US20040256217A1 - Coils for generating a plasma and for sputtering - Google Patents

Coils for generating a plasma and for sputtering Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20040256217A1
US20040256217A1 US10896155 US89615504A US20040256217A1 US 20040256217 A1 US20040256217 A1 US 20040256217A1 US 10896155 US10896155 US 10896155 US 89615504 A US89615504 A US 89615504A US 20040256217 A1 US20040256217 A1 US 20040256217A1
Authority
US
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
coil
target
material
rf
plasma
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US10896155
Inventor
Jaim Nulman
Sergio Edelstein
Mani Subramani
Zheng Xu
Howard Grunes
Avi Tepman
John Forster
Praburam Gopalraja
Original Assignee
Jaim Nulman
Sergio Edelstein
Mani Subramani
Zheng Xu
Howard Grunes
Avi Tepman
John Forster
Praburam Gopalraja
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J37/00Discharge tubes with provision for introducing objects or material to be exposed to the discharge, e.g. for the purpose of examination or processing thereof
    • H01J37/32Gas-filled discharge tubes, e.g. for surface treatment of objects such as coating, plating, etching, sterilising or bringing about chemical reactions
    • H01J37/34Gas-filled discharge tubes, e.g. for surface treatment of objects such as coating, plating, etching, sterilising or bringing about chemical reactions operating with cathodic sputtering
    • H01J37/3411Constructional aspects of the reactor
    • H01J37/3438Electrodes other than cathode
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J37/00Discharge tubes with provision for introducing objects or material to be exposed to the discharge, e.g. for the purpose of examination or processing thereof
    • H01J37/32Gas-filled discharge tubes, e.g. for surface treatment of objects such as coating, plating, etching, sterilising or bringing about chemical reactions
    • H01J37/34Gas-filled discharge tubes, e.g. for surface treatment of objects such as coating, plating, etching, sterilising or bringing about chemical reactions operating with cathodic sputtering
    • H01J37/3402Gas-filled discharge tubes, e.g. for surface treatment of objects such as coating, plating, etching, sterilising or bringing about chemical reactions operating with cathodic sputtering using supplementary magnetic fields

Abstract

A sputtering coil for a plasma chamber in a semiconductor fabrication system is provided. The sputtering coil couples energy into a plasma and also provides a source of sputtering material to be sputtered onto a workpiece from the coil to supplement material being sputtered from a target onto the workpiece. Alternatively a plurality of coils may be provided, one primarily for coupling energy into the plasma and the other primarily for providing a supplemental source of sputtering material to be sputtered on the workpiece.

Description

    RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • [0001]
    This application is a continuation-in-part application of copending application Ser. No. 08/644,096, entitled “Coils for Generating a Plasma and for Sputtering,” filed May 10, 1996 (attorney docket No. 1390/PVD/DV) which is a continuation-in-part of copending application Ser. No. 08/647,184, entitled “Sputtering Coil for Generating a Plasma,” filed May 9, 1996 (Attorney Docket 1383/PVD/DV).
  • FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • [0002]
    The present invention relates to plasma generators, and more particularly, to a method and apparatus for generating a plasma to sputter deposit a layer of material in the fabrication of semiconductor devices.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • [0003]
    Low pressure radio frequency (RF) generated plasmas have become convenient sources of energetic ions and activated atoms which can be employed in a variety of semiconductor device fabrication processes including surface treatments, depositions, and etching processes. For example, to deposit materials onto a semiconductor wafer using a sputter deposition process, a plasma is produced in the vicinity of a sputter target material which is negatively biased. Ions created within the plasma impact the surface of the target to dislodge, i.e., “sputter” material from the target. The sputtered materials are then transported and deposited on the surface of the semiconductor wafer.
  • [0004]
    Sputtered material has a tendency to travel in straight line paths from the target to the substrate being deposited at angles which are oblique to the surface of the substrate. As a consequence, materials deposited in etched trenches and holes of semiconductor devices having trenches or holes with a high depth to width aspect ratio, can bridge over causing undesirable cavities in the deposition layer. To prevent such cavities, the sputtered material can be redirected into substantially vertical paths between the target and the substrate by negatively charging the substrate and positioning appropriate vertically oriented electric fields adjacent the substrate if the sputtered material is sufficiently ionized by the plasma. However, material sputtered by a low density plasma often has an ionization degree of less than 1% which is usually insufficient to avoid the formation of an excessive number of cavities. Accordingly, it is desirable to increase the density of the plasma to increase the ionization rate of the sputtered material in order to decrease the formation of unwanted cavities in the deposition layer. As used herein, the term “dense plasma” is intended to refer to one that has a high electron and ion density.
  • [0005]
    There are several known techniques for exciting a plasma with RF fields including capacitive coupling, inductive coupling and wave heating. In a standard inductively coupled plasma (ICP) generator, RF current passing through a coil surrounding the plasma induces electromagnetic currents in the plasma. These currents heat the conducting plasma by ohmic heating, so that it is sustained in steady state. As shown in U.S. Pat. No. 4,362,632, for example, current through a coil is supplied by an RF generator coupled to the coil through an impedance matching network, such that the coil acts as the first windings of a transformer. The plasma acts as a single turn second winding of a transformer.
  • [0006]
    In many high density plasma applications, it is preferable for the chamber to be operated at a relatively high pressure so that the frequency of collisions between the plasma ions and the deposition material atoms is increased to increase thereby the resident time of the sputtered material in the high density plasma zone. However, scattering of the deposition atoms is likewise increased. This scattering of the deposition atoms typically causes the thickness of the deposition layer on the substrate to be thicker on that portion of the substrate aligned with the center of the target and thinner in the outlying regions. It has been found that the deposition layer can be made more uniform by reducing the distance between the target and the substrate which reduces the effect of the plasma scattering.
  • [0007]
    On the other hand, in order to increase the ionization of the plasma to increase the sputtering rate and the ionization of the sputtered atoms, it has been found desirable to increase the distance between the target and the substrate. The coil which is used to couple energy into the plasma typically encircles the space between the target and the substrate. If the target is positioned too closely to the substrate, the ionization of the plasma can be adversely affected. Thus, in order to accommodate the coil which is coupling RF energy into the plasma, it has often been found necessary to space the target from the substrate a certain minimum distance even though such a minimum spacing can have an adverse effect on the uniformity of the deposition.
  • SUMMARY OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
  • [0008]
    It is an object of the present invention to provide an improved method and apparatus for generating a plasma within a chamber and for sputter depositing a layer which obviate, for practical purposes, the above-mentioned limitations.
  • [0009]
    These and other objects and advantages are achieved by, in accordance with one aspect of the invention, a plasma generating apparatus which inductively couples electromagnetic energy from a coil which is also adapted to sputter material from the coil onto the workpiece to supplement the material being sputtered from a target onto the workpiece. The coil is preferably made of the same type of material as the target so that the atoms sputtered from the coil combine with the atoms sputtered from the target to form a layer of the desired type of material. It has been found that the distribution of material sputtered from a coil in accordance with one embodiment of the present invention tends to be thicker at the edges of the substrate and thinner toward the center of the substrate. Such a distribution is very advantageous for compensating for the distribution profile of material sputtered from a target in which the material from the target tends to deposit more thickly in the center of the substrate as compared to the edges. As a consequence, the materials deposited from both the coil and the target can combine to form a layer of relatively uniform thickness from the center of the substrate to its edges.
  • [0010]
    In one embodiment, both the target and the coil are formed from relatively pure titanium so that the material sputtered onto the substrate from both the target and the coil is substantially the same material, that is, titanium. In other embodiments, other types of materials may be deposited such as aluminum. In which case, the coil as well as the target would be made from the same grade of aluminum, i.e., target grade aluminum. If it is desired to deposit a mixture or combination of materials, the target and the coil can be formed from the same mixture of materials or alternatively from different materials such that the materials combine or mix when deposited on the substrate.
  • [0011]
    In yet another embodiment, a second coil-like structure in addition to the first coil, provides a supplemental target for sputtering material. This second coil is preferably not coupled to an RF generator but is instead biased with DC power. Although material may or may not continue to be sputtered from the first coil, sputtered material from the coils will originate primarily from the second coil because of its DC biasing. Such an arrangement permits the ratio of the DC bias of the primary target to the DC bias of the second coil to be set to optimize compensation for non-uniformity in thickness of the material being deposited from the primary target. In addition, the RF power applied to the first coil can be set independently of the biases applied to the target and the second coil for optimization of the plasma density for ionization.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0012]
    [0012]FIG. 1 is a perspective, partial cross-sectional view of a plasma generating chamber in accordance with one embodiment of the present invention.
  • [0013]
    [0013]FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram of the electrical interconnections to the plasma generating chamber of FIG. 1.
  • [0014]
    [0014]FIG. 3 is a perspective view of a coil ring for a plasma generating apparatus in accordance with another embodiment of the present invention.
  • [0015]
    [0015]FIG. 4 is a schematic partial cross-sectional view of a plasma generating chamber in accordance with another embodiment of the present invention utilizing a coil ring as shown in FIG. 3.
  • [0016]
    [0016]FIG. 5 illustrates a plurality of coil ring support standoffs for the plasma generating chamber of FIG. 4.
  • [0017]
    [0017]FIG. 6 illustrates a plurality of coil ring feedthrough standoffs for the plasma generating chamber of FIG. 4.
  • [0018]
    [0018]FIG. 7 is a chart depicting the respective deposition profiles for material deposited from the coil and the target of the apparatus of FIG. 1.
  • [0019]
    [0019]FIG. 8 is a graph depicting the effect on deposition uniformity of the ratio of the RF power applied to the coil relative to the DC power bias of the target.
  • [0020]
    [0020]FIG. 9 is a schematic partial cross-sectional view of a plasma generating chamber in accordance with another embodiment of the present invention utilizing dual coils, one of which is RF powered for plasma generation and the other of which is DC biased to provide a supplemental target.
  • [0021]
    [0021]FIG. 10 is a schematic diagram of the electrical interconnections to the plasma generating chamber of FIG. 10.
  • [0022]
    [0022]FIG. 11 illustrates a plurality of coil ring feedthrough standoffs for a plasma generating chamber having two multiple ring coils in which the rings of the two coils are interleaved.
  • [0023]
    [0023]FIG. 12 is a schematic diagram of the electrical interconnections to the plasma generating chamber of FIG. 11.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0024]
    Referring first to FIGS. 1 and 2, a plasma generator in accordance with a first embodiment of the present invention comprises a substantially cylindrical plasma chamber 100 which is received in a vacuum chamber 102 (shown schematically in FIG. 2). The plasma chamber 100 of this embodiment has a single turn coil 104 which is carried internally by a shield 106. The shield 106 protects the interior walls (not shown) of the vacuum chamber 102 from the material being deposited within the interior of the plasma chamber 100.
  • [0025]
    Radio frequency (RF) energy from an RF generator 106 is radiated from the coil 104 into the interior of the deposition system 100, which energizes a plasma within the deposition system 100. The energized plasma produces a plasma ion flux which strikes a negatively biased target 110 positioned at the top of the chamber 102. The target 110 is negatively biased by a DC power source 111. The plasma ions eject material from the target 110 onto a substrate 112 which may be a wafer or other workpiece which is supported by a pedestal 114 at the bottom of the deposition system 100. A rotating magnet assembly 116 provided above the target 110 produces magnetic fields which sweep over the face of the target 110 to promote uniform erosion of the target.
  • [0026]
    The atoms of material ejected from the target 110 are in turn ionized by the plasma being energized by the coil 104 which is inductively coupled to the plasma. The RF generator 106 is preferably coupled to the coil 104 through an amplifier and impedance matching network 118. The other end of the coil 104 is coupled to ground, preferably through a capacitor 120 which may be a variable capacitor. The ionized deposition material is attracted to the substrate 112 and forms a deposition layer thereon. The pedestal 114 may be negatively biasd by an AC (or DC or RF) source 121 so as to externally bias the substrate 112. As set forth in greater detail in copending application Ser. No. ______, filed Jul. 9, 1996 (Attorney Docket No. 1402/PVD/DV), Express Mail Certificate No. EM 129 431 588, entitled “Method for Providing Full-Face High Density Plasma Deposition” by Ken Ngan, Simon Hui and Gongda Yao, which is assigned to the assignee of the present application and is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety, external biasing of the substrate 112 may optionally be eliminated.
  • [0027]
    As will be explained in greater detail below, in accordance with one aspect of the present invention, material is also sputtered from the coil 104 onto the substrate 112 to supplement the material which is being sputtered from the target 110 onto the workpiece. As a result, the layer deposited onto the substrate 112 is formed from material from both the coil 104 and the target 110 which can substantially improve the uniformity of the resultant layer.
  • [0028]
    The coil 104 is carried on the shield 106 by a plurality of coil standoffs 122 (FIG. 1) which electrically insulate the coil 104 from the supporting shield 106. As set forth in greater detail in copending application Ser. No. 08/647,182, entitled Recessed Coil for Generating a Plasma, filed May 9, 1996 (Attorney Docket # 1186/PVD/DV) and assigned to the assignee of the present application, which application is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety, the insulating coil standoffs 122 have an internal labyrinth structure which permits repeated deposition of conductive materials from the target 110 onto the coil standoffs 122 while preventing the formation of a complete conducting path of deposited material from the coil 104 to the shield 106 which could short the coil 104 to the shield 1.06 (which is typically at ground).
  • [0029]
    RF power is applied to the coil 104 by feedthroughs (not shown) which are supported by insulating feedthrough standoffs 124. The feedthrough standoffs 124, like the coil support standoffs 122, permit repeated deposition of conductive material from the target onto the feedthrough standoff 124 without the formation of a conducting path which could short the coil 104 to the shield 106. Thus, the coil feedthrough standoff 124 has an internal labyrinth structure somewhat similar to that of the coil standoff 122 to prevent the formation of a short between the coil 104 and the wall 140 of the shield.
  • [0030]
    As best seen in FIG. 1, the plasma chamber 100 has a dark space shield ring 130 which provides a ground plane with respect to the target 110 above which is negatively biased. In addition, as explained in greater detail in the aforementioned copending application Ser. No. 08/647,182, the shield ring 130 shields the outer edges of the target from the plasma to reduce sputtering of the target outer edges. The dark space shield 130 performs yet another function in that it is positioned to shield the coil 104 (and the coil support standoffs 122 and feedthrough standoffs 124) from the material being sputtered from the target 110. The dark space shield 130 does not completely shield the coil 104 and its associated supporting structure from all of the material being sputtered since some of the sputtered material travels at an oblique angle with respect to the vertical axis of the plasma chamber 100. However, because much of the sputtered material does travel parallel to the vertical axis of the chamber or at relatively small oblique angles relative to the vertical axis, the dark space shield 130 which is positioned in an overlapping fashion above the coil 104, prevents a substantial amount of sputtered material from being deposited on the coil 104. By reducing the amount of material that would otherwise be deposited on the coil 104, the generation of particles by the material which is deposited on the coil 104 (and its supporting structures) can be substantially reduced.
  • [0031]
    In the illustrated embodiment, the dark space shield 130 is a closed continuous ring of titanium (where titanium deposition is occurring in the chamber 100) or stainless steel having a generally inverted frusto-conical shape. The dark space shield extends inward toward the center of plasma chamber 100 so as to overlap the coil 104 by a distance of {fraction (1/4)} inch. It is recognized, of course, that the amount of overlap can be varied depending upon the relative size and placement of the coil and other factors. For example, the overlap may be increased to increase the shielding of the coil 104 from the sputtered material but increasing the overlap could also further shield the target from the plasma which may be undesirable in some applications. In an alternative embodiment, the coil 104 may be placed in a recessed coil chamber (not shown) to further protect the coil and reduce particle deposits on the workpiece.
  • [0032]
    The chamber shield 106 is generally bowl-shaped and includes a generally cylindrically shaped, vertically oriented wall 140 to which the standoffs 122 and 124 are attached to insulatively support the coil 104. The shield further has a generally annular-shaped floor wall (not shown) which surrounds the chuck or pedestal 114 which supports the workpiece 112 which has an 8″ diameter in the illustrated embodiment. A clamp ring (not shown) may be used to clamp the wafer to the chuck 114 and cover the gap between the floor wall of the shield 106 and the chuck 114.
  • [0033]
    The plasma chamber 100 is supported by an adapter ring assembly 152 which engages the vacuum chamber. The chamber shield 106 is grounded to the system ground through the adapter ring assembly 152. The dark space shield 130, like the chamber shield 106, is grounded through the adapter ring assembly 152.
  • [0034]
    The target 110 is generally disk-shaped and is also supported by the adapter ring assembly 152. However, the target 110 is negatively biased and therefore should be insulated from the adapter ring assembly 152 which is at ground. Accordingly, seated in a circular channel formed in the underside of the target 110 is a ceramic insulation ring assembly 172 which is also seated in a corresponding channel 174 in the upper side of the target 152. The insulator ring assembly 172 which may be made of a variety of insulative materials including ceramics spaces the target 110 from the adapter ring assembly 152 so that the target 110 may be adequately negatively biased. The target, adapter and ceramic ring assembly are provided with O-ring sealing surfaces (not shown) to provide a vacuum tight assembly from the vacuum chamber to the target 110.
  • [0035]
    The coil 104 of the illustrated embodiment is made of ½ by {fraction (1/8)} inch heavy duty bead blasted solid high-purity (preferably 99.995% pure) titanium ribbon formed into a single turn coil having a diameter of 10-12 inches. However, other highly conductive materials and shapes may be utilized depending upon the material being sputtered and other factors. For example, the ribbon may be as thin as {fraction (1/16)} inch and exceed 2 inches in height. Also, if the material to be sputtered is aluminum, both the target and the coil may be made of high purity aluminum. In addition to the ribbon shape illustrated, hollow tubing may be utilized, particularly if water cooling is desired.
  • [0036]
    Still further, instead of the ribbon shape illustrated, each turn of the coil, where the coil has multiple turns, may be implemented with a flat, open-ended annular ring such as that illustrated at 200 in FIG. 3. Such an arrangement is particularly advantageous for multiple turn coils. The advantage of a multiple turn coil is that the required current levels can be substantially reduced for a given RF power level. However, multiple turn coils tend to be more complicated and hence most costly and difficult to clean as compared to single turn coils. For example, a three turn helical coil of titanium and its associated supporting structure could be quite expensive. The cost of manufacture of a multiple turn coil can be substantially reduced by utilizing several such flat rings 200 a-200 c to form a multiple turn coil 104′ as illustrated in FIG. 4. Each ring is supported on one side by a support standoff 204 a-204 c and a pair of RF feedthrough standoffs 206 a-206 c and 208 a-208 c (FIG. 6) on the other side. As best seen in FIG. 5, the support standoffs 204 a-204 c are preferably positioned on the shield wall 210 in a staggered relationship. Each support standoff 204 a-204 c is received by a corresponding groove 212 (FIG. 3) formed in the underside of the corresponding coil ring 200 to secure the coil ring in place.
  • [0037]
    The coil rings 200 a-200 c are electrically connected together in series by RF feedthroughs which pass through the RF feedthrough standoffs 206 a-206 c and 208 a-208 c. In the same manner as the support standoffs 204 a-204 c, the feedthrough standoffs 206 a-206 c and 208 a-208 c are each received in a corresponding groove 212 (FIG. 3) formed in the underside of each coil ring adjacent each end of the coil ring. As schematically represented in FIG. 6, an RF waveguide 220 a external to the shield wall is coupled by the RF feedthrough in feedthrough standoff 206 a to one end of the lowest coil ring 200 a. The other end of the coil ring 200 a is coupled by the RF feedthrough in feedthrough standoff 208 a to another external RF waveguide 220 b which is coupled by the RF feedthrough in feedthrough standoff 206 b to one end of the middle coil ring 200 b. The other end of the coil ring 200 b is coupled by the RF feedthrough in feedthrough standoff 208 b to another external RF waveguide 220 c which is coupled by the RF feedthrough in feedthrough standoff 206 c to one end of the top coil ring 200 c. Finally, the other end of the top coil ring 200 c is coupled by the RF feedthrough in feedthrough standoff 208 c to another external RF waveguide 220 d. Coupled together in this manner, it is seen that the currents through the coil rings 200 a-200 c will be directed in the same direction such that the magnetic fields generated by the coil rings will constructively reinforce each other. Because the coil 104′ is a multiple turn coil, the current handling requirements of the feedthrough supports 206 and 208 can be substantially reduced as compared to those of the feedthrough supports 124 of the single turn coil 104 for a given RF power level.
  • [0038]
    As previously mentioned, in order to accommodate the coil 104 to facilitate ionization of the plasma, it has been found beneficial to space the target 110 from the surface of the workpiece 112. However, this increased spacing between the target and the workpiece can adversely impact the uniformity of the material being deposited from the target. As indicated at 250 in FIG. 7, such nonuniformity typically exhibits itself as a thickening of the deposited material toward the center of the workpiece with a consequent thinning of the deposited material toward the edges of the workpiece. In accordance with one feature of the present invention, this nonuniformity can be effectively compensated by sputtering deposition material not only from the sputter target 110 above the workpiece but also from the coil 104 encircling the edges of the workpiece. Because the edges of the workpiece are closer to the coil 104 than is the center of the workpiece, it has been found that the material sputtered from the coil tends to deposit more thickly toward the edges of the workpiece than the center, as indicated at 252 in FIG. 3. This is of course the reverse of the deposition pattern of material from the target 110. By appropriately adjusting the ratio of RF power level applied to the coil 104 to the DC power level of the bias applied to the target, it has been found that the deposition level of the material being sputtered from the coil 104 can be selected in such a manner as to compensate substantially for the nonuniformity of the deposition profile of the material from the target such that the overall deposition profile of the layer from both sources of sputtered material as indicated by the deposition profile 254 in FIG. 7 can be substantially more uniform than that which has often been obtained from the target alone. It is preferred that the coil supply sufficient sputtered material such that the material sputtered from the coil be deposited at a rate of at least 50 Å per minute as measured at the edge of the wafer in addition to that material being sputtered from the target and deposited on the wafer.
  • [0039]
    It is presently believed that the amount of sputtering which originates from the coil 104 as compared to the sputtering which originates from the target 110 is a function of the RF power applied to the coil 104 relative to the DC power applied to the target 110. By adjusting the ratio of the coil RF power to the target DC power, the relative amounts of material sputtered from the coil 104 and the target 110 may be varied so as to achieve the desired uniformity. As shown in FIG. 8, it is believed that a particular ratio of the coil RF power to the target DC power will achieve the smallest degree (represented as 0%) of non-uniformity of the layer of material deposited from both the coil and the target. As the RF power to the coil is increased relative to the DC power applied to the target, the deposited layer tends to be more edge thick as represented by the increasingly negative percentage of non-uniformity as shown in FIG. 8. (In the sign convention of FIG. 8, an edge thick non-uniformity was chosen to be represented by a negative percentage of non-uniformity and a center thick non-uniformity was chosen to be represented by a positive percentage of non-uniformity. The larger the absolute value of the percentage non-uniformity, the greater the degree of non-uniformity (either edge thick or center thick) represented by that percentage. Conversely, by decreasing the ratio of the RF power to the coil relative to the DC power applied to the target, the center of the deposited layer tends to grow increasingly thicker relative to the edges as represented by the increasingly positive percentage of non-uniformity. Thus, by adjusting the ratio of the RF power to the coil relative to the DC power biasing the target, the material being sputtered from the coil can be increased or decreased as appropriate to effectively compensate for non-uniformity of the material being deposited from the target to achieve a more uniform deposited layer comprising material from both the target and the coil. For the single turn coil 104, a coil RF power to target DC power ratio of approximately 1.5 has been found to provide satisfactory results on an 8 inch diameter wafer. FIG. 8 depicts the results of varying coil RF power to target DC power for a three turn coil in which a ratio of approximately 0.7 is indicated as being optimal.
  • [0040]
    It is further believed that the relative amounts of sputtering between the coil and the target may also be a function of the DC biasing of the coil 104 relative to that of the target 110. This DC biasing of the coil 104 may be adjusted in a variety of methods. For example, the matching network 302 typically includes inductors and capacitors. By varying the capacitance of one or more capacitors of the matching network, the DC biasing of the coil 104 might be adjusted to achieve the desired level of uniformity. In one embodiment, the RF power to the coil and the DC biasing of the coil 104 may have separate adjustment inputs to achieve the desired results. An alternative power arrangement could include two RF generators operated at slightly different frequencies. The output of one generator would be coupled to the coil in the conventional manner but the other generator at the slightly different frequency would be capacitively coupled to the coil such that a change in the power level of the second generator would change the DC bias of the coil. Such an arrangement could provide independent control of the RF power and DC bias applied to the coil. At present, it is believed that relatively large changes in DC bias to the coil for a given RF power level would be necessary to have a substantial effect on the amount of material sputtered from the coil.
  • [0041]
    Each of the embodiments discussed above utilized a single coil in the plasma chamber. It should be recognized that the present invention is applicable to plasma chambers having more than one RF powered coil. For example, the present invention may be applied to multiple coil chambers for launching helicon waves of the type described in copending application Ser. No. 08/559,345.
  • [0042]
    The appropriate RF generators and matching circuits are components well known to those skilled in the art. For example, an RF generator such as the ENI Genesis series which has the capability to “frequency hunt” for the best frequency match with the matching circuit and antenna is suitable. The frequency of the generator for generating the RF power to the coil 104 is preferably 2 MHz but it is anticipated that the range can vary from, for example, 1 MHz to 100 MHz. An RF power setting of 4.5 kW is preferred but a range of 1.5-5 kW is believed to be satisfactory. In some applications, energy may also be transferred to the plasma by applying AC or DC power to coils and other energy transfer members. A DC power setting for biasing the target 110 of 3 kW is preferred but a range of 2-5 kW and a pedestal bias voltage of −30 volts DC is believed to be satisfactory for many applications.
  • [0043]
    In the illustrated embodiment, the shield 106 has a diameter of 13½″ but it is anticipated that good results can be obtained so long as the shield has a diameter sufficient to extend beyond the outer diameter of the target, the substrate support and substrate, to shield the chamber from the plasma. The shields may be fabricated from a variety of materials including insulative materials such as ceramics or quartz. However, the shield and all metal surfaces likely to be coated with the target material are preferably made of the same material as the sputtered target material but may be made of a material such as stainless steel or copper. The material of the structure which will be coated should have a coefficient of thermal expansion which closely matches that of the material being sputtered to reduce flaking of sputtered material from the shield or other structure onto the wafer. In addition, the material to be coated should have good adhesion to the sputtered material. Thus for example if the deposited material is titanium, the preferred metal of the shields, brackets and other structures likely to be coated is bead blasted titanium. Any surfaces which are more likely to sputter such as the end caps of the coil support and feed through standoffs would preferably be made of the same type of material as the target such as high purity titanium, for example. Of course, if the material to be deposited is a material other than titanium, the preferred metal is the deposited material, stainless steel or copper. Adherence can also be improved by coating the structures with molybdenum prior to sputtering the target. However, it is preferred that the coil (or any other surface likely to sputter) not be coated with molybdenum or other materials since the molybdenum can contaminate the workpiece if sputtered from the coil.
  • [0044]
    The wafer to target space is preferably about 140 mm but can range from about 1.5″ to 8″. For this wafer to target spacing, satisfactory coverage, i.e., the ratio of aperture bottom deposition thickness to field deposition thickness, has been achieved with a coil diameter of about 11½ inches spaced from the target by a distance of about 2.9 inches. It has been found that increasing the diameter of the coil which moves the coil away from the workpiece edge has an adverse effect on bottom coverage. On the other hand, decreasing the coil diameter to move the coil closer to the wafer edge can adversely effect layer uniformity. It is believed that decreasing the coil diameter causes the coil to be more closely aligned with the target resulting in substantial deposition of material from the target onto the coil which in turn can adversely effect the uniformity of material being sputtered from the coil.
  • [0045]
    Deposition uniformity also appears to be a function of coil spacing from the target. As previously mentioned, a spacing of about 2.9 inches between the coil and target has been found satisfactory for a target to wafer spacing of 140 mm. Moving the coil vertically either toward or away from the target (or wafer) can adversely effect deposition layer uniformity.
  • [0046]
    As set forth above, the relative amounts of material sputtered from the target 110 and the coil 104 are a function of the ratio of the RF power applied to the coil and the DC power applied to the target. However, it is recognized that in some applications, an RF power level which is optimum for improving the uniformity of the deposited layer of materials from the coil and the target may not be optimum for generating a plasma density for ionization. FIG. 9 illustrates an alternative embodiment of a plasma chamber 100″ having a coil 104″ formed of a single open ended coil ring 200 d of the type depicted in FIG. 3. As shown in FIG. 10, the coil 104″ is coupled through the shield 308 by feedthrough standoffs 206 to a matching network 118 and an RF generator 106 in the same manner as the coils 104 and 104′ described above. However, the chamber 100″ has a second target 310 which, although generally shaped like a coil, is not coupled to an RF generator. Instead, the second target 310 formed of a flat closed ring 400 is coupled through feedthrough standoffs 206 to a variable negative DC bias source 312 as shown in FIG. 10. As a consequence, the chamber has three “targets,” the first and second targets 110 and 310, respectively, as well as the RF coil 104″. However, most of the material sputtered from the coil 104″ and the second target 310 originates from the DC biased target 310 rather than the RF powered coil 104″.
  • [0047]
    Such an arrangement has a number of advantages. Because most of the material sputtered from the coils originates from the second target 310 rather than the coil 104″, the relative amounts of material being sputtered from the coil 104″ and the first and second targets 110 and 310 are a function primarily of the relative DC power biasing the target 310 and the target 110. Hence the variable DC power sources 111 and 312 biasing the first target 110 and the second target 310, respectively, can be set to optimize the uniformity of the deposition of material more independently of the RF power setting for the RF generator 106 powering the coil 104″. Conversely, the RF power to the coil 104″ can be set more independently of the DC biases to the target 110 and the target 310 in order to optimize plasma density for ionization purposes.
  • [0048]
    In addition, it is believed that the RF power levels for the coil 104″ may be lower as compared to those for the coil 104. For example, a suitable power range for the coil 104″ is 1.5 to 3.5 kW RF. The power ranges for the primary target 110 and the secondary target, i.e., the coil 310, are 2-5 kW DC and 1-3 kW DC, respectively. Of course, values will vary depending upon the particular application.
  • [0049]
    [0049]FIGS. 11 and 12 show yet another alternative embodiment, which includes a multiple turn RF coil and a multiple ring secondary target in which the rings of the target are interleaved with the turns of the RF coil. The RF coil of FIG. 12, like the coil 104′ of FIGS. 4-6, is formed of flat rings 200 a-200 c which are electrically connected together in series by RF feedthroughs which pass through the RF feedthrough standoffs 206 a-206 c and 208 a-208 c and external waveguides 220 a-220 d to the RF source and RF ground.
  • [0050]
    Interleaved with the coil rings 200 a-200 c of the RF coil are the closed rings 400 a-400 c of the second target. As schematically represented in FIGS. 11 and 12, the negatively biasing DC power source 312 external to the shield wall is coupled by an external strap 330 a to a DC feedthrough in feedthrough standoff 206 d to the lowest ring 400 a of the second sputtering target. The target ring 400 a is also coupled by the DC feedthrough in feedthrough standoff 206 d to another external DC strap 330 b which is coupled by the DC feedthrough in feedthrough standoff 206 e to the middle target ring 400 b. The target ring 400 b is also coupled by the DC feedthrough in feedthrough standoff 206 e to another external strap 330 c which is coupled by the DC feedthrough in feedthrough standoff 206 f to the top target ring 400 c of sputtering secondary target.
  • [0051]
    Coupled together in this manner, it is seen that the target rings 400 a-400 c of the target 310′ will be negatively DC biased so that the majority of the material sputtered from the RF coil and the secondary 400 a-400 c target will originate primarily from the target rings 400 a-400 c of the secondary target. Because the RF coil is a multiple turn coil, the current handling requirements of the feedthrough supports 206 and 208 can be substantially reduced as compared to those of the feedthrough supports 124 of the single turn coil 104 for a given RF power level as set forth above. In addition, it is believed that the life of the sputtering rings can be enhanced as a result of using multiple rings. Although the secondary sputtering targets 310 and 400 a-400 c have been described as being fabricated from flat rings 400, it should be appreciated that the sputtering secondary targets may be fabricated from ribbon and tubular materials as well as in a variety of other shapes and sizes including cylinders and segments of cylinders. However, it is preferred that the secondary targets be shaped so as to be symmetrical about the axis of the substrate and encircle the interior of the chamber at the periphery of the plasma. The secondary target material should be a solid, conductive material and may be of the same type or a different type of conductive material than that of the primary target 110. Although the biasing of the primary and secondary targets has been described as DC biasing, it should be appreciated that in some applications, AC or RF biasing of one or both of the primary and secondary targets may be appropriate.
  • [0052]
    A variety of precursor gases may be utilized to generate the plasma including Ar, H2 or reactive gases such as NF3, CF4 and many others. Various precursor gas pressures are suitable including pressures of 0.1-50 mTorr. For ionized PVD, a pressure between 10 and 100 mTorr is preferred for best ionization of sputtered material.
  • [0053]
    It will, of course, be understood that modifications of the present invention, in its various aspects, will be apparent to those skilled in the art, some being apparent only after study others being matters of routine mechanical and electronic design. Other embodiments are also possible, their specific designs depending upon the particular application. As such, the scope of the invention should not be limited by the particular embodiments herein described but should be defined only by the appended claims and equivalents thereof.

Claims (24)

  1. 1. An apparatus for sputter deposition of a film layer onto a substrate, comprising:
    a vacuum chamber having a substrate support member maintainable therein;
    a first biasable target disposed in said chamber; and
    a second biasable target disposed in said chamber adjacent to and extending substantially around a space defined between said target and said substrate support.
  2. 2-40. Cancelled
  3. 41. An RF coil for sputter deposition of a layer of coil material onto a substrate on a substrate support in a sputter deposition chamber having a target, said RF coil comprising:
    a ribbon-shaped member having an exterior surface comprising a sputterable deposition material, said member being adapted to be carried within said chamber and to sputter deposition material from said member onto said substrate.
  4. 42. The coil of claim 41 wherein said member has a diameter sufficient to extend substantially around a space defined between said target and said substrate support.
  5. 43. The coil of claim 42 wherein said diameter is in a range of 10 to 12 inches.
  6. 44. The coil of claim 41 wherein said chamber has RF feedthrough standoffs and wherein said member has two ends, each of which is adapted to be coupled to an RF feedthrough standoff.
  7. 45. The coil of claim 41 wherein said sputterable deposition material is selected from the group of aluminum, titanium.
  8. 46. The coil of claim 41 wherein said member is a single turn coil.
  9. 47. The coil of claim 41 wherein said member has a height of {fraction (1/2)} inch.
  10. 48. The coil of claim 47 wherein said member has a thickness of {fraction (1/8)} inch.
  11. 49. The coil of claim 41 wherein said member has a height in excess of 2 inches.
  12. 50. The coil of claim 49 wherein said member is as thin as {fraction (1/16)} inch.
  13. 51. A coil for use with an RF generator, for sputter deposition of a film layer onto a substrate in a vacuum chamber having a substrate support maintainable therein, a plasma generation area within said chamber, and a shield having a wall which substantially encircles said plasma generation area and said substrate support, and a first biasable target disposed in said chamber, the coil comprising:
    a sputterable coil member having a first end adapted to be coupled to said RF generator and a second end adapted to be coupled to ground, said coil member being adapted to be insulatively carried by said wall, to substantially encircle said plasma generation area, to be positioned to couple energy inductively into said plasma generation area and to be positioned adjacent to said substrate support to sputter material from said coil onto said substrate.
  14. 52. The coil of claim 51 wherein said coil member is ribbon-shaped.
  15. 53. The coil of claim 51 wherein said member has a diameter sufficient to extend substantially around a space defined between said target and said substrate support.
  16. 54. The coil of claim 53 wherein said diameter is in a range of 10 to 12 inches.
  17. 55. The coil of claim 51 wherein said chamber has RF feedthrough standoffs and wherein said member has two ends, each of which is adapted to be coupled to an RF feedthrough standoff.
  18. 56. The coil of claim 51 wherein said sputterable deposition material is selected from the group of aluminum, titanium.
  19. 57. The coil of claim 51 wherein said member is a single turn coil.
  20. 58. The coil of claim 51 wherein said member has a height of {fraction (1/2)} inch.
  21. 59. The coil of claim 58 wherein said member has a thickness of {fraction (1/8)} inch.
  22. 60. The coil of claim 51 wherein said member has a height in excess of 2 inches.
  23. 61. The coil of claim 60 wherein said member is as thin as {fraction (1/16)} inch.
  24. 62. The coil of claim 51 wherein said target and said coil member are each formed of the same material adapted to be sputtered onto said substrate.
US10896155 1996-05-09 2004-07-20 Coils for generating a plasma and for sputtering Abandoned US20040256217A1 (en)

Priority Applications (6)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US64718496 true 1996-05-09 1996-05-09
US64409696 true 1996-05-10 1996-05-10
US68033596 true 1996-07-10 1996-07-10
US08851946 US6368469B1 (en) 1996-05-09 1997-05-06 Coils for generating a plasma and for sputtering
US10052951 US6783639B2 (en) 1996-05-09 2002-01-17 Coils for generating a plasma and for sputtering
US10896155 US20040256217A1 (en) 1996-05-09 2004-07-20 Coils for generating a plasma and for sputtering

Applications Claiming Priority (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US10896155 US20040256217A1 (en) 1996-05-09 2004-07-20 Coils for generating a plasma and for sputtering
US11229139 US8398832B2 (en) 1996-05-09 2005-09-15 Coils for generating a plasma and for sputtering
US13776492 US20130168232A1 (en) 1996-05-09 2013-02-25 Coils for generating a plasma and for sputtering

Related Parent Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10052951 Continuation US6783639B2 (en) 1996-05-09 2002-01-17 Coils for generating a plasma and for sputtering

Related Child Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US11229139 Continuation US8398832B2 (en) 1996-05-09 2005-09-15 Coils for generating a plasma and for sputtering

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20040256217A1 true true US20040256217A1 (en) 2004-12-23

Family

ID=27417720

Family Applications (3)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US08851946 Expired - Lifetime US6368469B1 (en) 1996-05-09 1997-05-06 Coils for generating a plasma and for sputtering
US10052951 Expired - Lifetime US6783639B2 (en) 1996-05-09 2002-01-17 Coils for generating a plasma and for sputtering
US10896155 Abandoned US20040256217A1 (en) 1996-05-09 2004-07-20 Coils for generating a plasma and for sputtering

Family Applications Before (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US08851946 Expired - Lifetime US6368469B1 (en) 1996-05-09 1997-05-06 Coils for generating a plasma and for sputtering
US10052951 Expired - Lifetime US6783639B2 (en) 1996-05-09 2002-01-17 Coils for generating a plasma and for sputtering

Country Status (4)

Country Link
US (3) US6368469B1 (en)
EP (1) EP0807954A1 (en)
JP (4) JP4553992B2 (en)
KR (1) KR100547404B1 (en)

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20080078326A1 (en) * 2006-09-29 2008-04-03 Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co., Ltd. Pre-cleaning tool and semiconductor processing apparatus using the same
US9659758B2 (en) 2005-03-22 2017-05-23 Honeywell International Inc. Coils utilized in vapor deposition applications and methods of production

Families Citing this family (52)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6368469B1 (en) * 1996-05-09 2002-04-09 Applied Materials, Inc. Coils for generating a plasma and for sputtering
US8398832B2 (en) * 1996-05-09 2013-03-19 Applied Materials Inc. Coils for generating a plasma and for sputtering
EP0844313A3 (en) 1996-11-21 2001-04-18 Applied Materials, Inc. Method and apparatus for sputtering in a chamber having an inductively coupled plasma
US6451179B1 (en) 1997-01-30 2002-09-17 Applied Materials, Inc. Method and apparatus for enhancing sidewall coverage during sputtering in a chamber having an inductively coupled plasma
US6077402A (en) * 1997-05-16 2000-06-20 Applied Materials, Inc. Central coil design for ionized metal plasma deposition
US6375810B2 (en) * 1997-08-07 2002-04-23 Applied Materials, Inc. Plasma vapor deposition with coil sputtering
US6042700A (en) * 1997-09-15 2000-03-28 Applied Materials, Inc. Adjustment of deposition uniformity in an inductively coupled plasma source
US6023038A (en) * 1997-09-16 2000-02-08 Applied Materials, Inc. Resistive heating of powered coil to reduce transient heating/start up effects multiple loadlock system
US6168690B1 (en) 1997-09-29 2001-01-02 Lam Research Corporation Methods and apparatus for physical vapor deposition
US6506287B1 (en) * 1998-03-16 2003-01-14 Applied Materials, Inc. Overlap design of one-turn coil
US6146508A (en) * 1998-04-22 2000-11-14 Applied Materials, Inc. Sputtering method and apparatus with small diameter RF coil
US6660134B1 (en) 1998-07-10 2003-12-09 Applied Materials, Inc. Feedthrough overlap coil
US6231725B1 (en) * 1998-08-04 2001-05-15 Applied Materials, Inc. Apparatus for sputtering material onto a workpiece with the aid of a plasma
US6238528B1 (en) * 1998-10-13 2001-05-29 Applied Materials, Inc. Plasma density modulator for improved plasma density uniformity and thickness uniformity in an ionized metal plasma source
GB2346155B (en) * 1999-01-06 2003-06-25 Trikon Holdings Ltd Sputtering apparatus
US6579421B1 (en) 1999-01-07 2003-06-17 Applied Materials, Inc. Transverse magnetic field for ionized sputter deposition
US6409890B1 (en) 1999-07-27 2002-06-25 Applied Materials, Inc. Method and apparatus for forming a uniform layer on a workpiece during sputtering
US6432819B1 (en) * 1999-09-27 2002-08-13 Applied Materials, Inc. Method and apparatus of forming a sputtered doped seed layer
US8696875B2 (en) 1999-10-08 2014-04-15 Applied Materials, Inc. Self-ionized and inductively-coupled plasma for sputtering and resputtering
US6461483B1 (en) * 2000-03-10 2002-10-08 Applied Materials, Inc. Method and apparatus for performing high pressure physical vapor deposition
US20030116427A1 (en) * 2001-08-30 2003-06-26 Applied Materials, Inc. Self-ionized and inductively-coupled plasma for sputtering and resputtering
US6824658B2 (en) 2001-08-30 2004-11-30 Applied Materials, Inc. Partial turn coil for generating a plasma
WO2003027351A1 (en) * 2001-09-27 2003-04-03 E.I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Method and apparatus for sputter deposition of epilayers with high deposition rate
JP3727878B2 (en) * 2001-11-14 2005-12-21 三菱重工業株式会社 Metal film production apparatus
US7346135B1 (en) 2002-02-13 2008-03-18 Marvell International, Ltd. Compensation for residual frequency offset, phase noise and sampling phase offset in wireless networks
US7513971B2 (en) * 2002-03-18 2009-04-07 Applied Materials, Inc. Flat style coil for improved precision etch uniformity
US7504006B2 (en) 2002-08-01 2009-03-17 Applied Materials, Inc. Self-ionized and capacitively-coupled plasma for sputtering and resputtering
US6846396B2 (en) * 2002-08-08 2005-01-25 Applied Materials, Inc. Active magnetic shielding
US7246192B1 (en) 2003-01-10 2007-07-17 Marvell International Ltd. Serial/parallel ATA controller and converter
US20060226003A1 (en) * 2003-01-22 2006-10-12 John Mize Apparatus and methods for ionized deposition of a film or thin layer
CN100537830C (en) * 2003-01-22 2009-09-09 霍尼韦尔国际公司 Apparatus and methods for ionized deposition of a film or thin layer
US8930583B1 (en) 2003-09-18 2015-01-06 Marvell Israel (M.I.S.L) Ltd. Method and apparatus for controlling data transfer in a serial-ATA system
US20050098427A1 (en) * 2003-11-11 2005-05-12 Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co., Ltd. RF coil design for improved film uniformity of an ion metal plasma source
US7527713B2 (en) * 2004-05-26 2009-05-05 Applied Materials, Inc. Variable quadruple electromagnet array in plasma processing
US7686926B2 (en) * 2004-05-26 2010-03-30 Applied Materials, Inc. Multi-step process for forming a metal barrier in a sputter reactor
US7399943B2 (en) * 2004-10-05 2008-07-15 Applied Materials, Inc. Apparatus for metal plasma vapor deposition and re-sputter with source and bias power frequencies applied through the workpiece
US7214619B2 (en) 2004-10-05 2007-05-08 Applied Materials, Inc. Method for forming a barrier layer in an integrated circuit in a plasma with source and bias power frequencies applied through the workpiece
US7820020B2 (en) 2005-02-03 2010-10-26 Applied Materials, Inc. Apparatus for plasma-enhanced physical vapor deposition of copper with RF source power applied through the workpiece with a lighter-than-copper carrier gas
US8187416B2 (en) * 2005-05-20 2012-05-29 Applied Materials, Inc. Interior antenna for substrate processing chamber
US20060278520A1 (en) * 2005-06-13 2006-12-14 Lee Eal H Use of DC magnetron sputtering systems
US8617672B2 (en) 2005-07-13 2013-12-31 Applied Materials, Inc. Localized surface annealing of components for substrate processing chambers
US7981262B2 (en) * 2007-01-29 2011-07-19 Applied Materials, Inc. Process kit for substrate processing chamber
US7942969B2 (en) 2007-05-30 2011-05-17 Applied Materials, Inc. Substrate cleaning chamber and components
US20090194414A1 (en) * 2008-01-31 2009-08-06 Nolander Ira G Modified sputtering target and deposition components, methods of production and uses thereof
US20100078312A1 (en) * 2008-09-26 2010-04-01 Tango Systems, Inc. Sputtering Chamber Having ICP Coil and Targets on Top Wall
US9111733B2 (en) * 2009-08-31 2015-08-18 Novellus Systems Inc. Plasma ignition performance for low pressure physical vapor deposition (PVD) processes
US8956516B2 (en) * 2009-08-31 2015-02-17 Semicat, Inc. System and apparatus to facilitate physical vapor deposition to modify non-metal films on semiconductor substrates
US8936703B2 (en) * 2009-08-31 2015-01-20 Semicat, Inc. Methods to fabricate non-metal films on semiconductor substrates using physical vapor deposition
WO2011075146A1 (en) * 2009-12-18 2011-06-23 Otis Elevator Company Detection of people relative to a passenger conveyor with a capacitive sensor
RU2554085C2 (en) * 2013-09-20 2015-06-27 Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего образования "Московский государственный университет имени М.В. Ломоносова" (МГУ) Method for heating of electrodes and creation of self-sustained arc discharge with ignition from thin metal wire in magnetic field free space
RU2577040C2 (en) * 2014-07-29 2016-03-10 Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего образования "Московский государственный университет имени М.В. Ломоносова" (МГУ) Magnetic killer of self-maintained arc discharge
CN105491780B (en) * 2014-10-01 2018-03-30 日新电机株式会社 The plasma processing apparatus comprising an antenna and an antenna with the plasma generation

Citations (20)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6361661B1 (en) *
US3594301A (en) * 1968-11-22 1971-07-20 Gen Electric Sputter coating apparatus
US3619402A (en) * 1968-10-11 1971-11-09 Euratom Process and device for depositing on surfaces
US5178739A (en) * 1990-10-31 1993-01-12 International Business Machines Corporation Apparatus for depositing material into high aspect ratio holes
US5234529A (en) * 1991-10-10 1993-08-10 Johnson Wayne L Plasma generating apparatus employing capacitive shielding and process for using such apparatus
US5366585A (en) * 1993-01-28 1994-11-22 Applied Materials, Inc. Method and apparatus for protection of conductive surfaces in a plasma processing reactor
US5417834A (en) * 1992-10-17 1995-05-23 Leybold Aktiengesellschaft Arrangement for generating a plasma by means of cathode sputtering
US5434353A (en) * 1992-12-11 1995-07-18 Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Zur Foerderung Der Wissenschaften E.V. Berlin Self-supporting insulated conductor arrangement suitable for arrangement in a vacuum container
US5464518A (en) * 1993-01-15 1995-11-07 The Boc Group, Inc. Cylindrical magnetron shield structure
US5560776A (en) * 1993-09-10 1996-10-01 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Plasma discharge generating antenna
US5639357A (en) * 1994-05-12 1997-06-17 Applied Materials Synchronous modulation bias sputter method and apparatus for complete planarization of metal films
US5690781A (en) * 1994-09-16 1997-11-25 Nec Corporation Plasma processing apparatus for manufacture of semiconductor devices
US5961793A (en) * 1996-10-31 1999-10-05 Applied Materials, Inc. Method of reducing generation of particulate matter in a sputtering chamber
US6210539B1 (en) * 1997-05-14 2001-04-03 Applied Materials, Inc. Method and apparatus for producing a uniform density plasma above a substrate
US6228229B1 (en) * 1995-11-15 2001-05-08 Applied Materials, Inc. Method and apparatus for generating a plasma
US6238528B1 (en) * 1998-10-13 2001-05-29 Applied Materials, Inc. Plasma density modulator for improved plasma density uniformity and thickness uniformity in an ionized metal plasma source
US6254746B1 (en) * 1996-05-09 2001-07-03 Applied Materials, Inc. Recessed coil for generating a plasma
US6361661B2 (en) * 1997-05-16 2002-03-26 Applies Materials, Inc. Hybrid coil design for ionized deposition
US6368469B1 (en) * 1996-05-09 2002-04-09 Applied Materials, Inc. Coils for generating a plasma and for sputtering
US6660134B1 (en) * 1998-07-10 2003-12-09 Applied Materials, Inc. Feedthrough overlap coil

Family Cites Families (76)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE1905058C3 (en) 1969-02-01 1973-10-04 W.C. Heraeus Gmbh, 6450 Hanau
US4362632A (en) 1974-08-02 1982-12-07 Lfe Corporation Gas discharge apparatus
JPS5922787B2 (en) 1979-09-25 1984-05-29 Ricoh Kk
US4336118A (en) 1980-03-21 1982-06-22 Battelle Memorial Institute Methods for making deposited films with improved microstructures
JPS59190363A (en) 1983-04-11 1984-10-29 Orient Watch Co Ltd Formation of metallic thin film
US4865712A (en) 1984-05-17 1989-09-12 Varian Associates, Inc. Apparatus for manufacturing planarized aluminum films
US4661228A (en) 1984-05-17 1987-04-28 Varian Associates, Inc. Apparatus and method for manufacturing planarized aluminum films
US4755460A (en) 1984-07-06 1988-07-05 The Regents Of The Univ. Of Minnesota Bovine antigen glycoprotein, related antibody, and use in detection of pregnancy in cattle
EP0169744A3 (en) 1984-07-26 1987-06-10 United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority Ion source
JPH0740468B2 (en) 1984-12-11 1995-05-01 株式会社日立製作所 High-frequency plasma generator
JPS61190070A (en) 1985-02-20 1986-08-23 Hitachi Ltd Sputter device
WO1986006923A1 (en) 1985-05-03 1986-11-20 The Australian National University Method and apparatus for producing large volume magnetoplasmas
US4626312A (en) 1985-06-24 1986-12-02 The Perkin-Elmer Corporation Plasma etching system for minimizing stray electrical discharges
JPS6314865A (en) * 1986-07-07 1988-01-22 Matsushita Electric Ind Co Ltd Sputtering device
GB8629634D0 (en) 1986-12-11 1987-01-21 Dobson C D Reactive ion & sputter etching
JPS63246814A (en) 1987-04-02 1988-10-13 Matsushita Electric Ind Co Ltd Thin film formation apparatus
US4792732A (en) 1987-06-12 1988-12-20 United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force Radio frequency plasma generator
JP2602276B2 (en) 1987-06-30 1997-04-23 株式会社日立製作所 Supatsutaringu method and apparatus
US5175608A (en) 1987-06-30 1992-12-29 Hitachi, Ltd. Method of and apparatus for sputtering, and integrated circuit device
JP2552697B2 (en) * 1988-02-08 1996-11-13 日本電信電話株式会社 Ion source
KR920003789B1 (en) 1988-02-08 1992-05-14 야마구찌 가이세이 Thin film forming apparatus and ion source utilizing plasma sputtering
US4842703A (en) 1988-02-23 1989-06-27 Eaton Corporation Magnetron cathode and method for sputter coating
JP2859632B2 (en) 1988-04-14 1999-02-17 キヤノン株式会社 Film forming apparatus and a film forming method
US4871421A (en) 1988-09-15 1989-10-03 Lam Research Corporation Split-phase driver for plasma etch system
US4925542A (en) 1988-12-08 1990-05-15 Trw Inc. Plasma plating apparatus and method
US4918031A (en) 1988-12-28 1990-04-17 American Telephone And Telegraph Company,At&T Bell Laboratories Processes depending on plasma generation using a helical resonator
GB8905075D0 (en) 1989-03-06 1989-04-19 Nordiko Ltd Electrode assembly and apparatus
US5135629A (en) 1989-06-12 1992-08-04 Nippon Mining Co., Ltd. Thin film deposition system
US5421891A (en) 1989-06-13 1995-06-06 Plasma & Materials Technologies, Inc. High density plasma deposition and etching apparatus
US4990229A (en) 1989-06-13 1991-02-05 Plasma & Materials Technologies, Inc. High density plasma deposition and etching apparatus
US5091049A (en) 1989-06-13 1992-02-25 Plasma & Materials Technologies, Inc. High density plasma deposition and etching apparatus
US5122251A (en) 1989-06-13 1992-06-16 Plasma & Materials Technologies, Inc. High density plasma deposition and etching apparatus
US5429070A (en) 1989-06-13 1995-07-04 Plasma & Materials Technologies, Inc. High density plasma deposition and etching apparatus
US5234560A (en) 1989-08-14 1993-08-10 Hauzer Holdings Bv Method and device for sputtering of films
US4948458A (en) 1989-08-14 1990-08-14 Lam Research Corporation Method and apparatus for producing magnetically-coupled planar plasma
DE3942964A1 (en) 1989-12-23 1991-06-27 Leybold Ag Means for generating a plasma
US5304279A (en) 1990-08-10 1994-04-19 International Business Machines Corporation Radio frequency induction/multipole plasma processing tool
JPH0816266B2 (en) * 1990-10-31 1996-02-21 インターナショナル・ビジネス・マシーンズ・コーポレーション Device for attaching the material to the high aspect ratio holes
JPH04183855A (en) * 1990-11-19 1992-06-30 Fujitsu Ltd Formation of sputter film
US5368685A (en) 1992-03-24 1994-11-29 Hitachi, Ltd. Dry etching apparatus and method
US5206516A (en) 1991-04-29 1993-04-27 International Business Machines Corporation Low energy, steered ion beam deposition system having high current at low pressure
JP2635267B2 (en) 1991-06-27 1997-07-30 アプライド マテリアルズ インコーポレイテッド Rf plasma processing apparatus
US5280154A (en) 1992-01-30 1994-01-18 International Business Machines Corporation Radio frequency induction plasma processing system utilizing a uniform field coil
US5225740A (en) 1992-03-26 1993-07-06 General Atomics Method and apparatus for producing high density plasma using whistler mode excitation
US5361016A (en) 1992-03-26 1994-11-01 General Atomics High density plasma formation using whistler mode excitation in a reduced cross-sectional area formation tube
US5231334A (en) 1992-04-15 1993-07-27 Texas Instruments Incorporated Plasma source and method of manufacturing
US5241245A (en) 1992-05-06 1993-08-31 International Business Machines Corporation Optimized helical resonator for plasma processing
US5397962A (en) 1992-06-29 1995-03-14 Texas Instruments Incorporated Source and method for generating high-density plasma with inductive power coupling
JP3688726B2 (en) 1992-07-17 2005-08-31 株式会社東芝 Manufacturing method of a semiconductor device
US5404079A (en) 1992-08-13 1995-04-04 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Plasma generating apparatus
US5312717A (en) 1992-09-24 1994-05-17 International Business Machines Corporation Residue free vertical pattern transfer with top surface imaging resists
US5346578A (en) 1992-11-04 1994-09-13 Novellus Systems, Inc. Induction plasma source
US5433812A (en) 1993-01-19 1995-07-18 International Business Machines Corporation Apparatus for enhanced inductive coupling to plasmas with reduced sputter contamination
JP3224443B2 (en) 1993-02-08 2001-10-29 靖浩 堀池 Helicon wave plasma processing apparatus
JP3271359B2 (en) 1993-02-25 2002-04-02 ソニー株式会社 Dry etching method
US5401350A (en) 1993-03-08 1995-03-28 Lsi Logic Corporation Coil configurations for improved uniformity in inductively coupled plasma systems
JP3252518B2 (en) 1993-03-19 2002-02-04 ソニー株式会社 Dry etching method
JP3174981B2 (en) 1993-03-26 2001-06-11 靖浩 堀池 Helicon wave plasma processing apparatus
JPH0718433A (en) * 1993-06-30 1995-01-20 Kobe Steel Ltd Icp sputtering device
US5430355A (en) 1993-07-30 1995-07-04 Texas Instruments Incorporated RF induction plasma source for plasma processing
US5418431A (en) 1993-08-27 1995-05-23 Hughes Aircraft Company RF plasma source and antenna therefor
US5773162A (en) 1993-10-12 1998-06-30 California Institute Of Technology Direct methanol feed fuel cell and system
US5431799A (en) * 1993-10-29 1995-07-11 Applied Materials, Inc. Collimation hardware with RF bias rings to enhance sputter and/or substrate cavity ion generation efficiency
WO1995015672A1 (en) 1993-12-01 1995-06-08 Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation Method and apparatus for planar plasma processing
FR2713571B1 (en) 1993-12-09 1996-01-05 Lamalle Jean Device preventing theft of a motor vehicle that its driver would have left doors unlocked with the keys on the dashboard even with the engine running.
JPH07268624A (en) * 1994-03-25 1995-10-17 Tatsuo Asamaki Electric discharge device
US5503676A (en) 1994-09-19 1996-04-02 Lam Research Corporation Apparatus and method for magnetron in-situ cleaning of plasma reaction chamber
JP2657170B2 (en) 1994-10-24 1997-09-24 東京エレクトロン株式会社 The plasma processing apparatus
JPH07176399A (en) 1994-10-24 1995-07-14 Tokyo Electron Ltd Plasma processing device
JP3483327B2 (en) 1994-11-29 2004-01-06 アネルバ株式会社 Plasma processing method
JPH08176818A (en) * 1994-12-21 1996-07-09 Nippon Telegr & Teleph Corp <Ntt> Sputtering device
US5753044A (en) 1995-02-15 1998-05-19 Applied Materials, Inc. RF plasma reactor with hybrid conductor and multi-radius dome ceiling
JPH08288259A (en) 1995-04-18 1996-11-01 Sony Corp Helicon plasma system and dry etching method using the same
US5573595A (en) 1995-09-29 1996-11-12 Lam Research Corporation Methods and apparatus for generating plasma
EP0801413A1 (en) * 1996-03-12 1997-10-15 Varian Associates, Inc. Inductively coupled plasma reactor with faraday-sputter shield
US6042700A (en) * 1997-09-15 2000-03-28 Applied Materials, Inc. Adjustment of deposition uniformity in an inductively coupled plasma source

Patent Citations (21)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6361661B1 (en) *
US3619402A (en) * 1968-10-11 1971-11-09 Euratom Process and device for depositing on surfaces
US3594301A (en) * 1968-11-22 1971-07-20 Gen Electric Sputter coating apparatus
US5178739A (en) * 1990-10-31 1993-01-12 International Business Machines Corporation Apparatus for depositing material into high aspect ratio holes
US5234529A (en) * 1991-10-10 1993-08-10 Johnson Wayne L Plasma generating apparatus employing capacitive shielding and process for using such apparatus
US5417834A (en) * 1992-10-17 1995-05-23 Leybold Aktiengesellschaft Arrangement for generating a plasma by means of cathode sputtering
US5434353A (en) * 1992-12-11 1995-07-18 Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Zur Foerderung Der Wissenschaften E.V. Berlin Self-supporting insulated conductor arrangement suitable for arrangement in a vacuum container
US5464518A (en) * 1993-01-15 1995-11-07 The Boc Group, Inc. Cylindrical magnetron shield structure
US5366585A (en) * 1993-01-28 1994-11-22 Applied Materials, Inc. Method and apparatus for protection of conductive surfaces in a plasma processing reactor
US5560776A (en) * 1993-09-10 1996-10-01 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Plasma discharge generating antenna
US5639357A (en) * 1994-05-12 1997-06-17 Applied Materials Synchronous modulation bias sputter method and apparatus for complete planarization of metal films
US5690781A (en) * 1994-09-16 1997-11-25 Nec Corporation Plasma processing apparatus for manufacture of semiconductor devices
US6228229B1 (en) * 1995-11-15 2001-05-08 Applied Materials, Inc. Method and apparatus for generating a plasma
US6264812B1 (en) * 1995-11-15 2001-07-24 Applied Materials, Inc. Method and apparatus for generating a plasma
US6368469B1 (en) * 1996-05-09 2002-04-09 Applied Materials, Inc. Coils for generating a plasma and for sputtering
US6254746B1 (en) * 1996-05-09 2001-07-03 Applied Materials, Inc. Recessed coil for generating a plasma
US5961793A (en) * 1996-10-31 1999-10-05 Applied Materials, Inc. Method of reducing generation of particulate matter in a sputtering chamber
US6210539B1 (en) * 1997-05-14 2001-04-03 Applied Materials, Inc. Method and apparatus for producing a uniform density plasma above a substrate
US6361661B2 (en) * 1997-05-16 2002-03-26 Applies Materials, Inc. Hybrid coil design for ionized deposition
US6660134B1 (en) * 1998-07-10 2003-12-09 Applied Materials, Inc. Feedthrough overlap coil
US6238528B1 (en) * 1998-10-13 2001-05-29 Applied Materials, Inc. Plasma density modulator for improved plasma density uniformity and thickness uniformity in an ionized metal plasma source

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US9659758B2 (en) 2005-03-22 2017-05-23 Honeywell International Inc. Coils utilized in vapor deposition applications and methods of production
US20080078326A1 (en) * 2006-09-29 2008-04-03 Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co., Ltd. Pre-cleaning tool and semiconductor processing apparatus using the same

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
US6783639B2 (en) 2004-08-31 grant
JP2013117072A (en) 2013-06-13 application
EP0807954A1 (en) 1997-11-19 application
JPH1060638A (en) 1998-03-03 application
JP5346178B2 (en) 2013-11-20 grant
JP2013256719A (en) 2013-12-26 application
JP2009001902A (en) 2009-01-08 application
JP4553992B2 (en) 2010-09-29 grant
KR100547404B1 (en) 2006-01-23 grant
JP5751520B2 (en) 2015-07-22 grant
US20020144901A1 (en) 2002-10-10 application
JP5751522B2 (en) 2015-07-22 grant
US6368469B1 (en) 2002-04-09 grant

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US5405480A (en) Induction plasma source
US4131533A (en) RF sputtering apparatus having floating anode shield
US5091049A (en) High density plasma deposition and etching apparatus
US6462482B1 (en) Plasma processing system for sputter deposition applications
US6352629B1 (en) Coaxial electromagnet in a magnetron sputtering reactor
US4842703A (en) Magnetron cathode and method for sputter coating
US5178739A (en) Apparatus for depositing material into high aspect ratio holes
US5968327A (en) Ionizing sputter device using a coil shield
US5968328A (en) Device for sputter deposition of thin layers on flat substrates
US6413382B1 (en) Pulsed sputtering with a small rotating magnetron
US5503676A (en) Apparatus and method for magnetron in-situ cleaning of plasma reaction chamber
US4844775A (en) Ion etching and chemical vapour deposition
US5277751A (en) Method and apparatus for producing low pressure planar plasma using a coil with its axis parallel to the surface of a coupling window
US20030042131A1 (en) Method and apparatus for depositing films
US6431112B1 (en) Apparatus and method for plasma processing of a substrate utilizing an electrostatic chuck
US6213050B1 (en) Enhanced plasma mode and computer system for plasma immersion ion implantation
US3767551A (en) Radio frequency sputter apparatus and method
US5282944A (en) Ion source based on the cathodic arc
US5800621A (en) Plasma source for HDP-CVD chamber
US20060169582A1 (en) Physical vapor deposition plasma reactor with RF source power applied to the target and having a magnetron
US5800688A (en) Apparatus for ionized sputtering
US6610184B2 (en) Magnet array in conjunction with rotating magnetron for plasma sputtering
US5556521A (en) Sputter etching apparatus with plasma source having a dielectric pocket and contoured plasma source
US6197167B1 (en) Step coverage and overhang improvement by pedestal bias voltage modulation
US6214162B1 (en) Plasma processing apparatus