US1614359A - Liquid-fuel burner - Google Patents

Liquid-fuel burner Download PDF

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Publication number
US1614359A
US1614359A US594694A US59469422A US1614359A US 1614359 A US1614359 A US 1614359A US 594694 A US594694 A US 594694A US 59469422 A US59469422 A US 59469422A US 1614359 A US1614359 A US 1614359A
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Prior art keywords
burner
fuel
liquid fuel
chamber
liquid
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Expired - Lifetime
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US594694A
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Ralph M Gaston
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WAYNE CO
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WAYNE CO
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23DBURNERS
    • F23D11/00Burners using a direct spraying action of liquid droplets or vaporised liquid into the combustion space
    • F23D11/10Burners using a direct spraying action of liquid droplets or vaporised liquid into the combustion space the spraying being induced by a gaseous medium, e.g. water vapour

Description

Jan. 11 1927.

' R. NL c -zA's-raNr LIQUID FUEL BURNER `2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Fled OCT.. 16. 1922 f mim/m@ e M w UGMV. w BM: H20 7 1 4,. W W W Jan. ll, 1927. 1,614,359

R. M. GASTON LIQUID FUEL BURNER .Filed Oct. 16, 1922 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Patented Jan. 11, 1927.

UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.

RALPH M. GASTON, F CHICAGO, ILLINO1S,.ASSIGNOR. BY- MESNE ASSIGNMENTS, TO WAYNE COMPANY, 0F FORT WAYNE, INDIANA, A CORPORATION OF INDIANA.

LIQUID-FUEL BURNER.

Application led October 16. 1922. Serial No. 594.694.

This invention relates to liquid fuel burners adapted for use in burning various grades of oil in connection with furnaces andthe like. The principal object of the invention is to provide an improved form of liquid fuel burner adapted foruse in connection with the steam, hot water boilers or furnaces of the heating systems installed in residences and other buildings. An important feature of the invention is the provision of a burner having a spray nozzle through which the fuel is forced directly into the furnace, the fuel being pulverized or distributed lin a much larger air volume, thereby securing a more perfect combustion. The operation of spraying the fuel to form a fine mist adapted to produce a more effective combustion is facilitated by the heating of the fuel before it reaches the spray nozzle, so that ignition of the fuel is readily secured by a small gaspilot light or other equivalent device located adjacent the liquid fuel nozzle. The burner is always ready to begin eiiicient operation because the preheating. chamber always holds a quantity of liquid fuel sufficient for operation until the ire pot of the furnace becomes heated; and this fuel is always kept hot. during the idle periods of the burner. Other objects of the invention relate to various features of construction and arrangement which will appear more fully hereinafter.

The nature of the invention will be understood from the following specification taken with the accompanying drawings in -which one embodiment is illustrated. In the drawings, Fig. 1 shows a substantially horizontal section through the burner casing and connected parts, the section being taken on the line 1--1 of Fig. 2; Fig. 2 shows an enlarged vertical section through the parts of the burner on the line 2-2 of Fig. 1; Fig. 3 shows an enlarged longitudinal section through the liquid fuel nozzle; Fig. 4 lshows an end elevation of the innery plug of the fuel nozzle; Fig. 5 shows a section through the longitudinal center line of the burner; Fig. 6 shows a vertical section through a portion of a furnace illustrating the location of the liquid fuel burner in connection therewith; Fig. 7 shows atransverse vertical section on the line 7-7 of Fig. 5; Fig. 8 is a detail section on theline 8--8 of Fig. 10; Fig. 9 shows anelevation of the inner end of the' burner; and Fig. 10

is a section taken on the line 10-10 of Fig. 2, showing a front elevation of the burner casing and connected parts. v

As illustrated in the drawings, theinvention comprises a substant'ally cylindrical burner member adapte to engage a circular opening 16 formed in the front end wall of the burner casing 17. The burner 15 is provided at its rear end with an annular projecting shoulder 18 which seats against the shoulder 19, formed around the opening 16, and the burner is detachably held in this position by means of a cam 20 which is secured to the burner casing by a cap screw 21 and adapted to be operated by a handle 20n to cause the projecting blade 20b of the cam to engage a curved notch 22 which is formed in the outer part of the annular shoulder 18, as shown particularly in Fig. 10. The burner is adapted to be inserted or withdrawn from the casing 17 by means of a handle 23 which extends downwardly in front of the burner and is secured to the upper part of the 'annular shoulder 18 by means of cap screws 24. The burner housing or casing 17 is provided with an upward extension 25 above the burner 15 and this extension has a rectangular opening 26 in its front wall adapted to be connected with an elbow 27 having a similar rectangular opening 28 .to register with the opening 26, the elbow being secured to the front wallv of the burner casing by means of cap screws 29. The elbow extends in a lateral direction with respect to the casing and is provided at its other end with a circular opening adapted to communicate with an air pipe 30 through which air for sup porting the combustion of the fuel i`s supplied under pressure by means of a suitable blower, or other air mover. The upward extension 25 of the casing is provided immediately above the elbow 27 with an inspection opening 32 closed by a sheet 33 of isinglass held in place by a surrounding retaining member 34. The part- 35 of the burner casing 17 which projects inwardly opposite the mouth of the burner '15 to form a combustion tube, is provided on opposite sides with passages 36 which open at the inner end of the casing and which communicate with the central passage 37 of the casing through vertical slots38 formed in the side walls'of this passage.y Heated gases from the interior of the furnace are induced miA to pass through the openings 36 and 38 to the mouth of the burner, by the suction cheated by the passage of the mixture through the combustion tube Where they mingle with the liquid fuel being sprayed therefrom, thereby heating thel fuel and .facilitating the combustion thereof.

The burner case 17 and the parts carried thereby are adapted to be mounted in an opening 40 formed in the front wall41 of a furnace, as shown in Fig. 6. The Wall 41 is formed preferably of fire brick and is provided in its outer side with a Water jacket 42. A door 43 closes an openingl in the upper part of the wall and another door 44 permits access to the chamber 45 beneath the floor 46' of the furnace chamber 47. y

Any liquid fuel which accumulates in the furnace chamber is collected by the drip pan 48 located beneath the floor 46 and, to prevent the possible danger of explosion when a considerable quantity of liquid fuel collects, the drip pan is connected by a pipe 49 to a safety float switch 50 which is adapted to shut off the flow of fuel to the burner when a dangerous quantity of fuel has collected in the bottom of the furnace chamber.

The burnermember 15 which is located in the casing 17 is preferably formed of brass or other material adapted to conduct heat readily and it has a longitudinal assaee in the upper part thereof throug which a suitable combustible gas is supplied. Dust and other particles which may contaminate the gas are removed by a cone shaped woven wire strainer 56 which is mounted in the removable plug 57 which closes the end of the passage 55 and forms a communication with a gas supply pipe. The inner end of the passage 55 communicates with two branch openings 58, an opening immediately above these branch passages being closed by a plug 59. The branch passages 58 communicate with discharge openings 60 which converge inwardly towards the longitudinal center line of the burner, as shown in Fig. 5- The discharge endsof the openings 60 have gas nozzles 61 mounted therein, these `nozzles having tapered passageways 62 which increase the velocity of the discharged gas and which open into Vcylindrical depressions 63 -formed 1n the ends of the plugs. The plugs are located in recesses 64 which are formed in the end of the burner member' 15, and the end of the burner is provided with projecting curved flanges 65 adapted to protect the gas flames which are formed at the mouths of the nozzles 61 from being extinguished by currents of air or gas about the mouth of the burner. These flanges may be separated by openings, which permit sufficient circulation around the nozzles of the burner and serve to prevent objectionable noise when the burner 1s in operation.

The lower part ofthe burner member 15 is rovided with another longitudinal passage 40 of substantially cylindrical form which serves as a preheating chamber for the liquid fuel. This fuel is supplied by a pipe leading to the opening 71 of a plug 72 which has a cylindricall woven Wire strainer 73 mounted at the discharge end thereof. The plug 73 threadedly engages a detachable threaded bushing 74 which is mounted in the outer end of the ypassage 70. A fuel circulating plug 75 is mounted in the chamber 70 inwardly of the strainer 73 and this plug is provided` on its outer surface with a helical groove 77 which compels the fuel to travel a relatively long path in contact with the wall of the chamber in passing through.

the burner member so that the fuel is heated materially due to the heat which is transmitted through the walls of the burner member from the gas pilot lights and the interior of the furnace. At the inner end of the fuel circulating member the preheating chamber 70 communicates with a central liquid fuel discharge opening 78 having a liquid fue] nozzle 80 mounted therein. This nozzle i has the form shown particularly in Figs. 3 and 4, where it is shown as comprising a threaded part 81, which engages the end of the passage 78, and an enlarged disk 82 "formed on the end of the member 81 and having a depression 83 formed in the outel surface thereof. The member 81 has an inner chamber ,84 having a discharge opening 85 leading therefrom to the center of the depression 83. The liquid fuel is supplied to the chamber 84 through a detachable threaded plug 86 having a central passage 87 through which the fuel flows to branch passages 88- by which it is distributed to the chamber 84. From the chamber 84 the fuel passes through other openings 89 to-a central whirling chamber 90 which is located opposite the discharge opening 85- The passages 89 leading from the chamber 84 to the whirling chamber 90 extend tangentially to the outer cylindrical wall of the chamber 90, as shown in Fig. 4, so that.as the fuel passes into the chamber 90 a whirling motion is imparted to it which aids materially in effecting a breaking up or distribution of the fuel as it is discharged from the nozzle.

In the operation of the oil burner device herein described, the oil is supplied under pressure to the preheatin' chamber 7Q and is discharged therefrom through the liquid fuel nozzle 80 in the form of a spray or mist which is readily ignited by the gas pilot lights which converge inwardly from the gas nozzles 61. These pilot lights serve not only to ignite the fuel but to maintain its combustion after the flame has been started and the pilot lights are adapted to converge on the center line of the discharge openin of the fuel nozzle so that combustion is e ectually maintained during the operation of the furnace. The pressure of the air and the supply of fuel may be regulated to proportion the air and fuel so as to secure the best combustion. The gas pilot lights are normally very small flames when the liquid fuel is shut oli' but when the liquid fuel is turned on the supply of' as mayalso be increased in order to cause t e gas pilot flames-to converge on the center lille of the oil nozzle during the combustion of the liquid fuel. The heated gases which are drawn. back and into the discharge opening 37 of the burner casing 17 by the suction of the combustible mixture serve to heat the fuel and facilitate the creation of vapor which burns readily and prevents the deposit of globules of fuel on the burner and other parts within the furnace. The heat of the flame projected' into the furnace and the heat of the gas pilot lights cause the walls of the preheating chamber 7 0 and the helical passage 77 to be. heated to 'a high degree so that the fuel is highly heated and capable of being readily sprayed into a vapor when it arrives at the fuel nozzle 80.

Although I have shown and described one form of the invention for purposes of illustration7 it will be understood that it may be constructed in various other forms with. out departing 4from the scope of the appended claims. l

I claim: i 1. A liquid fuel burning device comprising amember havin a ga's passa e extending longitudinally trou h it an a liquid fuel passage also exten in longitudinally through it, said liquid fue passage terminating inwardly on the end of said burner member, said gas passage terminating on the inner end of said burner member through a plurality of openings located on different sides of said liquid fuel dischar e opening, and nozzles-mounted at the out et ends of said discharge openings.

2. A liquid fuel burning device comprising a burner member havmg a gas passage extendingv longitudinally in the upper art thereof and a liquid fuel passage exten ing longitudinally in the lower part thereof, said burner member being further provided with a liquid fuel discharge opening located on the center line of said burner member above said liquid fuel passage and communicating therewith, said burner member being further provided with a pair of gas discharge openings communicating with said gas passage and located on opposite sides of said liquidv fuel discharge opening, and nozzles mounted at the outlet ends of said discharge openings.

RALPH M. GASTON.

US594694A 1922-10-16 1922-10-16 Liquid-fuel burner Expired - Lifetime US1614359A (en)

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Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2424765A (en) * 1942-10-06 1947-07-29 Stewart Warner Corp Hot-air heater having means to recirculate cooled gases
US2532740A (en) * 1948-02-10 1950-12-05 William H Speer Fuel burner provided with combustion gas recirculating means
US2701608A (en) * 1951-02-03 1955-02-08 Thermal Res And Engineering Co Burner
US2867270A (en) * 1955-07-18 1959-01-06 Witold B Brzozowski Vaporizing type oil burner
US2959215A (en) * 1948-06-19 1960-11-08 Robert I Warnecke Apparatus for opposing flare back in fluid fuel burners
DE1127523B (en) * 1957-05-07 1962-04-12 Wagner Hochdruck Dampfturbinen Burner for liquid fuels
US4928605A (en) * 1985-11-15 1990-05-29 Nippon Sanso Kabushiki Kaisha Oxygen heater, hot oxygen lance having an oxygen heater and pulverized solid fuel burner

Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2424765A (en) * 1942-10-06 1947-07-29 Stewart Warner Corp Hot-air heater having means to recirculate cooled gases
US2532740A (en) * 1948-02-10 1950-12-05 William H Speer Fuel burner provided with combustion gas recirculating means
US2959215A (en) * 1948-06-19 1960-11-08 Robert I Warnecke Apparatus for opposing flare back in fluid fuel burners
US2701608A (en) * 1951-02-03 1955-02-08 Thermal Res And Engineering Co Burner
US2867270A (en) * 1955-07-18 1959-01-06 Witold B Brzozowski Vaporizing type oil burner
DE1127523B (en) * 1957-05-07 1962-04-12 Wagner Hochdruck Dampfturbinen Burner for liquid fuels
US4928605A (en) * 1985-11-15 1990-05-29 Nippon Sanso Kabushiki Kaisha Oxygen heater, hot oxygen lance having an oxygen heater and pulverized solid fuel burner

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