US2444526A - Sailboat - Google Patents

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Publication number
US2444526A
US2444526A US558434A US55843444A US2444526A US 2444526 A US2444526 A US 2444526A US 558434 A US558434 A US 558434A US 55843444 A US55843444 A US 55843444A US 2444526 A US2444526 A US 2444526A
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boat
mast
hull
mainsail
edge
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US558434A
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Jr William D Pawley
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Jr William D Pawley
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B63SHIPS OR OTHER WATERBORNE VESSELS; RELATED EQUIPMENT
    • B63HMARINE PROPULSION OR STEERING
    • B63H9/00Marine propulsion provided directly by wind power
    • B63H9/04Marine propulsion provided directly by wind power using sails or like wind-catching surfaces
    • B63H9/06Types of sail; Constructional features of sails; Arrangements thereof on vessels

Description

July 6, 1948. w. 0 PAWLEY, JR .SAILBOAT Filed Oct. 12, 1944 M m I '1 INV'ENTOR Mum/w 0. PHWLEXJR.

ATTORNEYS signed have been patented July 6, 1943 UNITED STATES PATENT o gx Application 2 Claims.

of them has proved successful because the sail such boats as heretofore deof a type such as to develop, in addition to the forward component from the force of the wind, a downward component at the bow of the boat, thus offsetting any lifting effect that might otherwise result from the hull design.

My improved sail boat presents novelty both in the hull design and in the sail plan, the two coperating so that the force of the wind when transmitted to the boat has an upward and not a downward component at the bow, thereby assisting in lifting the boat out of the water under increasing wind velocities.

In the accompanying drawings I have shown my invention as applied to a single-masted small boat of the shallow-draft, broad beam type.

In the said drawings,

Figure 1 is a perspective view showing the boat as it appears afloat under a light breeze;

Fig. 2 shows the hull in plan;

Fig. 3 shows in cross section hull amidships; and

Figs. 4 and 5 are diagrammatic views showing respectively the position of the hull under a light breeze and when heeled over.

Referring to the drawings, particularly Fig. 1, the boat here illustrated comprises alight deckedover hull l, which in the actual craft represented in the drawings is 19 feet overall including the stern-sprit and has an 8-foot beam. The single mast 2, which is 24 feet high, is stepped at a point about 3 feet forward of the stern. The mast is braced by a stay 3 extending from the top to the bow 4 which, as shown, is of the blunt or scow type. Stays 5 also extend from the top of the mast to the gunwales 6 on each side and to the rear of the mast step. A third stay 5 extends from the top of the mast to a stern-sprit 1 consisting, as shown, of two timbers extending rearwardly from the stern-transom 8, although of course a single stern-sprit may be employed if desired.

The rigging consists of a mainsail 9 of righttriangular shape having eyes along its hypotenuse which ride on the forward stay.3 extending from the top of the mast to the how. The right angle corner of the sail carries the sheet 9' which passes through a pulley Ill mounted on the mast. The sail is hoisted by a halliard which passes over pulley Ill. The mainsail 9, has

plans employed in the outline of the October 12, 1944, Serial N0.-558,434

larger than the a generally vertical trailing edge 90, and a lower generally horizontal edge or foot 912. The edges 9a and 9b are at right angles. The mainsail has a leading edge 90, which is inclined or diagonal. At the rear corner, the mainsail is connected with a sheet, as stated which passes through the pulley ID, the mast 2. This sheet 9' is used to trim the mainsail 9, as is well known. The mainsail has its lower edge or foot 9b free and flexible, which means that such lower edge is not attached to a boom or other rigid element. The leading edge of the mainsail is inclined and diagonal, as stated, and is longer than-the lower horizontal edge or foot 912 or the rear edge 9a. The mast 2 is mounted upon the hull near the stern and rearwardly of amidship and is nearer the stern than the amidship. By virtue of the arrangement of the mast 2 near the stem, the forestay 3 has an increased length and is inclined further from the perpendicular, which imparts a corresponding increased length to the leading edge 90 of the mainsail and increases the inclination of the edge 90 from the perpendicular. By providing the leading edge 90 with increased length the mainsail 9 creates the maximum lifting force. 7

The second and smaller sail I! is also of right angle shape. Its base is attached in the usual manner to a rearwardly projecting boom I l connected to the mast in the usual manner, preferably below the point of attachment of the pulley carrying the sheet for the mainsail. The boom II is controlled b a sheet leading to a pulley l2 carried at the end of the stern-sprit.

The boat is provided with the usual rudder l3, here shown as projecting rearwardly from the stern between the timbers making up the sternsprit.

The hull is decked over except for a small cockpit [5 adjacent the mast. The hull design is shown in Figs. 1 to 3. The design provides the boat in efiect with three bottoms and three separate keels. The middle keel l6 extends in the usual manner longitudinally along the mid line of the bottom. One each side of this mid keel are side keels ll extending also from the bow transom 4 to the stern transom 8 and so shaped and positioned with respect to the mid keel that when the boat is heeled over to approximately 30 the bottom formed by the plankingintermediate the mid keel and the side keel and the planking between the side keel and the gunwale will be of substantially the same contour as the bottom formed by the planking extending on each side of the mid keel. The rear transom is bow transom and the intermediate ribs are so shaped that the plane of the hull inclines upwardly from the stern to the how, the angle of incline increasing toward the how.

The operation of the boat is as follows: As

ward force is sumin that the a resultant upward and forward force. This up? ward and forward force is increased by the increased length of the leading edge-9c,-:;which in turn results from the arrangement of the mast 2, as stated. The direction of this lifting andforalways perpendicular to the forei; i'slifted by the force oftain the mast substantially upright.

Due to the position of the mast near the stern and the use of a sail running on a stay extending from the bow to the mast instead of running on the mast inthe conventional manner, the bow the wind; thereby increasing the angle of the bottom to the horizontal, thus aiding in the planing effect, viding -=--ing effect will be obtained at all wind velocities within a substantial range. That is to say, the boat can be maintained on its true bottom in all a windsirup' to a certain velocity, depending of ing the ballast and trimming the sails to main- Above a stay 3 or leading edge gaand since-the leading --'*pr'edet'ermined --velocity, selected according to the judgment of the operator, the ballastwill be shifted and the-sail set to heel the 'boat'over approximately 30 so that it will ride on one or 0 'the other-of the two side bottoms.

1 L In-the accompanying drawings and the fore- "goingspecification I have illustrated and de- "scribed a boat as actually constructed and op- "erated by me, but it will be understood that my invention may also, within the scope of the appended claims, be applied to boats of other relativedimensions and types.

I claim: 1. In aboat, a hull having a shallow" draught -and= wide beam and a sp'eedboat type bottom, a

" om the perpendi'cular, the lifting i This results in 'ng edge 90; This atethe -camber produced at the lower: edge o'f theconvention'al'mainsailcaused by the pr'ese'nce of the rigid boom. If this camber is produced at the lower edge of'the-mainsail, it -'wil1"exert a down-ward pulling force, for thesame "amainsail having a leading diagonal edge se- "-reason that-the fore-stay and leading edge 9c of}; 5*cu'red to the'forestay and having a footwhich is the mainsail produce the camber and the up- "--'-free"and flexible and also havin a trailing edge, *"ward' pulling force; This'disadvantage'is elimi- I and a sheetconnected with the mainsail near nated in my construction by-omitting the boom. its lower corner. The air currents discharge orslip-oventhe'lower -2. In'a boat, ahull havin a -shallow'draught ---*edg e 9b ofthe mainsail, and asomewhat-simiee 5- and-wide beam anda-speedboat type-bottom, a N lar action occurs at the trailing' edge 9a? It is mastmounted uponthe hull at the-rearof amidi-bus seen that the air currents areiree to spill ship and nearer the stern than the *ain'idship, "over the lower edge or foot and trailingeclge of a=diagonal forestay secured tothe-mast'near its *the mainsail. top and tothebow of the hull; a-mainsail hav- --'Ihe hull of the boat has a shallow draught-and ing a leading diagonal edge secured to-the'forewide beam." Thisis the type of hull usually emstayand a trailing edge and a lower foot 'which ployed in=connection with a power-driven speed is free and flexible, the trailingedgeand'footbeii boatj As far as 1 amawaregthistype of -bot- ,ing-disposed at substantially right angles' with tom is not'usedwith sailin boats'." -My hull has relation to eachother. andmeans'connected-with l a speed boat bottom, whichmeans that'- that the mainsail near it's'lower rear corner so that -portion of the keel which engages withthe water themainsail maybe trimmed out. duringthe travel is straight, with" no rocker in the stern. The bottom is also V-shaped in'cross- ==*s'eetion, -'at the keel or keels.

-Thepurpose in changing the design from the h normal rig is to change thedistribution and direction of'forces exerted by the sails so that'the rigmight be used on'what is commonly 'kno'wn as a standard motorspeed hull. The' nor'mal rig 'WILLIAM D.'-"PAWLEY; JR.

1 REFERENCES 'CI-TED Theliollowing references are of record in the 1 .lile of :this patent:

*ITUNITED' STATES PATENTS cann'ot be successfully used on that type of hull. 0 'Number Name "'""Date "We -areenabled to attain materially-increased 1,670,936 1' McIntyre et a] May 22;1928 e speeds. l,729;446 Maier 'Sep't. 24;"1929 In operation under light winds the boat floats 21,356,303 a k May 3,1932 on its 'middle'bottomand the mid-k8l Se ves .'.2;31'2,'567 I Lyon Mar. 2,1943 iviththe udder to maintainthecourse of the 65." "'2',3e1,4o9 Munro Oct; 31,1944 boat". Under'a stiff-wind the -boathee ls over to 30 at "which angle it will" bemair'rtaine'd by FOREIGN PATENTS shifting-the ballastand setting the sailsyand in Number Country Date this position it rides on' the bottom composed 86,294 Austria Nov. 1'0,1921 of'abottom symmetrical to one or'the other of 7 OTHER- REFERENCES ee-11mg Craft, by Edwin J ;Sch'0e'ttl,-" The "Macmillan 00. 1937. "-""'Boat Building, by Howard I. Chapell, W; W. "Nort0'n8z 00., Inc, 1941.

the side keels, whereby the boat has a-true-planmg effectunder-s'tiif winds as well as-light-winds. Y: When runnin heeled over the side keel-serves with the-rudder to maintain-'the=-course of-the "'fioat.

US558434A 1944-10-12 1944-10-12 Sailboat Expired - Lifetime US2444526A (en)

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Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3016860A (en) * 1960-12-06 1962-01-16 Robert Mark Johnson Sail boat safety device
US3016858A (en) * 1960-03-28 1962-01-16 Robert Mark Johnson Sail boat safety device
US3088428A (en) * 1958-07-22 1963-05-07 Majnoni Marcello Sail-boat
US3422778A (en) * 1966-10-20 1969-01-21 Leon Halfon Multipurpose boat
US4458622A (en) * 1979-10-04 1984-07-10 Anderson Ian L Boat having a variable hull configuration
US5476054A (en) * 1993-12-15 1995-12-19 Deriaz; Marc Hull for watercraft
US6435118B1 (en) * 1998-07-29 2002-08-20 William Douglas Pawley, Jr. Pawley sailboat and rigging design

Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1670936A (en) * 1923-11-24 1928-05-22 Mcintyre Malcolm Sailing craft
US1729446A (en) * 1927-09-28 1929-09-24 Erich R F Maier Ship hull
US1856803A (en) * 1930-09-10 1932-05-03 Edward L Blackman Fore and aft rigged vessel
US2312567A (en) * 1939-05-08 1943-03-02 Lyon George Albert Sailing craft
US2361409A (en) * 1943-12-02 1944-10-31 Munro Gordon Ship hull

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1670936A (en) * 1923-11-24 1928-05-22 Mcintyre Malcolm Sailing craft
US1729446A (en) * 1927-09-28 1929-09-24 Erich R F Maier Ship hull
US1856803A (en) * 1930-09-10 1932-05-03 Edward L Blackman Fore and aft rigged vessel
US2312567A (en) * 1939-05-08 1943-03-02 Lyon George Albert Sailing craft
US2361409A (en) * 1943-12-02 1944-10-31 Munro Gordon Ship hull

Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3088428A (en) * 1958-07-22 1963-05-07 Majnoni Marcello Sail-boat
US3016858A (en) * 1960-03-28 1962-01-16 Robert Mark Johnson Sail boat safety device
US3016860A (en) * 1960-12-06 1962-01-16 Robert Mark Johnson Sail boat safety device
US3422778A (en) * 1966-10-20 1969-01-21 Leon Halfon Multipurpose boat
US4458622A (en) * 1979-10-04 1984-07-10 Anderson Ian L Boat having a variable hull configuration
US5476054A (en) * 1993-12-15 1995-12-19 Deriaz; Marc Hull for watercraft
US6435118B1 (en) * 1998-07-29 2002-08-20 William Douglas Pawley, Jr. Pawley sailboat and rigging design

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