (b1): 0 Parts by Weight in Total
  • The component (b1) was not added.
  • (1-3) Component (c1): 0 Parts by Weight in Total
  • The component (c1) was not added.
  • (1-4) Component (d1): 33,000 Parts by Weight in Total
  • Propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (manufactured by Tokyo Chemical Industry Co., Ltd., abbreviation: PGMEA): 33,000 parts by weight
  • (2) Evaluation of Viscosity of Curable Composition (A1-4)
  • The viscosity of a composition except the solvent component (d1) of the curable composition (A1-4) at 25° C. was evaluated in the same manner as in Example 1. As a result, the viscosity was 151.6 mPa·s.
  • (3) Measurement of Surface Tension of Curable Composition (A1-4)
  • The surface tension of a composition except the solvent component (d1) of the curable composition (A1-4) at 25° C. was measured in the same manner as in Example 1. As a result, the surface tension was 38.1 mN/m.
  • (4) to (6) Curable Composition (A2-4)
  • The same composition as that of Example 1 was used as a curable composition (A2-4).
  • A difference in viscosity between the curable composition (A1-4) except the solvent component (d1) and the curable composition (A2-4) except the solvent component (d2) was 147.58 mPa·s.
  • (7) Photo-Nanoimprint Process
  • As in Example 1, the surface tension of the curable composition (A1-4) arranged in the lower layer is higher than the surface tension of the curable composition (A2-4) dispensed dropwise to form the upper layer, and hence the Marangoni effect is expressed and the expansion (prespread) of the droplets of the curable composition (A2-4) is quick.
  • As in Example 1, in the light irradiating step, the mixture of the curable composition (A1-4) and the curable composition (A2-4) satisfactorily cures.
  • As in Example 1, the distribution of the thickness or composition due to an influence of the airflow of a gas for atmosphere control hardly occurs. Thus, the thickness of a remaining film to be described later can be controlled to a uniform value irrespective of the density of a pattern on the mold. That is, there can be provided a photo-nanoimprint process which is improved in throughput and by which a plurality of shot regions of a substrate can be processed with uniform accuracy.
  • Example 5
  • (1) Preparation of Curable Composition (A1-5)
  • A component (a1), a component (b1), a component (c1), and a component (d1) described below were blended, and the blend was filtered with a 0.2-micrometer filter made of ultrahigh-molecular weight polyethylene to prepare a curable composition (A1-5) of Example 5.
  • (1-1) Component (a1): 100 Parts by Weight in Total
  • Trimethylolpropane EO 3.5 mol adduct triacrylate (manufactured by Idemitsu Kosan Co., Ltd. trade name: V#360): 100 parts by weight
  • (1-2) Component (b1): 0 Parts by Weight in Total
  • The component (b1) was not added.
  • (1-3) Component (c1): 0 Parts by Weight in Total
  • The component (c1) was not added.
  • (1-4) Component (d1): 33,000 Parts by Weight in total
  • Propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (manufactured by Tokyo Chemical Industry Co., Ltd., abbreviation: PGMEA): 33,000 parts by weight
  • (2) Evaluation of Viscosity of Curable Composition (A1-5)
  • The viscosity of a composition except the solvent component (d1) of the curable composition (A1-5) at 25° C. was evaluated in the same manner as in Example 1. As a result, the viscosity was 66.6 mPa·s.
  • (3) Measurement of Surface Tension of Curable Composition (A1-5)
  • The surface tension of a composition except the solvent component (d1) of the curable composition (A1-5) at 25° C. was measured in the same manner as in Example 1. As a result, the surface tension was 37.7 mN/m.
  • (4) to (6) Curable Composition (A2-5)
  • The same composition as that of Example 1 was used as a curable composition (A2-5).
  • A difference in viscosity between the curable composition (A1-5) except the solvent component (d1) and the curable composition (A2-5) except the solvent component (d2) was 62.58 mPa·s.
  • (7) Photo-nanoimprint Process
  • As in Example 1, the surface tension of the curable composition (A1-5) arranged in the lower layer is higher than the surface tension of the curable composition (A2-5) dispensed dropwise in the upper layer, and hence the Marangoni effect is expressed and the expansion (prespread) of the droplets of the curable composition (A2-5) is quick.
  • As in Example 1, in the light irradiating step, the mixture of the curable composition (A1-5) and the curable composition (A2-5) satisfactorily cures.
  • As in Example 1, the distribution of the thickness or composition due to an influence of the airflow of the gas for atmosphere control hardly occurs, and the thickness of a remaining film to be described later can be controlled to a uniform value irrespective of the density of a pattern on the mold. That is, there can be provided a photo-nanoimprint process which is improved in throughput and by which a plurality of shot regions of a substrate can be processed with uniform accuracy.
  • Example 6
  • (1) Preparation of Curable Composition (A1-6)
  • A component (a1), a component (b1), a component (c1), and a component (d1) described below were blended, and the blend was filtered with a 0.2-micrometer filter made of ultrahigh-molecular weight polyethylene to prepare a curable composition (A1-6) of Example 6.
  • (1-1) Component (a1): 100 Parts by Weight in Total
  • Dimethyloltricyclodecane diacrylate (manufactured by Kyoeisha Chemical Co., Ltd. abbreviation: DCPDA): 25 parts by weight
  • Tetraethylene glycol diacrylate (manufactured by Osaka Organic Chemical Industry Ltd., trade name: V#335HP): 75 parts by weight
  • (1-2) Component (b1): 0 Parts by Weight in Total
  • The component (b1) was not added.
  • (1-3) Component (c1): 0 Parts by Weight in Total
  • The component (c1) was not added.
  • (1-4) Component (d1): 33,000 Parts by Weight in Total
  • Propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (manufactured by Tokyo Chemical Industry Co., Ltd., abbreviation: PGMEA): 33,000 parts by weight
  • (2) Evaluation of Viscosity of Curable Composition (A1-6)
  • The viscosity of a composition except the solvent component (d1) of the curable composition (A1-6) at 25° C. was measured with a cone-plane-type rotary viscometer RE-85L (manufactured by Toki Sangyo Co., Ltd.). As a result, the viscosity was 26 mPa·s. The first measured value was excluded, and the average of the second to fifth measured values was defined as the viscosity.
  • (3) Measurement of Surface Tension of Curable Composition (A1-6)
  • The surface tension of a composition except the solvent component (d1) of the curable composition (A1-6) at 25° C. was measured with an automatic surface tension meter DY-300 (manufactured by Kyowa Interface Science Co., Ltd.) by a plate method involving using a platinum plate. As a result, the surface tension was 38.5 mN/m. The measurement was performed under the conditions of a number of times of the measurement of 5 and a prewet immersion distance of the platinum plate of 0.35 mm. The first measured value was excluded, and the average of the second to fifth measured values was defined as the surface tension.
  • (4) Measurement of Volatile Amount of Liquid Film of Curable Composition (A1-6)
  • Liquid film of the curable composition (A1-6) was formed as coating on a substrate of 300 mmφ by using a spin coater and it was put into a container having a volume of 0.8 m3. Subsequently, air having passed through a filter and showing a dew point of −40° C. or lower was forced to flow through the container at a rate of 0.3 L/min and the air having flowed through the container was collected by using a collection tube for 30 minutes (i.e., 9 L of air was collected) and then subjected to gas chromatography (manufactured by Shimadzu Corporation). As a result, the volatile amount was 1.55 μg/m3.
  • (5) Preparation of Curable Composition (A2-6)
  • A component (a2), a component (b2), a component (c2), and a component (d2) described below were blended, and the blend was filtered with a 0.2-micrometer filter made of ultrahigh-molecular weight polyethylene to prepare a curable composition (A2-6) of Example 6.
  • (5-1) Component (a2): 94 Parts by Weight in Total
  • Isobornyl acrylate (manufactured by Kyoeisha Chemical Co., Ltd., trade name: IB-XA): 9 parts by weight
  • Benzyl acrylate (manufactured by Osaka Organic Chemical Industry Ltd., trade name: V#160): 38 parts by weight
  • Neopentyl glycol diacrylate (manufactured by Kyoeisha Chemical Co., Ltd., trade name: NP-A): 47 parts by weight
  • (5-2) Component (b2): 3 Parts by Weight in Total
  • Irgacure 369 (manufactured by BASF, abbreviation: I.369): 3 parts by weight
  • (5-3) Component (c2): 1.1 Parts by Weight in Total
  • Pentadecaethylene glycol mono 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyl ether (F(CF2)6CH2CH2(OCH2CH2)15OH) (manufactured by DIC Corporation, abbreviation: DE0-15):
  • 1.1 Parts by Weight
  • (5-4) Component (d2): 0 Parts by Weight in Total
  • The component (d) was not added.
  • (6) Evaluation of Viscosity of Curable Composition (A2-6)
  • The viscosity of a composition except the solvent component (d2) of the curable composition (A2-6) at 25° C. was evaluated by the same method as that of the curable composition (A1-6). As a result, the viscosity was 4.02 mPa·s. A difference in viscosity between the curable composition (A1-6) except the solvent component (d1) and the curable composition (A2-6) except the solvent component (d2) was 21.98 mPa·s.
  • (7) Measurement of Surface Tension of Curable Composition (A2-6)
  • The surface tension of a composition except the solvent component (d2) of the curable composition (A2-6) was measured by the same method as that of the curable composition (A1-6). As a result, the surface tension was 29.1 mN/m.
  • (8) Photo-Nanoimprint Process
  • A liquid film of the curable composition (A1-6) having a thickness of from about 2 nm to about 10 nm can be obtained by applying the curable composition (A1-6) onto a silicon substrate with a spin coater. One-picoliter droplets of the curable composition (A2-6) can be arranged discretely on the film of the curable composition (A1-6) by using an inkjet method. A droplet amount is set to, for example, such an amount that the average thickness of a cured film becomes about 50 nm. At this time, the surface tension of the curable composition (A1-6) arranged in the lower layer is higher than the surface tension of the curable composition (A2-6) dispensed dropwise to form the upper layer, and hence the Marangoni effect is expressed and the expansion (prespread) of the droplets of the curable composition (A2-6) is quick.
  • In the second laying step and the mold contacting step, the curable composition (A1-6) and the curable composition (A2-6) mix with each other, and the photopolymerization initiator component (b2) migrates from the curable composition (A2-6) to the curable composition (A1-6). Accordingly, the curable composition (A1-6) obtains photopolymerizability. In addition, in the light irradiating step, the mixture of the curable composition (A1-6) and the curable composition (A2-6) satisfactorily cures.
  • In addition, the viscosity of the curable composition (A1-6) except the solvent (component (d)) at 25° C. is 20 mPa·s or more and less than 500 mPa·s and the volatile amount of the liquid film of the curable composition (A1) is 10 μg/m3. Accordingly, the distribution of the thickness or composition of the uniformly formed liquid film of the curable composition (A1-6) due to an influence of the airflow of a gas for atmosphere control hardly occurs in a peripheral shot region. In addition, such a problem as described below does not occur: in the worst case, the curable composition (A1-6) is not present only in an affected region owing to its vaporization or movement. In addition, the viscosity of the curable composition (A2-6) is 1 mPa·s or more and less than 40 mPa·s, and hence the inkjet method most preferred as a method for the discrete arrangement can be used. The droplets of the curable composition (A2-6) are densely arranged on a substrate facing a region where groove portions are densely present on a mold, and are sparsely arranged on a substrate facing a region where groove portions are sparsely present. Thus, the thickness of a remaining film to be described later can be controlled to a uniform value irrespective of the density of a pattern on the mold. That is, there can be provided a photo-nanoimprint process which is improved in throughput and by which a plurality of shot regions of a substrate can be processed with uniform accuracy.
  • Comparative Example 0
  • (1) To (3) Curable Composition (A1-0′)
  • In Comparative Example 0, the curable composition (A1) was not used.
  • (4) To (6) Curable Composition (A2-0′)
  • The same composition as that of Example 1 was used as a curable composition (A2-0′).
  • (7) Photo-Nanoimprint Process
  • When the curable composition (A2-0′) is directly dispensed dropwise onto the surface of a substrate serving as a solid surface, the Marangoni effect is not expressed. In other words, a prespread promoting effect is not obtained and hence the expansion of the droplets of the curable composition (A2-0′) is slower than that of each of Examples of the present invention.
  • The surface of the substrate serving as a solid surface is not affected by the airflow of a gas for atmosphere control, and hence a photo-nanoimprint process can be performed with the same accuracy also in a peripheral portion.
  • Comparative Example 1
  • (1) Preparation of Curable Composition (A1-1′)
  • A component (a1), a component (b1), a component (c1), and a component (d1) described below were blended, and the blend was filtered with a 0.2-micrometer filter made of ultrahigh-molecular weight polyethylene to prepare a curable composition (A1-1′) of Comparative Example 1.
  • (1-1) Component (a1): 100 Parts by Weight in Total
  • 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate (manufactured by Osaka Organic Chemical Industry Ltd., abbreviation: HDOD): 100 parts by weight
  • (1-2) Component (b1): 0 Parts by Weight in Total
  • The component (b1) was not added.
  • (1-3) Component (c1): 0 Parts by Weight in Total
  • The component (c1) was not added. (1-4) Component (d1): 33,000 parts by weight in total
  • Propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (manufactured by Tokyo Chemical Industry Co., Ltd., abbreviation: PGMEA): 33,000 parts by weight
  • (2) Evaluation of Viscosity of Curable Composition (A1-1′)
  • The viscosity of a composition except the solvent component (d1) of the curable composition (A1-1′) at 25° C. was evaluated in the same manner as in Example 1. As a result, the viscosity was 5.91 mPa·s.
  • (3) Measurement of Surface Tension of Curable Composition (A1-1′)
  • The surface tension of a composition except the solvent component (d1) of the curable composition (A1-1′) at 25° C. was measured in the same manner as in Example 1. As a result, the surface tension was 34.9 mN/m.
  • (4) to (6) Curable Composition (A2-1′)
  • The same composition as that of Example 1 was used as a curable composition (A2-1′).
  • A difference in viscosity between the curable composition (A1-1′) except the solvent component (d1) and the curable composition (A2-1′) except the solvent component (d2) was 1.89 mPa·s.
  • (7) Photo-Nanoimprint Process
  • As in Example 1, the surface tension of the curable composition (A1-1′) arranged in the lower layer is higher than the surface tension of the curable composition (A2-1′) dispensed dropwise in the upper layer, and hence the Marangoni effect is expressed and the expansion (prespread) of the droplets of the curable composition (A2-1′) is quick.
  • As in Example 1, the mixture of the curable composition (A1-1′) and the curable composition (A2-1′) satisfactorily cures in the light irradiating step.
  • However, in this comparative example, the distribution of the thickness of the liquid film of the curable composition (A1-1′) due to an influence of the airflow of a gas for atmosphere control occurs. As a result, the expression of the Marangoni effect on the curable composition (A2-1′) arranged in a portion having a small thickness is weak, and hence the expansion of the droplets is slow. Accordingly, in some places of a peripheral shot region affected by the gas for atmosphere control, a filling time is long, and hence the productivity and/or accuracy of a photo-nanoimprint process are/is low.
  • Comparative Example 2
  • (1) Preparation of Curable Composition (A1-2′)
  • A component (a1), a component (b1), a component (c1), and a component (d1) described below were blended, and the blend was filtered with a 0.2-micrometer filter made of ultrahigh-molecular weight polyethylene to prepare a curable composition (A1-2′) of Comparative Example 2.
  • (1-1) Component (a1): 100 Parts by Weight in Total
  • Neopentyl glycol diacrylate (manufactured by Kyoeisha Chemical Co., Ltd., trade name: NP-A): 100 parts by weight
  • (1-2) Component (b1): 0 Parts by Weight in Total
  • The component (b1) was not added.
  • (1-3) Component (c1): 0 Parts by Weight in Total
  • The component (c1) was not added.
  • (1-4) Component (d1): 33,000 Parts by Weight in Total
  • Propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (manufactured by Tokyo Chemical Industry Co., Ltd., abbreviation: PGMEA): 33,000 parts by weight
  • (2) Evaluation of Viscosity of Curable Composition (A1-2′)
  • The viscosity of a composition except the solvent component (d1) of the curable composition (A1-2′) at 25° C. was evaluated in the same manner as in Example 1. As a result, the viscosity was 5.33 mPa·s.
  • (3) Measurement of Surface Tension of Curable Composition (A1-2′)
  • The surface tension of a composition except the solvent component (d1) of the curable composition (A1-2′) at 25° C. was measured in the same manner as in Example 1. As a result, the surface tension was 31.5 mN/m.
  • (4) to (6) Curable Composition (A2-2′)
  • The same composition as that of Example 1 was used as a curable composition (A2-2′).
  • A difference in viscosity between the curable composition (A1-2′) except the solvent component (d1) and the curable composition (A2-2′) except the solvent component (d2) was 1.31 mPa·s.
  • (7) Photo-nanoimprint Process
  • As in Example 1, the surface tension of the curable composition (A1-2′) arranged in the lower layer is higher than the surface tension of the curable composition (A2-2′) dispensed dropwise in the upper layer, and hence the Marangoni effect is expressed and the expansion (prespread) of the droplets of the curable composition (A2-2′) is quick.
  • As in Example 1, the mixture of the curable composition (A1-2′) and the curable composition (A2-2′) satisfactorily cures in the light irradiating step.
  • However, in this comparative example, the distribution of the thickness of the liquid film of the curable composition (A1-2′) due to an influence of the airflow of a gas for atmosphere control occurs. As a result, the expression of the Marangoni effect on the curable composition (A2-2′) arranged in a portion having a small thickness is weak, and hence the expansion of the droplets is slow. Accordingly, in some places of a peripheral shot region affected by the gas for atmosphere control, a filling time is long, and hence the productivity and/or accuracy of a photo-nanoimprint process are/is low.
  • Comparative Example 3
  • (1) To (3) Preparation of Curable Composition (A1-3′)
  • The same composition as that of Example 1 was used as a curable composition (A1-3′).
  • (4) Preparation of Curable Composition (A2-3′)
  • A component (a2), a component (b2), a component (c2), and a component (d2) described below were blended, and the blend was filtered with a 0.2-micrometer filter made of ultrahigh-molecular weight polyethylene to prepare a curable composition (A2-3′) of Comparative Example 3.
  • (4-1) Component (a2): 100 Parts by Weight in Total
  • 2-ethyl-2-adamantyl acrylate (manufactured by Osaka Organic Chemical Industry Ltd., trade name: EtADA): 75 parts by weight
  • Dimethyloltricyclodecane diacrylate (manufactured by Kyoeisha Chemical Co., Ltd., abbreviation: DCPDA): 25 parts by weight
  • (4-2) Component (b2): 3 Parts by Weight in Total
  • Irgacure 369 (manufactured by BASF, abbreviation: I.369): 3 parts by weight
  • (4-3) Component (c2): 1.1 Parts by Weight in Total
  • The same formulation as that of Example 1 was adopted.
  • (4-4) Component (d2): 0 Parts by Weight in Total
  • The component (d2) was not added in the same manner as in Example 1.
  • (5) Evaluation of Viscosity of Curable Composition (A2-3′)
  • The viscosity of a composition except the solvent component (d2) of the curable composition (A2-3′) at 25° C. was evaluated in the same manner as in Example 1. As a result, the viscosity was 54.6 mPa·s. A difference in viscosity between the curable composition (A1-3′) except the solvent component (d1) and the curable composition (A2-3′) except the solvent component (d2) was 30.1 mPa·s.
  • (6) Measurement of Surface Tension of Curable Composition (A2-3′)
  • The surface tension of a composition except the solvent component (d2) of the curable composition (A2-3′) was measured in the same manner as in Example 1. As a result, the surface tension was 30.3 mN/m.
  • (7) Photo-Nanoimprint Process
  • As in Example 1, the liquid film of the curable composition (A1-3′) arranged as the lower layer is formed. The distribution of the thickness or composition of the liquid film of the curable composition (A1-3′) due to an influence of the airflow of a gas for atmosphere control does not occur. However, the viscosity of the curable composition (A2-3′) is higher than 40 mPa·s, and hence the curable composition (A2-3′) cannot be arranged by the inkjet method most preferred as a method for the discrete arrangement in accordance with the density of a pattern. That is, there cannot be provided a highly accurate photo-nanoimprint process.
  • Summary of Examples and Comparative Examples
  • The composition tables of Examples 1 to 6 and Comparative Examples 0 to 3 are collectively shown in Table and Table 2, and the effects of the invention are collectively shown in Table 3.
  • TABLE 1
    Composition table of curable composition
    (A1) (part(s) by weight)
    Component Component Component Component
    (a1) (b1) (c1) (d1)
    Example 1 TMPTA(100) Absent Absent PGMEA
    Example 2 (33,000)
    Example 3 DCPDA(100)
    Example 4 ADDA(100)
    Example 5 V#360(100)
    Example 6 DCPDA(25)/
    V#335(75)
    Comparative (Curable composition (A1) was not used)
    Example 0
    Comparative HDODA(100) Absent Absent PGMEA
    Example 1 (33,000)
    Comparative NP-A(100)
    Example 2
    Comparative TMPTA(100)
    Example 3
  • TABLE 2
    Composition table of curable composition
    (A2) (part(s) by weight)
    Component Component Component Component
    (a2) (b2) (c2) (d2)
    Example 1 IB-XA(9) I.369(3) DEO-15(1.1) Absent
    V#160(38)
    NP-A(47)
    Example 2 IB-XA(61.6) L.TPO(3)
    Medol10(10)
    HDODA(22.4)
    Example 3 IB-XA(9) I.369(3)
    Example 4 V#160(38)
    Example 5 NP-A(47)
    Example 6
    Comparative
    Example 0
    Comparative
    Example 1
    Comparative
    Example 2
    Comparative EtADA(75)
    Example 3 DCPDA(25)
  • TABLE 3
    Effects of invention
    Difference in
    viscosity between
    Composition (A1) Composition (A2) composition (A1)
    except component except component except component
    (d1) (d2) (d1) and the curable
    Surface Surface composition (A2) Influence on
    Viscosity tension Viscosity tension except component Pre- peripheral
    (mPa · s) (mN/m) (mPa · s) (mN/m) (d2) (mPa · s) spread shot region
    Example 1 84.7 35.5 4.02 29.08 80.68 Fast Absent
    Example 2 6.81 26.1 77.89 Fast Absent
    Example 3 126.1 39.2 4.02 29.08 122.08 Fast Absent
    Example 4 151.6 38.1 147.58 Fast Absent
    Example 5 66.6 37.7 62.58 Fast Absent
    Example 6 26.0 38.5 21.98 Fast Absent
    Comparative (Composition (A1) Slow Absent
    Example 0 was not used)
    Comparative 5.91 34.9 1.89 Fast Present
    Example 1
    Comparative 5.33 31.5 1.31 Fast Present
    Example 2
    Comparative 84.7 35.5 54.6 30.3 30.1 Process cannot be
    Example 3 performed
  • In Table 3, the evaluation of the prespread was a relative evaluation with reference to Comparative Example 0. In other words, the prespread was evaluated as being “fast” when its speed was faster than that of Comparative Example 0, and the prespread was evaluated as being “slow” when its speed was on the same level with that of Comparative Example 0 or slower than that of Comparative Example 0. The prespread of each of Examples 1 to 5 and Comparative Examples 1 to 2 is faster than that of Comparative Example 0, in other words, the case where the curable composition (A1) is not used by virtue of the Marangoni effect.
  • In each of Examples 1 to 5 and Comparative Example 0, the airflow of the gas for atmosphere control has no influence on the peripheral shot region. In each of Comparative Examples 1 and 2, an influence of the gas exists, and hence such a problem as described below occurs: the number of non-filling defects is large or a filling time is long.
  • As described above, it is shown that in each of Examples 1 to 5, high-speed prespread is obtained without any influence on the peripheral shot region.
  • It is shown from the foregoing that when the method of this embodiment is used, a photo-nanoimprint pattern can be formed at high throughput and with high accuracy.
  • While the present invention has been described with reference to exemplary embodiments, it is to be understood that the invention is not limited to the disclosed exemplary embodiments. The scope of the following claims is to be accorded the broadest interpretation so as to encompass all such modifications and equivalent structures and functions.
  • This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/315,734, filed Mar. 31, 2016, which is hereby incorporated by reference herein in its entirety.

Claims (24)

What is claimed is:
1. A pattern forming method, comprising in the below-mentioned order:
a first laying step (1) of laying a layer formed of a curable composition (A1) containing at least a polymerizable compound (a1) on a surface of a substrate;
a second laying step (2) of dispensing droplets of a curable composition (A2) containing at least a polymerizable compound (a2) dropwise discretely onto the layer formed of the curable composition (A1) to lay the droplets;
a mold contacting step (3) of sandwiching a mixture layer obtained by partially mixing the curable composition (A1) and the curable composition (A2) between a mold and the substrate;
a light irradiating step (4) of irradiating the mixture layer with light from the side of the mold to cure the layer; and
a releasing step (5) of releasing the mold from the mixture layer after the curing,
the curable composition (A1) except a solvent having a viscosity at 25° C. of 40 mPa·s or more and less than 500 mPa·s, the first laying step (1) comprising forming a liquid film of the curable composition (A1),
the curable composition (A2) except a solvent having a viscosity at 25° C. of 1 mPa·s or more and less than 40 mPa·s, the second laying step (2) comprising forming droplets that are arranged discretely.
2. A pattern forming method according to claim 1, wherein the viscosity of the curable composition (A1) except the solvent is higher than the viscosity of the curable composition (A2) except the solvent by 30 mPa·s or more.
3. A pattern forming method according to claim 1, wherein a surface tension of the curable composition (A1) except a solvent is higher than a surface tension of the curable composition (A2) except a solvent.
4. A pattern forming method according to claim 1, wherein a material for a surface of the mold comprises quartz.
5. A pattern forming method according to claim 1, wherein the mold contacting step is performed under an atmosphere containing a condensable gas.
6. A pattern forming method according to claim 5, wherein the step of dispensing droplets is performed under an atmosphere of a mixed gas containing the condensable gas and a non-condensable gas.
7. A pattern forming method according to claim 6, wherein the non-condensable gas is helium.
8. A pattern forming method according to claim 5, wherein the condensable gas is 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane.
9. A method of producing a processed substrate, comprising the pattern forming method of claim 1.
10. A method of producing an optical component, comprising the pattern forming method of claim 1.
11. A method of producing a quartz mold replica, comprising the pattern forming method of claim 1.
12. A pattern forming method according to claim 1, wherein the pattern comprises a nanosize groove/land pattern based on a photocured product of the curable compositions.
13. A pattern forming method, comprising in the below-mentioned order:
a first laying step (1) of laying a layer formed of a curable composition (A1) containing at least a polymerizable compound (a1) on a surface of a substrate;
a second laying step (2) of dispensing droplets of a curable composition (A2) containing at least a polymerizable compound (a2) dropwise discretely onto the layer formed of the curable composition (A1) to lay the droplets;
a mold contacting step (3) of sandwiching a mixture layer obtained by partially mixing the curable composition (A1) and the curable composition (A2) between a mold and the substrate;
a light irradiating step (4) of irradiating the mixture layer with light from the side of the mold to cure the layer; and
a releasing step (5) of releasing the mold from the mixture layer after the curing,
the first laying step (1) comprising forming a liquid film of the curable composition (A1) on the substrate,
the curable composition (A1) except a solvent having a viscosity at 25° C. of 20 mPa·s or more and less than 500 mPa·s,
the liquid film of the curable composition (A1) having a volatile amount of 10 μg/m3 or less,
the volatile amount being a value to be determined by forming a coating of the liquid film on a substrate of 300 mmφ, then putting it into a container having a volume of 0.8 m3, subsequently forcing air showing a dew point of −40° C. or lower to flow through the container at a rate of 0.3 L/min, then collecting the air having flowed through the container by using a collection tube for 30 minutes to collect 9 liters of the air, and measuring the total amount of volatile components volatilized from the liquid film of the curable composition (A1) by gas chromatography,
the second laying step (2) comprising forming droplets that are arranged discretely on the liquid film of the curable composition (A1),
the curable composition (A2) except a solvent having a viscosity at 25° C. of 1 mPa·s or more and less than 40 mPa·s.
14. A pattern forming method according to claim 13, wherein the viscosity of the curable composition (A1) except the solvent is higher than the viscosity of the curable composition (A2) except the solvent by 20 mPa·s or more.
15. A pattern forming method according to claim 13, wherein a surface tension of the curable composition (A1) except a solvent is higher than a surface tension of the curable composition (A2) except a solvent.
16. A method of producing a processed substrate, comprising the pattern forming method of claim 13.
17. A method of producing an optical component, comprising the pattern forming method of claim 13.
18. A method of producing a quartz mold replica, comprising the pattern forming method of claim 13.
19. An imprint pretreatment coating material which forms a liquid film as pretreatment coating on a substrate and promotes spreading of components of liquid droplets in the plane of the substrate when the liquid droplets are dispensed onto the liquid film,
the imprint pretreatment coating material containing a polymerizable component,
the imprint pretreatment coating material except a solvent having a viscosity at 25° C. of 40 mPa·s or more and less than 500 mPa·s,
the liquid droplets to be dispensed onto the liquid film having a viscosity at 25° C. of 1 mPa·s or more and less than 40 mPa·s.
20. A set comprising the imprint pretreatment coating material of claim 19 and an imprint resist to be dispensed onto a substrate coated with the imprint pretreatment coating material.
21. A set according to claim 20, wherein a surface tension of the imprint pretreatment coating material except a solvent is higher than a surface tension of the imprint resist except a solvent.
22. An imprint resist to be used for the set of claim 21.
23. A pretreatment method for performing imprint processing of a substrate with arranging a curable composition on the substrate, comprising coating a substrate with the imprint pretreatment coating material of claim 19.
24. A pattern forming method for forming a pattern on a substrate, comprising dispensing a resist dropwise discretely on a substrate coated with the imprint pretreatment coating material of claim 19.
US15/426,282 2016-03-31 2017-02-07 Pattern forming method as well as production methods for processed substrate, optical component, circuit board, electronic component and imprint mold Pending US20170283632A1 (en)

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US15/426,282 US20170283632A1 (en) 2016-03-31 2017-02-07 Pattern forming method as well as production methods for processed substrate, optical component, circuit board, electronic component and imprint mold
KR1020187030397A KR20180126026A (en) 2016-03-31 2017-03-23 Pattern forming method, manufacturing method of substrate, optical component manufacturing method, circuit board manufacturing method, electronic component manufacturing method, and imprint mold manufacturing method
PCT/JP2017/011736 WO2017170128A1 (en) 2016-03-31 2017-03-23 Pattern-forming method, method for producing processing substrate, method for producing optical component, method for producing circuit substrate, method for producing electronic component, and method for producing imprint mold
CN201780022065.8A CN109075031A (en) 2016-03-31 2017-03-23 Pattern forming method, manufacturing method, the manufacturing method of optical component, the manufacturing method of circuit board, the manufacturing method of the manufacturing method of electronic component and imprint mold for processing substrate
JP2017011736A JPWO2017170128A1 (en) 2016-03-31 2017-03-23 Pattern forming method, a method of manufacturing a processed substrate, a method of manufacturing an optical component, a method of manufacturing a circuit board, a method of manufacturing an electronic component, the manufacturing method of imprint mold
TW106110850A TWI629160B (en) 2016-03-31 2017-03-30 The method of pattern formation, a method for producing and processing a substrate, the method of manufacturing an optical component, the method of manufacturing a circuit board, the electronic part manufacturing method, a method of manufacturing a transfer mold

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US10095106B2 (en) 2016-03-31 2018-10-09 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Removing substrate pretreatment compositions in nanoimprint lithography
US10134588B2 (en) 2016-03-31 2018-11-20 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Imprint resist and substrate pretreatment for reducing fill time in nanoimprint lithography
US10317793B2 (en) 2017-03-03 2019-06-11 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Substrate pretreatment compositions for nanoimprint lithography

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TW201817582A (en) * 2016-09-16 2018-05-16 Fujifilm Corp Pattern forming method and method for producing semiconductor element

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US20080055581A1 (en) * 2004-04-27 2008-03-06 Rogers John A Devices and methods for pattern generation by ink lithography
US8846195B2 (en) * 2005-07-22 2014-09-30 Canon Nanotechnologies, Inc. Ultra-thin polymeric adhesion layer
KR20130087494A (en) * 2010-06-11 2013-08-06 호야 가부시키가이샤 Substrate with adhesion promoting layer, method for producing mold, and method for producing master mold
JP2014093385A (en) * 2012-11-02 2014-05-19 Fujifilm Corp Method of manufacturing adhesion film for imprint and method of forming pattern
JP6047049B2 (en) * 2013-03-27 2016-12-21 富士フイルム株式会社 Composition, cured product, a method of manufacturing a laminate, the lower film, a pattern forming method, a manufacturing method of a pattern and a semiconductor resist
EP3158578A4 (en) * 2014-07-08 2018-03-07 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Adhesion layer composition, method for forming film by nanoimprinting, methods for manufacturing optical component, circuit board and electronic apparatus
JP6011671B2 (en) * 2015-04-02 2016-10-19 大日本印刷株式会社 Imprint for the board and the imprint method
JP6141500B2 (en) * 2015-09-08 2017-06-07 キヤノン株式会社 Pretreatment of the substrate to reduce the filling time in nanoimprint lithography

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US10095106B2 (en) 2016-03-31 2018-10-09 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Removing substrate pretreatment compositions in nanoimprint lithography
US10134588B2 (en) 2016-03-31 2018-11-20 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Imprint resist and substrate pretreatment for reducing fill time in nanoimprint lithography
US10317793B2 (en) 2017-03-03 2019-06-11 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Substrate pretreatment compositions for nanoimprint lithography

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