RU2681742C1 - Automatic weapons locking mechanism - Google Patents

Automatic weapons locking mechanism Download PDF

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Publication number
RU2681742C1
RU2681742C1 RU2018113810A RU2018113810A RU2681742C1 RU 2681742 C1 RU2681742 C1 RU 2681742C1 RU 2018113810 A RU2018113810 A RU 2018113810A RU 2018113810 A RU2018113810 A RU 2018113810A RU 2681742 C1 RU2681742 C1 RU 2681742C1
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RU
Russia
Prior art keywords
skeleton
locking
frame
bolt
shutter
Prior art date
Application number
RU2018113810A
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Russian (ru)
Inventor
Николай Борисович Кретов
Original Assignee
Николай Борисович Кретов
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Priority to RU2018113810A priority Critical patent/RU2681742C1/en
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Publication of RU2681742C1 publication Critical patent/RU2681742C1/en

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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F41WEAPONS
    • F41AFUNCTIONAL FEATURES OR DETAILS COMMON TO BOTH SMALLARMS AND ORDNANCE, e.g. CANNONS; MOUNTINGS FOR SMALLARMS OR ORDNANCE
    • F41A3/00Breech mechanisms, e.g. locks
    • F41A3/12Bolt action, i.e. the main breech opening movement being parallel to the barrel axis
    • F41A3/36Semi-rigid bolt locks, i.e. having locking elements movably mounted on the bolt or on the barrel or breech housing

Abstract

FIELD: firearms.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the firearms locking mechanisms. Locking mechanism comprises bolt carrier assembly, bolt consisting of frame and swinging in lengthwise direction cylinder. Cylinder can directly act on the bolt carrier assembly. Reliable barrel locking is provided by the frame skewing with simultaneous contact with the barrel receiver thrust surface or the barrel receiver insert. Frame skewing is performed due to the frame inclined surfaces and the bolt carrier assembly corresponding surfaces interaction, due to the frame protrusion interaction with the bolt carrier assembly shaped slot, due to the bolt carrier assembly shaped slot interaction with the bolt carrier assembly projection or due to the frame with the bolt carrier assembly connecting shackle.EFFECT: technical result is the locking mechanism design simplification.8 cl, 16 dwg

Description

The invention relates to the field of automatic weapons, namely to sliding semi-free shutters having locking elements movably mounted on the shutter.
Known automatic firearms (see, for example, the description of the US patent for the invention No. 2052287 with a convention priority of 02/10/1933). In this weapon, the shutter is divided into two parts, the shutter larva and the shutter skeleton. Thus, the bolt group of the locking mechanism, in fact, consists of two main parts, the shutter larva and the shutter frame. Fire is conducted from the rear sear. When you press the trigger and the shutter comes to its extreme forward position, the surface of the still rolling shutter skews the back of the shutter larva up so that its edge extends into the extraction window of the receiver. Between the end face of the shutter and the persistent surface of the extraction window, a gap of about 2 mm remains. When fired, the liner begins to press the shutter larva on the cup, which, in turn, begins to transfer it to the shutter skeleton. Having passed together a distance of 2 mm, the larva of the shutter abuts against the surface of the extraction window, and the overclocked skeleton of the shutter continues to move. Having traveled about 10 mm, the shutter skeleton with its surface lowers the back of the shutter larva, unlocking it, and they again continue to move together. The time interval between the beginning of the interaction of the end surface of the larva of the bolt with the thrust surface of the extraction window of the receiver and its end is enough to extract the sleeve at a safe pressure in the barrel of the weapon. However, direct transfer of energy from the larva to the core makes the locking mechanism extremely sensitive to the power of the ammunition and negatively affects its reliability, especially in difficult operating conditions. The development of the locking mechanism described above can be considered technical solutions for patents for inventions of Great Britain No. 631038 with a priority of July 15, 1946 and USA No. 2,774,283 with a priority of June 14, 1954, which have the same disadvantages as their progenitor.
Known, taken as a prototype, locking the mechanism of small arms or artillery (see, for example, the description of the patent of the Russian Federation for invention No. 2002195 with priority of September 18, 1992 for class F41A 3/36). This locking mechanism comprises a receiver with a combat stop, a locking frame, a locking lever, a return mechanism with a rod and a shutter made in the form of a skeleton and a larva, the larva being movably mounted in the skeleton with the possibility of swinging in a vertical longitudinal plane and directly affecting the bolt frame, and the locking lever is made single-armed and installed in the bolt frame with the possibility of swinging and interaction with the combat emphasis of the receiver and with the back of the shutter skeleton. Thus, the bolt group of the locking mechanism, in fact, consists of four main parts, the shutter larva, the shutter body, the shutter frame and the one-arm locking lever. Weapons using this locking mechanism provide the shooter with high shooting comfort due to the absence of sharp shock pulses. Energy transfer from the larva to the bolt frame occurs with reduction. That is, since the larva, in fact, is a one-arm rotary lever, when fired, due to its rotation from the influence of the bottom of the sleeve, and due to the difference of the shoulders, a much greater energy transfer to the bolt frame occurs than would be the case under direct exposure ( see, the description of the US patent for the invention No. 2052287 with a convention priority of 02/10/1933), in addition, the output of the sleeve from the barrel chamber slows down. We can say that the rotary larva works similarly to the one-arm accelerator lever used in weapons with a short barrel stroke (see, for example, the description of US patent for invention No. 2459141 with priority dated 05/02/1946), but the role of the leading link of automation does not belong the barrel, and the sleeve. However, the described design of the locking mechanism, in comparison with the analogue, also contains a separate locking element - a locking lever mounted on the bolt frame, which in addition has a sufficiently large overall dimensions and metal consumption.
The aim of the invention is to simplify the design of the locking mechanism, which, while maintaining the advantages of the prototype, would have fewer major parts.
For this, in the locking mechanism of an automatic weapon containing a bolt frame, a bolt made in the form of a skeleton and a larva mounted on it with the possibility of swinging in the longitudinal plane and directly acting on the bolt frame, the skeleton can be skewed and interact with the corresponding thrust surface.
Perhaps such a constructive implementation of the skeleton, when when locking there is a skew of its rear part. This can be done, for example, due to the interaction of the cylindrical protrusion with the figured groove of the core (see, for example, as an analogy, the description of the US patent for invention No. 544657 with priority dated November 7, 1892), due to the interaction of the surfaces of the core with the surfaces bolt frame (see, for example, as an analogue, the description of the US patent for invention No. 1317633 with priority dated 12/10/1917) or by turning the earring connecting the back of the skeleton and the bolt frame (see, for example, as an analog French patent specification No. 596197 with a priority of 07/12/1924).
It is also possible such a constructive implementation of the skeleton, when when locking there is a skew of its front part. As an analogue, one can cite the design of the locking mechanism of the carbine VZ.52 (see, for example, descriptions of Czechoslovak patents for inventions No. 80358 with priority dated 01/30/1950 and No. 82314 with priority dated 03/03/1950) in which the front skew part of the shutter when locking occurs due to the interaction of its inclined surfaces with the corresponding surfaces of the shutter frame. Also, as an analogue, the design of the locking mechanism of firearms can be given (see, for example, the description of US patent for invention No. 3112675 with priority dated 06.22.1962), in which the front part of the shutter is skewed when locking due to interaction a cylindrical bolt pin with a curly groove bolt frame.
Skeleton skew is possible both in the vertical longitudinal plane (see, for example, as analogues, the description of the US patent for invention No. 1176873 with priority dated 04/02/1915, or the description of the US patent for invention No. 2093169 with convention priority of 15.03. 1933) and in the horizontal longitudinal plane (see, for example, as analogues, the description of the US patent for the invention No. 1821385 with a convention priority of 05/14/1929, the description of the US patent for the invention No. 2365142 with a priority of 03.01 .1942, as well as p. 54 p. 64 - p. 66 "Manual on small arms 7.62-mm machine-gun modernized machine gun, model 1943, designed by Goryunov (SGM), Military Publishing House of the Ministry of Defense of the USSR Union, Moscow - 1955).
The possibility of skewing the frame allows, in comparison with the prototype, to abandon a separate locking element, thereby reducing the number of main parts of the bolt group of the locking mechanism.
in FIG. 1 - locked shutter (rotation of the back of the skeleton due to the interaction of the inclined surfaces of the shutter frame and the skeleton), diagram;
in FIG. 2 - shutter rollback (rotation of the back of the skeleton due to the interaction of the inclined surfaces of the bolt and the skeleton), diagram;
in FIG. 3 - a locked shutter (rotation of the back of the skeleton due to the interaction of its protrusion with the figured groove of the bolt frame), diagram;
in FIG. 4 - rollback of the shutter (rotation of the back of the skeleton due to the interaction of its protrusion with the figured groove of the shutter frame), diagram;
in FIG. 5 - locked shutter (rotation of the back of the skeleton due to the interaction of its figured groove with the protrusion of the bolt frame), diagram;
in FIG. 6 - rollback of the shutter (rotation of the back of the skeleton due to the interaction of its figured groove with the protrusion of the bolt frame), diagram;
in FIG. 7 - a locked shutter (skew of the back of the skeleton due to the rotation of the earring connecting it with the bolt frame), diagram;
in FIG. 8 - shutter rollback (skew of the back of the skeleton due to rotation of the earring connecting it with the bolt frame), diagram;
in FIG. 9 - locked shutter (skew of the back of the skeleton due to the rotation of the earring connecting it with the bolt frame (the axis of the earring moves into the groove of the bolt frame), diagram;
in FIG. 10 - shutter rollback (skew of the back of the skeleton due to the rotation of the earring connecting it with the bolt frame (the axis of the earring moves in the groove of the bolt frame), diagram;
in FIG. 11 - locked shutter (rotation of the front of the skeleton due to the interaction of the inclined surfaces of the bolt and the skeleton), diagram;
in FIG. 12 - start of unlocking the shutter, circuit;
in FIG. 13 - rollback of the shutter (turning the front of the skeleton down due to the interaction of the inclined surfaces of the bolt and the skeleton), diagram;
in FIG. 14 - locked shutter (rotation of the front of the skeleton due to the interaction of the inclined surfaces of the bolt and the skeleton), diagram;
in FIG. 15 - start of unlocking the shutter, diagram;
in FIG. 16 - rollback of the shutter (turning the front of the skeleton up due to the interaction of the inclined surfaces of the shutter frame and the skeleton), diagram
The locking mechanism of an automatic weapon includes a bolt frame 1, a bolt made in the form of a skeleton 2 and a larva 3 mounted on the skeleton 2 with the possibility of swinging in the longitudinal plane and directly acting on the bolt frame 1, and the skeleton 2 has the ability to skew and interact with the corresponding thrust surface 4. The thrust surface 4 can be made in the receiver or located on the liner 5 of the receiver.
Skewing of the skeleton 2 can be due to the interaction of its inclined surfaces with the corresponding inclined surfaces of the shutter frame 1. Moreover, when locking and unlocking, a large arc can describe both the back of the skeleton 2 (see Fig. 1 and Fig. 2) and the front part of the skeleton 2 (see Fig. 11 - Fig. 13 (locking by turning up) and Fig. 14 - Fig. 16 (locking by turning down)).
Skewing of the skeleton 2 can be achieved due to the interaction of its protrusion 6 with the figured groove of the bolt frame 1 (see Fig. 3 and Fig. 4).
The skew of the skeleton 2 can be achieved due to the interaction of its figured groove with the protrusion 7 of the bolt frame 1 (see Fig. 5 and Fig. 6).
Skewing of the skeleton 2 can be carried out due to the rotation of the earring 8 connecting the bolt frame 1 with the skeleton 2 (see Fig. 7 and Fig. 8). In order to optimize the release time of the shutter, the axis of the earring 8 can move into the groove of the shutter frame 1 (see Fig. 9 and Fig. 10).
Consider the examples of the operation of automatic small arms with the proposed locking mechanism.
Example 1
Consider the locking mechanism shown in FIG. 1 and FIG. 2, in which a figured groove with inclined surfaces is made on the bolt frame 1, and a figured protrusion with inclined surfaces is made on the core 2. A spring-loaded drummer 9 is installed on the skeleton 2. Fire is fired from the front sear.
To start firing, the shooter inserts an equipped magazine into the receiver’s receiving window, and takes the bolt group back by the handle connected to the bolt frame 1, compressing the return spring 10 and cocking the trigger (not shown), and then releasing the handle. Under the action of the return spring 10, starts rolling the bolt group. At the same time, the larva 3, with the edge of its front end, extracts the cartridge from the magazine and sends it to the chamber of the barrel 11. Having reached its extreme forward position, the larva 3 and skeleton 2 stop, and the bolt frame 1 continues its movement, while it rotates the larva 3 with its front end and the inclined surfaces of its figured groove, sliding along the corresponding surfaces of the protrusion of the skeleton 2, provide the rotation of the back of the skeleton 2. The rear end of the skeleton 2 is lowered and abuts against the surface 4 of the receiver. The shutter is locked (see Fig. 1). Next, the shooter pulls the trigger, pulling the trigger from the cocking, which hits with its end on the end face of the drummer 9. The drummer 9 moves forward and strikes the cartridge with its striker. A shot is taking place. The bullet begins to move along the barrel 11, and the sleeve, under the action of the energy of the powder gases, is shifted in the opposite direction. The larva 3 perceives the energy of the shot and rotates in the direction of the skeleton 2, while transmitting the energy of the powder gases to the shutter frame 1, which begins to move relative to the skeleton 2 to its extreme rear position (not shown in the drawings). When rolling back the bolt frame 1, the surface of its curly groove, sliding along the corresponding surfaces of the protrusion of the skeleton 2, provide the rotation of the back of the skeleton 2. The rear end of the skeleton 2 rises and leaves the interaction with the surface 4 of the receiver. The bolt frame 1 carries the bolt behind it (see Fig. 2) and moves with it to its extreme rear position, compressing the return spring 10 and cocking the trigger (not shown), and then the bolt group starts rolling again.
Example 2
Consider the locking mechanism shown in FIG. 11 - FIG. 13, in which the inclined surfaces of the figured groove of the bolt frame 1 interact when locking and unlocking with the inclined surfaces of the figured protrusion of the skeleton 2. A spring-loaded hammer 9 is mounted on the skeleton 2. The fire is fired from the front sear.
To start firing, the shooter inserts an equipped magazine into the receiver’s receiving window, and by the handle connected to the bolt frame 1, he pushes the bolt group back, squeezing the return spring 10 and cocking the trigger (not shown), and then releasing the handle. Under the action of the return spring 10, starts rolling the bolt group. At the same time, the larva 3, with the edge of its front end, extracts the cartridge from the magazine and sends it to the chamber of the barrel 11. Having reached its extreme forward position, the skeleton 2 and the larva 3 stop, and the bolt frame 1 continues to roll. At the same time, she rotates the larva 3 with her front cake, and the inclined surfaces of her figured groove, sliding along the inclined surfaces of the figured protrusion of the skeleton 2, provide rotation of the front part of the skeleton 2. The front part of the skeleton 2 rises and its locking protrusions 12 lie on the thrust surfaces of the barrel inserts 5 boxes. The shutter is locked (see FIG. 11). Next, the shooter pulls the trigger, pulling the trigger from the cocking, which hits with its end on the end face of the drummer 9. The drummer 9 moves forward and strikes the cartridge with its striker. A shot is taking place. The bullet begins to move along the barrel 11, and the sleeve, under the action of the energy of the powder gases, is shifted in the opposite direction. The larva 3 perceives the energy of the shot and rotates in the direction of the skeleton 2, while transmitting the energy of the powder gases to the shutter frame 1, which begins to move relative to the skeleton 2 to its extreme rear position (not shown in the drawings). When rolling back the bolt frame 1, the surface of its curly groove, sliding along the corresponding surfaces of the protrusion of the skeleton 2, ensure the rotation of the front of the skeleton 2. The front of the skeleton 2 is lowered and its locking protrusions 12 come out of interaction with the thrust surfaces of the shell inserts 5. The bolt frame 1 carries the bolt behind it (see Fig. 13) and moves with it to the extreme rear position, compressing the return spring 10 and cocking the trigger (not shown), and then the bolt group starts rolling again.
Other structural implementations of the proposed locking mechanism work in a similar manner and are explained in sufficient detail by illustrations (see Fig. 3 - Fig. 10 and Fig. 14 - Fig. 16).
Thus, in the proposed locking mechanism, while maintaining the smoothness inherent in the prototype, a simplification of the design of the locking mechanism is achieved by reducing the number of parts of the bolt group.

Claims (8)

1. The locking mechanism of an automatic weapon containing a bolt frame, a bolt made in the form of a skeleton and a larva mounted on it with the possibility of swinging in the longitudinal plane and directly acting on the bolt frame, characterized in that the skeleton has the ability to skew and interact with the corresponding thrust surface.
2. The locking mechanism according to claim 1, characterized in that the skew of the skeleton is due to the interaction of its inclined surfaces with the corresponding inclined surfaces of the shutter frame.
3. The locking mechanism according to claim 1, characterized in that the skew of the skeleton is carried out due to the interaction of its protrusion with the figured groove of the shutter frame.
4. The locking mechanism according to claim 1, characterized in that the skew of the skeleton is due to the interaction of its shaped groove with the protrusion of the bolt frame.
5. The locking mechanism according to claim 3 or 4, characterized in that the protrusion is made in the form of a cylindrical pin.
6. The locking mechanism according to claim 1, characterized in that the skeleton is skewed by turning the earring connecting the bolt frame to the skeleton.
7. The locking mechanism according to any one of paragraphs. 1-6, characterized in that when the skeleton is skewed, the front arc describes the maximum arc during rotation.
8. The locking mechanism according to any one of paragraphs. 1-6, characterized in that when the skeleton is skewed, the maximum arc during rotation is described by its back.
RU2018113810A 2018-04-17 2018-04-17 Automatic weapons locking mechanism RU2681742C1 (en)

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Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4161836A (en) * 1976-11-25 1979-07-24 Kabushiki Kaisha Kawaguchiya Hayashi Juho Kayaku-Ten Breechblock assembly and an operating mechanism for a fire-arm automatic loading
RU2570922C1 (en) * 2014-05-29 2015-12-20 Олег Николаевич Морозов Locking mechanism
RU2583248C1 (en) * 2015-02-19 2016-05-10 Общество С Ограниченной Ответственностью "Промтехнология" Locking mechanism for small arms

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4161836A (en) * 1976-11-25 1979-07-24 Kabushiki Kaisha Kawaguchiya Hayashi Juho Kayaku-Ten Breechblock assembly and an operating mechanism for a fire-arm automatic loading
RU2570922C1 (en) * 2014-05-29 2015-12-20 Олег Николаевич Морозов Locking mechanism
RU2583248C1 (en) * 2015-02-19 2016-05-10 Общество С Ограниченной Ответственностью "Промтехнология" Locking mechanism for small arms

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