RU2418140C2 - Quakeproof suspended walls with glased panels - Google Patents

Quakeproof suspended walls with glased panels Download PDF

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Publication number
RU2418140C2
RU2418140C2 RU2008114612/03A RU2008114612A RU2418140C2 RU 2418140 C2 RU2418140 C2 RU 2418140C2 RU 2008114612/03 A RU2008114612/03 A RU 2008114612/03A RU 2008114612 A RU2008114612 A RU 2008114612A RU 2418140 C2 RU2418140 C2 RU 2418140C2
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Russia
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floor
windows
curtain
horizontal
earthquake
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RU2008114612/03A
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Russian (ru)
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RU2008114612A (en
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Стефанос ТАМБАКАКИС (GR)
Стефанос ТАМБАКАКИС
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Стефанос ТАМБАКАКИС
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Priority to GR20060100444A priority Critical patent/GR1005566B/en
Priority to GR20060100444 priority
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E06DOORS, WINDOWS, SHUTTERS, OR ROLLER BLINDS IN GENERAL; LADDERS
    • E06BFIXED OR MOVABLE CLOSURES FOR OPENINGS IN BUILDINGS, VEHICLES, FENCES OR LIKE ENCLOSURES IN GENERAL, e.g. DOORS, WINDOWS, BLINDS, GATES
    • E06B3/00Window sashes, door leaves, or like elements for closing wall or like openings; Layout of fixed or moving closures, e.g. windows in wall or like openings; Features of rigidly-mounted outer frames relating to the mounting of wing frames
    • E06B3/54Fixing of glass panes or like plates
    • E06B3/5427Fixing of glass panes or like plates the panes mounted flush with the surrounding frame or with the surrounding panes

Abstract

FIELD: construction.
SUBSTANCE: quakeproof suspended wall with suspended glass panels, where the structure of the suspended wall of each floor is fully separated from the structure of the suspended walls of adjacent floors, in the area of windows there are no stands, and glass panels are suspended only onto horizontal beams of the structure. At the same time windows are freely suspended along the whole length of the floor by means of a pair of engaging hooks, at the same time one hook is installed on the upper horizontal beam of the floor window link, included into the structure of the floor arranged above, and the second hook is located on the upper profile of the window frame; the line formed by hooks makes a horizontal sliding line, by means of which the floor displacement caused by an earthquake becomes fully independent from displacement of other floors. At the same time windows are finished with the lower profile of the window frame on the lower horizontal support beam of the floor windows, to which they are rigidly fixed.
EFFECT: windows follow structure movements and form a fixed single sector or floor, interacting, concerning earthquake resistance, with according sector of the floor arranged above.
13 cl, 16 dwg

Description

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to the field of development, production and installation of curtain walls with suspended glass panels that can withstand the effects of seismic forces of significant earthquakes without destroying glazed panels and deformation or distortion of the wall structure.

State of the art

The destructive effect of significant earthquakes on various structures, in particular buildings, as well as the impact of such destruction associated with the loss of human lives and material and economic damage, both to individuals and to entire states, is well known.

That is why so many scientific organizations, universities, research centers and institutes are involved in seismic protection of buildings, the main purpose of which is the construction of buildings, the structural elements of which would be able to withstand the effects of significant earthquakes, thereby limiting the risk of collapse.

The task of effectively reducing seismic hazard through the construction of earthquake-resistant buildings is especially difficult, because its solution requires taking into account a large number of parameters and many other factors.

On the one hand, there is an earthquake, the characteristics of which (strength, distance, direction, depth of center), in combination with the characteristics of the soil on which the building is built (composition, condition, humidity), determine the magnitude of the earthquake impact on the building (acceleration, speed, duration , oscillation frequency). On the other hand, it is necessary to take into account the parameters of the building itself, subjected to seismic forces and resisting them, depending on the characteristics of its structure (building geometry, shape, mass, location of structural elements, rigidity, main vibration period, etc.).

The construction of the building forms its main load-bearing elements. It is the supporting structure that directly accepts the influence of all seismic forces and reacts to it. The degree of preservation of a building after an earthquake depends on its reaction and the total interaction with such forces.

However, the supporting structure can be supplemented by components that are not constructive, fitted to the structure and reacting to the action in parallel with it in accordance with their individual characteristics. It is generally recognized that the functionality of a building and its belonging to a number of habitable depends on the size of the damage caused to such additional components of the building, regardless of the possibly intact state of the structure.

The most important of the non-structural components of the building are the curtain walls of the facades, which are most vulnerable to earthquakes in comparison with all other components.

The high vulnerability of curtain walls is caused by the inability of glass panels to repeat the deformations caused by seismic forces in the building structure during an earthquake, and to compensate for interfloor shifts. More specifically, they cannot adapt to displacements parallel to their surface, because glass panels cannot be deformed in this direction.

However, as already mentioned, regardless of the fact that the construction of the building can transfer an earthquake intact, the fragility of glazed panels, especially when impacted and applied to their edges, leads to their destruction by the first of the facade components.

The greatest stress under the influence of seismic forces caused by seismic acceleration and interfloor shear is experienced by the joints with which the curtain walls are attached to the building structure.

On figa presents a drawing illustrating the deformation and interfloor shift (δ) formed in the building structure between two adjacent floors during an earthquake. The figure shows a floor plate of a given floor designated as (1.1), a ceiling plate of the same floor or a floor plate of a floor located above it, designated as (1.2), and vertical supports (1.3) of a floor at rest (without shaking). Figure 1 B illustrates the deformation of elements and the interfloor shift (δ) between the plates of two floors (1.4) under the influence of a seismic shock.

On figs presents in section the same part of the structure of the building with the addition of curtain walls made by known technologies at rest (without shaking), and fig.1D presents the same elements in an earthquake, during which the design of the curtain wall repeats deformation of the building structure. FIG. 1E shows the construction of FIG. 1C with the addition of glazed panels at rest (without shaking), and FIG. 1F illustrates the state of the seismic shock. It can be seen that glazed panels cannot repeat the deformation of the curtain wall structure supporting them, which leads to their destruction.

The specified design of curtain walls and its behavior in the event of an earthquake are currently accepted in all systems of glazed curtain walls available on the international market, the design of which consists of vertical beams (racks), continuously passing along the entire height of the curtain wall, and short horizontal beams (crossbars) fixed between vertical beams. Glass panels or curtain wall panels are attached directly to vertical beams and short horizontal beams that support such panels.

Relevant studies in the United States concluded that existing systems can withstand small shifts (δ) by increasing the gap left between glass panels and aluminum profiles, or by rounding the corners of glass panels. However, such solutions remain unsatisfactory in the event of significant earthquakes, in which more stringent requirements are imposed on the gaps between the panels and frames, especially in the case of buildings with steel supporting structures.

Disclosure of invention

These disadvantages can be eliminated by the implementation of the present invention, which ensures that the glass panels do not have an effect of interfloor shifts of the building floors during an earthquake, not only do the glass panels remain intact, but the entire curtain wall is returned to its former position, and its construction does not undergo shock or any change or damage. This was confirmed by laboratory tests conducted at the Seismic Technology Laboratory of the National Technical University in Athens on an integrated set of curtain walls, which was tested on June 16, 2006 at a seismic modeling bench with the curtain wall windows fully closed. The tests were repeated with the windows open on the 27th of the same month. In both cases, the tests were successful, as evidenced by the attached laboratory certificate; The final test report and certificate must be issued within two months.

To ensure earthquake resistance, the glazed curtain wall must be capable of completely absorbing the interfloor shear formed in all directions between adjacent floors, and its components must be able to withstand accelerations (g) arising from the earthquake without residual deformation, regardless of the shock spectrum .

This ability should be inherent in all glazed curtain walls at all levels and in all directions, including corner walls at all corners, edges or ledges, corner walls located between buildings, and curtain walls that support solid glass panels and extend over several floors.

In addition, the seismic stability of the curtain wall should not affect its functionality or its air and water resistance, and should not reduce its resistance to wind pressure and other external forces after the earthquake.

The solution to all of the above problems can be achieved by functional separation of the curtain wall of each floor from the curtain wall of adjacent floors, upper or lower, ensuring independence of the shifts of the curtain wall of each floor from the shifts of the curtain walls of other floors.

The implementation of the invention

For this, as shown in FIG. 2A, the curtain wall of each floor is optimally divided into two separate sections (2.1) and (2.2) along a horizontal dividing line that runs along the entire length of the facade of this floor at the level of the window lintel (2.3).

Each of the sections (2.1) and (2.2) consists of two parts: the rigid part (2.4), which contains the curtain wall structure of this floor and the rigid glass panels attached to such a structure (window sill walls), and the part (2.5), which contains windows this floor.

Two parts (2.4) and (2.5) extend along the entire length of the floor and are interconnected so as to ensure their joint operation for earthquake resistance in the form of combined sections (2.1) or (2.2), while at the same time providing independent operation of windows and the possibility of opening windows ((2.6) on figv) along the entire length of the floor.

FIGS. 3A and 3B are sectional views of a structure of a two-story hinged glazed wall, and FIG. 3A is a sectional view of a structure provided on a floor plate of one floor, and FIG. 3B is a structure provided on a floor plate of a floor located above it. . Both structures contain, as the main components of the pillar (3.1), horizontal beams (3.2) and (3.3), provided on each floor, and fasteners (3.4).

Racks (3.1) at their ends support horizontal beams (3.2) and (3.3) of each floor. The height of the racks corresponds to the height of the structure of each floor; the racks are attached to the floor plates of the corresponding floors with the help of fasteners (3.4), having the form of brackets protruding from both sides.

Fasteners (3.4) form the connection between the structure of the curtain wall and the structure of the building; they are able to withstand the effects of any forces created by the earthquake, as well as other forces generated by constant load and wind pressure.

As shown in FIG. 3A, one of the horizontal beams (3.2) and (3.3), namely the beam (3.2), belongs to the structure of this floor and forms the supporting beam of the windows of this floor, supporting the underside of such windows (2.5), as well as the beam to which the fixed glazed panels (2.4) of a given floor are suspended, while the beam (3.3) shown in Fig. 3B belongs to the construction of the floor located above and forms a window beam of windows of this floor to which the windows are suspended (2.5) floors and which supports the underside of the fixed glazed pa firs floor, located above.

In the above construction, the posts (3.1) do not touch the glass panels at all. This allows us to produce them not only from aluminum profiles, but also from steel profiles, for example, types IPE (I-beam profile), U (channel), Z (zeta profile) or hollow profile, which provides the possibility of a better and more economical execution of ever-increasing structural earthquake resistance requirements.

To ensure the required controlled stiffness of the joints of the uprights with horizontal structural beams, it is recommended to use a unified construction system, i.e. prefabricated panels that can be transported to the construction site and suspended on pre-mounted standardized load-bearing elements.

On figa and 4B presents pre-mounted on the slab (4.4) of the floor of the floor supporting elements and finished panels (4.1) of the unified system. The latter contain structural elements supplemented with standard coatings (4.2), for example, from dry plaster, asbestos-cement sheets (slate) or other similar material, as well as filling from insulating materials (4.3), for example, mineral wool or other similar material, and necessary components (4.5) providing bending stiffness.

As shown in FIGS. 3A, 3B and 4A, 4B, racks are not provided in the window arrangement area. Thus, the design of each floor is limited to a fixed part (window sill) attached to the floor plate of the corresponding floor, with which it moves when displaced by an earthquake.

This means that the supporting structure of the curtain wall of each floor repeats only the movement of the floor plate to which it is attached. Thus, it does not affect the movement of structures of adjacent floors located above and below, and itself is not subject to their influence, because installed independently of them.

Figure 5 presents a General view in section of a hinged glazed wall covering three floors; the fixed sectors of the floors (5.1), (5.2), (5.3) are presented, their respective fixed parts (5.4) containing the structural elements of each floor, as well as part of the windows (5.5). Figure 5 shows the lower horizontal support beams (5.6) of the windows, the same on all floors, to which the fixed glass panels (5.4) of each floor are suspended and which support the lower side of the windows of the floor. Also presented are the upper horizontal beams (5.7) of the window jumpers, the same on all floors, to which the windows of each floor are suspended and which support the lower side of the fixed glass panels of the floor located above.

In particular, it should be noted that the upper horizontal beams (5.7) are beams to which the windows of this floor are suspended. However, such beams always belong to the construction of the floor located above, with the exception of the case of a hinged glazed wall of the upper floor, where the beam is held directly by the roofing plate of the floor and belongs to the structure of the same floor. The same applies to the lower floor of the curtain wall, where the beam rests directly on the floor plate of the floor.

In addition to the above, the horizontal beam (5.7) also represents a beam that determines, by means of the window suspension line, the optimal separation line of the fixed sectors of the curtain wall of each floor (5.1, 5.2) and the line of their relative sliding.

On figa, 6B presents on a larger scale the fixed sector (6.1) of the floor corresponding to the floor (5.1) of figure 5, moreover, its two parts are presented: the fixed part (6.4) and the window part (6.5). The window part (6.5) is located between the fixed part (6.4), which is a portion of the fixed part of the floor (6.1), and the fixed part (6.4) of the fixed sector (6.2) of the floor located above, to which the horizontal beam (6.7) belongs and to which windows (6.5) of the floor are suspended.

The window suspension is continuous along the entire length of the floor and is carried out using pairs of hooks hooking (6.9) and (6.10). The hook (6.9) is provided on the aluminum profile (6.7) of the upper horizontal beam of the jumper of the floor windows, and the hook (6.10) is provided on the upper horizontal profile (6.11) of the frames of the glass panels of the floor windows.

Between the hooking hooks (6.9) and (6.10) (see Fig. 6C) a gasket (6.3) is provided, made of a material having a low coefficient of friction, for example polyamide, teflon or other similar material. The gasket defines the line of separation and sliding between the rigid sectors (6.1 and 6.2) of the floor and makes it possible for them to slide relative in a direction parallel to the surface of the curtain wall.

The sliding line (6.3) at the same time represents the axis of rotation of the hook (6.10) when opening the windows. This means that the glass panels of the window area on each floor and along the entire length of the floor are opening windows.

Each of the windows suspended on pairs of hooks hooks ends with a lower horizontal profile (6.12) of the window glass panel frame above the lower horizontal support beam (6.6) of the floor windows. The windows are connected to the support beam (6.6) and are attached to it so as to ensure the joint functioning of both parts, i.e. of the rigid part and windows, in the form of a single sector (6.1), which interacts in the event of an earthquake with the corresponding sector (6.2) located above the floor through the slip line (6.3). As a result, sector displacement (6.2) does not affect sector displacement (6.1). By analogy, since the same interaction is provided with the fixed sector of the floor located above, the shift of the curtain wall at the level of one of the floors does not affect the shift of the curtain wall of adjacent floors and is not affected by their shift.

The fixed glass panels (6.4) of each floor are also suspended on the lower horizontal support beams of the floor windows using hooks. One of these hooks (6.13) is provided along the entire length of the lower horizontal support beam of the floor (6.6), and the other hook (6.14) is provided on the upper horizontal profile of the frame of the fixed glass panels (6.15). Fixed glass panels are stiffened with other hooks. One of these hooks (6.17) is provided along the entire length of the upper horizontal beam-jumper of the windows (6.7) of the floor located below, and another such hook (6.18) is provided on the lower horizontal profile of the frame of the fixed glass panel (6.16).

Between the two hooks used to hang and fasten the fixed glass panels to the structure of the curtain wall, a rubber gasket is provided (6.19). Such a gasket must have a high coefficient of friction, and a more reliable fastening of the fixed glass panel to the supporting structure is obtained using the bolts provided for tightening at point (6.20).

The above-described construction of a curtain wall allows for a shift in all directions. The ability of the structure to absorb the relative interfloor shift (δ) in the direction perpendicular to the surface of the curtain wall is very high and also depends on the height of the windows. This is due to the hinges, one of which is provided along the line of suspension of windows, and the second passes through the reinforcement of fastening the windows to the horizontal support beam of the windows (6.21, 12.2, 12.3).

On figa curtain wall is presented in vertical section at rest, and on figv and 7C in an earthquake with a seismic wave direction perpendicular to the surface of the curtain wall. The latest drawings show the hinges (7.5, 7.6) and the interfloor shift (δ) (7.7) is indicated.

As follows from Fig. 7, during an earthquake, the supporting structure of the curtain wall and the fixed glass panels attached to it (window sill), as well as any other elements attached to the structure of the curtain wall, maintain rigidity in the direction perpendicular to the surface of the curtain wall. All available shift is present and absorbed in the window region.

However, to ensure complete seismic resistance of the curtain wall, it is necessary to ensure its similar behavior in other directions. The present invention provides an exhaustive solution to this problem, which causes significant difficulties on a global scale, in the case of the direction of the earthquake, parallel to the surface of the curtain wall.

As described above, the window suspension line forms a dividing line, as well as a sliding line between the fixed sectors of the curtain wall of the curtain wall on each floor. This is the result of using a gasket (6.3) made of a material with a low coefficient of friction inserted between two hooks that are used to suspend windows. Thus, as can be seen from Fig. 8, it is possible to freely relative slide between the two fixed sectors (8.1) and (8.2) of the curtain wall, which provides free and independent displacement of the lower fixed sector relative to the upper fixed sector of the curtain wall on each floor.

When this is possible, the lower fixed sector (8.1) of the curtain wall that repeats the displacements of the floor plate of the corresponding floor is not affected by the displacement of the fixed sector (8.2), which repeats the displacements of the floor plate located above. A similar situation exists with respect to the fixed sector of the curtain wall of the floor located below. Consequently, the curtain wall of each floor does not experience the influence of seismic shifts (δ) (8.6) of adjacent floors, which eliminates the problem that is the main cause of the destruction of glazed panels during an earthquake.

A sliding element of polyamide, Teflon or other similar material with a low coefficient of friction is attached to the end of the hook of the upper horizontal beam of the window bridge in a form corresponding to the shape of the end of the hook, in a manner that ensures the strength and safety of the fastening.

To enable relative slipping of two sectors, the two parts of each sector, the fixed part (8.4) and the window part (8.5), must be firmly connected to each other through the horizontal support beam of the windows so that the relative seismic shift (δ) (8.6) between the plates floors of the floors was converted into the corresponding shift (δ) (8.7) between the two sectors (8.1) and (8.2).

As already mentioned, the stability of each floor sector is ensured by creating a stable curtain wall structure using a unified system, using powerful fasteners that can safely transfer seismic forces from the building structure to the curtain wall structure and vice versa, as well as rigidly attaching the floor windows to support beam floor design.

Of course, the corresponding shift (δ) between the floors is transmitted along the slip line in the horizontal direction to the edges of the curtain wall, with which it ends. Therefore, it is necessary to provide for a special angular completion, providing shear absorption.

There are several cases of completion of a curtain wall. The most difficult of these is the case of corner curtain walls, found in all individual buildings or buildings with a free perimeter. The difficulty lies in the fact that the angular completion must be capable of absorbing the corresponding shifts not only in the direction of the two sides forming the angle, but also in any other arbitrary directions, since the direction of the shift caused by the earthquake is random and unpredictable, as is the behavior of the building under the influence of twisting.

In addition, additional difficulties are caused by the fact that a shift parallel to one of the sides of the building structure generates a shift perpendicular to the other side, which leads to a mismatch of the shifts of the curtain walls at the corners.

Thus, for functioning in conditions of multidirectional shifts at the corners of buildings, the final profiles of the curtain wall should be capable of gyroscopic movements to ensure that the curtain wall is parallel to such shifts.

As indicated above and illustrated in FIGS. 3 and 4, there are no racks in the window region of each floor. As a consequence, the same is true for the corners of curtain walls of glazed walls. This circumstance facilitates the formation of an angular profile by directly connecting the beams of the structure of each side of the floor.

9A, 9B, 9C illustrate the formation of angles (9.1 and 9.2) of the structure of the curtain wall by connecting horizontal beams, i.e. support beams (9.3) and beams (9.4) jumpers. This operation is carried out by simply cutting aluminum profiles in the diagonal direction and joining them using parallel plates (9.5, 9.6) and (6.22, 6.23), which provide a rigid and unchanged angle in accordance with the requirements of each particular case.

As mentioned above, the design of the corners of the horizontal beams of the curtain wall structure implies the unity of the entire curtain wall structure of each floor, including its straight and angular sectors, and its single displacement along with the slab of the floor to which it is attached.

As a result, with regard to shifts, everything that applies to the sides also applies to corners, and therefore, interfloor shifts generally occur and are absorbed in the window region of each floor, regardless of whether the curtain wall is angular.

In addition, from the above considerations, the need arises for joining glazed window panels at the corners, including in the window region. This allows you to ensure, on the one hand, the smooth absorption of relative shifts in all directions, and on the other hand, the functional connection of the two sides of the curtain wall. It also makes it possible to fulfill all the requirements for air and water tightness, stability of the curtain wall to wind pressure and safety of glass panels, as well as maintaining compliance with such requirements after an earthquake, as it allows the curtain wall to return to its original state without any deviations.

As already indicated, the absorption of all shifts occurs in the window region. Therefore, the angle profile of the curtain wall is not continuous over the entire height of the floor, but is interrupted at the points of the horizontal beams on which it is installed, which ensures joint operation with end glass panels in order to fulfill the above requirements. Gaps in the angular profile at the points of the horizontal beams are introduced to ensure the impermeability of the curtain wall. For this, a sealed profile (6.24) is used, which is placed horizontally on top of the horizontal support beams of the windows, as well as a special shape of the hook profiles (6.25) of the beams (6.7) of the jumpers, which ensures the required level of impermeability.

The angular profile shown in FIG. 10A was developed based on these requirements. Figa and 10B illustrate in horizontal section the interaction of the angular profile with the vertical profiles of the glass panels of the side windows. On figa and 10B presents the main sides of the corner (10.1) in combination with the ends (10.6) of the vertical profiles of the frames of the glass panels of the side windows, and the length of these sides determines the corresponding shift (δ) of the curtain wall absorbed in this corner. In addition, internal elements (10.2) and external elements (10.3) of the sides of the corner are provided, providing air and water impermeability and having the same or greater shear range, in combination with the ends of the vertical sections of window frames (10.7) and glass panels (10.8). The overlapping (10.11) of the sides (10.1) of the angle and the terminations (10.6) is made taking into account the need for constant overlapping of the ends of the glass panels with the sides of the angle to ensure smooth movement of the angular profile during an earthquake.

To provide protection against displacements in the diagonal direction of the building, recesses (10.9) are provided at the angular ends of the glazed panels, the size of which is proportional to the estimated shift (δ ') (10.10) in this direction.

A closed core (10.4) is provided in the middle of the angular profile, designed to provide the necessary support for the angular profile at its ends and to follow the displacement of the curtain wall in this angle.

To ensure shear absorption in all directions, the angular profile (11.1) is fixed at its ends only at two points. At one of the attachment points located at the upper end (FIGS. 11A, 11B, 11C), the profile is fixed by hanging to the lower side of the corner of the two upper horizontal beams of the window jumpers (11.2) of the floor with the help of a fastener (11.3) passing through the cut in a closed core through the upper end of the corner (11.4) and held by a pin (11.5), which allows free rotation of the angular profile at the upper end in accordance with the shifts of the floor structure located above. At the second attachment point located at the lower end of the corner profile (Fig. 11D, 11E, 11F), the profile is attached to the upper side of the corner formed by the lower horizontal support beams of the windows (11.6) of the floor using the fastener (11.7) and the pin (11.8) freely moving in all directions to the extent permitted by the mount (11.9) for vertical movements.

The same angular profile is used at the corners of the fixed frames to ensure architectural unity and uniform fulfillment of the above requirements for impermeability, etc. The only difference is that the corner profile is attached directly to the beams of the curtain wall structure, because the corresponding angle in this design remains rigid and unchanged.

In the case of a curtain wall with one side / plane, the shear is absorbed in a direction parallel to the surface of the curtain wall, the profile of the side, the shape of which corresponds to half the angular profile, the edges of the profile are at right angles, and the sides connecting with the ends of the final profiles of window frames glass panels, have a length commensurate with the estimated shear value (δ). The absorption of shear (δ) (7.7) in the direction perpendicular to the surface of the curtain wall of the glazed wall provides free rotation of the joints (7.5, 7.6).

The combination of the two parts of the fixed sector and, in particular, the connection of the design of each floor with the floor windows can be carried out in different ways, depending on the possible state of the windows before and during the earthquake.

If the windows remain closed (figa, 12B), as is usually the case in high-rise buildings, they can be rigidly attached to their support beams (12.1) using fasteners (12.2, 12.3) and (12.4, 12.5).

A bolt (12.2) with a square head is inserted into the cut (12.6) of the lower horizontal profile of the window frame (12.7), and the corner (12.3) is rigidly fixed in the inner part of the beam (12.1). Together, these elements hold the windows and block the effect of seismic forces directed perpendicular to their plane, as well as forces caused by wind pressure, positive or negative. On the other hand, deleting element data allows you to use windows as opening windows, if necessary. At the same time, in combination with the connection along the window suspension line, these elements perform the function of compounds providing absorption of seismic shifts (δ) (7.7) directed at right angles to the plane of the curtain wall.

At the same time, the fixing fork (12.4), rigidly attached to the lower section of the window frame (12.7), in combination with the fixing pin (12.5), also rigidly attached to the window support beam (12.1), blocks the lateral displacement of the windows relative to the support beam (12.1) ), at the same time, without interfering with their opening.

Similar elements designed to solve the same problems and acting in the same way as the plug (12.4) are attached along the upper part of the window frames and at the points of vertical connections, as shown in figa, 13B, 13C. One of these elements (13.1) is attached to the upper horizontal profile of the frame of one of the windows and has one of the ends in the form of a small fork. Another element (13.2) is attached to the same place in another window, with one of its ends entering the plug (13.1) and blocks the displacement of one window relative to the other regardless of whether these windows are closed (Fig.13A) or open (Fig.13B). Thus, the opening (recess) between the two windows (13.4, 13.5) remains constant, which eliminates the risk of a collision between two glazed panels.

The two sides (13.1 and 13.2) do not touch the horizontal beam (13.3) of the window suspension and are fixed in such a way that together with the fork (12.4) prevent any horizontal displacement of the windows relative to the horizontal supporting beam to which they are rigidly attached.

If in normal mode the windows should function as pivot windows (Figs. 14A and 14B), the fasteners (12.2) and (12.3) are replaced by locks (14.1), which, in combination with the pin (14.2), fully absorb the seismic forces, acting in the direction perpendicular to the surface of the curtain wall of the glazed wall, and corresponding to the impact on the curtain wall of the glazed wall of negative wind pressure, while the fasteners (12.4, 12.5, 13.1, 13.2) associated with the shifts parallel to the surface of the curtain wall, remain b s changes.

If during an earthquake the windows turn out to be open, the combination of both parts is ensured by rigid suspensions (15.1) of FIG. 15, used to open and lock the windows, which, in combination with the fasteners (13.1, 13.2), ensure the windows are still in the same position which they are at the moment. Thus, despite the fact that the windows are open, the slip line formed by the pairs of hooks hooks functions normally and provides a smooth absorption of shifts, as in the case of closed windows.

If the panels of a curtain wall are continuously distributed over several floors or have gaps between floors, or are continuously distributed from floor to ceiling of a floor without intermediate gaps, the slip line is also fully functional when hanging glass panels on pairs of hooks, as in the case of windows. In addition, the final corner profiles are fully functional using the same fastening method, the vertically integrated glazed panels acting as the fixed part of the floor (Figs. 16A and 16B), and the shifts, as before, are absorbed using the slip line.

The difference of this case is that in the presence of a vertically continuous hinged glazed wall and a combination of glazed panels of different floors (16.1), two horizontal beams used in the presence of windows are combined into one beam (16.2). This beam contains elements of both beams, i.e. a support beam in the upper part (16.3) and a jumper beam of the lower part (16.4), a pair of engaging hooks (16.5) for the lower part and stabilizing fasteners (16.6) for the upper part.

If a curtain wall is torn between floors, glass panels are equivalent to very high windows, where the upper horizontal beam of the window bridge is located directly on the ceiling of the floor, and the lower horizontal support beam of the windows lies directly on the floor of the floor. In this case, the functioning of the earthquake resistance system between floors also remains unchanged.

Obviously, in the above cases, with an increase in the height of the glazed panels, the dimensions of the components also change in accordance with the new structural and dynamic design requirements.

Claims (13)

1. An earthquake-resistant curtain wall with suspended glass panels, characterized in that the curtain wall structure of each floor is completely separated from the curtain wall structure of adjacent floors (3A, 3B), there are no racks in the window area, and glass panels are suspended only on horizontal beams of the structure, the windows (2.5, 2.6, 5.5, 6.5) are freely suspended along the entire length of the floor by means of a pair of hooks (6.9, 6.10), moreover, one hook (6.9) is installed on the upper horizontal beam (6.7) of the jumper of the floor windows belonging to the structure above the floor, and the second hook (6.10) is located on the upper profile (6.11) of the window frame (6.5), the line formed by the hooks makes a horizontal slip line whereby the floor displacement caused by the earthquake becomes completely independent of the displacements of other floors , while the windows end with the lower profile (6.12) of the window frame on the lower horizontal support beam (6.6) of the floor windows to which they are rigidly attached, as a result of which the windows repeat the movements of the structure and form a fixed single sector (5.4 and 5. 5) or (6.4 and 6.5) of the floor (5.1, 6.1), interacting in terms of seismic resistance with the corresponding sector of the floor (5.2, 6.2) located above.
2. The wall according to claim 1, characterized in that the window suspension line is a dividing line between the fixed sectors of the curtain wall, as well as a slip line between them, moreover, the gasket (6.3) of a material with a low coefficient of friction, such as polyamide, teflon or a similar material provided between the hooks hooks provides free relative sliding of two fixed sectors, thereby providing free and independent movement of the sector, repeating the displacement of the floor plate of the corresponding floor (5.1, 6.1), with respect to the sector located above, which repeats the displacement of the floor plate of the floor (5.2, 6.2) located above, while the slip line at the same time represents the axis of rotation of the hook (6.10) relative to the hook (6.9), which ensures the opening of the windows.
3. The wall according to claim 1, characterized in that the fixed panels (6.4) are also suspended by means of hooks, with one hook (6.13) provided along the entire length of the lower horizontal support beam (6.6) of the floor windows, and another hook (6.14) provided on the upper horizontal profile (6.15) of the frame of the fixed glass panels, while the fixed glass panels end with the lower horizontal profile (6.16) of the frame of the indicated panels on the upper horizontal beam (6.7) of the jumper of the windows of the floor below, which belongs to the design of this floor, p The fixed panels are secured there using similar hooks, where one hook (6.17) is provided along the entire length of the beam (6.7), and the other hook (6.18) is provided on the profile (6.16) of the frame of the fixed glass panel, and it is also rigidly attached to both beams ( 6.6 and 6.7) using rubber gaskets (6.19) with a high coefficient of friction, which, in combination with the connection of the upper horizontal section (6.15) of the frame with the horizontal support beam (6.6) with the bolts provided at point (6.20), ensures the immobility of the fixed frame (6.4) with respect to the supports second beam (6.6).
4. The wall according to claim 1, characterized in that there are no racks in the window area, the design of each floor is limited only by the fixed part (window-sill wall) of the floor, to the plate of which the structure is attached in order to repeat all the displacements of the specified plate under the action of seismic forces, however, fixed glass panels and other facade materials available on the curtain wall structure remain stationary during the earthquake relative to the floor plate to which they are attached, and all interfloor shifts (b) are restored accepted and absorbed exclusively in the area of the windows (5.5, 6.5) of each floor.
5. The wall according to claim 1, characterized in that the relative interfloor shift (b) (7.7) in the direction perpendicular to the surface of the curtain wall is absorbed in the joints formed by the window suspension hooks (6.9, 6.10), as well as in the fasteners connecting windows with corresponding horizontal support beams (6.22, 12.2, 12.3), as a result of the permissible rotation of the bolt (12.2) with a square head in the corner (12.3), as well as the permissible displacement of the bolt in the section (12.6) of the window frame section (12.7), whereas relative interfloor shift (b) (8.6) in the direction parallel the surface of the curtain wall, is transmitted horizontally through the line (2.3, 5.8, 6.8, 8.3) of sliding to the edges of the curtain wall, where it is absorbed at the corners by special corner profiles, and in the case of a curtain wall, having one surface and lying in one plane, the specified shift is absorbed by the profiles of the side edges of a similar shape.
6. The wall according to claim 1, characterized in that the corners of the curtain wall structure are made by cutting aluminum profiles of horizontal beams (9.3) and (9.4) in the direction of the bisector of the angle formed by them (9.1, 9.2), and are rigidly connected using rigid parallel plates (9.5, 9.6) so that the entire structure of the curtain wall of each floor, including its rectilinear and angular sectors, is a single whole and moves in the same way in accordance with the displacements of the floor plate to which it is attached.
7. The wall according to claim 1, characterized in that to absorb multidirectional relative shifts in the corner of the curtain wall, an angular profile is used, which consists of two main sides (10.1), the angle between which corresponds to the angle between the sides of the building, and the length is proportional to the shift (b ), the absorption of which must be ensured, in combination with the completion of the vertical section of the window frames, ending with a corner (10.6) so that in all positions their overlap is preserved, as well as parallel waterproof sides (10.2) and (10.3) with water ronitsaemymi gaskets which, in combination with the terminations (10.7) profiles and terminations (10.8) glass panels provide water resistance performance requirements, both before and after an earthquake.
8. The wall according to claim 1, characterized in that the main sides (10.1) of the angular profile and completion (10.6) of the frames always overlap, and recesses (10.9) are provided at the edges of the glazed panels in case of shifts in the direction parallel to the diagonal of the building the size of which corresponds to the expected value of the diagonal shift (b ') (10.10) in order to exclude the collision of glass panels during an earthquake.
9. The wall according to claim 1, characterized in that to ensure the possibility of absorption of shear in any direction, the angular profile (11.1) contains a closed core (10.4) located in its center, by means of which it is suspended from the lower side of the two upper horizontal beams (11.2) ) the jumpers of the floor windows on the fasteners in the form of a small plate (11.3) and a pin (11.5) with free movement, providing the possibility of free movement (gyroscopic movement) of the upper end of the corner profile in accordance with the shifts of the curtain wall s of the floor located above, and its lower end is attached to the horizontal corner formed by the lower horizontal support beams (11.6) of the floor, using fasteners in the form of an element (11.7) and a pin (11.8) with free movement (11.9), which allows vertical displacements and turns.
10. The wall according to claim 1, characterized in that the combination of the two parts of the secured sector, both its structure and the windows, in terms of seismic impact, is provided in various ways depending on the state of the windows before and during the earthquake, so that if the windows remain closed, as in high-rise buildings, their stabilization relative to the support beam (12.1) is provided with a screw (12.2) and a corner (12.3), in which a hole for the screw is provided, as well as a fork (12.4), interacting with the pin (12.5), and hold the first pair of elements (12.2 and 12.3) it creates and ensures the windows are resistant to seismic forces perpendicular to the plane of the curtain wall and corresponding to the positive and negative wind pressure, and at the same time performs the function of joints absorbing relative shifts (7.1), and the plug (12.4) and the pin (12.5) block the lateral displacements of the windows relative to the support beam (12.1).
11. The wall according to claim 1, characterized in that in accordance with the used fasteners, a plug (12.4) and a pin (12.5), fasteners in the form of a U-shaped plate (13.1) are attached to the top of the window frames and at the points of vertical connections with a corner (13.2) designed to ensure, together with the fork, the stiffness and constant position of all vertical joints of the curtain wall grating (13.4), to facilitate the uniform functioning of the secured sector in order to absorb shear (b) using a slip line, in the case of ae both closed and open windows in the time of the earthquake, as well as to simultaneously ensure the rigidity of the glass curtain wall without any changes in its imperviousness and mechanical characteristics, enabling the return of the curtain wall to its original state after the earthquake.
12. The wall according to claim 1, characterized in that if the windows in the normal mode function as rotatable windows, then if the windows are closed at the time of the earthquake, the combination of the two parts of the secured sector is ensured by installing, instead of the screw (12.2) and the corner (12.3), fasteners in the form of rigid locks (14.1) with pins (14.2), which ensure locking of windows and their resistance to seismic forces directed perpendicular to the plane of the curtain wall, and the absorption of all relative yokes (7.7), while fasteners in the form of a fork (12.4) and a pin (12.5) block any lateral shifts of the windows relative to the support beam (12.1), and if the windows are open at the time of the earthquake, the combination of the two parts of the fixed sector provided with suspensions that hold and lock the windows in the open state, in combination with fasteners (13.1 and 13.2), which constantly remain in place regardless of the state of the windows.
13. The wall according to claim 1, characterized in that in the case of a curtain wall, the glazed panels of which are combined between floors, or from the floor of this floor to the floor of a floor located above or below, or from floor to ceiling of the same floor, the line (2.3, 5.8, 6.8, 8.3) the slide retains full functionality if the vertically joined glazed panels (16.1) function as a fixed sector, as in the cases (2.1, 5.1, 6.1), however, there are two horizontal beams (6.6 and 6.7 ) must be combined into one beam (16.2) per floor, functioning simultaneously but as a support beam (16.3) and a beam (16.4), jumpers to which glazed panels are hung using pairs of hooks (16.5) that have the same shape and function in the same way as in the case of windows, moreover, on the specified single beam are provided the same means of stabilization (16.6), ensuring the functioning of the slip line, and the bearing elements and sizes of various components correspond to the design and dynamic requirements of the project.
RU2008114612/03A 2006-07-27 2006-12-12 Quakeproof suspended walls with glased panels RU2418140C2 (en)

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US20100186315A1 (en) 2010-07-29
AU2006346766A1 (en) 2008-01-31
RU2008114612A (en) 2010-05-10
WO2008012589A1 (en) 2008-01-31
CN101501282A (en) 2009-08-05
JP2009544872A (en) 2009-12-17
EP2047041A1 (en) 2009-04-15
GR1005566B (en) 2007-06-19
ZA200900139B (en) 2010-01-27

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