US2767784A - Fuel burner - Google Patents

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Publication number
US2767784A
US2767784A US21696451A US2767784A US 2767784 A US2767784 A US 2767784A US 21696451 A US21696451 A US 21696451A US 2767784 A US2767784 A US 2767784A
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Prior art keywords
air
burner
fuel
heater
water
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Expired - Lifetime
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Robert C Dean
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INDUSTRIAL SYSTEMS Inc
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INDUSTRIAL SYSTEMS Inc
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23CMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR COMBUSTION USING FLUID FUEL OR SOLID FUEL SUSPENDED IN  A CARRIER GAS OR AIR 
    • F23C3/00Combustion apparatus characterised by the shape of the combustion chamber
    • F23C3/004Combustion apparatus characterised by the shape of the combustion chamber the chamber being arranged for submerged combustion
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23DBURNERS
    • F23D91/00Burners specially adapted for specific applications, not otherwise provided for
    • F23D91/02Burners specially adapted for specific applications, not otherwise provided for for use in particular heating operations
    • F23D91/04Burners specially adapted for specific applications, not otherwise provided for for use in particular heating operations for heating liquids, e.g. for vaporising or concentrating

Description

R. C. DEAN FUEL BURNER Oct. 23, 1956 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed March 22, 1951 INVENTOR.

R. c. DEAN FUEL BURNER Oct. 23, 1956 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed March 22, 1951 m MR 0 R. c. DEAN FUEL BURNER Oct. 23, 1956 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed March 22, 195] INVENTOR. twee/er c. 064/! R. C. DEAN FUEL BURNER Oct. 23, 1956 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed March '22, 1951 IOG F1 as u u, m. 5 R 0m. am w m a a e, mm W 5 9 I 1 a f m... G B 1 B United States Patent FUEL BURNER Robert C. Dean, Lynwood, Calif., assignor to Industrial Systems, Inc., Los Angeles, Calif., a corporation of California Application March 22, 1951, Serial No. 216,964

2 Claims. (Cl. 158-99) This invention relates to fuel burners and is particularly useful in the burning of a gaseous fuel mixture in a confined chamber as in an apparatus for heating liquids by direct firing.

In the operation of apparatus of this kind in which the burning fuel is completely confined in a closed chamber difliculty has been experienced in preventing the flame from blowing out as a result of unavoidable fluctuations in the composition and pressure of the fuel mixture delivered to the burner.

It is a primary object of the present invention to provide fuel burners which will remain lit in spite of such fluctuations.

It is another object of the present invention to provide such a fuel burner which is readily adjustable to secure the optimum security against the accidental extinguishing of the flame in the burner.

Yet another object of the invention is to provide such a burner in which the adjustment aforesaid may be accomplished from the exterior of the burner.

The manner of accomplishing the foregoing objects as well as further objects and advantages will be made manifest in the following description taken in connection with the accompanying drawings in which Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic view of a preferred embodiment of the invention in a heater.

Fig. 2 is an enlarged plan view of the heater shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 3 is a side elevational view of the heater shown in Fig. 2 with certain lower portions of this broken away to illustrate the interior structure.

Fig. 4 is an enlarged detailed sectional View of a spray nozzle of the invention taken on the line 44 of Fig. 2.

Fig. 5 is a perspective view of the spray nozzle shown in Fig. 4 removed from its mounting.

Fig. 6 is an enlarged sectional detailed view of the burner head of the invention and is taken on the line 6-6 of Fig. 2.

' Fig. 7 is a horizontal sectional view taken on the line 7-7 of Fig. 6.

Fig. 8 is a detailed perspective view of a nozzle employed in the invention.

Fig. 9 is an enlarged sectional detailed view of the burner head of the invention taken on the line 9-9 of Fig. 2.

Fig. 10 is a horizontal sectional view taken on the line 10-10 of Fig. 9.

Fig. 11 is an enlarged detailed sectional view taken on the line 11-11 of Fig. 10 and showing the connection of the auxiliary air line with the auxiliary annular air passage of said burner head.

The invention is embodied in an electrically controlled heating apparatus (Fig. 1) including a heater 26 to which gas is supplied through a pipe 27 having a normally closed solenoid valve 28 and a balanced gas pressure regulator 29 serially mounted therein. Air is delivered to the heater 26 from a motor driven blower 30 "ice through an air pipe 31 the blower having an air flow indicating switch 32, and the pipe 31 having mounted therein a temperature-responsive motor-operated butterfly valve 33. Water is delivered to the heater 26 by a motor driven pump 40 which draws water through a pipe 41 having a screen 42 submerged in a body of water 43 contained in a tank 44, and delivers said water through a pipe 45 to said heater.

A temperature control bulb or thermometer 46 is submerged in the water 43 in the tank 44 and operates a device 47 which electrically controls the actuation of the butterfly valve 33 so as to vary the amounts of air allowed to pass through said valve in accordance with the temperature of the water 43. A secondary air tube 50 connects with the air pipe 31 between the valve 33 and the heater 26 and constitutes the secondary supply of air to the heater 26. An ignition transformer 51 is provided for use in lighting the fuel delivered to the heater 26. An electrically responsive temperature and pressure unit 52 is also provided for responding to certain temperatures and pressures in the heater 26 in the control of the operation of this heater.

The heater 26 is normally supported by the floor 60 of the tank 44 the lowermost element thereof being a bafl'le tube 61 which rests directly upon said floor and has ports 62. The upper portion of tube 61 is connected, by two vertically spaced radial sets of gas dispersing baifles 63 and 64, with a spray bell 65, this bell having an upper horizontal wall 66 through a central opening in which a flame tube 67 of the heater extends downwardly said tube being welded therein so as to be rigidly united with the bell 65 and bafile tube 61. Mounted in the wall 66 is a series of nozzles 68 which are connected by couplings 69 with a manifold pipe 70.

While the heater 26 may vary considerably in size, a heater of this type now being used industrially employs a flame tube 67 which is made of a well casing 10 inches in diameter.

The upper end of the flame tube 67 is provided with a flange to which is bolted a mounting flange 81 of a burner head 82. Extending inwardly from the flange 81 is an annular floor 83 of a water jacket 84 the latter also having an inner tubular wall 85, an outer tubular wall 86, and an annular upper wall 87 from the inner edge portion of which threaded studs 88 extend upwardly.

Welded concentrically on the water jacket floor 83 and extending downwardly therefrom is a liquid splash guard 89. Also mounted in two holes in the floor 83 so as to communicate with the water jacket 84 and to extend downwardly within the upper end of the flame tube 67, and between the latter and the splash guard 89, is a pair of nozzles 90. The lower ends of these nozzles are turned so as to discharge water therefrom at an angle slightly less than horizontal and in a clockwise direction within said flame tube 67. The wall 86 is provided with a pipe connection opening outwardly from the water jacket 84 this connection receiving the upper end of a water pipe 96 the lower end of which connects with the water manifold 70 which delivers water to the nozzles 68.

The wall 86 is also provided with a pipe connection 97 with which water pipe 45 connects to deliver water into the water jacket 84.

Referring now to Figs. 9, l0 and 11, it is seen that the walls 85 and 86 are apertured on a horizontal axis to receive an electric spark igniter sleeve opposite ends of which are welded in place to the walls 85 and 86. These walls are also apertured in a radial plane at an angle of 45 degrees to receive a pipe 106 which is also welded in place to make a watertight connection with said walls. Screwed onto the outer end of pipe 106 is a fitting 107 on which is mounted a head 108 this head having provided thereon the flame sensing rod 55 which extends inwardly through the pipe 106 and to a point near the central axis of the heater 26. The upper wall 87 is provided with small pipe connections 112 and 113. Screwed into the connection 112 so as to connect with the interior of the water jacket 84 is a small copper pipe 114 which leads to a pressure responsive element in the temperature and pressure unit 52. Screwed into the connection 113 and extending into the water jacket 84 is a thermometer 115 which connects through a tube 116 with the unit 52.

Mounted on the upper wall 87 of the water jacket 84 and secured thereto by the threaded studs 88 which extend through a hollow flange 120 thereof, is a mixture manifold 121 which has the shape of a 90 degree elbow, is provided with internal threads 122 in its discharge mouth at its lower end and has external threads for receiving a flange 123 at its upper end. The manifold 121 is apertured on the axis of the heater 25 to connect with a short tube 124 welded thereto and having a cap 125 to secure in place a sight glass 126 through which the interior of the heater 26 may be viewed. An outward radial flange 130 of a cylindrical flame shield 131 is apertured to fit downwardly over the threaded studs 88 and in the assembly burner head 82 is clamped downwardly against the upper water jacket wall 87 by the hollow flange 12%. The hollow character of the latter flange provides an annular air passage 132 which joins the ignition chamber 133 within the flame shield 131 in an annular corner edge or shoulder 134 at the upper end of said shield. Also formed in flame shield 131 is an aperture 135 which is aligned with the sleeve 105 and is of the same size as the interior of said sleeve. The lower edge of flame shield 131 is cut away at 136 to provide a minimum clearance for accommodation of the flame sensing rod 55.

Provided on the hollow flange 120 and connecting with the passage 132 is a pipe connection 140 which receives a suitable fitting 141 connecting the air tube 50 with said passage. A washer 142 is placed in the connection 140 against a shoulder 143, this washer providing a restricting orifice 144 for metering the flow of air admitted into passage 132 from air tube 50.

Secured to the wall 86 by cap screws so as to close the outer end of the sleeve 105 is an electric spark igniter 151 which extends inwardly through the sleeve 105 and the aperture 135 and is provided with spark gap terminals 152 which lie just within the ignition chamber 133 of the flame shield 131. The igniter 151 is connected by a cable 153 to the ignition transformer 51.

Screwed upwardly into the threads 122 of the mixture r manifold 121 is an externally threaded round-nosed burner tip with a restricted axial burner port 161 at its lower end, this being surrounded by a series of pilot jet holes 162 disposed upwardly and outwardly from the port 161. It may be noted that the burner tip 160 is free to be screwed in the threads 122 to increase or decrease the air distributing gap 163 between the burner tip 160 and the corner shoulder 134 formed at the upper end of the flame shield 131. Air introduced into the passage 132 from the tube 50 flows downwardly through gap or opening 163 past the pilot jet holes 162 and into the ignition chamber 133. In this way the rate of flow of air from the manifold passage 132 downwardly past the pilot jet holes 162 may be adjustably determined. The burner tip 160 may be rotated to affect this adjustment by removing the cap 125 and sight glass 126 and inserting a tool through the tube 124 which has prongs that fit into a pair of the holes 162.

Bolted to the flange 123 is a gas and air proportional flow mixer with which the air and gas pipes 31 and 27 connect as shown in Fig. i so that a fuel and air mixture of a constantly uniform proportion is delivered through the mixer 170 to the mixture manifold 121 and thus downwardly through the burner port 161 and pilot jet holes 1 2 into the ignition chamber 133.

The operation of the heater 26 is accomplished by a gas and air mixture passing downwardly from the burner port 161 into the ignition chamber 133 where this mixture is ignited by a spark between the spark gap terminals 152 causing a continuous combustion of said mixture to take place in a stream of flame extending from a point close to the burner port 161 downwardly through the ignition chamber 133, the liquid splash guard 89 and practically throughout the length of the flame tube 67. Prior to the starting of this flame, water (or any other liquid which is suitable for heating in this manner) is delivered by pump 40 through the pipe 45 into the water jacket 84 in the burner head 82, the major portion of this water flowing downwardly through the nozzles 90 and being discharged therefrom in a helical direction so as to cover the inner surface of the flame tube 67 with a fairiy thick swirling layer of water which flows constantly downwardly to cover the interior surface of this tube throughout its length. A portion of the water delivered to the water jacket 84 flows therefrom through a pipe 96 to the spray nozzles 68 which deliver this water in a spray, filling the space in the bell 65 which is above the level of the water 43 therein.

The operation of the heater 26 in this manner accomplishes the heating of the liquid delivered thereto through pipe 45 by the flame formed in the flame tube 67 by the burning of fuel mixture delivered downwardly through the burner head 82. This liquid, of course, escapes from the lower end of the heater 26 into the tank 44.

Fuel mixture escaping downwardly through the pilot jet holes 162 ignites, forming a number of pilotflames equal in number to these holes. The air flowing downwardly through the gap 163 furnishes an auxiliary supply of combustion air which deflects the pilot flames downwardly so that the latter always provide a means of assuring continuing ignition of the main stream of fuel mixture discharged downwardly through the port 161 after this has once been ignited by the igniter 151. This auxiliary air supply flows downwardly about the main stream of fuel mixture in the flame shield 131 and continues down the tube 67 as an envelope surrounding said mixture and assuring an adequate supply of oxygen for complete combustion of the fuel mixture.

The claims are:

1. In combination: a burner head; a fuel and air mixture manifold connecting concentrically with said head to deliver a mixture of fuel thereto; a burner tip in the mouth of said manifold and adjustable axially therein, said burner tip having a restricted central burner port and a plurality of pilot jet ports surrounding said burner port; a cylindrical flame shield embodied in said head, said shield providing an ignition chamber into which fuel leaving said burner port is discharged, there being an annular air passage formed in said head between the mouth of said fuel manifold and the adjacent end of said flame shield, the axial adjustment of said burner tip varying the space between said tip and said end of said shield through which air may pass from said passage into said ignition chamber, said air, in so passing, moving past said pilot jet holes; and means for admitting air to said passage.

2. In a fuel burner, the combination of: a burner head having a cylindrical flame shield forming a fuel and air mixture ignition chamber axially therein, said shield having an outwardly extending radial flange at its upper end, there being an annular shoulder provided on said shield at said upper end of said shield; a fuel and air mixture delivery manifold having a hollow flange for securing said manifold to said radial flange with said manifold coaxially related to said chamber, there being an annular secondary air passage formed between said hollow flange and said radial flange, said passage being disposed outwardly from and adjacent said shoulder, the discharge mouth of said manifold being substantially equal in diameter and co-axial with said chamber and being internally threaded; means for admitting air to said annular passage; and an externally threaded round nosed burner tip screwed into said manifold mouth with the rounded nose of said tip spaced from said annular shoulder to form an annular air opening of adjustable width leading from said annular passage into said ignition chamber, said tip having an axial main burner port and an annular series of pilot jet holes disposed between said port and said adjustable air opening, the air discharged from said annular opening supplementing the oxygen available to pilot jet flames formed by the ignition of fuel and air mixture discharged through said holes, and sweeping said pilot jetflames inwardly along said rounded tip nose into igniting relation with fuel and air mixture being discharged axially through said port.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 517,297 Reiss Mar. 27, 1894 782,632 Waldbaur Feb. 14, 1905 886,009 Moyer Apr. 28, 1908 919,249 Ruddiman Apr. 20, 1909 6 Duryea Nov. 16, 1909 Schroder May 6, 1913 Andrews Jan. 30, 1917 Brassert Apr. 30, 1918 Mathesius June 30, 1925 Bloom May 17, 1938 Wood Oct. 11, 1938 Naab et al. July 25, 1939 See et al. Oct. 3, 1939 Bower Nov. 13, 1945 Kruse Dec. 24, 1946 Zink Feb. 22, 1949 Wilson et a1. Aug. 9, 1949 Swindin Nov. 14,1950 Janecek May 4, 1954 FOREIGN PATENTS Great Britain of 1904 Germany Mar. 23, 1906 Great Britain June 28, 1928 Great Britain Feb. 22, 1949 France Mar. 10, 1930

US2767784A 1951-03-22 1951-03-22 Fuel burner Expired - Lifetime US2767784A (en)

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Cited By (15)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2932347A (en) * 1956-04-24 1960-04-12 Midland Ross Corp Burner apparatus
US2970589A (en) * 1958-02-25 1961-02-07 Walton W Cushman Food hydration and cooking assembly
US2988138A (en) * 1956-11-13 1961-06-13 Brzozowski Witold Gas burning device
US3088812A (en) * 1959-02-12 1963-05-07 Thermal Res & Engineering Corp Submerged exhaust combustion unit
US3162430A (en) * 1961-12-29 1964-12-22 Hupp Corp Oven control
US3165103A (en) * 1963-01-29 1965-01-12 Harry L Warner Water heater
US3331366A (en) * 1965-03-22 1967-07-18 Sullivan Valve & Engineering Co Vertical direct-fired water heater
US3500817A (en) * 1968-03-25 1970-03-17 Hydronics Systems Inc Liquid heating device
US3554182A (en) * 1968-11-14 1971-01-12 Francis M Whitacre Liquid heater especially adapted for liquid submerged use
US3568658A (en) * 1969-03-20 1971-03-09 Cmi Corp Submersible water heater
US4069807A (en) * 1976-04-12 1978-01-24 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Hot air heater
US4120638A (en) * 1977-07-15 1978-10-17 Combustion Unlimited Incorporated Ignition system for flares
FR2524969A1 (en) * 1982-04-07 1983-10-14 Laurent Francois Method and installation for improving the characteristics of operation of a heating installation submerged combustion
EP0135639A1 (en) * 1983-09-23 1985-04-03 Francois Laurent Apparatus for improving the operational characteristics of a heating appliance with submerged combustion
US4530656A (en) * 1979-06-29 1985-07-23 Ruhrgas Aktiengesellschaft Burner

Citations (24)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE168724C (en) *
US517297A (en) * 1894-03-27 Apparatus for removing impurities from smoke
GB190415875A (en) * 1904-07-16 1904-08-25 Adolf Waldbaur Improvements in or relating to Apparatus for Heating Liquids.
US782632A (en) * 1901-08-10 1905-02-14 Adolf Waldbaur Liquid-heater.
US886009A (en) * 1907-03-01 1908-04-28 Fredellia H Moyer Gas-washer.
US919249A (en) * 1908-10-16 1909-04-20 John Ruddiman Gas-cleanser.
US940240A (en) * 1907-02-20 1909-11-16 Charles E Duryea Instantaneous water-heater.
US1060638A (en) * 1911-12-26 1913-05-06 Bernard A Schroder Water-heater.
US1214114A (en) * 1915-08-02 1917-01-30 Bernard R Andrews Apparatus for conditioning air or other gas.
US1264263A (en) * 1915-12-08 1918-04-30 Hermann A Brassert Gas-drier.
US1543941A (en) * 1922-06-05 1925-06-30 Mathesius Walther Apparatus for cleaning gas
GB292736A (en) * 1927-04-25 1928-06-28 Oscar Brunler Improvements relating to combustion apparatus
FR683822A (en) * 1929-01-31 1930-06-18 inexplosible water heater and large thermal efficiency
US2117270A (en) * 1935-06-29 1938-05-17 Fred S Bloom Apparatus for producing progressively delayed combustion
US2132551A (en) * 1936-05-09 1938-10-11 Thomas E Wood Fuel burner
US2167183A (en) * 1936-11-14 1939-07-25 North American Mfg Gas burner
US2174533A (en) * 1937-02-23 1939-10-03 Theodore S See Submerged combustion control system
US2388666A (en) * 1941-01-27 1945-11-13 Automatic Control Corp Burner control mechanism
US2412990A (en) * 1942-07-06 1946-12-24 American Can Co Drying oven control
GB618472A (en) * 1947-08-19 1949-02-22 Norman Swindin Improvements in submerged flame burners
US2462704A (en) * 1945-02-07 1949-02-22 John S Zink Burner and burner nozzle
US2478732A (en) * 1948-04-01 1949-08-09 Wilson Combustion tube heating apparatus
US2530271A (en) * 1946-06-18 1950-11-14 Swindin Norman Submerged flame burner
US2677368A (en) * 1949-06-01 1954-05-04 R C Mahon Company Water heater

Patent Citations (24)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE168724C (en) *
US517297A (en) * 1894-03-27 Apparatus for removing impurities from smoke
US782632A (en) * 1901-08-10 1905-02-14 Adolf Waldbaur Liquid-heater.
GB190415875A (en) * 1904-07-16 1904-08-25 Adolf Waldbaur Improvements in or relating to Apparatus for Heating Liquids.
US940240A (en) * 1907-02-20 1909-11-16 Charles E Duryea Instantaneous water-heater.
US886009A (en) * 1907-03-01 1908-04-28 Fredellia H Moyer Gas-washer.
US919249A (en) * 1908-10-16 1909-04-20 John Ruddiman Gas-cleanser.
US1060638A (en) * 1911-12-26 1913-05-06 Bernard A Schroder Water-heater.
US1214114A (en) * 1915-08-02 1917-01-30 Bernard R Andrews Apparatus for conditioning air or other gas.
US1264263A (en) * 1915-12-08 1918-04-30 Hermann A Brassert Gas-drier.
US1543941A (en) * 1922-06-05 1925-06-30 Mathesius Walther Apparatus for cleaning gas
GB292736A (en) * 1927-04-25 1928-06-28 Oscar Brunler Improvements relating to combustion apparatus
FR683822A (en) * 1929-01-31 1930-06-18 inexplosible water heater and large thermal efficiency
US2117270A (en) * 1935-06-29 1938-05-17 Fred S Bloom Apparatus for producing progressively delayed combustion
US2132551A (en) * 1936-05-09 1938-10-11 Thomas E Wood Fuel burner
US2167183A (en) * 1936-11-14 1939-07-25 North American Mfg Gas burner
US2174533A (en) * 1937-02-23 1939-10-03 Theodore S See Submerged combustion control system
US2388666A (en) * 1941-01-27 1945-11-13 Automatic Control Corp Burner control mechanism
US2412990A (en) * 1942-07-06 1946-12-24 American Can Co Drying oven control
US2462704A (en) * 1945-02-07 1949-02-22 John S Zink Burner and burner nozzle
US2530271A (en) * 1946-06-18 1950-11-14 Swindin Norman Submerged flame burner
GB618472A (en) * 1947-08-19 1949-02-22 Norman Swindin Improvements in submerged flame burners
US2478732A (en) * 1948-04-01 1949-08-09 Wilson Combustion tube heating apparatus
US2677368A (en) * 1949-06-01 1954-05-04 R C Mahon Company Water heater

Cited By (16)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2932347A (en) * 1956-04-24 1960-04-12 Midland Ross Corp Burner apparatus
US2988138A (en) * 1956-11-13 1961-06-13 Brzozowski Witold Gas burning device
US2970589A (en) * 1958-02-25 1961-02-07 Walton W Cushman Food hydration and cooking assembly
US3088812A (en) * 1959-02-12 1963-05-07 Thermal Res & Engineering Corp Submerged exhaust combustion unit
US3162430A (en) * 1961-12-29 1964-12-22 Hupp Corp Oven control
US3165103A (en) * 1963-01-29 1965-01-12 Harry L Warner Water heater
US3331366A (en) * 1965-03-22 1967-07-18 Sullivan Valve & Engineering Co Vertical direct-fired water heater
US3500817A (en) * 1968-03-25 1970-03-17 Hydronics Systems Inc Liquid heating device
US3554182A (en) * 1968-11-14 1971-01-12 Francis M Whitacre Liquid heater especially adapted for liquid submerged use
US3568658A (en) * 1969-03-20 1971-03-09 Cmi Corp Submersible water heater
US4069807A (en) * 1976-04-12 1978-01-24 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Hot air heater
US4120638A (en) * 1977-07-15 1978-10-17 Combustion Unlimited Incorporated Ignition system for flares
US4530656A (en) * 1979-06-29 1985-07-23 Ruhrgas Aktiengesellschaft Burner
US4582476A (en) * 1979-06-29 1986-04-15 Ruhrgas Aktiengesellschaft Burner
FR2524969A1 (en) * 1982-04-07 1983-10-14 Laurent Francois Method and installation for improving the characteristics of operation of a heating installation submerged combustion
EP0135639A1 (en) * 1983-09-23 1985-04-03 Francois Laurent Apparatus for improving the operational characteristics of a heating appliance with submerged combustion

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