US1856803A - Fore and aft rigged vessel - Google Patents

Fore and aft rigged vessel Download PDF

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US1856803A
US1856803A US480888A US48088830A US1856803A US 1856803 A US1856803 A US 1856803A US 480888 A US480888 A US 480888A US 48088830 A US48088830 A US 48088830A US 1856803 A US1856803 A US 1856803A
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sail
mast
vessel
boom
spar
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Edward L Blackman
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Edward L Blackman
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B63SHIPS OR OTHER WATERBORNE VESSELS; RELATED EQUIPMENT
    • B63HMARINE PROPULSION OR STEERING
    • B63H9/00Marine propulsion provided directly by wind power
    • B63H9/04Marine propulsion provided directly by wind power using sails or like wind-catching surfaces
    • B63H9/06Types of sail; Constructional features of sails; Arrangements thereof on vessels

Description

y 1932- E. L. BLACKIIVIAN 1,856,803

FORE AND AFT RIGGED VESSEL Filed Sept. 10, 1930 BY AT INVENTOR [0W4/F0 Linc/0V4 i TO'R NEY M Patented May 3, 1932 anwann steamer, F BR KLYN, New YORK;

FORE AND AFT RIGGED- VESSEL Application filed September 10, 1930. Serial No. 430,888.

This invention relates to fore and aft rigged vessels in general and more especially to the rigging of sails for sailboats, such as sloops, schooners, catboats or other fore 1 and aft rigged vessels.

Among the objects or" the present, inven; tion, it is aimed to provide an improved sail; mounting or rigging for sailboats whereby the driving force exercised on the sails by 12 the Wind maybe controlled so as to obtain a greater ei'dciency, especially in the interest of speed, than heretofore possible.

As an instance, with a sailboat of the sloop variety, heretofore in use, having a single 33 mast and rigged both fore and aft, where one edge of the main sail is secured a dja-.. cent to the mast, when sailing with the wind, that is with a wind from a quarter aft the mast, there is a tendency to. bury the vessel Q and spill the wind over the top of the sail. The wind in such case acting on the main sail as a force, uses the mast as a lever not only to urge the boat forward but in addition to urge the bow of the boat downward, thus in-v ii creasing the dragging force of the boat With a consequent loss in speed.

On the other hand, when sailing against the wind, that is under all conditions except with a following breeze, with this type t boat and with an ordinary wind, the boat will generally be inclined, that is heel over, so far to leeward that the wind will freely spill over the top of the main sail and perform but little useful work. In this latter case, the

breeze impinging upon the sail, slides. up the same and spills over the top. Furthermore, as the plane of the sail will at such time be at an obtuse angle to the plane of the sea and to the direction or" travel of the wind, the air striking the sail is thrust upward and exerts a downward force upon the sail tending to bury the boat into the water. Consequently at the time when the greatestdriving force 7 will be exerted on the sail, the downward force to push the vessel into the water will be greatest and in turn the greatest force to retard the progress, of the vessel will be, present at this time.

In V e f: h forego ng, the Pr nt invention aims to provide an improved riggi g here y the ndu ti ing-'0 hee ing over of the sail will be largely overcome to prevent the creation of any unnecessary dragging force, when travelling against the wind, tha is un er all c n it ons except, W h a fol lowing breeze,

Moreover the present invention aims to provide an improved rigging whereby the force on the sail by the wind will be controlled to. produce a slightly'upward resultant force,'thereb.y causing the bow of the o t to in line up ard. wh n. t a e ing with the wind, or at least to counteract in whole or in part the burying effect of the wind upon the'upper portions of the sail, and on the other hand, to maintain the sail more upright when, travelling against the wind, thus, to lessen the spilling of the wind over the top of. t e sail n o obt n a g ate effic ncy therefrom.

It is still another object, of the present invention to provide an improved rigging which can be equipped on the average type of boat, such as the sloop, schooner or other like fore and aft rigged craft of the type heretofore in use without reconstruction and at a comparatively low cost.

It is still another object of the present invention to provide an improved rigging for sailing vessels whereby the plane of the sail relative to the position of the mastwill be so controlled that the burying effect of the wind upon a vessel is practically overcome or at least materially reduced. v

Amongst the objects of the present invention, it is also aimed to provide an improved rigging for sailing vessels whereby the plane of the sail may be shifted at will with respect to the position of the mast and is readily adjustable with respect to the plane of the deck of the vessel.

It is still a further object of the present invention to provide an improved rigging for sailing vessels whereby the plane of the sails may be readily adjusted so that the forward edge of the main sail may be placed at an acute angle to the deck of the vessel and the direction of the wind with the boom to leeward for the purpose of keeping the sail in a more upright position as the vessel heels to leeward.

It is a still further object of the present invention to provide rigging for sailing vessels whereby the forward edge of the mainsail or main sails is removed from the mast and a means for holding said edge in place substituted for the mast in such manner that a narrower surface is presented to the wind when sailing close-hauled.

These and other features, capabilities and advantages of the invention will appear from the subj oined detail description of one specific embodiment thereof illustrated in the accompanying drawings in which Figure 1 is a perspective of a sloop rigged according to the present invention;

Fig. 2 is a rear elevation of a sloop as heretofore rigged;

Fig. 3 is a rear elevation of a sloop rigged according to the present invention, similar to the view illustrated in Fig. 2 for the purpose of comparison;

4 is a plan view of a sloop rigged according to the present invention; and

Fig. 5 is an enlarged fragmental detail of the connection between the boom, auxiliary spar and traveler.

In the embodiment illustrated, there is provided a sailing vessel of the sloop variety having a hull 1, provided with a main mast 2, and a. jib-boom 3. Adjacent to the mast 2 in the present instance, there is provided a rail 4 preferably composed of metal and forming a traveler or guide. This rail has an arcuate rear portion 5 which extends from one side of the hull 1 to the other and around the rear of the mast. The rail portions 6 of the rail 4 as illustrated in Fig. 4 are preferably arcuate as shown and extend forwardly from either end of the portion 5. In the present instance. this rail 4 is mounted on thesupports 7 and 8 extending upwardly from the hull 1. On the jib-boom 3, spaced a short distance from its free end is formed a crossbar 10. To the stern of the vessel. there is provided the usual main sheet block traveler 11 and to the front thereof, the tiller or helm 12.

The main sail in the present instance, to wit the sail 13, extends from the gaff 14 down to the main boom 15 and is sl dably attached at its inner end to any suitable support such as the auxiliary spar 16. This spar is pivotally connected to the mast 2 in the present instance at its upper end to the ring or sleeve 17 and below it by the connecting members 17 17, 17 and 17 These connecting members 17 a to 1'7 inclusive are generally adjusted to graduate in length, the uppermost one 17 a being the shortest and the lowest one 17 1 be ng the longest, the shortest connecting member 17 being however long enough to slip down over the spar 16 and mast 2 when the lower end of the spar 16 is disposed directly in back of the mast 2 where, see Fig.

4, the rail 5 is disposed very close to the mast 2.

In order to anchor the spar 16 in an inclined position relative to the mast 2, the

lower end of the spar 16 is secured by any suitable means. In the present instance, see Fig. 5, the rail 4 is provided with an enlargement 4 to receive the grip 18 on the lower end of the spar 16. As illustrated in Fig. 1, the gait 14 is secured in place by the usual peak halyard 19 passing through the blocks 20 and the throat halyard 21 near the upper end of the mast 2. the inner end of the gaff 14 being of ordinary construction such as a bifurcated or two fingered claw freely to slide down the spar 16 when the sail is being lowered.

The boom 15 of the main sail is not attached directly to the mast 2 but either directly to the guide or indirectly to the guide 4 through the spar or stay 16 by the ring 15. The outer free end of the boom 15 in the present instance, is connected by the usual main sheet 22 which extends from the outer end of the boom 15 to the main sheet block traveler 11.

The sloop is also provided with a jib 23 which is connected at its upper end to the upper end of the mast 2 in the usual way by the halyard 24 passing through the block 25. The front end of the iib 23 in the present instance is connected by any suitable means such as the block and tackle 26 to the anchoring device 27 slidably mounted on the arcuate crossbar 10. The lower rear end of the jib 23 is connected by the halyard 29 to the deck 1.

In Fig. 1, the sails and helm are illustrated as set for travelling against the wind. or close-hauled. In F g. 4, as illustrated in full lines. the .sails are similarly set for travelling close-hauled, or against the wind. while the dotted line position of the boom 15 and gaff 14 indicates the position of the boom 15 and of the gaff 14 when travelling before the wind. Fig. 4 indicate the path of movement of the wind when travelling against the wind or close-hauled. while the arrow 31 in dash and dot lines indicates the path of movement of the wind when travelling before the wind or free.

When traveling before the wind as indicated with the type of sloop illustrated in Fig. 2. the tendency of the driving force would be to urge the The arrows 30 in full lines in bow of the boat down- I ward to bury theboat and thus-increase the dragging force of the hullon the=waten with a consequent loss inspeed. This is, of course, due to the fact that the main sail 13* with this, former type of sloop, would co-operate with the mast 2 a lever to urge the bow of the boat downward.

lVith the present improvement,however, when travelling before the wind or free, the main sail being inclined to the mast 2 by the position of the spar 16, as for instance indicated in dotted lines in Fig. l, would receive the wind so that it would actin a somewhat downwardly deflecting direction to eiiect an upwardly directed resultant force and thus urge the bow of the boat upward, and thus decrease the burying eilect.

The jib-sail 23 when connected as illustrated in Figs. 1 and at, that is with the front end connected to the starboard end of the crossbar 10, the jib 23 would similarly be set to receive the wind to exercise a downwardly deflecting force to effect an upwardly directed resultant force on the jib 23 to co-operate with the main sail 13 to urge the bow of the boat upwardly. In other words, the sail will then produce more of a lifting efi'cct on the vessel and less of a burying effect than heretofore with the type of rigging indicated in Fig. 2.

hen travelling close-hauled on the other hand, as indicated in full lines in. Fig. 4c, the hook 18 on the spar 16'is swung around tothe rail portion 5 of the rail at adjacent to the starboard side of the boat as indicated. The jib when travelling close-hauled may be connected at its lower front end to the starboard side of the crossbar 10, the same as indicated in Fig. 1, when travelling free or be fore the wind. When the sails are thus rigged, according to the present invention, when travelling close-hauled with. any given amount of heel, less wind will be spilled upwardly than formerly and thus result in a greater propelling force against the sail.

In other words, when rigged according to, the present invention, the inner edge of the sail 13 will be inclined relative to the mast 2 and the boom 15 will be allowed to slide out to leeward running on the traveler l and held securely in position on such. traveler #1. In this new position the same amount of heel f the vessel to the wind will cause the plane of the sail to present a much less obtuse angle 5 to the horizontal plane of the wind since a considerable amount of heel would be required to bring the plane of the sail at right angles to the ilane of the water and the direction of the wind, see Fig. 8. Thus in light or moderate winds although the vessel may heel slightly, the sail will remain fairly upright. is the vessel comes about and the sail fills on the opposite tack, after the boom 15 and the sail 13 have been pulled across the hull 1 to the new leeward position, the same condition, 0% increased; uprightnessof theplane of the sail will; obtain.

Blocksandtackle 33 attached to the ring 18 in the present instance, connecting the; boom 15 and, spar 16 to the deck 1 of. the vessel, will permit the moving of the sail; 13 from one side to theother without pro ducing. any considerable jar and will also. permit anchoring theboom 15 and the forward: edge of: the sail 13' in practically the same position as ifattached to the mast 2,. if conditions. should make this desirable or in any otherdesired position upon the traveler 4s.

A further advantage of the arrangement above described: when the vessel is tacking or sailingclose-hauled, thatvis against the wind, consists in that it permits the sail to beheld more closely boarded and thus allowthe; vessel to come about more quickly. Lhis ease of coming about may be further increased by shifting the position. of the boom 15 on the traveler 4 as or shortly after theboat is brought into the eye of the wind.

Preferably the traveler' l isused as illustrated for controlling the movable end of the spar or stay 16 with the boom 15 attached, but such traveler 4 may bedispensed with when the blocks and tackle 33 are-used, since the entire sail is swinging onthe point of the mast 2 as a fulcrum, and the forwardend of the boom 15 and the forward edgeof the sail 13 is held in place by means of such tackle: 83. The forward thrust of the freely swinging boom 15 would however be diliicult to control and for this reason the traveler 4 is preferred.

In'any event, even when the front end of the jib is attached direct to the jib-boom, there is little danger of undesirable effects being produced by the wind spilling fromthe head sailsinto the main sail of a sloop or the like rigged in accordance with the present invention, but especially is this clanger absent when the jib-sail is rigged as illustrated in Fig. 1 and the rail- 4 is positioned freely to space the main sail 13- from the jib-sail 23.

Under certain conditions, it would be advantageous to have either the main boom 15 or the lower edge of the jib or head sail- 23 attached tothe windward side of their respective travelers. This of course could be easily accomplished by manipulating the tackle 26 of the jib-sail 23 and the tackle 33 and main sheet 22 of the main sail 13.

Another important feature of the present invention results from the fact that sailing vessels of the type heretofore in use can with facility and at very low cost be equipped with the present invention witholut any recon-- struction, that is by simply adding the crossbar 10, traveler 4, spar 16 and necessary connecting means, in other words, mere additions without requiring reconstruction of the parts of the vessel already on hand.

The efiect produced by the present invention can of course also be obtained when the auxiliary spar is attached to the mast, at or near the middle of such spar and the angle between the plane of the sail and the mast changed according to the effects above described. In this case, as the lower end of the spar moved outward to leeward, the upper end of the spar would move to windward. In this embodiment the thrust of the sail would thus be maintained near the center of the boat. This construction is particularly adaptable with the type of vessel known as the Marconi or leg-omutton sailing vesse With the latter embodiment as well as with the first embodiment illustrated, the sail may be secured in place by a taut wire or other means instead of by a spar.

It is obvious that various changes and modifications may be made to the details of construction without departing from the general spirit of the invention as set forth in the appended claims.

I claim:

1. A fore and aft rigged vessel having a mast, a spar connected at its upper end to the upper portion of the mast and at its lower end adapted to be spaced from the lower end of the mast, a fixed guide secured to and 8X- tending across the vessel but spaced from the lower end of the mast, the lower end of the spar being movably mounted on said guide, and a main sail slidably connected said spar to be hoisted or lowered along said spar.

2. A fore and aft rigged vessel having a mast, a spar connected at its upper end to the mast and at its lower end adapted to be spaced to leeward or windward from the lower portion of the mast, a gaff positioned at the upper end of the spar. a. boom connected at the lower end of the spar, a sail connected to the gaff, spar and boom, and means connecting the lower end of the spar to the vessel spaced from the lower end of the mast to maintain the sail more nearly perpendicular to the horizontal plane of the wind whereby the propelling effect of the wind pressure on the sail is increased.

3. A fore and aft rigged vessel having a mast, a rail extending from one side of the vessel to the other adjacentto said mast. a spar connected at its upper end to said mast and its lower end to said rail to incline to leeward or windward of said mast, a gaff, a boom connected to the lower end of said spar, a main sail connected to said spar and boom, a jib-boom connected to the bow of said vessel, a crossbar secured to said jibboom, and a jib-sail connected at its upper end to said mast and at its front end to said crossbar there to be inclined to leeward or windward of said vessel and at its rear end attached to said vessel.

4. A fore and aft rigged vessel having a mast, a jib-boom secured to the bow of said vessel, a crossbar on said jib-boom, a rail extending from side to side of said vessel adjacent to said mast, and sails connected at their upper ends to said mast and at their lower forward ends to said crossbar and rail to be inclined to leeward or windward of said mast.

5. A fore and aft rigged vessel having a mast, a spar connected at its upper end to the upper portion of the mast and spaced from the lower end of the mast, a main sail connected to said spar, and a plurality of connecting means along said spar and mast to distribute the strain on the sail throughout the length of the mast.

6. A fore and aft rigged vessel having a mast, a boom, a sail attached along its lower edge to said boom, and at its upper edge adjacent to said mast, a fixed and rigid guide secured to and extending across the deck of the vessel abaft the mast adjacent to which guide the forward end of the boom may be shifted, and means for holding the boom in any desired position upon said guide.

7 A fore and aft rigged vessel having a mast, a boom, a sail attached adjacent to said mast at the upper end of the luff edge of the sail and attached along its lower edge to said boom, means for holding straight, or nearly so, the lufl edge of the sail between the boom and the mast, means operatively connected to said holdin means for adjusting the lufl edge of the sail at an angle to the mast by moving the boom across the deck of the vessel and maintaining the same in any desired position, and means for distributing the weight of the wind upon the sail over the mast between the point of attachment of the upper edge of the sail and a point near the deck of the vessel.

8. A fore and aft rigged vessel llitVlIlp; a mast, a boom, a sail attached along its lower edge to a boom and attached at the upper end of the luff edge of the sail adjacent to the mast, means for holding the luff edge of the sail substantially straight; a fixed and rigid guide extending across the deck of the vessel abaft the mast, to which guide, said hold ing means is attached to be shifted from side to side of the vessel.

9. A fore and aft rigged vessel having a boom, a mast, a sail attached adjacent to the mast at the upper end of the luff edge thereof and attached to the boom along the lower edge of said sail, means for holding the upper end of the luff edge of the sail substantially equally distant from the boom and the luff edge substantially straight at all times, a fixed and rigid guide secured to and extending across the deck of the vessel, to which guide said holding means is attached so that the boom may be shifted laterally across the deck of the vessel, said guide being in the form of an are having its radius substantially equal to the length of the luff edge of the sail so that as the boom is moved on said guide from side to side of the vessel, it is kept at the same distance from the point of attachment to the mast of the sail at the upper edge thereof.

10. A fore and aft rigged vessel having a mast, a spar connected at its upper end to the mast and at its lower end adapted to be spaced to leeward or windward from the lower portion of the mast, a boom at its inner end connected at the lower end of the spar, a sail connected to the spar and boom, and means for connecting the lower end of the spar to the vessel spaced from the lower end of the mast to maintain the sail more nearly perpendicular to the horizontal plane of the wind whereby the propelling effect of the wind pressure on the sail is increased.

11. A fore and aft rigged vessel having a mast, a rail extending from one side of the vessel to the other adjacent to said mast, a spar connected at its upper end to said mast and its lower end to said rail to incline to leeward or windward of said mast, a boom connected to the lower end of said spar, a main sail connected to said spar, and boom, a jib-boom connected to the bow of said vessel, a crossbar secured to said jib-boom, and a jib-sail connected at its upper end to said mast and at its front end to said crossbar there to be inclined to leeward or windward of said vessel and at its rear end attached to said vessel.

12. A fore and aft rigged vessel having a mast, a boom, means connecting the forward end of the boom to a point near the top of the mast but allowing said boom to swing free of the mast and from one side of the vessel to the other slightly above the deck of the vessel, a sail attached along its lower edge to said boom, and rings secured along the lulf edge of said sail and connected to said connecting means so that the sail may be hoisted or lowered along said means.

13. A fore and aft rigged vessel having a mast, a boom, a sail attached along its lower edge to said boom and at its upper edge adjacent to said mast, and a fixed and rigid guide secured to and extending across the deck of the vessel abaft the mast, relative to which guide the forward end of the boom will shift from one side of the vessel to the other ac cording to the tack upon which the vessel is sailing.

14:. A fore and aft rigged vessel having a mast, a spar pivotally connected to the upper portion of said mast with its lower end movable across the deck of the Vessel, means for anchoring the lower end of the spar in any desired position across the deck of the vessel either parallel to the .mast or at an angle thereto, and a main sail slidably attached to side thereof, and abaft or forwardthereof, L

as desired, and a main sail slidably attached to the spar to be hoisted or lowered along said spar.

EDWARD L. BLAOKMAN.

US480888A 1930-09-10 1930-09-10 Fore and aft rigged vessel Expired - Lifetime US1856803A (en)

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Cited By (14)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2444526A (en) * 1944-10-12 1948-07-06 Jr William D Pawley Sailboat
US3626883A (en) * 1969-11-10 1971-12-14 Daivd W Ellis Sailing vessel with the luff of the mainsail clear of the mast
US3830010A (en) * 1972-11-29 1974-08-20 Gen Delivery Toy boat conversion kit for an expended container
US4108100A (en) * 1977-06-09 1978-08-22 Robert Stuart Jamieson Rigging base for plural-hull sailing craft and methods for sail control
WO1991018788A1 (en) * 1990-06-07 1991-12-12 Thompson, Jacqueline, Ashton Lifting rigs
US5419269A (en) * 1992-01-15 1995-05-30 Clerk; Ernest J. Sailing boat
US5996519A (en) * 1998-02-26 1999-12-07 Cerebral Technologies, Inc. Sailboats and methods
EP1180478A1 (en) * 2000-08-09 2002-02-20 Carson V. Conant Mast with top boom
US6932010B1 (en) 2004-04-06 2005-08-23 John Garrison Hoyt Sailboat with offset boom
US20070113768A1 (en) * 2005-11-21 2007-05-24 Salvino Marras Nautical device for adjusting the bow sail of a sail boat
US20080190476A1 (en) * 2007-02-08 2008-08-14 Baruh Bradford G Retractable solar panel system
US20090205551A1 (en) * 2008-02-20 2009-08-20 John Garrison Hoyt Sailbaot rig
US20090288586A1 (en) * 2007-02-08 2009-11-26 Baruh Bradford G Adjustable keel for a sailboat
US20100065104A1 (en) * 2007-08-31 2010-03-18 Baruh Bradford G Retractable solar panel system

Cited By (17)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2444526A (en) * 1944-10-12 1948-07-06 Jr William D Pawley Sailboat
US3626883A (en) * 1969-11-10 1971-12-14 Daivd W Ellis Sailing vessel with the luff of the mainsail clear of the mast
US3830010A (en) * 1972-11-29 1974-08-20 Gen Delivery Toy boat conversion kit for an expended container
US4108100A (en) * 1977-06-09 1978-08-22 Robert Stuart Jamieson Rigging base for plural-hull sailing craft and methods for sail control
WO1991018788A1 (en) * 1990-06-07 1991-12-12 Thompson, Jacqueline, Ashton Lifting rigs
US5419269A (en) * 1992-01-15 1995-05-30 Clerk; Ernest J. Sailing boat
US5996519A (en) * 1998-02-26 1999-12-07 Cerebral Technologies, Inc. Sailboats and methods
US6189471B1 (en) 1998-02-26 2001-02-20 David N. Mitchell Sailboats and methods
EP1180478A1 (en) * 2000-08-09 2002-02-20 Carson V. Conant Mast with top boom
US6932010B1 (en) 2004-04-06 2005-08-23 John Garrison Hoyt Sailboat with offset boom
US20070113768A1 (en) * 2005-11-21 2007-05-24 Salvino Marras Nautical device for adjusting the bow sail of a sail boat
US20080190476A1 (en) * 2007-02-08 2008-08-14 Baruh Bradford G Retractable solar panel system
US20090288586A1 (en) * 2007-02-08 2009-11-26 Baruh Bradford G Adjustable keel for a sailboat
US8258394B2 (en) 2007-02-08 2012-09-04 Bradford G Baruh Retractable solar panel system
US20100065104A1 (en) * 2007-08-31 2010-03-18 Baruh Bradford G Retractable solar panel system
US20110214667A1 (en) * 2007-08-31 2011-09-08 Baruh Bradford G Retractable Solar Panel System
US20090205551A1 (en) * 2008-02-20 2009-08-20 John Garrison Hoyt Sailbaot rig

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